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Journal of Oral Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209465/two-component-signal-transduction-systems-in-oral-bacteria
#1
REVIEW
Renata O Mattos-Graner, Margaret J Duncan
We present an overview of how members of the oral microbiota respond to their environment by regulating gene expression through two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) to support conditions compatible with homeostasis in oral biofilms or drive the equilibrium toward dysbiosis in response to environmental changes. Using studies on the sub-gingival Gram-negative anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis and Gram-positive streptococci as examples, we focus on the molecular mechanisms involved in activation of TCS and species specificities of TCS regulons...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152157/a-dysbiotic-mycobiome-dominated-by-candida-albicans-is-identified-within-oral-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#2
Manosha Perera, Nezar Noor Al-Hebshi, Irosha Perera, Deepak Ipe, Glen C Ulett, David J Speicher, Tsute Chen, Newell W Johnson
The aim of this study was to characterize the mycobiome associated with oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC). DNA was extracted from 52 tissue biopsies (cases: 25 OSCC; controls: 27 intra-oral fibro-epithelial polyps [FEP]) and sequenced for the fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 region using Illumina™ 2 x300bp chemistry. Merged reads were classified to species level using a BLASTN-algorithm with UNITE's named species sequences as reference. Downstream analyses were performed using QIIME™ and linear discriminant analysis effect size...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081917/inactivation-of-genes-tec1-and-efg1-in-candida-albicans-influences-extracellular-matrix-composition-and-biofilm-morphology
#3
Beatriz Helena Dias Panariello, Marlise I Klein, Ana Claudia Pavarina, Simone Duarte
Background: Infections caused by Candida spp. have been associated with formation of a biofilm, i.e. a complex microstructure of cells adhering to a surface and embedded within an extracellular matrix (ECM). Methods: The ECMs of a wild-type (WT, SN425) and two Candida albicans mutant strains, Δ/Δ tec1 (CJN2330) and Δ/Δ efg1 (CJN2302), were evaluated. Colony-forming units (cfu), total biomass (mg), water-soluble polysaccharides (WSPs), alkali-soluble polysaccharides (ASPs), proteins (insoluble part of biofilms and matrix proteins), and extracellular DNA (eDNA) were quantified...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081916/prospective-study-of-human-herpesvirus-8-oral-shedding-viremia-and-serological-status-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-seropositive-and-seronegative-individuals-in-sao-paulo-brazil
#4
Paulo H Braz-Silva, Tania R Tozetto-Mendoza, Laura M Sumita, Wilton Freire, Michelle Palmieri, Alan M do Canto, Vivian I Avelino-Silva, Marina Gallottini, Philippe Mayaud, Claudio S Pannuti
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is a gamma-herpesvirus and etiological agent of all forms of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Saliva may play an important role in HHV-8 transmission in specific populations. Little is known about HHV-8 oral shedding pattern and the possible correlation with the HHV-8 serological profile and viremia. A prospective study was conducted of HHV-8 salivary excretion among human immunodeficiency virus HIV-seronegative (n = 47) and -seropositive (n = 44) homosexual men and HIV-seropositive women (n = 32) over a 6-month period with monthly HHV-8 serologies (immunofluorescence assays to identify antibodies to latent and lytic HHV-8 viral proteins, and a whole-virus HHV-8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]), monthly HHV-8 DNA serum/plasma detection, and daily self-collected oral rinses for HHV-8-DNA detection using real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081915/osteopontin-adsorption-to-gram-positive-cells-reduces-adhesion-forces-and-attachment-to-surfaces-under-flow
#5
M F Kristensen, G Zeng, T R Neu, R L Meyer, V Baelum, S Schlafer
The bovine milk protein osteopontin (OPN) may be an efficient means to prevent bacterial adhesion to dental tissues and control biofilm formation. This study sought to determine to what extent OPN impacts adhesion forces and surface attachment of different bacterial strains involved in dental caries or medical device-related infections. It further investigated if OPN's effect on adhesion is caused by blocking the accessibility of glycoconjugates on bacterial surfaces. Bacterial adhesion was determined in a shear-controlled flow cell system in the presence of different concentrations of OPN, and interaction forces of single bacteria were quantified using single-cell force spectroscopy before and after OPN exposure...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081914/immunoglobulin-g-antibodies-against-porphyromonas-gingivalis-or-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-periodontitis
#6
Christian Damgaard, Jesper Reinholdt, Christian Enevold, Nils-Erik Fiehn, Claus Henrik Nielsen, Palle Holmstrup
Objectives: The aim was to elucidate whether levels of circulating antibodies to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis correlate to loss of attachment, as a marker for periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Sera were collected from 576 participants of the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES). Immunoglobulin G antibodies against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and protein antigens from the a, b and c serotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis were quantified by titration in ELISA plates coated with a mixture of antigens prepared by disintegration of bacteria...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081913/effect-of-maltitol-containing-chewing-gum-use-on-the-composition-of-dental-plaque-microbiota-in-subjects-with-active-dental-caries
#7
Erica M Prosdocimi, James O Kistler, Rebecca Moazzez, Clementine Thabuis, Caroline Perreau, William G Wade
Background: Sugar alcohols such as xylitol are incorporated in a number of oral hygiene products for their anti-cariogenic properties while chewing gum is known to be beneficial to oral hygiene. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the composition of the dental plaque microbiota in patients with active caries before and after using a chewing gum supplemented with maltitol. Design : Forty subjects with active caries were randomly allocated to chew maltitol gum or gum base for two weeks. A healthy control group used gum base for two weeks...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081912/oral-microbial-dysbiosis-precedes-development-of-pancreatic-cancer
#8
Ingar Olsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081911/leptotrichia-species-in-human-infections-ii
#9
REVIEW
Emenike R K Eribe, Ingar Olsen
Leptotrichia species are non-motile facultative anaerobic/anaerobic bacteria that are found mostly in the oral cavity and some other parts of the human body, in animals, and even in ocean sediments. Valid species include L. buccalis, L. goodfellowii, L. hofstadii, L. honkongensis, L. shahii, L. trevisanii, and L. wadei. Some species require serum or blood for growth. All species ferment carbohydrates and produce lactic acid that may be involved with tooth decay. Acting as opportunistic pathogens, they are involved in a variety of diseases, and have been isolated from immunocompromised but also immunocompetent individuals...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839521/salivary-cytokine-levels-in-early-gingival-inflammation
#10
Daniel Belstrøm, Christian Damgaard, Eija Könönen, Mervi Gürsoy, Palle Holmstrup, Ulvi Kahraman Gürsoy
Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in gingival inflammation. Twenty-eight systemically and orally healthy nonsmokers abstained from oral hygiene protocols for 10 days. After that, self-performed cleaning was resumed for 14 days...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839520/oral-microbial-profiles-of-individuals-with-different-levels-of-sugar-intake
#11
Mette K Keller, Christine A Kressirer, Daniel Belstrøm, Svante Twetman, Anne C R Tanner
The aim was to compare the oral microbial profiles in young adults with an intake of free sugars above or below the current recommendations by the WHO for sugar consumption. Seventy subjects completed a Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to establish the proportion of free sugars in relation to the total energy intake (% E). Subjects with <5% E (n = 30) formed the low-sugar group, while those with ≥5% E (n = 40) were regarded as reference group. Saliva and plaque samples were analyzed by qPCR, and 52 of the plaque samples were assayed by HOMINGS...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839519/lingual-microbiota-profiles-of-patients-with-geographic-tongue
#12
Amal Dafar, Maria Bankvall, Hülya Çevik-Aras, Mats Jontell, Fei Sjöberg
Geographic tongue (GT) is an oral mucosal lesion that affects the tongue. The association between GT and the bacterial colonization profiles of the tongue is not clear. Lingual swabs were collected from lesion sites and healthy sites of 35 patients with GT (19 males and 16 females; Mage = 54.3 ± 16.1 years) and 22 controls (12 males and 10 females; Mage = 56.3 ± 15.8 years). Bacterial DNA was extracted and sequenced by next-generation sequencing. At the phylum level, Fusobacteria were significantly less abundant, while Spirochaetes were significantly more abundant in GT patients compared to controls...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748044/visualizing-the-dental-biofilm-matrix-by-means-of-fluorescence-lectin-binding-analysis
#13
Pune N Tawakoli, Thomas R Neu, Mette M Busck, Ute Kuhlicke, Andreas Schramm, Thomas Attin, Daniel B Wiedemeier, Sebastian Schlafer
The extracellular matrix is a poorly studied, yet important component of dental biofilms. Fluorescence lectin-binding analysis (FLBA) is a powerful tool to characterize glycoconjugates in the biofilm matrix. This study aimed to systematically investigate the ability of 75 fluorescently labeled lectins to visualize and quantify extracellular glycoconjugates in dental biofilms. Lectin binding was screened on pooled supragingival biofilm samples collected from 76 subjects using confocal microscopy. FLBA was then performed with 10 selected lectins on biofilms grown in situ for 48 h in the absence of sucrose...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748043/fluoride-resistance-in-streptococcus-mutans-a-mini-review
#14
REVIEW
Ying Liao, Bernd W Brandt, Jiyao Li, Wim Crielaard, Cor Van Loveren, Dong Mei Deng
For decades, fluoride has been used extensively as an anti-caries agent. It not only protects dental hard tissue, but also inhibits bacterial growth and metabolism. The antimicrobial action of fluoride is shown in three main aspects: the acidogenicity, acidurance, and adherence to the tooth surface. To counteract the toxic effect of fluoride, oral bacteria are able to develop resistance to fluoride through either phenotypic adaptation or genotypic changes. Strains that acquire fluoride resistance through the latter route show stable resistance and can usually resist much higher fluoride levels than the corresponding wild-type strain...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748042/porphyromonas-gingivalis-disturbs-host-commensal-homeostasis-by-changing-complement-function
#15
REVIEW
Ingar Olsen, John D Lambris, George Hajishengallis
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic rod that has been proposed as an orchestrator of complement-dependent dysbiotic inflammation. This notion was suggested from its capacities to manipulate the complement-Toll-like receptor crosstalk in ways that promote dysbiosis and periodontal disease in animal models. Specifically, while at low colonization levels, P. gingivalis interferes with innate immunity and leads to changes in the counts and composition of the oral commensal microbiota. The resulting dysbiotic microbial community causes disruption of host-microbial homeostasis, leading to inflammatory bone loss...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748041/effect-of-azithromycin-on-a-red-complex-polymicrobial-biofilm
#16
Hwei Sze Ong, Orit Oettinger-Barak, Stuart G Dashper, Ivan B Darby, Kheng H Tan, Eric C Reynolds
Azithromycin has recently gained popularity for the treatment of periodontal disease, despite sparse literature supporting efficiency in treating periodontal bacterial biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of azithromycin on biofilms comprised of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia in comparison to an amoxicillin and metronidazole combination. P. gingivalis W50, T. denticola ATCC35405, and T. forsythia ATCC43037 grown under anaerobic conditions at 37°C were aliquoted into 96-well flat-bottom plates in different combinations with addition of azithromycin or amoxicillin + metronidazole at various concentrations...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748040/effect-of-erythritol-on-microbial-ecology-of-in-vitro-gingivitis-biofilms
#17
Marleen Marga Janus, Catherine Minke Charlotte Volgenant, Bernd Willem Brandt, Mark Johannes Buijs, Bart Jan Frederik Keijser, Wim Crielaard, Egija Zaura, Bastiaan Philip Krom
Gingivitis is one of the most common oral infections in humans. While sugar alcohols such as erythritol are suggested to have caries-preventive properties, it may also have beneficial effects in prevention of gingivitis by preventing maturation of oral biofilms. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of erythritol on the microbial ecology and the gingivitis phenotype of oral microcosms. Biofilms were inoculated with stimulated saliva from 20 healthy donors and grown in a gingivitis model in the continuous presence of 0 (control group), 5, and 10% erythritol...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748039/age-related-prevalence-and-characteristics-of-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-in-periodontitis-patients-living-in-sweden
#18
Rolf Claesson, Carola Höglund-Åberg, Dorte Haubek, Anders Johansson
Background: The presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in patients with periodontitis has been extensively studied for decades. Objective: To study the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in younger and older periodontitis patients and to genetically characterize isolates of this bacterium. Design: Data from microbiological analyses of 3459 subgingival plaque samples collected from 1445 patients, 337 'younger' patients (≤35 yrs) and 1108 'older' patients (>35 yrs) during 15 years (2000-2014), has been summerized...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748038/porphyromonas-gingivalis-and-its-lipopolysaccharide-differently-modulate-epidermal-growth-factor-dependent-signaling-in-human-gingival-epithelial-cells
#19
R Elkaim, I M Bugueno-Valdebenito, N Benkirane-Jessel, H Tenenbaum
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease induced by pathogenic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis. Little is known about epidermal growth factor (EGF) signals in human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC), which are major targets of P. gingivalis, and how the expression of proteins participating in EGF signaling-that is, EGF-receptor (EGFR), suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3), interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT-3)-are modified. This study aimed to assess the effects of P...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748037/periodontitis-pathogenesis-and-progression-mirna-mediated-cellular-responses-to-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#20
Ingar Olsen, Sim K Singhrao, Harald Osmundsen
Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered a keystone pathogen in periodontitis, a disease typically driven by dysbiosis of oral inflammophilic polymicrobial pathobionts. To combat infectious agents, the natural defense response of the host is to switch on inflammatory signaling cascades, whereby microRNA (miRNA) species serve as alternative genetic inhibitory transcriptional endpoints. miRNA profiles from diseased sites differ from those detected in disease-free tissues. miRNA profiles could therefore be harnessed as potential diagnostic/prognostic tools...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
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