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Frontiers in Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933031/exhaustion-experiences-in-junior-athletes-the-importance-of-motivation-and-self-control-competencies
#1
Gro Jordalen, Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre, Natalie Durand-Bush
Quality of motivation, self-control competencies, as well as past performance experience influence sport participation outcomes in developing athletes. Studies have shown that junior athletes high in self-determined motivation are less prone to experience burnout, while self-control competencies help developing athletes to be conscious and deliberate in their self-regulatory efforts toward elite sport performances and avoid negative sport participation outcomes. Combining the self-determination theory framework and psychosocial theories of self-regulation, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how various types of motivation and self-control competencies together are associated with the development of burnout symptoms in junior athletes...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933030/the-association-of-drd2-with-insight-problem-solving
#2
Shun Zhang, Jinghuan Zhang
Although the insight phenomenon has attracted great attention from psychologists, it is still largely unknown whether its variation in well-functioning human adults has a genetic basis. Several lines of evidence suggest that genes involved in dopamine (DA) transmission might be potential candidates. The present study explored for the first time the association of dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) with insight problem solving. Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering DRD2 were genotyped in 425 unrelated healthy Chinese undergraduates, and were further tested for association with insight problem solving...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933029/drifting-through-basic-subprocesses-of-reading-a-hierarchical-diffusion-model-analysis-of-age-effects-on-visual-word-recognition
#3
Eva Froehlich, Johanna Liebig, Johannes C Ziegler, Mario Braun, Ulman Lindenberger, Hauke R Heekeren, Arthur M Jacobs
Reading is one of the most popular leisure activities and it is routinely performed by most individuals even in old age. Successful reading enables older people to master and actively participate in everyday life and maintain functional independence. Yet, reading comprises a multitude of subprocesses and it is undoubtedly one of the most complex accomplishments of the human brain. Not surprisingly, findings of age-related effects on word recognition and reading have been partly contradictory and are often confined to only one of four central reading subprocesses, i...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933028/autism-in-action-reduced-bodily-connectedness-during-social-interactions
#4
C Lieke E Peper, Sija J van der Wal, Sander Begeer
Autism is a lifelong disorder, defined by deficits in social interactions and flexibility. To date, diagnostic markers for autism primarily include limitations in social behavior and cognition. However, such tests have often shown to be inadequate for individuals with autism who are either more cognitively able or intellectually disabled. The assessment of the social limitations of autism would benefit from new tests that capture the dynamics of social initiative and reciprocity in interaction processes, and that are not dependent on intellectual or verbal skills...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933027/differences-of-perceived-image-generated-through-the-web-site-empirical-evidence-obtained-in-spanish-destinations
#5
Juan J Blazquez-Resino, Ana I Muro-Rodriguez, Israel R Perez-Jimenez
In this paper, a study of the perceived destination image created by promotional Web Pages is expounded in an attempt to identify their differences as generators of destination image in the consumers' mind. Specifically, it seeks to analyse whether the web sites of different Spanish regions improve the image that consumers have of the destination, identifying their main dimensions and analysing its effect on satisfaction and intentions of the future behavior of potential visitors. To achieve these objectives and verify the hypotheses, a laboratory experiment was performed, where it was determined what changes are produced in the tourist's previous image after browsing the tourist webs of three different regions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933026/fitness-costs-predict-emotional-moral-and-attitudinal-inbreeding-aversion
#6
Florence Lespiau, Gwenaël Kaminski
In terms of sexual intercourse, the very last people we think about are our kin. Imagining inbreeding intercourse, whether it involves our closest kin or not, induces aversion in most people who invoke inbreeding depression problems or cultural considerations. Research has focused on the disgust felt when facing inbreeding intercourse between close kin but little is known about other responses. In this study, we considered the influence of fitness costs on aversive reactions by including disgust and emotional reaction as well as moral judgment and attitudes toward inbreeding: higher costs should induce a stronger aversive reaction...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933025/implicit-detection-of-poetic-harmony-by-the-na%C3%A3-ve-brain
#7
Awel Vaughan-Evans, Robat Trefor, Llion Jones, Peredur Lynch, Manon W Jones, Guillaume Thierry
The power of poetry is universally acknowledged, but it is debatable whether its appreciation is reserved for experts. Here, we show that readers with no particular knowledge of a traditional form of Welsh poetry unconsciously distinguish phrases conforming to its complex poetic construction rules from those that violate them. We studied the brain response of native speakers of Welsh as they read meaningful sentences ending in a word that either complied with strict poetic construction rules, violated rules of consonantal repetition, violated stress pattern, or violated both these constraints...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933024/confabulating-misremembering-relearning-the-simulation-theory-of-memory-and-unsuccessful-remembering
#8
Kourken Michaelian
This article develops a taxonomy of memory errors in terms of three conditions: the accuracy of the memory representation, the reliability of the memory process, and the internality (with respect to the remembering subject) of that process. Unlike previous taxonomies, which appeal to retention of information rather than reliability or internality, this taxonomy can accommodate not only misremembering (e.g., the DRM effect), falsidical confabulation, and veridical relearning but also veridical confabulation and falsidical relearning...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933023/implicit-motives-and-men-s-perceived-constraint-in-fatherhood
#9
Jessica Ruppen, Patricia Waldvogel, Ulrike Ehlert
Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers' perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers' life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children (N = 276). They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933022/emotional-empathy-and-facial-mimicry-for-static-and-dynamic-facial-expressions-of-fear-and-disgust
#10
Krystyna Rymarczyk, Łukasz Żurawski, Kamila Jankowiak-Siuda, Iwona Szatkowska
Facial mimicry is the tendency to imitate the emotional facial expressions of others. Increasing evidence suggests that the perception of dynamic displays leads to enhanced facial mimicry, especially for happiness and anger. However, little is known about the impact of dynamic stimuli on facial mimicry for fear and disgust. To investigate this issue, facial EMG responses were recorded in the corrugator supercilii, levator labii, and lateral frontalis muscles, while participants viewed static (photos) and dynamic (videos) facial emotional expressions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933021/dimensions-of-compulsive-exercise-across-eating-disorder-diagnostic-subtypes-and-the-validation-of-the-spanish-version-of-the-compulsive-exercise-test
#11
Sarah Sauchelli, Jon Arcelus, Roser Granero, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Zaida Agüera, Amparo Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Fernando Fernández-Aranda
Objectives: Compulsive exercise in eating disorders has been traditionally considered as a behavior that serves the purpose of weight/shape control. More recently, it has been postulated that there may be other factors that drive the compulsive need to exercise. This has led to the development of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET); a self-reported questionnaire that aims to explore the cognitive-behavioral underpinnings of compulsive exercise from a multi-faceted perspective. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to validate the Spanish version of the CET; (2) to compare eating disorder diagnostic subtypes and a healthy control group in terms of the factors that drive compulsive exercise as defined by the CET; (3) to explore how the dimensions evaluated in the CET are associated with eating disorder symptoms and general psychopathology...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933020/feasibility-of-group-schema-therapy-for-outpatients-with-severe-borderline-personality-disorder-in-germany-a-pilot-study-with-three-year-follow-up
#12
Eva Fassbinder, Maren Schuetze, Annika Kranich, Valerija Sipos, Fritz Hohagen, Ida Shaw, Joan Farrell, Arnoud Arntz, Ulrich Schweiger
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a severe, challenging to treat mental disorder. Schema therapy (ST) as an individual therapy has been proven to be an effective psychological treatment for BPD. A group format of ST (GST) has been developed and evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in the United States and piloted in The Netherlands. These results suggest that GST speeds up and amplifies treatment effects of ST and might reduce delivery costs. However, feasibility in the German health care system and with BPD patients with high BPD severity and comorbidity, and frequent hospitalization, has not been tested to date...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933019/reduced-working-memory-mediates-the-link-between-early-institutional-rearing-and-symptoms-of-adhd-at-12-years
#13
Florin Tibu, Margaret A Sheridan, Katie A McLaughlin, Charles A Nelson, Nathan A Fox, Charles H Zeanah
Children who are raised in institutions show severe delays across multiple domains of development and high levels of psychopathology, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Low performance in executive functions (EFs) are also common in institutionally reared children and often do not remediate following improvements in the caregiving environment. ADHD symptomatology also remains elevated even after children are removed from institutional care and placed in families. We investigate whether poor EF is a mechanism explaining elevated rates of ADHD in children reared in institutional settings in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933018/a-study-of-the-coupling-of-fet-temperament-traits-with-major-depression
#14
Irina N Trofimova, William Sulis
Objective: Temperament and mental illness have been linked to the same systems of behavioral regulation. A temperament model, carefully structured to respond to subtle differences within systems of behavior regulation, should exhibit distinct temperament patterns in the presence of mental illness. Previous comparisons of temperament profiles in mental disorders used mostly emotionality-related traits. In contrast, the Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) model differentiates not only between emotionality traits, but also between traits related to physical, verbal, and mental aspects of behavior and maps 12 functional aspects of behavior to temperament traits as well as to symptoms of mental illnesses...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933017/why-acting-environmentally-friendly-feels-good-exploring-the-role-of-self-image
#15
Leonie A Venhoeven, Jan Willem Bolderdijk, Linda Steg
Recent research suggests that engagement in environmentally-friendly behavior can feel good. Current explanations for such a link do not focus on the nature of environmentally-friendly behavior itself, but rather propose well-being is more or less a side-benefit; behaviors that benefit environmental quality (e.g., spending one's money on people rather than products) also tend to make us feel good. We propose that the moral nature of environmentally-friendly behavior itself may elicit positive emotions as well, because engaging in this behavior can signal one is an environmentally-friendly and thus a good person...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933016/task-irrelevant-expectation-violations-in-sequential-manual-actions-evidence-for-a-check-after-surprise-mode-of-visual-attention-and-eye-hand-decoupling
#16
Rebecca M Foerster
When performing sequential manual actions (e.g., cooking), visual information is prioritized according to the task determining where and when to attend, look, and act. In well-practiced sequential actions, long-term memory (LTM)-based expectations specify which action targets might be found where and when. We have previously demonstrated (Foerster and Schneider, 2015b) that violations of such expectations that are task-relevant (e.g., target location change) cause a regression from a memory-based mode of attentional selection to visual search...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933015/high-entrepreneurship-leadership-and-professionalism-help-toward-an-integrated-empirically-based-perspective
#17
Annamaria Di Fabio, Ornella Bucci, Alessio Gori
This article evaluates the psychometric properties of a new measure for assessing the constructs of entrepreneurship, leadership, and professionalism, from an integrated point of view, the High Entrepreneurship, Leadership and Professionalism Questionnaire (HELP-Q). Exploratory factor analysis indicated a factor structure with three principal dimensions, and confirmatory factor analysis and goodness of fit indices indicated a good fit of the model to the data. All the dimensions showed good values of internal consistency...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933014/validation-of-the-vanderbilt-holistic-face-processing-test
#18
Chao-Chih Wang, David A Ross, Isabel Gauthier, Jennifer J Richler
The Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test (VHPT-F) is a new measure of holistic face processing with better psychometric properties relative to prior measures developed for group studies (Richler et al., 2014). In fields where psychologists study individual differences, validation studies are commonplace and the concurrent validity of a new measure is established by comparing it to an older measure with established validity. We follow this approach and test whether the VHPT-F measures the same construct as the composite task, which is group-based measure at the center of the large literature on holistic face processing...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933013/on-elementary-affective-decisions-to-like-or-not-to-like-that-is-the-question
#19
Arthur Jacobs, Markus J Hofmann, Annette Kinder
Perhaps the most ubiquitous and basic affective decision of daily life is deciding whether we like or dislike something/somebody, or, in terms of psychological emotion theories, whether the object/subject has positive or negative valence. Indeed, people constantly make such liking decisions within a glimpse and, importantly, often without expecting any obvious benefit or knowing the exact reasons for their judgment. In this paper, we review research on such elementary affective decisions (EADs) that entail no direct overt reward with a special focus on Neurocognitive Poetics and discuss methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of EADs to verbal materials with differing degrees of complexity...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933012/degrees-of-freedom-in-planning-running-analyzing-and-reporting-psychological-studies-a-checklist-to-avoid-p-hacking
#20
REVIEW
Jelte M Wicherts, Coosje L S Veldkamp, Hilde E M Augusteijn, Marjan Bakker, Robbie C M van Aert, Marcel A L M van Assen
The designing, collecting, analyzing, and reporting of psychological studies entail many choices that are often arbitrary. The opportunistic use of these so-called researcher degrees of freedom aimed at obtaining statistically significant results is problematic because it enhances the chances of false positive results and may inflate effect size estimates. In this review article, we present an extensive list of 34 degrees of freedom that researchers have in formulating hypotheses, and in designing, running, analyzing, and reporting of psychological research...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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