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Frontiers in Psychology

Elena Nicoladis, Dorothea Hui, Sandra A Wiebe
Some studies have reported a cognitive advantage for bilingual children over monolinguals and other studies have not. One possible reason for these conflicting results is that the degree of cognitive flexibility is related to individual differences in language dominance and use. More balanced bilinguals who separate their languages by context might have to learn to reduce inter-language interference and therefore show greater cognitive flexibility. The goal of the present study was to test if language dominance is related to French-English bilingual children's cognitive flexibility, using three different measures of language dominance: (1) parental reports of dominance, (2) relative scores on vocabulary tests, and (3) knowledge of translation equivalents...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Huiqing Qiu, Youlan Zhang, Gonglin Hou, Zhongming Wang
As an important way to understand leadership based on voluntary contribution mechanisms, the importance of leading by example to teamwork is becoming more and more evident in recent years. However, existing theories based on signaling and reciprocity perspectives, respectively, provide incomplete theoretical explaining. This study adds clarity by conducting a cross-level study that indicates a possible integrative framework of both signaling and reciprocity perspective on leading by example. Results were using data gathered from 130 Chinese college students, which were allocated into one baseline group and three experimental groups...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Andrea A Takahesu Tabori, Emily N Mech, Natsuki Atagi
Within the past decade, there has been an explosion of research investigating the cognitive consequences of bilingualism. However, a controversy has arisen specifically involving research claiming a "bilingual advantage" in executive function. In this brief review, we re-examine the nature of the "bilingual advantage" and suggest three themes for future research. First, there must be a theoretical account of how specific variation in language experience impacts aspects of executive function and domain general cognition...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Chenbo Wang, Jing Tian
Pain is of evolutionary importance to human survival. However, the perception of pain could be changed when death-related thoughts are accessible. Although the influence of mortality salience (MS) on pain processing has been investigated in Westerners recently, it is unclear whether this effect is constrained by specific culture context since humans may employ cultural worldviews to defend the existence problem. The current study tested whether and how MS affected pain processing in a Chinese male sample. We primed participants with sentences indicating MS or negative affect (NA) on either of two days...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Susana Lameiras, Alexandra Marques-Pinto, Rita Francisco, Susana Costa-Ramalho, Maria Teresa Ribeiro
Objective: Work accidents may be considered dyadic stressors in so far as they not only affect the worker, but also the couple's relationship. Dyadic coping, as the process by which couples manage the stress experienced by each partner, can strengthen individual health and well-being as well as couple relationship functioning. Accidents at work have progressively been studied from a perspective that focuses on their negative effects on PTSS, anxiety, and depression. However, to a large extent, the dyadic coping processes and results following a work accident are still to be identified and clarified...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lynne Bell, Julia Vogt, Cesco Willemse, Tim Routledge, Laurie T Butler, Michiko Sakaki
The current paper investigates the value and application of a range of physiological and neuroscientific techniques in applied marketing research and consumer science, highlighting new insights from research in social psychology and neuroscience. We review measures of sweat secretion, heart rate, facial muscle activity, eye movements, and electrical brain activity, using techniques including skin conductance, pupillometry, eyetracking, and magnetic brain imaging. For each measure, after a brief explanation of the underlying technique, we illustrate concepts and mechanisms that the measure allows researchers in marketing and consumer science to investigate, with a focus on consumer attitudes and behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Sabrina D Navratil, Tim Kühl, Steffi Heidig
We investigated emotional design features that may influence multimedia learning with a self-generated learning (SGL) activity, namely answering elaborative interrogations. We assumed that a positive emotional design would be associated with a higher motivation to accomplish the additional SGL activity. Moreover, an interaction was expected: Learners learning with a positive emotional design should profit from learning with elaborative interrogations whereas learners learning with a negative emotional design would not profit from this strategy to the same extent but would rather benefit through reading...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Luca Surian, Mika Ueno, Shoji Itakura, Marek Meristo
We investigated whether and how infants link the domains of harm, help and fairness. Fourteen-month-old infants were familiarized with a character that either helped or hindered another agent's attempts to reach the top of a hill. Then, in the test phase they saw the helper or the hinderer carrying out an equal or an unequal distribution toward two identical recipients. Infants who saw the helper performing an unequal distribution looked longer than those who saw the helper performing an equal distribution, whereas infants who saw the hinderer performing an unequal distribution looked equally long than those who saw the hinderer performing an equal distribution...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Kent C Berridge
This review takes a historical perspective on concepts in the psychology of motivation and emotion, and surveys recent developments, debates and applications. Old debates over emotion have recently risen again. For example, are emotions necessarily subjective feelings? Do animals have emotions? I review evidence that emotions exist as core psychological processes, which have objectively detectable features, and which can occur either with subjective feelings or without them. Evidence is offered also that studies of emotion in animals can give new insights into human emotions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Christian Beyer
The paper presents and defends a metadoxastic view on (intentional) consciousness that is novel in four respects: (1) It is motivated both by Husserl's dynamic approach, which looks upon mental acts as momentary components of certain cognitive structures - "dynamic intentional structures" - in which one and the same object is intended throughout a period of time (during which the subject's cognitive perspective upon that object is constantly changing) and by his conception of consciousness in terms of internal time-consciousness (temporal awareness)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Elżbieta Zdankiewicz-Ścigała, Dawid K Ścigała
Objective: The attachment theory has been conceptualized as an affect regulation theory, proposing that attachment is associated with the expression and recognition of emotions as well as interpersonal functioning. The purpose of the study was to examine a model, in which a relation was analyzed between childhood trauma, temperament, alexithymia, and dissociation in a group of individuals addicted to alcohol. Method: The total number of 201 persons were examined, comprising 67 women (33.3% of participants) and 134 men (66...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Margarida Truninger, Xavier Fernández-I-Marín, Joan M Batista-Foguet, Richard E Boyatzis, Ricard Serlavós
Prior research on emotional intelligence (EI) has highlighted the use of incremental models that assume EI and general intelligence (or g ) make independent contributions to performance. Questioning this assumption, we study EI's moderation power over the relationship between g and individual performance, by designing and testing a task-dependent interaction model. Reconciling divergent findings in previous studies, we propose that whenever social tasks are at stake, g has a greater effect on performance as EI increases...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Maria Bolsinova, Dylan Molenaar
The most common process variable available for analysis due to tests presented in a computerized form is response time. Psychometric models have been developed for joint modeling of response accuracy and response time in which response time is an additional source of information about ability and about the underlying response processes. While traditional models assume conditional independence between response time and accuracy given ability and speed latent variables (van der Linden, 2007), recently multiple studies (De Boeck and Partchev, 2012; Meng et al...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Stefanie Shattuck-Hufnagel, Ada Ren
Many studies have documented a close timing relationship between speech prosody and co-speech gesture, but some studies have not, and it is unclear whether these differences in speech-gesture alignment are due to different speaking tasks, different target gesture types, different prosodic elements, different definitions of alignment, or even different languages/speakers. This study contributes to the ongoing effort to elucidate the precise nature of the gesture-speech timing relationship by examining an understudied variety of American English, i...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Raphaël Millière, Robin L Carhart-Harris, Leor Roseman, Fynn-Mathis Trautwein, Aviva Berkovich-Ohana
In recent years, the scientific study of meditation and psychedelic drugs has seen remarkable developments. The increased focus on meditation in cognitive neuroscience has led to a cross-cultural classification of standard meditation styles validated by functional and structural neuroanatomical data. Meanwhile, the renaissance of psychedelic research has shed light on the neurophysiology of altered states of consciousness induced by classical psychedelics, such as psilocybin and LSD, whose effects are mainly mediated by agonism of serotonin receptors...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Nuria Jaumot-Pascual, María Jesús Monteagudo, Douglas A Kleiber, Jaime Cuenca
Vital events, such as widowhood and retirement, are broadly accepted as points of inflection in the lives of older adults that often differ according to gender. In this study, we analyzed the influence of gender on meaningful leisure among older adults through the integration of qualitative and quantitative findings. The use of joint displays revealed that in this sample of people from Northern Spain: (1) there were no significant differences in the influence of retirement and widowhood on the leisure of the two genders, (2) the ethic of care was a constraining factor in older women's leisure, (3) women were more innovative in their leisure in older age, and (4) volunteer activities were highly segregated by gender...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Srimant P Tripathy, Haluk Öǧmen
The Atkinson-Shiffrin modal model forms the foundation of our understanding of human memory. It consists of three stores (Sensory Memory (SM), also called iconic memory, Short-Term Memory (STM), and Long-Term Memory (LTM)), each tuned to a different time-scale. Since its inception, the STM and LTM components of the modal model have undergone significant modifications, while SM has remained largely unchanged, representing a large capacity system funneling information into STM. In the laboratory, visual memory is usually tested by presenting a brief static stimulus and, after a delay, asking observers to report some aspect of the stimulus...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Joaquim Soler, Ausiàs Cebolla, Matilde Elices, Daniel Campos, Ginés Llorca, David Martínez-Rubio, Cristina Martínez-Brotóns, Mercedes Jorquera, Xavier Allirot, Cristina Carmona, Verónica Guillen, Cristina Botella, Rosa M Baños
Background: Individuals with eating disorders might be characterized by lower levels of direct engagement with the eating experience. This study aims to explore similarities and differences in direct experience while eating in four different weight conditions and healthy controls (HCs): anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and obesity (OB). Methods : A total sample of 143 women were recruited. Participants were asked to eat an orange slice and write down 10 things about the experience of eating, classifying the focus of these thoughts as either experiential ("direct experience") or analytical ("thinking about")...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Nobuhiko Wagatsuma, Mika Urabe, Ko Sakai
Figure-ground (FG) segregation that separates an object from the rest of the image is a fundamental problem in vision science. A majority of neurons in monkey V2 showed the selectivity to border ownership (BO) that indicates which side of a contour owns the border. Although BO could be a precursor of FG segregation, the contribution of BO to FG segregation has not been clarified. Because FG segregation is the perception of the global region that belongs to an object, whereas BO determination provides the local direction of figure (DOF) along a contour, a spatial integration of BO might be expected for the generation of FG...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Tobias Hayer, Caterina Primi, Neven Ricijas, Daniel T Olason, Jeffrey L Derevensky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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