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Translational Neuroscience

E Garcia-Rill, B Luster, S D'Onofrio, S Mahaffey
This review highlights the most important discovery in the reticular activating system (RAS) in the last 10 years, the manifestation of gamma (γ) band activity in cells of the RAS, especially in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), which is in charge of the high frequency states of waking and rapid eye movement sleep. This discovery is critical to understanding the modulation of movement by the RAS and how it sets the background over which we generate voluntary and triggered movements. The presence of γ band activity in the RAS is proposed to participate in the process of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions...
2015: Translational Neuroscience
Anna C McCarrey, Jennifer Pacheco, Olga D Carlson, Josephine M Egan, Madhav Thambisetty, Yang An, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by immune cells and other cell types such as microglia throughout the brain. Higher levels of IL-6 in older adults have been cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with physical and cognitive impairment, as well as increased dementia risk. The association between IL-6 levels and structural and functional brain changes is less clear. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between IL-6 concentrations and cortical thinning with aging...
March 2014: Translational Neuroscience
Kate Marie Lewis, Claudia Petritsch
Glioma is a heterogeneous disease process with differential histology and treatment response. It was previously thought that the histological features of glial tumors indicated their cell of origin. However, the discovery of continuous neuro-gliogenesis in the normal adult brain and the identification of brain tumor stem cells within glioma have led to the hypothesis that these brain tumors originate from multipotent neural stem or progenitor cells, which primarily divide asymmetrically during the postnatal period...
December 2013: Translational Neuroscience
Markus A Dahlem, Sebastian Rode, Arne May, Naoya Fujiwara, Yoshito Hirata, Kazuyuki Aihara, Jürgen Kurths
Computational methods have complemented experimental and clinical neurosciences and led to improvements in our understanding of the nervous systems in health and disease. In parallel, neuromodulation in form of electric and magnetic stimulation is gaining increasing acceptance in chronic and intractable diseases. In this paper, we firstly explore the relevant state of the art in fusion of both developments towards translational computational neuroscience. Then, we propose a strategy to employ the new theoretical concept of dynamical network biomarkers (DNB) in episodic manifestations of chronic disorders...
September 2013: Translational Neuroscience
Weina Ju, Jiang Wu, Michael B Pritz, Rajesh Khanna
Vertebrate brains share many features in common. Early in development, both the hindbrain and diencephalon are built similarly. Only later in time do differences in morphology occur. Factors that could potentially influence such changes include certain physiological properties of neurons. As an initial step to investigate this problem, embryonic Alligator brain neurons were cultured and calcium responses were characterized. The present report is the first to document culture of Alligator brain neurons in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) as well as in standard mammalian tissue culture medium supplemented with growth factors...
September 1, 2013: Translational Neuroscience
Mirjana Babić, Zeljka Vogrinc, Andrea Diana, Nataša Klepac, Fran Borovečki, Patrick R Hof, Goran Simić
Amyloid β1-42 (Aβ1-42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) are the main cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Detection of AD is critically important in view of the growing number of potential new drugs that may influence the course of the disease in its early phases. However, cut-off levels for these CSF biomarkers have not yet been established. Variability in absolute concentrations of AD biomarkers is high among studies and significant differences were noticed even within the same datasets...
June 2013: Translational Neuroscience
Angela Lanciotti, Maria Stefania Brignone, Enrico Bertini, Tamara C Petrucci, Francesca Aloisi, Elena Ambrosini
Astrocytes are the predominant glial cell population in the central nervous system (CNS). Once considered only passive scaffolding elements, astrocytes are now recognised as cells playing essential roles in CNS development and function. They control extracellular water and ion homeostasis, provide substrates for energy metabolism, and regulate neurogenesis, myelination and synaptic transmission. Due to these multiple activities astrocytes have been implicated in almost all brain pathologies, contributing to various aspects of disease initiation, progression and resolution...
June 1, 2013: Translational Neuroscience
Daniel C Mathews, Erica M Richards, Mark J Niciu, Dawn F Ionescu, Joseph J Rasimas, Carlos A Zarate
Suicide and bipolar disorder (BD) are challenging, complex, and intertwined areas of study in contemporary psychiatry. Indeed, BD is associated with the highest lifetime risk for suicide attempt and completion of all the psychiatric conditions. Given that several clinical risk factors for both suicide and BD have been well noted in the literature, exploring the neurobiological aspects of suicide in BD may provide insights into both preventive measures and future novel treatments. This review synthesizes findings regarding the neurobiological aspects of suicide and, when applicable, their link to BD...
June 2013: Translational Neuroscience
Thilinie Rajapakse, Adam Kirton
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a neurostimulation and neuromodulation technique that has provided over two decades of data in focal, non-invasive brain stimulation based on the principles of electromagnetic induction. Its minimal risk, excellent tolerability and increasingly sophisticated ability to interrogate neurophysiology and plasticity make it an enviable technology for use in pediatric research with future extension into therapeutic trials. While adult trials show promise in using TMS as a novel, non-invasive, non-pharmacologic diagnostic and therapeutic tool in a variety of nervous system disorders, its use in children is only just emerging...
June 2013: Translational Neuroscience
Ivona Brasnjevic, Roy Lardenoije, Christoph Schmitz, Nicolien Van Der Kolk, Dara L Dickstein, Hisaaki Takahashi, Patrick R Hof, Harry W M Steinbusch, Bart P F Rutten
Transgenic mouse models with knock-in (KI) expression of human mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and/or human presenilin 1 (PS1) may be helpful to elucidate the cellular consequences of APP and PS1 misprocessing in the aging brain. Age-related alterations in total numbers of neurons and in numbers of synaptophysin-immunoreactive presynaptic boutons (SIPB), as well as the amyloid plaque load were analyzed in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), CA3, and CA1-2 of 2- and 10-month-old APP(SL)/PS1 homozygous KI, APP(SL) (expressing human mutant APP751 carrying the Swedish [K670N/M671L] and London [V717I] mutations under Thy-1 promoter), and PS1 homozygous KI mice (expressing human PS1 mutations [M233T and L235P])...
March 1, 2013: Translational Neuroscience
Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Matthew D Howell, Christine J Didonato, Ravindra N Singh
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA results from deletions or mutations of survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1), an essential gene. SMN2, a nearly identical copy, can compensate for SMN1 loss if SMN2 exon 7 skipping is prevented. Among the many cis-elements involved in the splicing regulation of SMN exon 7, intronic splicing silencer N1 (ISS-N1) has emerged as the most effective target for an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-mediated splicing correction of SMN2 exon 7...
March 2013: Translational Neuroscience
Cheng Jiang, Stephen R Salton
Neurotrophins and other growth factors have been advanced as critical modulators of depressive behavior. Support for this model is based on analyses of knockout and transgenic mouse models, human genetic studies, and screens for gene products that are regulated by depressive behavior and/or antidepressants. Even subtle alteration in the regulated secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), for example, due to a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-encoded Val-Met substitution in proBDNF that affects processing and sorting, impacts behavior and cognition...
March 1, 2013: Translational Neuroscience
Sarah E Canetta, Alan S Brown
A body of epidemiological literature has suggested an association between prenatal infection, subsequent maternal immune activation (MIA), and later risk of schizophrenia. These epidemiological studies have inspired preclinical research using rodent and primate models of prenatal infection and MIA. The findings from these preclinical studies indicate that severe infection and immune activation during pregnancy can negatively impact offspring brain development and impair adult behavior. This review aims to summarize the major epidemiological and preclinical findings addressing the connection between prenatal infection and immune activation and later risk of developing schizophrenia, as well as the more limited literature addressing the mechanisms by which this gestational insult might affect offspring neurodevelopment...
December 1, 2012: Translational Neuroscience
Xin-An Liu, Valerio Rizzo, Sathyanarayanan V Puthanveettil
Gene products such as organelles, proteins and RNAs are actively transported to synaptic terminals for the remodeling of pre-existing neuronal connections and formation of new ones. Proteins described as molecular motors mediate this transport and utilize specialized cytoskeletal proteins that function as molecular tracks for the motor based transport of cargos. Molecular motors such as kinesins and dynein's move along microtubule tracks formed by tubulins whereas myosin motors utilize tracks formed by actin...
December 1, 2012: Translational Neuroscience
Doris Lambracht-Washington, Roger N Rosenberg
As a neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia found in the aging population. Immunotherapy with passive or active immunizations targeting amyloid beta (Aβ) build-up in the brain may provide a possible treatment option and may help prevent AD from progressing. A number of passive immunizations with anti-Aβ42 antibodies are in different phases of clinical trials. One active immunization approach, AN-1792, was stopped after the development of autoimmune encephalitis in 6% of patients and a second one, CAD106, in which a small Aβ epitope is used, is currently in safety and tolerability studies...
December 1, 2012: Translational Neuroscience
Eroboghene E Ubogu
Current therapies for immune-mediated inflammatory disorders in peripheral nerves are non-specific, and partly efficacious. Peripheral nerve regeneration following axonal degeneration or injury is suboptimal, with current therapies focused on modulating the underlying etiology and treating the consequences, such as neuropathic pain and weakness. Despite significant advances in understanding mechanisms of peripheral nerve inflammation, as well as axonal degeneration and regeneration, there has been limited translation into effective new drugs for these disorders...
December 1, 2012: Translational Neuroscience
Manuel F Casanova, Joshua M Baruth, Ayman El-Baz, Allan Tasman, Lonnie Sears, Estate Sokhadze
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have previously been shown to have significantly augmented and prolonged event-related potentials (ERP) to irrelevant visual stimuli compared to controls at both early and later stages (e.g., N200, P300) of visual processing and evidence of an overall lack of stimulus discrimination. Abnormally large and indiscriminative cortical responses to sensory stimuli may reflect cortical inhibitory deficits and a disruption in the excitation/inhibition ratio. Low-frequency (≤1HZ) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to increase inhibition of stimulated cortex by the activation of inhibitory circuits...
June 1, 2012: Translational Neuroscience
Cheuk Ying Tang, Emily Eaves, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Lap Ho, Eric Leung, Edmund Wong, David Carpenter, Johnny Ng, Wayne Gordon, Giulio Pasinetti
Diffuse axonal injury is a common pathological consequence of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Diffusion Tensor Imaging is an ideal technique to study white matter integrity using the Fractional Anisotropy (FA) index which is a measure of axonal integrity and coherence. There have been several reports showing reduced FA in individuals with TBI, which suggest demyelination or reduced fiber density in white matter tracts secondary to injury. Individuals with TBI are usually diagnosed with cognitive deficits such as reduced attention span, memory and executive function...
March 1, 2012: Translational Neuroscience
Amanda Brown
Osteopontin (OPN) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that can be secreted from many cells including activated macrophages and T-lymphocytes. Elevated levels of osteopontin in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid or brain of individuals with neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and more recently in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder has been reported. However, except for the case of MS, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms by which OPN may exacerbate disease...
February 1, 2012: Translational Neuroscience
Brynn A Dombroski, Andrew E Switala, Ayman S El-Baz, Manuel F Casanova
Using the NIH Pediatric MRI Data Repository for normative developmental studies, white matter depth within the gyri of the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, and of the left and right hemisphere was identified for 312 typically developing children and young adults (168 male and 144 female) between 4 and 23 years of age. There was no significant age difference between male and female groups overall (F(1,867) = 0.0002; p = 0.99) or per-visit (F(2,867) = 2.18; p = 0.86). There was significant dependence of gyral window upon age (F(1,6544) = 115, p < 0...
June 1, 2011: Translational Neuroscience
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