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Frontiers in Psychology

Janelle M Jones, Michaela Hynie
In three studies we examined the experience and management of conflict between different types of multiple identities. Participants described a conflict between pairs of role, relational, or social identities before rating the experience (i.e., magnitude, stress, and growth) and management of conflict on a newly developed scale assessing four strategies: reconciliation, where identities are integrated, realignment, where one identity is chosen over another, retreat, where both identities are avoided, and reflection, where fit (with others, situation) determines identity selection...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Ting Tao, Ligang Wang, Chunlei Fan, Wenbin Gao, Jiannong Shi
We explored the development of attention among elementary school children. Three hundred and sixty-five primary school children aged 7-12 years completed seven attention tests (alertness, focused attention, divided attention, attentional switching, sustained attention, spatial attention, and supervisory attention). A factor analysis indicated that there was no stable construct of attention among 7- to 8-year-old children. However, from 9 years on, children's attention could be separated into perceptual and executive attention...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Ullrich Wagner, Anna Giesen, Judith Knausenberger, Gerald Echterhoff
In contrast to individual tasks, a specific social setting is created when two partners work together on a task. How does such a social setting affect memory for task-related information? We addressed this issue in a distributed joint-action paradigm, where two team partners respond to different types of information within the same task. Previous work has shown that joint action in such a task enhances memory for items that are relevant to the partner's task but not to the own task. By removing critical, non-social confounds, we wanted to pinpoint the social nature of this selective memory advantage...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Reitske Meganck, Ruth Inslegers, Juri Krivzov, Liza Notaerts
Single case studies are at the origin of both theory development and research in the field of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. While clinical case studies are the hallmark of psychoanalytic theory and practice, their scientific value has been strongly criticized. To address problems with the subjective bias of retrospective therapist reports and uncontrollability of clinical case studies, systematic approaches to investigate psychotherapy process and outcome at the level of the single case have been developed...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Kai Siedenburg, Stephen McAdams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Dixiu Liu, Tom Verguts, Mengjin Li, Zekai Ling, Qi Chen
Spatial-numerical associations (small numbers-left/lower space and large numbers-right/upper space) are regularly found in elementary number processing. Recently, the interest in this phenomenon has been extended from elementary number processing to mental arithmetic. Many studies have demonstrated horizontal spatial-arithmetic associations, i.e., solving addition or subtraction problems cause spatial shifts of attention rightward or leftward, respectively. However, the role of this effect in the vertical dimension has not been addressed...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Salvador Vargas-Salfate
Previous studies have demonstrated that justifying the social, economic, and political systems is associated with psychological well-being, which has been termed as the palliative function of ideology. However, little research has been conducted on gender stereotypes among children, comparing by socioeconomic status. This study aimed to fill this gap in the system justification literature. We present data from the Chilean version of the International Survey of Children Well-Being (ISCWeB), which was conducted in 2012...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Concepción Vinader-Caerols, Aránzazu Duque, Adriana Montañés, Santiago Monleón
The binge drinking (BD) pattern of alcohol consumption is prevalent during adolescence, a period characterized by critical changes to the structural and functional development of brain areas related with memory and cognition. There is considerable evidence of the cognitive dysfunctions caused by the neurotoxic effects of BD in the not-yet-adult brain. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) on memory during late adolescence (18-19 years old) in males and females with a history of BD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Wietske Zuiderbaan, Jonathan van Leeuwen, Serge O Dumoulin
Our visual system receives an enormous amount of information, but not all information is retained. This is exemplified by the fact that subjects fail to detect large changes in a visual scene, i.e., change-blindness. Current theories propose that our ability to detect these changes is influenced by the gist or interpretation of an image. On the other hand, stimulus-driven image features such as contrast energy dominate the representation in early visual cortex (De Valois and De Valois, 1988; Boynton et al., 1999; Olman et al...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Mingliang Gong, Yuming Xuan, Xinwen Xu, Xiaolan Fu
Which is more detectable, the change of a consistent or an inconsistent object in a scene? This question has been debated for decades. We noted that the change of objects in scenes might simultaneously be accompanied with gist changes. In the present study we aimed to examine how the alteration of gist, as well as the consistency of the changed objects, modulated change detection. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the semantic content by either keeping or changing the consistency of the scene. Results showed that the changes of consistent and inconsistent scenes were equally detected...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Paulina Krzywicka, Katarzyna Byrka
Psychological restoration in urban agglomerations has become a growing challenge. Although scientific proof of the significance of nature is irrefutable, an increase in built-up areas has led to a decrease in urban greenery. Thus, a growing need for restorativeness in urban surroundings has emerged. To investigate whether positively evaluated sonic environments, represented by natural and urban sounds, have comparable restorative qualities we conducted two studies. The aim of the first (Study 1) was to explore the restorative qualities of positively assessed natural and urban sounds...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Marta Calbi, Katrin Heimann, Daniel Barratt, Francesca Siri, Maria A Umiltà, Vittorio Gallese
Facial expressions are of major importance in understanding the mental and emotional states of others. So far, most studies on the perception and comprehension of emotions have used isolated facial expressions as stimuli; for example, photographs of actors displaying facial expressions corresponding to one of the so called 'basic emotions.' However, our real experience during social interactions is different: facial expressions of emotion are mostly perceived in a wider context, constituted by body language, the surrounding environment, and our beliefs and expectations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Eva Wiese, Giorgio Metta, Agnieszka Wykowska
Robots are increasingly envisaged as our future cohabitants. However, while considerable progress has been made in recent years in terms of their technological realization, the ability of robots to interact with humans in an intuitive and social way is still quite limited. An important challenge for social robotics is to determine how to design robots that can perceive the user's needs, feelings, and intentions, and adapt to users over a broad range of cognitive abilities. It is conceivable that if robots were able to adequately demonstrate these skills, humans would eventually accept them as social companions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Soledad Gil-Hernandez, Patricia Mateos, Claudia Porras, Raquel Garcia-Gomez, Enrique Navarro, Luis M Garcia-Moreno
Alcohol consumption in adolescents causes negative effects on familiar, social, academic life, as well as neurocognitive alterations. The binge drinking (BD) pattern of alcohol is characterized by the alternation of episodes of heavy drinking in a short interval of time, and periods of abstinence, a practice that can result in important brain alterations; even more than regular alcohol consumption. The prefrontal cortex, which acts as neural support for the executive processes, is particularly affected by alcohol; however, not all studies are in agreement about how BD alcohol consumption affects executive functioning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Jens E Jansen, Ulrik H Haahr, Hanne-Grethe Lyse, Marlene B Pedersen, Anne M Trauelsen, Erik Simonsen
Background: Research has shown that caregivers of persons with psychosis play an invaluable role in recovery, but unfortunately, often report high levels of distress. While cognitive models of caregiver distress have been well-supported, there is still limited knowledge of the psychological factors involved. Recent advances in cognitive behavioral therapy seem to converge on the importance of acceptance- and mindfulness based processes. Aim: To examine the impact of psychological flexibility on caregiver distress in the early phases of psychosis, while controlling for known predictors of caregiver distress...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Knut A Hestad, Knut Engedal, Jon E Whist, Per G Farup
It has been suggested that the metabolic enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a biological mediator of inflammation related to the psychopathology of depression, with a Kynurenine (KYN) increase in the Tryptophan (TRP) metabolic pathway, resulting in reduced Serotonin. In this study, we examined KYN, TRP, and the ratio of KYN to TRP concentrations × 10(3) (KT Ratio) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in (a) a group of depressed patients and (b) a control group of patients referred to a neurologic outpatient clinic for whom no specific diagnosis could be established...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Patrick Connolly, Vasi van Deventer
The present paper argues that a systems theory epistemology (and particularly the notion of hierarchical recursive organization) provides the critical theoretical context within which the significance of Friston's (2010a) Free Energy Principle (FEP) for both evolution and psychoanalysis is best understood. Within this perspective, the FEP occupies a particular level of the hierarchical organization of the organism, which is the level of biological self-organization. This form of biological self-organization is in turn understood as foundational and pervasive to the higher levels of organization of the human organism that are of interest to both neuroscience as well as psychoanalysis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Vera Hagemann, Annette Kluge
Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes), the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Andreas Walther, Patricia Waldvogel, Emilou Noser, Jessica Ruppen, Ulrike Ehlert
Although aging increases the risk of cognitive and socioemotional deterioration, it has also been shown to be accompanied by an increase in experienced positive emotions and a decrease in negative emotions. Steroid hormones and age-related alterations in secretion patterns have been suggested to play a crucial role in these age-related changes in emotional experience. Importantly, previous studies identified effects of neuroactive hormones on age-related alterations in emotional experience, which vary by sex and depression levels...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Jose D Perezgonzalez, Dolores Frías-Navarro, Juan Pascual-Llobell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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