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Journal of Oral Microbiology

Ingar Olsen, Martin A Taubman, Sim K Singhrao
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen in chronic periodontitis, has been found to associate with remote body organ inflammatory pathologies, including atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although P. gingivalis has a plethora of virulence factors, much of its pathogenicity is surprisingly related to the overall immunosuppression of the host. This review focuses on P. gingivalis aiding suppression of the host's adaptive immune system involving manipulation of cellular immunological responses, specifically T cells and B cells in periodontitis and related conditions...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Josefine Hirschfeld, Helen M Roberts, Iain L C Chapple, Marijo Parčina, Søren Jepsen, Anders Johansson, Rolf Claesson
BACKGROUND: Aggressive periodontitis is associated with the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a leukotoxin (Ltx)-producing periodontal pathogen. Ltx has the ability to lyse white blood cells including neutrophils. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at investigating the interactions between neutrophils and Ltx with regard to the chemotactic properties of Ltx and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). METHODS: Neutrophils from healthy blood donors were isolated and incubated for 30 min and 3 h with increasing concentrations of Ltx (1, 10, and 100 ng/mL) as well as with A...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Jeffrey A Banas, Min Zhu, Deborah V Dawson, Derek R Blanchette, David R Drake, Hongjie Gu, Ryan Frost, Grant McCaulley, Steven M Levy
BACKGROUND: Non-mutans low pH oral streptococci are postulated to contribute to caries etiology. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate whether the acidogenicity and acid tolerance of clinical strains of Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mitis correlate with health or early-stage enamel caries. DESIGN: S. oralis and S. mitis were isolated from plaque samples taken from the occlusal surfaces of second molars sampled at two different visits 4 years apart...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Huma Siddiqui, Tsute Chen, Ardita Aliko, Piotr M Mydel, Roland Jonsson, Ingar Olsen
BACKGROUND: Reduced salivation is considered a major clinical feature of most but not all cases of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Reduced saliva flow may lead to changes in the salivary microbiota. These changes have mainly been studied with culture that typically recovers only 65% of the bacteria present. OBJECTIVE: This study was to use high throughput sequencing, covering both cultivated and not-yet-cultivated bacteria, to assess the bacterial microbiota of whole saliva in pSS patients with normal salivation...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Ingar Olsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Manosha Perera, Nezar Noor Al-Hebshi, David J Speicher, Irosha Perera, Newell W Johnson
Oral cancer, primarily oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), continues to be a major global health problem with high incidence and low survival rates. While the major risk factors for this malignancy, mostly lifestyle related, have been identified, around 15% of oral cancer cases remain unexplained. In light of evidence implicating bacteria in the aetiology of some cancer types, several epidemiological studies have been conducted in the last decade, employing methodologies ranging from traditional culture techniques to 16S rRNA metagenomics, to assess the possible role of bacteria in OSCC...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Anca Virtej, Panagiota Papadakou, Hajime Sasaki, Athanasia Bletsa, Ellen Berggreen
BACKGROUND: In apical periodontitis, oral pathogens provoke an inflammatory response in the apical area that induces bone resorptive lesions. In inflammation, angio- and lymphangiogenesis take place. Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGFRs) are key players in these processes and are expressed in immune cells and endothelial cells in the lesions. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at testing the role of VEGFR-2 and -3 in periapical lesion development and investigated their role in lymphangiogenesis in the draining lymph nodes...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Naile Dame-Teixeira, Clarissa Cavalcanti Fatturi Parolo, Marisa Maltz, Aradhna Tugnait, Deirdre Devine, Thuy Do
BACKGROUND: The studies of the distribution of Actinomyces spp. on carious and non-carious root surfaces have not been able to confirm the association of these bacteria with root caries, although they were extensively implicated as a prime suspect in root caries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to observe the gene expression of Actinomyces spp. in the microbiota of root surfaces with and without caries. DESIGN: The oral biofilms from exposed sound root surface (SRS; n=10) and active root caries (RC; n=30) samples were collected...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Leron Khalifa, Mor Shlezinger, Shaul Beyth, Yael Houri-Haddad, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Nurit Beyth, Ronen Hazan
Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Marleen M Janus, Wim Crielaard, Egija Zaura, Bart J Keijser, Bernd W Brandt, Bastiaan P Krom
OBJECTIVE: Dental caries is caused by prolonged episodes of low pH due to acid production by oral biofilms. Bacteria within such biofilms communicate via quorum sensing (QS). QS regulates several phenotypic biofilm parameters, such as biofilm formation and the production of virulence factors. In this study, we evaluated the effect of several QS modifiers on growth and the cariogenic potential of microcosm oral biofilms. METHODS: Biofilms were inoculated with pooled saliva and cultured in the presence of sucrose for 48 and 96 h...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Odd Langbach, Anne Karin Kristoffersen, Emnet Abesha-Belay, Morten Enersen, Ola Røkke, Ingar Olsen
BACKGROUND: In ventral hernia surgery, mesh implants are used to reduce recurrence. Infection after mesh implantation can be a problem and rates around 6-10% have been reported. Bacterial colonization of mesh implants in patients without clinical signs of infection has not been thoroughly investigated. Molecular techniques have proven effective in demonstrating bacterial diversity in various environments and are able to identify bacteria on a gene-specific level. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to detect bacterial biofilm in mesh implants, analyze its bacterial diversity, and look for possible resemblance with bacterial biofilm from the periodontal pocket...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Ingar Olsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Nezar Noor Al-Hebshi, Ahmed Abdulhaq, Ahmed Albarrag, Vinod Kumar Basode, Tsute Chen
BACKGROUND: Reports on the composition of oral bacteriome in Arabs are lacking. In addition, the majority of previous studies on other ethnic groups have been limited by low-resolution taxonomic assignment of next-generation sequencing reads. Furthermore, there has been a conflict about the existence of a 'core' bacteriome. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize the healthy core oral bacteriome in a young Arab population at the species level...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Zhi Ren, Lulu Chen, Jiyao Li, Yuqing Li
Glycosyltransferase (Gtf) is one of the crucial virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans, a major etiological pathogen of dental caries. All the available evidence indicates that extracellular polysaccharide, particularly glucans produced by S. mutans Gtfs, contribute to the cariogenicity of dental biofilms. Therefore, inhibition of Gtf activity and the consequential polysaccharide synthesis may impair the virulence of cariogenic biofilms, which could be an alternative strategy to prevent the biofilm-related disease...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Jean-Luc C Mougeot, Craig B Stevens, Sean L Cotton, Darla S Morton, Keerthana Krishnan, Michael T Brennan, Peter B Lockhart, Bruce J Paster, Farah K Bahrani Mougeot
BACKGROUND: Over 700 bacterial species reside in human oral cavity, many of which are associated with local or distant site infections. Extensive characterization of the oral microbiome depends on the technologies used to determine the presence and proportions of specific bacterial species in various oral sites. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the microbial composition of dental plaque at baseline using Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) and Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technologies, which are based on 16S rRNA...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Catherine M C Volgenant, Michel A Hoogenkamp, Mark J Buijs, Egija Zaura, Jacob M Ten Cate, Monique H van der Veen
BACKGROUND: Some dental plaque fluoresces red. The factors involved in this fluorescence are yet unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess systematically the effect of age, thickness, and cariogenicity on the extent of red fluorescence produced by in vitro microcosm biofilms. DESIGN: The effects of biofilm age and thickness on red fluorescence were tested in a constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) by growing biofilms of variable thicknesses that received a constant supply of defined mucin medium (DMM) and eight pulses of sucrose/day...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Ingar Olsen, George Hajishengallis
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) constitute an integrated component of the innate host defense in the gingival sulcus/periodontal pocket. However, the keystone periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has in the course of evolution developed a number of capacities to subvert this defense to its own advantage. The present review describes the major mechanisms that P. gingivalis uses to subvert neutrophil homeostasis, such as impaired recruitment and chemotaxis, resistance to granule-derived antimicrobial agents and to the oxidative burst, inhibition of phagocytic killing while promoting a nutritionally favorable inflammatory response, and delay of neutrophil apoptosis...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Daniel Belstrøm, Palle Holmstrup, Allan Bardow, Alexis Kokaras, Nils-Erik Fiehn, Bruce J Paster
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The microbial profiles of stimulated saliva samples have been shown to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, patients with dental caries, and orally healthy individuals. Saliva was stimulated to allow for easy and rapid collection; however, microbial composition may not reflect the more natural, unstimulated state. The purpose of this study was to validate whether stimulated saliva is an adequate surrogate for unstimulated saliva in determining salivary microbiomes...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Noelle George, Erin Flamiatos, Kellie Kawasaki, Namgu Kim, Charles Carriere, Brian Phan, Raphael Joseph, Shay Strauss, Richie Kohli, Dongseok Choi, J Craig Baumgartner, Christine Sedgley, Tom Maier, Curtis A Machida
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18) exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other regions...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Irene Dige, Vibeke Baelum, Bente Nyvad, Sebastian Schlafer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: pH in dental biofilms is of central importance for the development of caries. We used the ratiometric pH-sensitive dye C-SNARF-4 in combination with digital image analysis to monitor extracellular pH in dental biofilms grown in situ with and without sucrose supply. DESIGN: Dental biofilms (48 h) from 10 individuals were collected on glass slabs mounted on intra-oral appliances. During growth, appliances were immersed extra-orally in either physiological saline or 4% sucrose for 2 min, eight times per day...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
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