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Frontiers in Psychology

Luigi Cattaneo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Anita R Shack, Soumia Meiyappan, Loren D Grossman
Performing and creative artists have unique occupational and lifestyle stresses and challenges that can negatively affect self-esteem. Low self-esteem not only has serious implications for their psychological and physical health, it can also affect their performance, and creativity. There is a need to establish effective interventions to deal with this issue. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported studies specific to workshops or interventions on enhancing self-esteem for artists. The Al and Malka Green Artists' Health Centre at the Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, is a unique multidisciplinary, and integrative clinic serving the special needs of the artist population...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Patrizia Velotti, Sara Beomonte Zobel, Guyonne Rogier, Renata Tambelli
Background: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is an important public health challenge. In recent years, there has been a greater awareness concerning this phenomenon, its causes and consequences. Due to the relational nature of IPV, attachment theory (Bowlby, 1988) appears a useful framework to read the phenomenon and to better understand its components and its dynamics to provide more precise and tailored interventions in the future. Purpose: To summarize our knowledge of the research concerning IPV and attachment with an aim to better design and implement future research...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Laura Picconi, Michela Balsamo, Rocco Palumbo, Beth Fairfield
Late-life anxiety is an increasingly relevant psychiatric condition that often goes unnoticed and/or untreated compared to anxiety in younger populations. Consequently, assessing the presence and severity of clinical anxiety in older adults an important challenge for researchers and clinicians alike. The Geriatric Anxiety Scale is a 30-item geriatric-specific measure of anxiety severity, grouped in three subscales (Somatic, Affective, and Cognitive), with solid evidence for the reliability and validity of its scores in clinical and community samples...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Rui Chen, Jiao Sai, Qi Zhu, Renlai Zhou, Peng Li, Shunchao He
Metaphor is a bridge for understanding abstract concepts (the target domain) from concrete concepts (the source domain). This study, with two experiments, aimed to investigate the cultural differences of the horizontal spatial metaphors for morality between two groups of students: Han Chinese, the ethnic majority, and Hui Chinese, an ethnic minority in China. Experiment 1 adopted a spatial Stroop task. It showed that neither Hui nor Han students exhibited horizontal spatial metaphors for morality. Experiment 2 adopted a modified implicit association test paradigm to enhance the association between the moral concepts and the horizontal spatial positions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ragnhild S Lundetræ, Ingvild W Saxvig, Ståle Pallesen, Harald Aurlien, Sverre Lehmann, Bjørn Bjorvatn
Objective: To assess the prevalence of parasomnias in relation to presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesized higher parasomnia prevalence with higher OSA severity. Methods: The sample comprised 4,372 patients referred to a Norwegian university hospital with suspicion of OSA (mean age 49.1 years, 69.8% males). OSA was diagnosed and categorized by standard respiratory polygraphy (type 3 portable monitor). The patients completed a comprehensive questionnaire prior to the sleep study, including questions about different parasomnias during the last 3 months...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Alexander T Jackson, Satoris S Howes, Edgar E Kausel, Michael E Young, Megan E Loftis
Research on escalation of commitment has predominantly been studied in the context of a single decision without consideration for the psychological consequences of escalating. This study sought to examine (a) the extent to which people escalate their commitment to a failing course of action in a sequential decision-making task, (b) confidence and anger as psychological consequences of escalation of commitment, and (c) the reciprocal relationship between escalation of commitment and confidence and anger. Participants were 110 undergraduate students who completed a series of investment decisions regarding a failing endeavor...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Andrew Parker, Kenneth Drinkwater, R Stephen Walsh
The reality testing dimension of the Inventory of Personality Organization, the IPO-RT, has emerged as an important index of proneness to reality testing deficits. However, to date few studies have examined the factorial structure of the IPO-RT in isolation. This is an important and necessary development because studies use the IPO-RT as a discrete measure. Additionally, psychometric evaluation of the IPO suggests alternative factorial solutions. Specifically, recent work supports multidimensionality, whereas initial IPO assessment evinced a unidimensional structure...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Marcus Eckert, David D Ebert, Dirk Lehr, Bernhard Sieland, Matthias Berking
The primary purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the efficacy of an unguided, 2-week internet-based training program to overcome procrastination, called ON.TOP. Because adherence is a typical problem among individuals who tend to procrastinate, especially with internet-based interventions, the secondary purpose of the present study was to investigate whether adding SMS support increases subjects' frequency of engagement in training. In a three-armed RCT ( N = 161), the effects of the intervention alone and intervention with daily SMS-support were compared to a waiting list control condition in a sample of students...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Roman Prem, Tabea E Scheel, Oliver Weigelt, Katja Hoffmann, Christian Korunka
Procrastination is a form of self-regulation failure characterized by the irrational delay of tasks despite potentially negative consequences. Previous research on procrastination was mainly conducted in academic settings, oftentimes combined with a focus on individual differences. As a consequence, scholarly knowledge about how situational factors affect procrastination in work settings is still scarce. Drawing on job stress literature, we assumed that work characteristics go along with cognitive appraisals of the work situation as a challenge and/or hindrance, that these cognitive appraisals affect employees' self-regulation effort to overcome inner resistances, and that self-regulation effort should in turn be related to workplace procrastination...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yuliya Zaytseva, Iveta Fajnerová, Boris Dvořáček, Eva Bourama, Ilektra Stamou, Kateřina Šulcová, Jiří Motýl, Jiří Horáček, Mabel Rodriguez, Filip Španiel
The current evidence of cognitive disturbances and brain alterations in schizophrenia does not provide the plausible explanation of the underlying mechanisms. Neuropsychological studies outlined the cognitive profile of patients with schizophrenia, that embodied the substantial disturbances in perceptual and motor processes, spatial functions, verbal and non-verbal memory, processing speed and executive functioning. Standardized scoring in the majority of the neurocognitive tests renders the index scores or the achievement indicating the severity of the cognitive impairment rather than the actual performance by means of errors...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Benjamin C Ampel, Mark Muraven, Ewan C McNay
The brain's reliance on glucose as a primary fuel source is well established, but psychological models of cognitive processing that take energy supply into account remain uncommon. One exception is research on self-control depletion, where debate continues over a limited-resource model. This model argues that a transient reduction in self-control after the exertion of prior self-control is caused by the depletion of brain glucose, and that self-control processes are special, perhaps unique, in this regard. This model has been argued to be physiologically implausible in several recent reviews...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Meirav Hen, Marina Goroshit
Procrastination is usually perceived as a general behavioral tendency, and was studied mostly in college students in academic settings. Recently there is a growing body of literature to support the study of procrastination in older adults and in different life-domains. Based on these advances in the literature, the present study examined procrastination in 430 highly educated adults in Israel. Findings showed that respondents reported significantly higher procrastination in maintaining health behaviors and spending leisure time rather in other life-domains...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jessica Schoch, Emilou Noser, Ulrike Ehlert
Vital exhaustion (VE) results from the experience of chronic stress. However, research on stress types and their relation to VE is rare. Moreover, the role of implicit motives in these processes has not yet been investigated. Analysis included 101 vitally exhausted men aged 40-65 years. Participants provided self-report data on their experience of chronic stress and social support. Subtypes of work-related and social stress were positively associated with VE. Implicit affiliation and achievement motives were linked to social support and chronic stress, and indirectly to VE...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yuming Chen, Dandan Zhang, Donghong Jiang
Directed attention is a fundamental mental resource for voluntarily managing the focus and direction of cognitive resources. The present study investigated how processing of unpleasant and neutral images is affected by emotion and previous directed attention. The results showed that there was enhanced early posterior negativity, anterior N2, and parietal late positive potential (LPP) in response to unpleasant pictures compared to neutral pictures. Furthermore, attention history (i.e., whether stimuli were previously attended to) modulated the amplitudes of the anterior N2 and parietal LPP...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yannik M Leusch, David D Loschelder, Frédéric Basso
The present study aims for a better understanding of how individuals' behavior in monetary price negotiations differs from their behavior in bartering situations. Two contrasting hypotheses were derived from endowment theory and current negotiation research to examine whether negotiators are more susceptible to anchoring in price negotiations versus in bartering transactions. In addition, past research found that cues of coldness enhance cognitive control and reduce anchoring effects. We attempted to replicate these coldness findings for price anchors in a distributive negotiations scenario and to illuminate the potential interplay of coldness priming with a price versus bartering manipulation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Sarah Kezelman, Ross D Crosby, Paul Rhodes, Caroline Hunt, Gail Anderson, Simon Clarke, Stephen Touyz
The current study aimed to examine the temporal relationship between anxiety symptoms and weight gain for adolescents with anorexia nervosa over the course of an inpatient admission targeting weight restoration through rapid refeeding. Participants were 31 females presenting to a specialist inpatient unit. Psychometric assessments using standardized procedures were conducted to assess co-morbid anxiety diagnoses, and eating disorder symptom severity at admission and discharge. Study protocols were completed on a weekly basis over the course of their admission and were compared with weekly BMI change...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Chun Bun Lam, Kevin Kien Hoa Chung, Xiaomin Li
This study examined the longitudinal associations of maternal and paternal warmth and hostility with child executive function problems. Data were collected for two consecutive years from 333 kindergarten children who resided in Hong Kong, China, as well as their mothers, fathers, and class teachers. At Time 1, the average age of children was 57.73 months, and 56% of them were girls. At Time 1, mothers and fathers rated their own parenting practices with their children. At Times 1 and 2, class teachers rated children's problems in three aspects of executive functions, including updating/working memory, inhibition, and shifting/cognitive flexibility...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Birga M Schumpe, Jocelyn J Bélanger, Michelle Dugas, Hans-Peter Erb, Arie W Kruglanski
The present research investigates the counterfinality effect, whereby the more a means is perceived as detrimental to an alternative goal, the more it is perceived as instrumental to its focal goal. The results from five studies supported this hypothesis. Study 1 demonstrated the counterfinality effect in an applied context: The more pain people experienced when getting tattooed, the more they perceived getting tattooed as instrumental to attaining their idiosyncratic goals (being unique, showing off, etc.)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Phil Maguire, Philippe Moser, Rebecca Maguire, Mark T Keane
In this article we explore the relationship between learning and the conjunction fallacy. The interpretation of the conjunction effect as a fallacy assumes that all observers share the same knowledge, and that nobody has access to privileged information. Such situations are actually quite rare in everyday life. Building on an existing model of surprise, we prove formally that in the more typical scenarios, where observers are alert to the possibility of learning from event outcomes, the conjunction rule does not apply...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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