Read by QxMD icon Read

Journal of Oral Microbiology

Ingar Olsen, Tsute Chen, Gena D Tribble
Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered a keystone pathogen in adult periodontitis but has also been associated with systemic diseases. It has a myriad of virulence factors that differ between strains. Genetic exchange and intracellular genome rearrangements may be responsible for the variability in the virulence of P. gingivalis . The present review discusses how the exchange of alleles can convert this bacterium from commensalistic to pathogenic and potentially shapes the host-microbe environment from homeostasis to dysbiosis...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Ingar Olsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Hannah L Norris, Justin Friedman, Ziqiang Chen, Sumant Puri, Gregory Wilding, Mira Edgerton
Background : Little is known about the normal range of metal levels in unstimulated saliva, nor whether these might impact Candida carriage in healthy individuals. Both are important in determining which populations are at risk for candidiasis, as the availability of metal ions can influence the growth and pathogenesis of Candida albicans . Objective : We quantified salivary metals of healthy individuals to determine the correlation with C. albicans oral colonization. Design : Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from healthy adults and plated to determine fungal carriage, and metal content was measured using ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Riikka Ihalin, Kjell Eneslätt, Sirkka Asikainen
Peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) is a conserved pro-inflammatory outer membrane lipoprotein in Gram-negative bacteria. Compared to systemic pathogens, little is known about the virulence properties of PAL in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (AaPAL). The aims of this study were to investigate the cytolethality of AaPAL and its ability to induce pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Mouse macrophages were stimulated with AaPAL, and the production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 was measured after 6, 24, and 48 h...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Øyvind Bruserud, Huma Siddiqui, Mihaela Cuida Marthinussen, Tsute Chen, Roland Jonsson, Bergithe Eikeland Oftedal, Ingar Olsen, Eystein Sverre Husebye, Anette Bøe Wolff
Background : Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1 (APS-1) is a rare, childhood onset disease caused by mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator gene. The phenotypic expression is highly variable and includes disease manifestations in the oral cavity, including mucocutaneous candidiasis. Increasing evidence suggests a potential role of the skin, oral and gut microbiotas in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. To date, no information exists regarding the oral microbiota in APS-1. Objective : To assess the bacterial microbiota of whole saliva in APS-1 patients by using high throughput sequencing...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Yufei Wang, Xiuqing Wang, Wentao Jiang, Kun Wang, Junyuan Luo, Wei Li, Xuedong Zhou, Linglin Zhang
Cariogenic virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans include acidogenicity, aciduricity, and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) synthesis. The de novo designed antimicrobial peptide GH12 has shown bactericidal effects on S. mutans , but its interaction with virulence and regulatory systems of S. mutans remains to be elucidated. The objectives were to investigate the effects of GH12 on virulence factors of S. mutans , and further explore the function mechanisms at enzymatic and transcriptional levels. To avoid decrease in bacterial viability, we limited GH12 to subinhibitory levels...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Ingar Olsen, Sim K Singhrao
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Porphyromonas gingivalis exists in at least two known forms, O-LPS and A-LPS. A-LPS shows heterogeneity in which two isoforms designated LPS1 ,435/1 ,449 and LPS1 ,690 appear responsible for tissue-specific immune signalling pathways activation and increased virulence. The modification of lipid A to tetra-acylated1 ,435/1 ,449 and/or penta-acylated1 ,690 fatty acids indicates poor growth conditions and bioavailability of hemin. Hemin protects P. gingivalis from serum resistance and the lipid A serves as a site for its binding...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Ingar Olsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Shuhei Naka, Kaoruko Wato, Rina Hatakeyama, Rena Okawa, Ryota Nomura, Kazuhiko Nakano
Background : We previously reported that intravenous administration of Streptococcus mutans strain TW871 caused typical non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-like findings in a high-fat diet (HFD) mouse model at 16 weeks after initiating the experiment. Objective : The purpose of the present study was to analyse mice administered S. mutans TW871 fed a HFD for various periods of time. Methods : First, 6-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed an HFD for 4 weeks, then TW871 (1 × 107 CFU) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were intravenously administered...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Meng Zhang, Yuqiao Zheng, Yuhong Li, Han Jiang, Yuping Huang, Minquan Du
Acid resistance is one of key properties assisting the survival of cariogenic bacteria in a dental caries environment, but only a few genes conferring acid resistance have been identified to data. Functional metagenomics provides a systematic method for investigating commensal DNA to identify genes that encode target functions. Here, the host strain Escherichia coli DH10B and a constructed bidirectional transcription vector pSKII+ -lacZ contributed to the construction of a metagenomic library, and 46.6 Mb of metagenomic DNA was cloned from carious supragingival plaque of 8children along with screening for lethal functionality...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Andrea Muras, Celia Mayer, Manuel Romero, Tamara Camino, Maria D Ferrer, Alex Mira, Ana Otero
Background : Previous studies have suggested the quorum sensing signal AI-2 as a potential target to prevent the biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans , a pathogen involved in tooth decay. Objective : To obtain inhibition of biofilm formation by S. mutans by extracts obtained from the marine bacterium Tenacibaculum sp. 20J interfering with the AI-2 quorum sensing system. Design : The AI-2 inhibitory activity was tested with the biosensors Vibrio harveyi BB170 and JMH597. S. mutans ATCC25175 biofilm formation was monitored using impedance real-time measurements with the xCELLigence system®, confocal laser microscopy, and the crystal violet quantification method...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Alexander Rabe, Manuela Gesell Salazar, Stephan Fuchs, Thomas Kocher, Uwe Völker
The value of saliva as a diagnostic tool can be increased by taxonomic and functional analyses of the microbiota as recently demonstrated. In this proof-of-principle study, we compare two collection methods (Salivette® (SV) and paraffin gum (PG)) for stimulated saliva from five healthy participants and present a workflow including PG preparation which is suitable for metaproteomics.
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Leticia Reyes, Priscilla Phillips, Bryce Wolfe, Thaddeus G Golos, Molly Walkenhorst, Ann Progulske-Fox, Mary Brown
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium considered to be an important pathogen of periodontal disease that is also implicated in adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Until recently, our understanding of the role of P. gingivalis in APO has been limited and sometimes contradictory. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of past and current research on P. gingivalis that addresses some of the controversies concerning the role of this organism in the pathogenesis of APO.
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Renata O Mattos-Graner, Margaret J Duncan
We present an overview of how members of the oral microbiota respond to their environment by regulating gene expression through two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) to support conditions compatible with homeostasis in oral biofilms or drive the equilibrium toward dysbiosis in response to environmental changes. Using studies on the sub-gingival Gram-negative anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis and Gram-positive streptococci as examples, we focus on the molecular mechanisms involved in activation of TCS and species specificities of TCS regulons...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Manosha Perera, Nezar Noor Al-Hebshi, Irosha Perera, Deepak Ipe, Glen C Ulett, David J Speicher, Tsute Chen, Newell W Johnson
The aim of this study was to characterize the mycobiome associated with oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC). DNA was extracted from 52 tissue biopsies (cases: 25 OSCC; controls: 27 intra-oral fibro-epithelial polyps [FEP]) and sequenced for the fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 region using Illumina™ 2 x300bp chemistry. Merged reads were classified to species level using a BLASTN-algorithm with UNITE's named species sequences as reference. Downstream analyses were performed using QIIME™ and linear discriminant analysis effect size...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Beatriz Helena Dias Panariello, Marlise I Klein, Ana Claudia Pavarina, Simone Duarte
Background : Infections caused by Candida spp. have been associated with formation of a biofilm, i.e. a complex microstructure of cells adhering to a surface and embedded within an extracellular matrix (ECM). Methods : The ECMs of a wild-type (WT, SN425) and two Candida albicans mutant strains, Δ/Δ tec1 (CJN2330) and Δ/Δ efg1 (CJN2302), were evaluated. Colony-forming units (cfu), total biomass (mg), water-soluble polysaccharides (WSPs), alkali-soluble polysaccharides (ASPs), proteins (insoluble part of biofilms and matrix proteins), and extracellular DNA (eDNA) were quantified...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Paulo H Braz-Silva, Tania R Tozetto-Mendoza, Laura M Sumita, Wilton Freire, Michelle Palmieri, Alan M do Canto, Vivian I Avelino-Silva, Marina Gallottini, Philippe Mayaud, Claudio S Pannuti
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is a gamma-herpesvirus and etiological agent of all forms of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Saliva may play an important role in HHV-8 transmission in specific populations. Little is known about HHV-8 oral shedding pattern and the possible correlation with the HHV-8 serological profile and viremia. A prospective study was conducted of HHV-8 salivary excretion among human immunodeficiency virus HIV-seronegative ( n  = 47) and -seropositive ( n  = 44) homosexual men and HIV-seropositive women ( n  = 32) over a 6-month period with monthly HHV-8 serologies (immunofluorescence assays to identify antibodies to latent and lytic HHV-8 viral proteins, and a whole-virus HHV-8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]), monthly HHV-8 DNA serum/plasma detection, and daily self-collected oral rinses for HHV-8-DNA detection using real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
M F Kristensen, G Zeng, T R Neu, R L Meyer, V Baelum, S Schlafer
The bovine milk protein osteopontin (OPN) may be an efficient means to prevent bacterial adhesion to dental tissues and control biofilm formation. This study sought to determine to what extent OPN impacts adhesion forces and surface attachment of different bacterial strains involved in dental caries or medical device-related infections. It further investigated if OPN's effect on adhesion is caused by blocking the accessibility of glycoconjugates on bacterial surfaces. Bacterial adhesion was determined in a shear-controlled flow cell system in the presence of different concentrations of OPN, and interaction forces of single bacteria were quantified using single-cell force spectroscopy before and after OPN exposure...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Christian Damgaard, Jesper Reinholdt, Christian Enevold, Nils-Erik Fiehn, Claus Henrik Nielsen, Palle Holmstrup
Objectives: The aim was to elucidate whether levels of circulating antibodies to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis correlate to loss of attachment, as a marker for periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Sera were collected from 576 participants of the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES). Immunoglobulin G antibodies against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and protein antigens from the a, b and c serotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis were quantified by titration in ELISA plates coated with a mixture of antigens prepared by disintegration of bacteria...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Erica M Prosdocimi, James O Kistler, Rebecca Moazzez, Clementine Thabuis, Caroline Perreau, William G Wade
Background : Sugar alcohols such as xylitol are incorporated in a number of oral hygiene products for their anti-cariogenic properties while chewing gum is known to be beneficial to oral hygiene. Objective : The aim of this study was to determine the composition of the dental plaque microbiota in patients with active caries before and after using a chewing gum supplemented with maltitol. Design : Forty subjects with active caries were randomly allocated to chew maltitol gum or gum base for two weeks. A healthy control group used gum base for two weeks...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"