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Frontiers in Psychology

Xiao Zhou, Xinchun Wu, Yuanyuan An
Middle school students (N = 1435) were assessed 18 months after the Wenchuan earthquake using measures of trauma exposure, fear, resilience, and depression, to examine the effects of fear and resilience on the relationship between trauma exposure and depression. Fear mediated the relationship between trauma exposure and depression, whereas resilience moderated the relationship between fear and depression. These findings suggest that trauma exposure has a direct positive impact on depression, but also indirectly affects depression through fear...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Paola Arnaboldi, Silvia Riva, Valeria Vadilonga, Liliana Tadini, Giorgio Magon, Gabriella Pravettoni
: Introduction: The Distress Thermometer (DT) was built and validated for screening cancer patients for distress, as suggested by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. The current work was designed to measure the rates of distress in a sample of patients being hospitalized in a multidisciplinary outpatient surgery clinic. OBJECTIVE: To measure the rates of distress in a sample of patients referring to a multidisciplinary day surgery division in a comprehensive cancer center based in Northern Italy...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Philipp Süssenbach, Mario Gollwitzer, Laura Mieth, Axel Buchner, Raoul Bell
People who are high in victim-sensitivity-a personality trait characterized by a strong fear of being exploited by others-are more likely to attend to social cues associated with untrustworthiness rather than to cues associated with trustworthiness compared with people who are low in victim-sensitivity. But how do these people react when an initial expectation regarding a target's trustworthiness turns out to be false? Results from two studies show that victim-sensitive compared with victim-insensitive individuals show enhanced source memory and greater change in person perception for negatively labeled targets that violated rather than confirmed negative expectations (the "trustworthy trickster")...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jorina von Zimmermann, Daniel C Richardson
While synchronized movement has been shown to increase liking and feelings of togetherness between people, we investigated whether collective speaking in time would change the way that larger groups played a video game together. Anthropologists have speculated that the function of interpersonal coordination in dance, chants, and singing is not just to produce warm, affiliative feelings, but also to improve group action. The group that chants and dances together hunts well together. Direct evidence for this is sparse, as research so far has mainly studied pairs, the effects of coordinated physical movement, and measured cooperation and affiliative decisions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Anna Thorwart, Evan J Livesey
Associative learning theories offer one account of the way animals and humans assess the relationship between events and adapt their behavior according to resulting expectations. They assume knowledge about event relations is represented in associative networks, which consist of mental representations of cues and outcomes and the associative links that connect them. However, in human causal and contingency learning, many researchers have found that variance in standard learning effects is controlled by "non-associative" factors that are not easily captured by associative models...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
R Hans Phaf
Can an experiment be replicated in a mechanical fashion without considering the processes underlying the initial results? Here I will consider a non-replication of Saccade Induced Retrieval Enhancement (SIRE) and argue that it results from focusing on statistical instead of on substantive process hypotheses. Particularly the theoretical integration of SIRE with Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, provides clues about when the memory enhancement should occur. A relatively large memory enhancement effect in participants with a consistent (i...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Nobuhiko Asakura, Toshio Inui
Two apparently contrasting theories have been proposed to account for the development of children's theory of mind (ToM): theory-theory and simulation theory. We present a Bayesian framework that rationally integrates both theories for false belief reasoning. This framework exploits two internal models for predicting the belief states of others: one of self and one of others. These internal models are responsible for simulation-based and theory-based reasoning, respectively. The framework further takes into account empirical studies of a developmental ToM scale (e...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Xiaopeng Ren, Hong Su, Kewen Lu, Xiawei Dong, Zhengzheng Ouyang, Thomas Talhelm
Unmerited authorship is a practice common to many countries around the world, but are there systematic cultural differences in the practice? We tested whether scientists from collectivistic countries are more likely to add unmerited coauthors than scientists from individualistic countries. We analyzed archival data from top scientific journals (Study 1) and found that national collectivism predicted the number of authors, which might suggest more unmerited authors. Next, we found that collectivistic scientists were more likely to add unmerited coauthors than individualistic scientists, both between cultures (Studies 2-3) and within cultures (Study 4)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Quentin Moreau, Lucie Galvan, Tatjana A Nazir, Yves Paulignan
Non-verbal social interaction between humans requires accurate understanding of the others' actions. The cognitivist approach suggests that successful interaction depends on the creation of a shared representation of the task, where the pairing of perceptive and motor systems of partners allows inclusion of the other's goal into the overarching representation. Activity of the Mirror Neurons System (MNS) is thought to be a crucial mechanism linking two individuals during a joint action through action observation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Carolina Gonzálvez, Cándido J Inglés, Christopher A Kearney, María Vicent, Ricardo Sanmartín, José M García-Fernández
The aim of this study was to analyze the factorial invariance and latent means differences of the Spanish version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised for Children (SRAS-R-C) in a sample of 1,078 students (50.8% boys) aged 8-11 years (M = 9.63, SD = 1.12). The results revealed that the proposed model in this study, with a structure of 18 items divided into four factors (Negative Affective, Social Aversion and/or Evaluation, To Pursue Attention and Tangible Reinforcements), was the best-fit model with a tetra-factorial structure, remaining invariant across gender and age...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Camille K Williams, Luc Tremblay, Heather Carnahan
Researchers in the domain of haptic training are now entering the long-standing debate regarding whether or not it is best to learn a skill by experiencing errors. Haptic training paradigms provide fertile ground for exploring how various theories about feedback, errors and physical guidance intersect during motor learning. Our objective was to determine how error minimizing, error augmenting and no haptic feedback while learning a self-paced curve-tracing task impact performance on delayed (1 day) retention and transfer tests, which indicate learning...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Matthew M Piszczek, Shaun Pichler, Ofir Turel, Jeffrey Greenhaus
Management and organization research has traditionally focused on employees' work role and the interface between their work and family roles. We suggest that persons assume a third role in modern society that is relevant to work and organizations, namely the Information and Communication Technology User (ICTU) role. Based on role theory and boundary theory, we develop propositions about the characteristics of this role, as well as how ICTU role characteristics are related to boundary spanning activity, inter-role spillover with the work role, and work role performance...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Sherry K W Chan, Samson Tse, Harrison Long Tin Sit, Christy L M Hui, Edwin H M Lee, Wing C Chang, Eric Y H Chen
Caregivers of patients with first-episode psychosis are often with little knowledge about the illness and experience more burden of care. Psychoeducation to caregivers has shown to be effective in improving outcomes of patients and possibly reduce stress of the caregivers. This has been recommended as one of the key psychosocial interventions for specific early intervention for psychosis service. However, the accessibility of the service, high case load of the health care professionals and self-stigma of caregivers are often the barriers of implementation of these programs in the real world...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Asunción Fernández-Suárez, Juan Herrero, Beatriz Pérez, Joel Juarros-Basterretxea, Francisco J Rodríguez-Díaz
Backgrounds: The high rates of school dropout worldwide and their relevance highlight the need for a close study of its causes and consequences. Literature has suggested that school dropout might be explained by multiple causes at different levels (individual, family, school, and neighborhood). The aim of the current study is to examine the relation between individual (defiant attitude, irresponsibility, alcohol abuse, and illegal drugs use), family (educational figure absent and parental monitoring), school factors (truancy and school conflict) and school dropout...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Mike K Kemani, Gunnar L Olsson, Linda Holmström, Rikard K Wicksell
Objective: The objective of the study was to improve the understanding of processes of change in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for youth with chronic debilitating pain by exploring the relation between individual change patterns in pain intensity and valued activities. Method: A single-subject design across three adolescents suffering from longstanding debilitating pain was utilized. Pain intensity and participation in valued activities were rated daily. Visual analysis of the graphed data was performed to evaluate the effects of the intervention, and the relationship between pain intensity and values-based activity...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jon Henner, Catherine L Caldwell-Harris, Rama Novogrodsky, Robert Hoffmeister
Failing to acquire language in early childhood because of language deprivation is a rare and exceptional event, except in one population. Deaf children who grow up without access to indirect language through listening, speech-reading, or sign language experience language deprivation. Studies of Deaf adults have revealed that late acquisition of sign language is associated with lasting deficits. However, much remains unknown about language deprivation in Deaf children, allowing myths and misunderstandings regarding sign language to flourish...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Rikard K Wicksell, Marie Kanstrup, Mike K Kemani, Linda Holmström
Pediatric chronic pain is a major health problem commonly associated with impaired functioning. There is a great need for more knowledge regarding the complex interplay between demographic variables such as age and gender, pain, and functioning in pediatric chronic pain. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate if; (1) pediatric chronic pain patients with high and low levels of functioning differ in demographic variables, pain, and pain interference; (2) explore the mediating function of pain interference in the relationship between pain and functioning (i...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Gerdien G van Eersel, Peter P J L Verkoeijen, Migle Povilenaite, Remy Rikers
Butler (2010: Experiment 3) showed that retrieval practice enhanced transfer to a new knowledge domain compared to rereading. The first experiment of the present study was a direct replication of Butler's third experiment. Participants studied text passages and then either reread them three times or went through three cycles of cued recall questions (i.e., retrieval practice) with feedback. As in Butler's (2010) experiment, an advantage of retrieval practice on the final far transfer test emerged after 1 week...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Pere J Ferrando, Andreu Vigil-Colet, Urbano Lorenzo-Seva
Linear factor analysis (FA) is, possibly, the most widely used model in psychometric applications based on graded-response or more continuous items. However, in these applications consistency at the individual level (person fit) is virtually never assessed. The aim of the present study is to propose a simple and workable approach to routinely assess person fit in FA-based studies. To do so, we first consider five potentially appropriate indices, of which one is a new proposal and the other is a modification of an existing index...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Erika Branchini, Ivana Bianchi, Roberto Burro, Elena Capitani, Ugo Savardi
This paper aims to test whether the use of contraries can facilitate spatial problem solving. Specifically, we examined whether a training session which included explicit guidance on thinking in contraries would improve problem solving abilities. In our study, the participants in the experimental condition were exposed to a brief training session before being presented with seven visuo-spatial problems to solve. During training it was suggested that it would help them to find the solution to the problems if they systematically transformed the spatial features of each problem into their contraries...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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