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Journal of Oral Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839521/salivary-cytokine-levels-in-early-gingival-inflammation
#1
Daniel Belstrøm, Christian Damgaard, Eija Könönen, Mervi Gürsoy, Palle Holmstrup, Ulvi Kahraman Gürsoy
Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in gingival inflammation. Twenty-eight systemically and orally healthy nonsmokers abstained from oral hygiene protocols for 10 days. After that, self-performed cleaning was resumed for 14 days...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839520/oral-microbial-profiles-of-individuals-with-different-levels-of-sugar-intake
#2
Mette K Keller, Christine A Kressirer, Daniel Belstrøm, Svante Twetman, Anne C R Tanner
The aim was to compare the oral microbial profiles in young adults with an intake of free sugars above or below the current recommendations by the WHO for sugar consumption. Seventy subjects completed a Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to establish the proportion of free sugars in relation to the total energy intake (% E). Subjects with <5% E (n = 30) formed the low-sugar group, while those with ≥5% E (n = 40) were regarded as reference group. Saliva and plaque samples were analyzed by qPCR, and 52 of the plaque samples were assayed by HOMINGS...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839519/lingual-microbiota-profiles-of-patients-with-geographic-tongue
#3
Amal Dafar, Maria Bankvall, Hülya Çevik-Aras, Mats Jontell, Fei Sjöberg
Geographic tongue (GT) is an oral mucosal lesion that affects the tongue. The association between GT and the bacterial colonization profiles of the tongue is not clear. Lingual swabs were collected from lesion sites and healthy sites of 35 patients with GT (19 males and 16 females; Mage = 54.3 ± 16.1 years) and 22 controls (12 males and 10 females; Mage = 56.3 ± 15.8 years). Bacterial DNA was extracted and sequenced by next-generation sequencing. At the phylum level, Fusobacteria were significantly less abundant, while Spirochaetes were significantly more abundant in GT patients compared to controls...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748044/visualizing-the-dental-biofilm-matrix-by-means-of-fluorescence-lectin-binding-analysis
#4
Pune N Tawakoli, Thomas R Neu, Mette M Busck, Ute Kuhlicke, Andreas Schramm, Thomas Attin, Daniel B Wiedemeier, Sebastian Schlafer
The extracellular matrix is a poorly studied, yet important component of dental biofilms. Fluorescence lectin-binding analysis (FLBA) is a powerful tool to characterize glycoconjugates in the biofilm matrix. This study aimed to systematically investigate the ability of 75 fluorescently labeled lectins to visualize and quantify extracellular glycoconjugates in dental biofilms. Lectin binding was screened on pooled supragingival biofilm samples collected from 76 subjects using confocal microscopy. FLBA was then performed with 10 selected lectins on biofilms grown in situ for 48 h in the absence of sucrose...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748043/fluoride-resistance-in-streptococcus-mutans-a-mini-review
#5
REVIEW
Ying Liao, Bernd W Brandt, Jiyao Li, Wim Crielaard, Cor Van Loveren, Dong Mei Deng
For decades, fluoride has been used extensively as an anti-caries agent. It not only protects dental hard tissue, but also inhibits bacterial growth and metabolism. The antimicrobial action of fluoride is shown in three main aspects: the acidogenicity, acidurance, and adherence to the tooth surface. To counteract the toxic effect of fluoride, oral bacteria are able to develop resistance to fluoride through either phenotypic adaptation or genotypic changes. Strains that acquire fluoride resistance through the latter route show stable resistance and can usually resist much higher fluoride levels than the corresponding wild-type strain...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748042/porphyromonas-gingivalis-disturbs-host-commensal-homeostasis-by-changing-complement-function
#6
REVIEW
Ingar Olsen, John D Lambris, George Hajishengallis
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic rod that has been proposed as an orchestrator of complement-dependent dysbiotic inflammation. This notion was suggested from its capacities to manipulate the complement-Toll-like receptor crosstalk in ways that promote dysbiosis and periodontal disease in animal models. Specifically, while at low colonization levels, P. gingivalis interferes with innate immunity and leads to changes in the counts and composition of the oral commensal microbiota. The resulting dysbiotic microbial community causes disruption of host-microbial homeostasis, leading to inflammatory bone loss...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748041/effect-of-azithromycin-on-a-red-complex-polymicrobial-biofilm
#7
Hwei Sze Ong, Orit Oettinger-Barak, Stuart G Dashper, Ivan B Darby, Kheng H Tan, Eric C Reynolds
Azithromycin has recently gained popularity for the treatment of periodontal disease, despite sparse literature supporting efficiency in treating periodontal bacterial biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of azithromycin on biofilms comprised of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia in comparison to an amoxicillin and metronidazole combination. P. gingivalis W50, T. denticola ATCC35405, and T. forsythia ATCC43037 grown under anaerobic conditions at 37°C were aliquoted into 96-well flat-bottom plates in different combinations with addition of azithromycin or amoxicillin + metronidazole at various concentrations...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748040/effect-of-erythritol-on-microbial-ecology-of-in-vitro-gingivitis-biofilms
#8
Marleen Marga Janus, Catherine Minke Charlotte Volgenant, Bernd Willem Brandt, Mark Johannes Buijs, Bart Jan Frederik Keijser, Wim Crielaard, Egija Zaura, Bastiaan Philip Krom
Gingivitis is one of the most common oral infections in humans. While sugar alcohols such as erythritol are suggested to have caries-preventive properties, it may also have beneficial effects in prevention of gingivitis by preventing maturation of oral biofilms. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of erythritol on the microbial ecology and the gingivitis phenotype of oral microcosms. Biofilms were inoculated with stimulated saliva from 20 healthy donors and grown in a gingivitis model in the continuous presence of 0 (control group), 5, and 10% erythritol...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748039/age-related-prevalence-and-characteristics-of-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-in-periodontitis-patients-living-in-sweden
#9
Rolf Claesson, Carola Höglund-Åberg, Dorte Haubek, Anders Johansson
Background: The presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in patients with periodontitis has been extensively studied for decades. Objective: To study the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in younger and older periodontitis patients and to genetically characterize isolates of this bacterium. Design: Data from microbiological analyses of 3459 subgingival plaque samples collected from 1445 patients, 337 'younger' patients (≤35 yrs) and 1108 'older' patients (>35 yrs) during 15 years (2000-2014), has been summerized...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748038/porphyromonas-gingivalis-and-its-lipopolysaccharide-differently-modulate-epidermal-growth-factor-dependent-signaling-in-human-gingival-epithelial-cells
#10
R Elkaim, I M Bugueno-Valdebenito, N Benkirane-Jessel, H Tenenbaum
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease induced by pathogenic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis. Little is known about epidermal growth factor (EGF) signals in human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC), which are major targets of P. gingivalis, and how the expression of proteins participating in EGF signaling-that is, EGF-receptor (EGFR), suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3), interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT-3)-are modified. This study aimed to assess the effects of P...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748037/periodontitis-pathogenesis-and-progression-mirna-mediated-cellular-responses-to-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#11
Ingar Olsen, Sim K Singhrao, Harald Osmundsen
Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered a keystone pathogen in periodontitis, a disease typically driven by dysbiosis of oral inflammophilic polymicrobial pathobionts. To combat infectious agents, the natural defense response of the host is to switch on inflammatory signaling cascades, whereby microRNA (miRNA) species serve as alternative genetic inhibitory transcriptional endpoints. miRNA profiles from diseased sites differ from those detected in disease-free tissues. miRNA profiles could therefore be harnessed as potential diagnostic/prognostic tools...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748036/comorbidity-of-periodontal-disease-two-sides-of-the-same-coin-an-introduction-for-the-clinician
#12
REVIEW
Palle Holmstrup, Christian Damgaard, Ingar Olsen, Björn Klinge, Allan Flyvbjerg, Claus Henrik Nielsen, Peter Riis Hansen
Increasing evidence has suggested an independent association between periodontitis and a range of comorbidities, for example cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, psoriasis, and respiratory infections. Shared inflammatory pathways are likely to contribute to this association, but distinct causal mechanisms remain to be defined. Some of these comorbid conditions may improve by periodontal treatment, and a bidirectional relationship may exist, where, for example, treatment of diabetes can improve periodontal status...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748035/cytokine-response-patterns-to-complex-biofilms-by-mononuclear-cells-discriminate-patient-disease-status-and-biofilm-dysbiosis
#13
I M Velsko, Y Cruz-Almeida, H Huang, S M Wallet, L M Shaddox
Localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) is a rare form of periodontal disease with site-specific rapid tissue destruction. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) hyper-inflammatory response was shown in LAP using peripheral whole blood, although responses to other bacterial surface components or complex oral biofilms have not been evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 14 LAP patients, 15 healthy siblings (HS), and 13 unrelated healthy controls (HC) were stimulated with: LPS, lipoteichoic acid, or peptidoglycan; intact or sonically dispersed in vitro-grown biofilms from a LAP disease site, a LAP healthy site, or a healthy control site...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748034/porphyromonas-gingivalis-may-interfere-with-conception-in-women
#14
Susanna Paju, Juha Oittinen, Henna Haapala, Sirkka Asikainen, Jorma Paavonen, Pirkko J Pussinen
In this observational and prospective study, we investigated if microbiological and serological markers of periodontitis associated with conception in 256 non-pregnant women (Mage = 29.2 years; range 19-42 years). Clinical oral and gynecological examinations were performed, major periodontal pathogens in the saliva were detected, and serum and saliva antibodies against major periodontal pathogens were analyzed. The follow-up period for becoming pregnant was 12 months. Porphyromonas gingivalis was significantly (p = 0...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748033/candida-and-porphyromonas-gingivalis-the-effect-on-wound-closure-in-vitro
#15
Thijs M Haverman, Alexa M G A Laheij, Johannes J de Soet, Jan de Lange, Frederik R Rozema
Microorganisms play a role in oral mucositis after cancer therapy. The current study explored the hypothesis that Candida spp. alone and together with Porphyromonas gingivalis cause delayed healing of oral ulcerations due to the inhibition of wound closure. An in vitro scratch assay model was used to study the influence of viable and heat-killed Candida glabrata, Candida kefyr, and Candida albicans on cell migration of oral epithelial cells. Separately, the effect of conditioned medium of Candida spp. and the effect of a mixed infection of Candida spp...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748032/biofilm-sensitivity-of-seven-streptococcus-mutans-strains-to-different-fluoride-levels
#16
Hani M Nassar, Richard L Gregory
The effect of fluoride concentrations in dental products could be different depending on the Streptococcus mutans strain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different fluoride concentrations corresponding to dental products on biofilm formation and metabolic activity of S. mutans strains. Seven S. mutans strains (UA159, A32-2, NG8, 10449, UA130, LM7, and OMZ175) were inoculated into 96-well microtiter plates and were tested with various concentrations of sodium fluoride (0.0, 1.0, 1.56, 3...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748031/antibiofilm-peptides-against-oral-biofilms
#17
Zhejun Wang, Ya Shen, Markus Haapasalo
The oral cavity is a major entry point for bacteria and other microorganisms. Oral biofilms are formed by mixed communities of microorganisms embedded in an exopolysaccharide matrix. Biofilms forming on dental hard or soft tissue are the major cause of caries and endodontic and periodontal disease. Human oral biofilms exhibit high resistance to antimicrobial agents. Antibiofilm peptides constitute a diverse class of host-defense molecules that act to combat invasion and infection with biofilms. Different in vitro and in vivo biofilm models with quantitative analysis have been established to provide predictable platforms for the evaluation of the antibiofilm effect of oral antibiofilm peptides...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748030/16s-rdna-analysis-of-periodontal-plaque-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-periodontitis-patients
#18
Xingwen Wu, Jiazhen Chen, Meng Xu, Danting Zhu, Xuyang Wang, Yulin Chen, Jing Wu, Chenghao Cui, Wenhong Zhang, Liying Yu
This study investigated if chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is correlated with periodontitis via periodontal microbiota and if certain bacteria affect periodontitis as well as COPD. Moreover, the study investigated whether suffering from COPD is associated with a decrease in the richness and diversity of periodontal microbiota. Subgingival plaque was obtained from 105 patients. Bacterial DNA was isolated from 55 COPD and 50 non-COPD participants (either with or without periodontitis). 16S rRNA gene metagenomic sequencing was used to characterize the microbiota and to determine taxonomic classification...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748029/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-among-human-immunodeficient-virus-infected-outpatients-in-taiwan-oral-candida-colonization-as-a-comparator
#19
Chi-Jung Wu, Wen-Chien Ko, Mao-Wang Ho, Hsi-Hsun Lin, Yun-Liang Yang, Jiun-Nong Lin, I-Wen Huang, Hui-Ying Wang, Jui-Fen Lai, Yih-Ru Shiau, Li-Yun Hsieh, Hui-Ting Chen, Chih-Chao Lin, Wen-Li Chu, Hsiu-Jung Lo, Tsai-Ling Lauderdale
Human immuodeficency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) have increased in recent years in Taiwan. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for nasal and oral S. aureus and MRSA colonization among contemporary HIV-infected populations. Clinical variables for S. aureus and MRSA colonization among HIV-infected outpatients from three hospitals were analyzed and compared with those for oral Candida colonization...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748028/porphyromonas-gingivalis-suppresses-invasion-of-fusobacterium-nucleatum-into-gingival-epithelial-cells
#20
Young-Jung Jung, Hye-Kyoung Jun, Bong-Kyu Choi
Invasion of periodontal pathogens into periodontal tissues is an important step that can cause tissue destruction in periodontal diseases. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen and its gingipains are key virulence factors. Fusobacterium nucleatum is a bridge organism that mediates coadhesion of disease-causing late colonizers such as P. gingivalis and early colonizers during the development of dental biofilms. The aim of this study was to investigate how P. gingivalis, in particular its gingipains, influences the invasion of coinfecting F...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
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