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Journal of Oral Microbiology

Amina Basic, Hanna Enerbäck, Sara Waldenström, Emma Östgärd, Narong Suksuart, Gunnar Dahlen
Objective : To investigate oral diseases and microbiological conditions, such as the presence of ureolytic bacteria in dental plaque, in relation to experience of stomach pain in a remote adult Asian population. Methods : Ninety-three adults, 40-60-years old, from the Karen Hill tribe in Northern Thailand with no regular access to dental care were examined. Clinical registrations were performed and interproximal gingival plaque samples were collected and analyzed with the checkerboard (CKB) method for the presence of 14 oral bacterial species...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Talita Castro, Maite Sabalza, Cheryl Barber, William Abrams, Antonio Charlys Da Costa, Flavio Augusto De Pádua Milagres, Paulo Henrique Braz-Silva, Daniel Malamud, Marina Gallottini
Background : Zika virus (ZIKV) is a single-stranded RNA virus and member of the Flaviviridae family. Recent studies have reported that saliva can be an important alternative to detect ZIKV. Saliva requires less processing than blood greatly simplifying the assay. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) is a rapid assay that detects nucleic acids, including ZIKV RNA. Aim : The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of saliva and urine to diagnose ZIKV infection in subjects during the acute phase, through ZIKV RNA detection by LAMP...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Inmaculada Tomás, Isabel Prada-López, Victor Quintas, Maria José Carreira, Áurea Simón-Soro, Alejandro Mira, Carlos Balsa-Castro
This study aimed to compare the bacterial viability and diversity of a substrate-formed biofilm (SF-biofilm) in situ to a supragingival tooth-formed biofilm (TF-biofilm) in the same group of individuals. The impact of the device/disc position and toothbrushing during the formation of SF-biofilm was also assessed. Two tests were run. In test 1, 15 volunteers wore two hemi-splints carrying six discs of human enamel, glass, and hydroxyapatite for 2 days, and were instructed to not perform any oral hygiene measure...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Tim Schmitter, Bernd L Fiebich, Joerg T Fischer, Max Gajfulin, Niklas Larsson, Thorsten Rose, Marcus R Goetz
Background : Probiotic bacteria with anti-inflammatory properties have the potential to be of therapeutic benefit in gingivitis. Objective : To evaluate the effects of potential probiotic strains on inflammatory mediators involved in early gingivitis using an ex vivo inflammation model. Methods : Strains were screened in viable and attenuated forms for effects on bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated release of interleukins (IL)-1β, -6 and -8, tumor necrosis factor-α, prostaglandin E2 and 8-isoprostane from human primary monocytes, and then, if anti-inflammatory effects were shown, on IL-1β-stimulated release of inflammatory mediators from primary gingival fibroblasts...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Christine A Kressirer, Tsute Chen, Kristie Lake Harriman, Jorge Frias-Lopez, Floyd E Dewhirst, Mary A Tavares, Anne Cr Tanner
Background : Dental caries results from a dysbiosis of tooth-associated biofilms and frequently extends through enamel into dentin which has a different structure and composition. Objective : To evaluate the metatranscriptome of caries to determine the metabolic potential of caries communities compared with health. Design : Samples from children, caries-free (CF: n  = 4) or with coronal (CC: n  = 5) or dentin (DC: n  = 5) caries were examined for gene expression potential. Functional profiling was performed using HUMAnN2 (HMP Unified Metabolic Analysis Network)...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Kenji Takeuchi, Yukie Shibata, Shinya Kageyama, Rie Matsumi, Toru Takeshita, Yoshihisa Yamashita
Background : Neisseria has been reported to be a high producer of acetaldehyde (ACH), a carcinogen, from ethanol in vitro , but no information exists regarding whether the ACH production depends on oral microbiota profiles. Objective and Design: To explore the salivary microbiota profiles with respect to ACH production ability in the oral cavity using a cross-sectional design. Results: Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we classified 100 saliva samples into two types of communities (I and II). Salivary ACH production ability from ethanol was measured using gas chromatography and was found to vary over a 30-fold range...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Alessandra Lucchese, Lars Bondemark, Marta Marcolina, Maurizio Manuelli
Background : Oral microbiota has been at the center of cultural attention in recent years. In daily clinical practice, orthodontic appliances may be associated with an increased cariogenic risk and a worsening of preexisting periodontal diseases. Objective : The purpose of this review is to investigate the available evidence regarding the association between orthodontic appliances and changes in the quality and quantity of the oral microbiota. Design : The research included every article published up to October 2017 featuring the keywords 'Orthodontic appliance* AND (microbiological colonization OR periodontal pathogen* OR Streptococcus mutans OR Lactobacillus spp...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Yuqing Li, Karthik Krishnan, Margaret J Duncan
Background : Bacteria use two-component signal transduction systems (among others) to perceive and respond to environmental changes. Within the genus Porphyromonas , we observed degeneration of these systems, as exemplified by the loss of RprX, the sensor kinase partner of the RprY. Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate modulation of RprY function by acetylation. Design : The transcriptional activity of the rprY-pat genes were measured by RT-PCR and 5'-RACE. The acetylation of RprY were detected by western blotting...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Talita Gomes Baeta Lourenςo, Sarah J Spencer, Eric John Alm, Ana Paula Vieira Colombo
Background : This exploratory study aimed to characterize the gut microbiome of individuals with different periodontal conditions, and correlate it with periodontal inflammation and tissue destruction. Methods : Stool samples were obtained from individuals presenting periodontal health (PH = 7), gingivitis ( G  = 14) and chronic periodontitis (CP = 23). The intestinal microbiome composition was determined by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Results : A lower alpha-diversity in the gut microbiome of individuals with CP was observed, although no significant difference among groups was found ( p  > 0...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Ingar Olsen, Sim K Singhrao, Jan Potempa
Periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), atherosclerosis (AS), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are examples of complex human diseases with chronic inflammatory components in their etiologies. The initial trigger of inflammation that progresses to these diseases remains unresolved. Porphyromonas gingivalis is unique in its ability to secrete the P. gingivalis- derived peptidyl arginine deiminase (PPAD) and consequently offers a plausible and exclusive link to these diseases through enzymatic conversion of arginine to citrulline...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Helena Barroso, Rita Ramalhete, Ana Domingues, Samanta Maci
Through the years, tea consumption has been associated with good health, and some publications are related to oral health. The bioactive components of green tea are thought to be able to influence the process of caries formation through inhibition of proliferation of the streptococcal agent, interference with the process of bacterial adhesion to tooth enamel, and inhibition of glucosyl transferase and amylase; however, little is known about black tea and oral health. The aim of the present in- vitro study was to determine the inhibitory activity of a novel, patent-pending and proprietary blend of green and black tea aqueous extracts on Streptococcus mutans , a bacterium widely associated with plaque development and tooth decay...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Beatriz Helena Dias Panariello, Marlise I Klein, Ewerton Garcia De Oliveira Mima, Ana Cláudia Pavarina
Background : Fluconazole (FLZ) is a drug commonly used for the treatment of Candida infections. However, β-glucans in the extracellular matrices (ECMs) hinder FLZ penetration into Candida biofilms, while extracellular DNA (eDNA) contributes to the biofilm architecture and resistance. Methods : This study characterized biofilms of FLZ-sensitive (S) and -resistant (R) Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in the presence or absence of FLZ focusing on the ECM traits. Biofilms of C. albicans American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 90028 (CaS), C...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Michelle Palmieri, Mariana Ornaghi, Victor Adriano de Oliveira Martins, Luciana Correa, Thais Bianca Brandao, Ana Carolina do Prado Ribeiro, Laura Masami Sumita, Tania Regina Tozetto-Mendoza, Claudio Sergio Pannuti, Paulo Henrique Braz-Silva
Background : Xerostomia is a very relevant and frequent complication of radiotherapy, causing the irradiated oral mucosa to be affected by bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Objective : The objective of this study was to evaluate a possible relationship between oral shedding of human herpesviruses and xerostomia in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck submitted to radio/chemotherapy. Methods : In this study, oral rinse samples were collected weekly from 20 patients during radiotherapy...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Dana Jeong, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Kwang-Young Song, Kun-Ho Seo
Background : Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are major causative bacterial pathogens of dental caries. Objective : We investigated the applicability of three Lactobacillus strains ( L. kefiranofaciens DD2, DD5, and DD6) isolated from kefir and three commercial Lactobacillus strains ( L. plantarum ATCC 10,012, L. johnsonii JCM 1022, and L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469) as potential oral probiotics with respect to their survivability in an experimental oral environment, antimicrobial activity, and anti-biofilm formation activity against S...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Ingar Olsen, Tsute Chen, Gena D Tribble
Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered a keystone pathogen in adult periodontitis but has also been associated with systemic diseases. It has a myriad of virulence factors that differ between strains. Genetic exchange and intracellular genome rearrangements may be responsible for the variability in the virulence of P. gingivalis . The present review discusses how the exchange of alleles can convert this bacterium from commensalistic to pathogenic and potentially shapes the host-microbe environment from homeostasis to dysbiosis...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Ingar Olsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Hannah L Norris, Justin Friedman, Ziqiang Chen, Sumant Puri, Gregory Wilding, Mira Edgerton
Background : Little is known about the normal range of metal levels in unstimulated saliva, nor whether these might impact Candida carriage in healthy individuals. Both are important in determining which populations are at risk for candidiasis, as the availability of metal ions can influence the growth and pathogenesis of Candida albicans . Objective : We quantified salivary metals of healthy individuals to determine the correlation with C. albicans oral colonization. Design : Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from healthy adults and plated to determine fungal carriage, and metal content was measured using ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Riikka Ihalin, Kjell Eneslätt, Sirkka Asikainen
Peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) is a conserved pro-inflammatory outer membrane lipoprotein in Gram-negative bacteria. Compared to systemic pathogens, little is known about the virulence properties of PAL in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (AaPAL). The aims of this study were to investigate the cytolethality of AaPAL and its ability to induce pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Mouse macrophages were stimulated with AaPAL, and the production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 was measured after 6, 24, and 48 h...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Øyvind Bruserud, Huma Siddiqui, Mihaela Cuida Marthinussen, Tsute Chen, Roland Jonsson, Bergithe Eikeland Oftedal, Ingar Olsen, Eystein Sverre Husebye, Anette Bøe Wolff
Background : Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1 (APS-1) is a rare, childhood onset disease caused by mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator gene. The phenotypic expression is highly variable and includes disease manifestations in the oral cavity, including mucocutaneous candidiasis. Increasing evidence suggests a potential role of the skin, oral and gut microbiotas in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. To date, no information exists regarding the oral microbiota in APS-1. Objective : To assess the bacterial microbiota of whole saliva in APS-1 patients by using high throughput sequencing...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
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