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Frontiers in Psychology

Gili Freedman, Kipling D Williams, Jennifer S Beer
Social exclusion is an interactive process between multiple people, yet previous research has focused almost solely on the negative impacts on targets. What advice is there for people on the other side (i.e., sources) who want to minimize its negative impact and preserve their own reputation? To provide an impetus for research on the interactive nature of exclusion, we propose the Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion. Our theory postulates that targets and sources' needs are better maintained if sources use clear, explicit verbal communication...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Pedro Passos, Duarte Araújo, Keith Davids
An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Joseph Ciarrochi, Paul W B Atkins, Louise L Hayes, Baljinder K Sahdra, Philip Parker
There has been a rapid growth in positive psychology, a research and intervention approach that focuses on promoting optimal functioning and well-being. Positive psychology interventions are now making their way into classrooms all over the world. However, positive psychology has been criticized for being decontextualized and coercive, and for putting an excessive emphasis on positive states, whilst failing to adequately consider negative experiences. Given this, how should policy be used to regulate and evaluate these interventions? We review evidence that suggests these criticisms may be valid, but only for those interventions that focus almost exclusively on changing the content of people's inner experience (e...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Anna M Borghi, Edoardo Zarcone
One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Danielle M Raves, Alexandra Brewis, Sarah Trainer, Seung-Yong Han, Amber Wutich
Background: Weight-related stigma is reported frequently by higher body-weight patients in healthcare settings. Bariatric surgery triggers profound weight loss. This weight loss may therefore alleviate patients' experiences of weight-related stigma within healthcare settings. In non-clinical settings, weight-related stigma is associated with weight-inducing eating patterns. Dietary adherence is a major challenge after bariatric surgery. Objectives: (1) Evaluate the relationship between weight-related stigma and post-surgical dietary adherence; (2) understand if weight loss reduces weight-related stigma, thereby improving post-surgical dietary adherence; and (3) explore provider and patient perspectives on adherence and stigma in healthcare settings...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Sibel Halfon, Alev Çavdar, Franco Orsucci, Gunter K Schiepek, Silvia Andreassi, Alessandro Giuliani, Giulio de Felice
Aim: Even though there is substantial evidence that play based therapies produce significant change, the specific play processes in treatment remain unexamined. For that purpose, processes of change in long-term psychodynamic play therapy are assessed through a repeated systematic assessment of three children's "play profiles," which reflect patterns of organization among play variables that contribute to play activity in therapy, indicative of the children's coping strategies, and an expression of their internal world...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jose D Perezgonzalez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Michael J Silverman
Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions? Method: Participants (N = 169) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Tiago M Barbosa, Wan X Goh, Jorge E Morais, Mário J Costa, David Pendergast
The aim of this study was to compare the non-linear properties of the four competitive swim strokes. Sixty-eight swimmers performed a set of maximal 4 × 25 m using the four competitive swim strokes. The hip's speed-data as a function of time was collected with a speedo-meter. The speed fluctuation (dv), approximate entropy (ApEn) and the fractal dimension by Higuchi's method (D) were computed. Swimming data exhibited non-linear properties that were different among the four strokes (14.048 ≤ dv ≤ 39.722; 0...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Bo-Cheng Kuo
Recent studies have shown that past selection history affects the allocation of attention on target selection. However, it is unclear whether context-driven selection history can modulate the efficacy of attention allocation on working memory (WM) representations. This study tests the influences of selection history on WM capacity. A display of one item (low load) or three/four items (high load) was shown for the participants to hold in WM in a delayed response task. Participants then judged whether a probe item was in the memory display or not...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Rong Chen, Kwang-Kuo Hwang
This research investigates a key concept in East Asia, face, and represents the first attempt to empirically examine the concept of face at the national level. Controlling for the level of national identification, Study 1 employed the scenario experiment method among samples of native Chinese and Taiwanese populations and revealed that national face exhibits patterns reverse of personal face. Using the experimental method, Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 and provided support for the different mechanisms underneath national face and personal face...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Ryoichi Nakashima, Yuya Komori, Eriko Maeda, Takeharu Yoshikawa, Kazuhiko Yokosawa
Although viewing multiple stacks of medical images presented on a display is a relatively new but useful medical task, little is known about this task. Particularly, it is unclear how radiologists search for lesions in this type of image reading. When viewing cluttered and dynamic displays, continuous motion itself does not capture attention. Thus, it is effective for the target detection that observers' attention is captured by the onset signal of a suddenly appearing target among the continuously moving distractors (i...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Donald Glowinski, Fabrizio Bracco, Carlo Chiorri, Didier Grandjean
The present contribution provides readers from diverse fields of psychology with a new and comprehensive model for the understanding of the characteristics of music ensembles. The model is based on a novel heuristic approach whose key construct is resilience, intended here as the ability of a system to adapt to external perturbations and anticipate future events. The paper clarifies the specificity of music ensemble as an original social and creative activity, and how some mechanisms, at an individual (cognitive) and group (coordination) level, are enacted in a particular way that endows these groups with exceptional capacity for resilience...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Katie M de Almondes, Mônica V Costa, Leandro F Malloy-Diniz, Breno S Diniz
Aim: In this manuscript, we report data on the association between executive functions screened by Frontal Assessment Battery, Five Digit Test and Digit Span with self-reported depressive symptoms and sleep complaints in non-demented older adults. Methods: A total sample of 95 non-demented older adults performed Geriatric Depression Scale short version, Frontal Assessment Battery, Five Digit Test, Digit Span, and clinical interview. We split participants in groups stratified by age according to: young-old (60-69 years of age), old-old (70-79 years), and oldest-old (>80 years) and compared these three groups on the sociodemographic characteristics and executive functions performance...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Kirsten Bulteel, Francis Tuerlinckx, Annette Brose, Eva Ceulemans
In psychology, studying multivariate dynamical processes within a person is gaining ground. An increasingly often used method is vector autoregressive (VAR) modeling, in which each variable is regressed on all variables (including itself) at the previous time points. This approach reveals the temporal dynamics of a system of related variables across time. A follow-up question is how to analyze data of multiple persons in order to grasp similarities and individual differences in within-person dynamics. We focus on the case where these differences are qualitative in nature, implying that subgroups of persons can be identified...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Izaskun Ibabe
A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Veronica Ornaghi, Alessandro Pepe, Ilaria Grazzani
Emotion comprehension (EC) is known to be a key correlate and predictor of prosociality from early childhood. In the present study, we examined this relationship within the broad theoretical construct of social understanding which includes a number of socio-emotional skills, as well as cognitive and linguistic abilities. Theory of mind, especially false-belief understanding, has been found to be positively correlated with both EC and prosocial orientation. Similarly, language ability is known to play a key role in children's socio-emotional development...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Stephen M Fiore, Travis J Wiltshire
In this paper we advance team theory by describing how cognition occurs across the distribution of members and the artifacts and technology that support their efforts. We draw from complementary theorizing coming out of cognitive engineering and cognitive science that views forms of cognition as external and extended and integrate this with theorizing on macrocognition in teams. Two frameworks are described that provide the groundwork for advancing theory and aid in the development of more precise measures for understanding team cognition via focus on artifacts and the technologies supporting their development and use...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Mario Degli Stefani, Michele Biasutti
Objective: Framed in the patients' engagement perspective, the current study aims to determine the effects of group music therapy in addition to drug care in comparison with drug care in addition to other non-expressive group activities in the treatment of psychiatric outpatients. Method: Participants (n = 27) with ICD-10 diagnoses of F20 (schizophrenia), F25 (schizoaffective disorders), F31 (bipolar affective disorder), F32 (depressive episode), and F60 (specific personality disorders) were randomized to receive group music therapy plus standard care (48 weekly sessions of 2 h) or standard care only...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Masako Hirotani, J Michael Terry, Norihiro Sadato
Prosody plays an important role in online sentence processing both explicitly and implicitly. It has been shown that prosodically packaging together parts of a sentence that are interpreted together facilitates processing of the sentence. This applies not only to explicit prosody but also implicit prosody. The present work hypothesizes that a line break in a written text induces an implicit prosodic break, which, in turn, should result in a processing bias for interpreting English wh-questions. Two experiments-one self-paced reading study and one questionnaire study-are reported...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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