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Yu-Lan Fang, Li-Ming Xia, Ping Wang, Li-Hua Zhu, Jian-Ren Ye, Lin Huang
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays key roles in sensing extracellular signals and transmitting them from the cell membrane to the nucleus in response to various environmental stimuli. A MAPKKK protein CgMck1 in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was characterized. Phenotypic analyses of the ∆ Cgmck1 mutant showed that the CgMck1 was required for vegetative growth, fruiting body development, and sporulation. Additionally, the CgMCK1 deletion mutant showed significant defects in cell wall integrity, and responses to osmotic stresses...
November 8, 2018: Genes
Camilla Fagorzi, Alice Checcucci, George C diCenzo, Klaudia Debiec-Andrzejewska, Lukasz Dziewit, Francesco Pini, Alessio Mengoni
Rhizobia are bacteria that can form symbiotic associations with plants of the Fabaceae family, during which they reduce atmospheric di-nitrogen to ammonia. The symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants is a fundamental contributor to nitrogen cycling in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Rhizobial microsymbionts are a major reason why legumes can colonize marginal lands and nitrogen-deficient soils. Several leguminous species have been found in metal-contaminated areas, and they often harbor metal-tolerant rhizobia...
November 8, 2018: Genes
Md Hassan Uz-Zaman, Ayesha Rahman, Mahmuda Yasmin
Despite a considerable body of published research on hepatitis B in Bangladesh, researchers continue to lament the lack of reliable information about hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection epidemiology. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive survey of the literature with particular focus on a number of epidemiological questions, as well as a commentary on the trends of hepatitis B research as it has taken place in Bangladesh. The key themes to emerge from this review are: first, beyond noting a declining trend, it is difficult to provide conclusive estimates about HBV prevalence in the general population of Bangladesh...
November 8, 2018: Genes
Pei Pei Chong, Voon Kin Chin, Won Fen Wong, Priya Madhavan, Voon Chen Yong, Chung Yeng Looi
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, which causes a plethora of superficial, as well as invasive, infections in humans. The ability of this fungus in switching from commensalism to active infection is attributed to its many virulence traits. Biofilm formation is a key process, which allows the fungus to adhere to and proliferate on medically implanted devices as well as host tissue and cause serious life-threatening infections. Biofilms are complex communities of filamentous and yeast cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix that confers an enhanced degree of resistance to antifungal drugs...
November 7, 2018: Genes
Dao-Qiong Zheng, Thomas D Petes
Most cells of solid tumors have very high levels of genome instability of several different types, including deletions, duplications, translocations, and aneuploidy. Much of this instability appears induced by DNA replication stress. As a model for understanding this type of instability, we have examined genome instability in yeast strains that have low levels of two of the replicative DNA polymerases: DNA polymerase α and DNA polymerase δ (Polα and Polδ). We show that low levels of either of these DNA polymerases results in greatly elevated levels of mitotic recombination, chromosome rearrangements, and deletions/duplications...
November 7, 2018: Genes
Ashley L Cooney, Paul B McCray, Patrick L Sinn
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR ) gene that encodes a cAMP-regulated anion channel. Although CF is a multi-organ system disease, most people with CF die of progressive lung disease that begins early in childhood and is characterized by chronic bacterial infection and inflammation. Nearly 90% of people with CF have at least one copy of the ΔF508 mutation, but there are hundreds of CFTR mutations that result in a range of disease severities...
November 7, 2018: Genes
Kyle S Hoffman, Ana Crnković, Dieter Söll
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a dynamic molecule used by all forms of life as a key component of the translation apparatus. Each tRNA is highly processed, structured, and modified, to accurately deliver amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis. The tRNA molecule is a critical component in synthetic biology methods for the synthesis of proteins designed to contain non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs). The multiple interactions and maturation requirements of a tRNA pose engineering challenges, but also offer tunable features...
November 7, 2018: Genes
Xiaoyong Pan, Kai Xiong, Christian Anthon, Poul Hyttel, Kristine K Freude, Lars Juhl Jensen, Jan Gorodkin
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are increasingly recognized to play crucial roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation including functioning as microRNA (miRNA) sponges or as wide-spread regulators, for example in stem cell differentiation. It is therefore highly relevant to identify if a transcript of interest can also function as a circRNA. Here, we present a user-friendly web server that predicts if coding and noncoding RNAs have circRNA isoforms and whether circRNAs are expressed in stem cells. The predictions are made by random forest models using sequence-derived features as input...
November 6, 2018: Genes
Oldřich Trněný, Jan Brus, Iveta Hradilová, Abhishek Rathore, Roma R Das, Pavel Kopecký, Clarice J Coyne, Patrick Reeves, Christopher Richards, Petr Smýkal
Pea, one of the founder crops from the Near East, has two wild species: Pisum sativum subsp. elatius , with a wide distribution centered in the Mediterranean, and P. fulvum, which is restricted to Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine and Jordan. Using genome wide analysis of 11,343 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on a set of wild P. elatius (134) and P. fulvum (20) and 74 domesticated accessions (64 P. sativum landraces and 10 P. abyssinicum ), we demonstrated that domesticated P. sativum and the Ethiopian pea ( P...
November 6, 2018: Genes
Cristian Pasquaretta, Tamara Gómez-Moracho, Philipp Heeb, Mathieu Lihoreau
Microbes influence a wide range of host social behaviors and vice versa. So far, however, the mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions remain poorly understood. In social animals, where individuals share microbes and interact around foods, the gut microbiota may have considerable consequences on host social interactions by acting upon the nutritional behavior of individual animals. Here we illustrate how conceptual advances in nutritional ecology can help the study of these processes and allow the formulation of new empirically testable predictions...
November 6, 2018: Genes
Markus Axmann, Sabine M Meier, Andreas Karner, Witta Strobl, Herbert Stangl, Birgit Plochberger
microRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of messenger RNA (mRNA), and transported through the whole organism by-but not limited to-lipoprotein particles. Here, we address the miRNA profile in serum and lipoprotein particles of healthy individuals in comparison with patients with uremia. Moreover, we quantitatively determined the cellular lipoprotein-particle-uptake dependence on the density of lipoprotein particle receptors and present a method for enhancement of the transfer efficiency. We observed a significant increase of the cellular miRNA level using reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles artificially loaded with miRNA, whereas incubation with native HDL particles yielded no measurable effect...
November 5, 2018: Genes
Raul A Bastarrachea, Hugo A Laviada-Molina, Edna J Nava-Gonzalez, Irene Leal-Berumen, Claudia Escudero-Lourdes, Fabiola Escalante-Araiza, Vanessa-Giselle Peschard, Rosa A Veloz-Garza, Karin Haack, Angélica Martínez-Hernández, Francisco M Barajas-Olmos, Fernanda Molina-Segui, Fatima A Buenfil-Rello, Lucia Gonzalez-Ramirez, Reinhard Janssen-Aguilar, Ricardo Lopez-Muñoz, Fernanda Perez-Cetina, Janeth F Gaytan-Saucedo, Zoila Vaquera, Judith Cornejo-Barrera, Juan Carlos Castillo-Pineda, Areli Murillo-Ramirez, Sara P Diaz-Tena, Benigno Figueroa-Nuñez, Laura González-López, Rocío A Salinas-Osornio, Melesio E Valencia-Rendón, José Ángeles-Chimal, Jesús Santa-Olalla Tapia, José M Remes-Troche, Salvador B Valdovinos-Chavez, Eira E Huerta-Avila, Xianlin Han, Lorena Orozco, Ernesto Rodriguez-Ayala, Susan Weintraub, Esther C Gallegos-Cabrales, Shelley A Cole, Jack W Kent
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are increasing worldwide. This is mainly due to an unhealthy nutrition, implying that variation in CVD risk may be due to variation in the capacity to manage a nutritional load. We examined the genomic basis of postprandial metabolism. Our main purpose was to introduce the GEMM Family Study (Genetics of Metabolic Diseases in Mexico) as a multi-center study carrying out an ongoing recruitment of healthy urban adults. Each participant received a mixed meal challenge and provided a 5-hours' time course series of blood, buffy coat specimens for DNA isolation, and adipose tissue (ADT)/skeletal muscle (SKM) biopsies at fasting and 3 h after the meal...
November 2, 2018: Genes
Grigory Stepanov, Evgenii Zhuravlev, Victoria Shender, Anna Nushtaeva, Evgenia Balakhonova, Elena Mozhaeva, Marat Kasakin, Vladimir Koval, Alexander Lomzov, Marat Pavlyukov, Irina Malyants, Mikhail Zhorov, Tatyana Kabilova, Elena Chernolovskaya, Vadim Govorun, Elena Kuligina, Dmitry Semenov, Vladimir Richter
Short nuclear regulatory RNAs play a key role in the main stages of maturation of the precursors of the major RNA species. Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) form the core of the spliceosome and are responsible for the splicing of pre-mRNA molecules. Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) direct post-transcriptional modification of pre-rRNAs. A promising strategy for the development of non-coding RNA (ncRNAs) mimicking molecules is the introduction of modified nucleotides, which are normally present in natural ncRNAs, into the structure of synthetic RNAs...
November 2, 2018: Genes
Magdalena Ruiz-Rodríguez, Manuel Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel Martínez-Bueno, Juan José Soler
The authors wish to make the following changes in their paper [...].
October 31, 2018: Genes
Carla Lucia Esposito, Silvia Catuogno, Gerolama Condorelli, Paola Ungaro, Vittorio de Franciscis
Nucleic acid-based aptamers have emerged as efficient delivery carriers of therapeutics. Thanks to their unique features, they can be, to date, considered one of the best targeting moieties, allowing the specific recognition of diseased cells and avoiding unwanted off-target effects on healthy tissues. In this review, we revise the most recent contributes on bispecific and multifunctional aptamer therapeutic chimeras. We will discuss key examples of aptamer-mediated delivery of nucleic acid and peptide-based therapeutics underlying their great potentiality and versatility...
October 31, 2018: Genes
Aleksandra Radanović, Dragana Miladinović, Sandra Cvejić, Milan Jocković, Siniša Jocić
Domestication and the first steps of sunflower breeding date back more than 4000 years. As an interesting crop to humans, sunflower underwent significant changes in the past to finally find its place as one of the most significant oil crops today. Substantial progress has already been made in understanding how sunflower was domesticated. Recent advances in molecular techniques with improved experimental designs contributed to further understanding of the genetic and molecular basis underlying the architectural and phenotypic changes that occurred during domestication and improvements in sunflower breeding...
October 30, 2018: Genes
Osamah Saeedi, Sairah Yousaf, Joby Tsai, Kathleen Palmer, Saima Riazuddin, Zubair M Ahmed
Juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG), which is an uncommon form of primary open angle glaucoma, is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. We report on a family with a recessively inherited form of JOAG. The proband has a superior and an inferior never fiber layer thinning in both the eyes and the nasal visual field (VF) defects in the left eye, which are clinical findings consistent with glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Whole exome sequencing revealed two novel compound heterozygous variants [c.2966C>G, p...
October 30, 2018: Genes
Samar H K Tareen, Michiel E Adriaens, Ilja C W Arts, Theo M de Kok, Roel G Vink, Nadia J T Roumans, Marleen A van Baak, Edwin C M Mariman, Chris T Evelo, Martina Kutmon
Obesity is a global epidemic identified as a major risk factor for multiple chronic diseases and, consequently, diet-induced weight loss is used to counter obesity. The adipose tissue is the primary tissue affected in diet-induced weight loss, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms and changes are not completely deciphered. In this study, we present a network biology analysis workflow which enables the profiling of the cellular processes affected by weight loss in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Time series gene expression data from a dietary intervention dataset with two diets was analysed...
October 29, 2018: Genes
Ping Wu, Lingsheng Bao, Ruiyong Zhang, Yulong Li, Li Liu, Yuanan Wu, Jianshe Zhang, Zhigang He, Wuying Chu
The peripheral tissue pacemaker is responsive to light and other zeitgebers, especially food availability. Generally, the pacemaker can be reset and entrained independently of the central circadian structures. Studies involving clock-gene expressional patterns in fish peripheral tissues have attracted considerable attention. However, the rhythmic expression of clock genes in skeletal muscle has only scarcely been investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the core clock and functional gene expression rhythms in crucian carp...
October 29, 2018: Genes
Teresa Giugliano, Marco Savarese, Arcomaria Garofalo, Esther Picillo, Chiara Fiorillo, Adele D'Amico, Lorenzo Maggi, Lucia Ruggiero, Liliana Vercelli, Francesca Magri, Fabiana Fattori, Annalaura Torella, Manuela Ergoli, Anna Rubegni, Marina Fanin, Olimpia Musumeci, Jan De Bleecker, Lorenzo Peverelli, Maurizio Moggio, Eugenio Mercuri, Antonio Toscano, Marina Mora, Lucio Santoro, Tiziana Mongini, Enrico Bertini, Claudio Bruno, Carlo Minetti, Giacomo Pietro Comi, Filippo Maria Santorelli, Corrado Angelini, Luisa Politano, Giulio Piluso, Vincenzo Nigro
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have led to an increase in the diagnosis of heterogeneous genetic conditions. However, over 50% of patients with a genetically inherited disease are still without a diagnosis. In these cases, different hypotheses are usually postulated, including variants in novel genes or elusive mutations. Although the impact of copy number variants (CNVs) in neuromuscular disorders has been largely ignored to date, missed CNVs are predicted to have a major role in disease causation as some very large genes, such as the dystrophin gene, have prone-to-deletion regions...
October 26, 2018: Genes
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