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Translational Neuroscience

Yi-Ye Shao, Bing Li, Yong-Mei Huang, Qiong Luo, Yang-Mei Xie, Ying-Hui Chen
AIM: Status epilepticus (SE) results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to seizure-induced brain injury. It is well known that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in status epilepticus (SE). Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive monomer extracted from black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed oil that has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antioxidant activity in various diseases. This study evaluated the protective effects of TQ on brain injury in a lithium-pilocarpine rat model of SE and investigated the underlying mechanism related to antioxidative pathway...
January 2017: Translational Neuroscience
Phan Q Duy, Dejan B Budimirovic
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and inherited intellectual disability (ID) worldwide. Preclinical successes in understanding the biology of FXS have led to numerous translational attempts in human clinical trials of therapeutics that target the excitatory/inhibitory neural signaling imbalances thought to underlie FXS. Despite the preclinical success story, the negative results of the human clinical trials have been deemed to be at least in part disappointing by the field...
January 2017: Translational Neuroscience
Eric W Ottesen
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one of the leading genetic diseases of children and infants. SMA is caused by deletions or mutations of Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. SMN2, a nearly identical copy of SMN1, cannot compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to predominant skipping of exon 7. While various regulatory elements that modulate SMN2 exon 7 splicing have been proposed, intronic splicing silencer N1 (ISS-N1) has emerged as the most promising target thus far for antisense oligonucleotide-mediated splicing correction in SMA...
January 2017: Translational Neuroscience
Dong Hoon Shin, Gyu-Hee Kim, Jin Soo Lee, In Soo Joo, Haeyoung Suh-Kim, Sung-Soo Kim, Ji Man Hong
Intracerebral (IC) grafting of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is not currently used in humans due to its potential complications. On the other hand, intra-arterial (IA) administration can be facilitated for engrafting of intensifed MSCs in the injured human brain. The study is designed to compare the two methods of MSC administration using IA and IC routes through the parameters of behavior, infarct volume, cell distribution, and MSC identification. An ischemic stroke model was generated in Sprague Dawley male rats...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
Xiao-Ming Jiang, Jing-Hai Hu, Lu-Lu Wang, Chi Ma, Xu Wang, Xiao-Liang Liu
Ulinastatin [urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI)] plays an important role in the protection of organs against ischemic injury during severe inflammation. The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of UTI on the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and protein expression of PIC receptors in the neocortex and hippocampus CA1 region of rats after transient global ischemia induced via cardiac arrest (CA). Specifcally, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were analyzed...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
Xu Wang, Guang-Jian Li, Hai-Xia Hu, Chi Ma, Di-Hui Ma, Xiao-Liang Liu, Xiao-Ming Jiang
As a part of Alzheimer's disease (AD) development the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been reported to play a crucial role in regulating cognition and can be used as a neuronal marker. Neuro-inflammation is also a cause of the pathophysiological process in AD. Thus, we examined the protein expression levels of mTOR and its downstream pathways as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) in the brain of AD rats. We further examined the effects of blocking mTOR on PICs, namely IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
Mihovil Mladinov, Goran Sedmak, Heidi R Fuller, Mirjana Babić Leko, Davor Mayer, Jason Kirincich, Andrija Štajduhar, Fran Borovečki, Patrick R Hof, Goran Šimić
Schizophrenia is a complex polygenic disorder of unknown etiology. Over 3,000 candidate genes associated with schizophrenia have been reported, most of which being mentioned only once. Alterations in cognitive processing - working memory, metacognition and mentalization - represent a core feature of schizophrenia, which indicates the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Hence we compared the gene expression in postmortem tissue from the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, Brodmann's area 46), and the medial part of the orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC, Brodmann's area 11/12), in six patients with schizophrenia and six control brains...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
Daihui Chen, Nian Liu, Mao Li, Simin Liang
Bladder disorders associated with interstitial cystitis are frequently characterized by increased contractility and pain. The goals of this study were to examine 1) the effects of blocking proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on the exaggerated bladder activity and pain evoked by cystitis and 2) the underlying mechanisms responsible for the role of PAR2 in regulating cystic sensory activity. The protein expression of PAR2 was amplified in rats with cystitis by inducing it with systemic administration of cyclophosphamide (CYP) as compared with control rats...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
Vanja Kljajevic
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether early bilingual Basque-Spanish speakers, who acquired Spanish by the age of 5, comprehend Spanish wh-dependences as effortlessly as native Spanish speakers. Given that Basque and Spanish are structurally different languages, we hypothesized that predictive processing strategies from the first language (L1) would interfere with predictive processing strategies in the second language (L2). More specifically, since Basque overtly marks the semantic role of agent/subject position, whereas Spanish overtly marks the role of patient/object position, we looked at whether the difference in overt marking of semantic roles would affect comprehension of subject vs...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
Pan Wang, Huihong Zhang, Lu Han, Yuying Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are the most common causes of dementia; however, their overlapping clinical syndromes and involved brain regions make a differential diagnosis difficult. We aimed to identify the differences in the cognition and motor cortex excitability between AD and bvFTD patients. METHODS: Twenty-seven AD patients and 30 bvFTD patients were included in the study. Each participant received a neurological evaluation...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
Li Hui, Liu Hui, Han Tong
Superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass [1,2] is an important and effective type of surgical revascularization that is widely used in the treatment of ischemic cerebral artery disease. However, a means of predicting its postoperative efficacy has not been established [3,4]. The present study analyzes the correlation between preoperative perfusion parameters (obtained using dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging, DSC-PI) and postoperative long-term prognosis (using modified Rankin Scale, mRS scores)...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
Kanchan Sharma, Thomas Davis, Elizabeth Coulthard
We all experience at least occasional lapses in attention but in some neurological conditions, loss of attention is pervasive and debilitating. Treating deficits in attention first requires an understanding of the neurobiology of attention, which we now understand to be a set of different cognitive processes. Cholinesterase inhibitors are already established as effective attentional enhancers used in the treatment of certain dementias. Other stimulant agents such as modafanil, amphetamine and methylphenidate have demonstrated limited success in healthy individuals where attention is already optimal and clinical trials in patients with neurological disease are sparse...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
Xu Hao, Wang Junwen, Li Jiaqing, Li Ran, Zhang Zhuo, Huang Yimin, Jiao Wei, Sun Wei, Lei Ting
OBJECTIVE: A possible relationship between fibrosis along the route of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and the subsequent development of hydrocephalus has been indicated in previous studies. These changes in the fibrosis index may reflect the severity of hydrocephalus and could potentially become a diagnostic tool. The object of this study was to analyze the levels of procollagen type I C-terminal propeptide (PICP), procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP), hyaluronic acid (HA), and laminin (LN) in the CSF of patients with post-traumatic hydrocephalus and determine the significance of their presence...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
Vanja Kljajevic, Martin Dyrba, Elisabeth Kasper, Stefan Teipel
The association between verbal fluency deficit in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and deterioration of specific white matter (WM) tracts is currently not well understood. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we investigated a possible association between the left uncinate fasciculus, which has been implicated in word retrieval, and verbal fluency deficit in AD. A comparison of five properties of WM (fractional anisotropy, mode of anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity) in 28 mild AD patients and 26 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls revealed significant group differences in a range of WM tracts...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
Ruo-Shi Zang, Hong Zhang, Yan Xu, Sheng-Ming Zhang, Xi Liu, Jing Wang, Yong-Zhe Gao, Min Shu, Bin Mei, Hua-Gang Li
OBJECTIVE: Progressive cerebral infarctions increase mortality and functional disability through mechanisms which have yet to be completely understood. The goal of this study was to explore the dynamic changes of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen (FIB) and D-dimer (D-D) in order to better characterize progressive cerebral infarction. METHODS: The amount of serum CRP, FIB and D-D was measured in 82 patients with progressive cerebral infarction by taking samples from the internal carotid artery (progressive group), and in 186 patients with non-progressive cerebral infarction (non-progressive group) by using an automatic biochemical analyzer during the next day (day 1), day 3, day 7, and day 14 after being admitted to hospital...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
Ting-Ting Yang, Yang He, Ya-Juan Xiang, Dong-Hui Ao, Yang-Yang Wang, Qi Zhang, Xiang-Jun He, Shan-Shan Zhong, Jian Wu, Guang-Zhi Liu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are inflammatory demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). Various genetic and environmental factors have been identified to contribute to etiology of MS and NMO. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), is the most abundant water channel in CNS. AQP4 is expressed in astrocytes of the brain, spinal cord, optic nerve and supportive cells in sensory organs. In contrast to MS, immunoreactivity of AQP4 is abolished in NMO lesions. However, conflicting results have been reported regarding the association between AQP4 polymorphisms and demyelinating disorders...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
Ashish Kumar, T M Sivanandam, M K Thakur
Presenilin 1 (PS1) and PS2 are evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins of the aspartyl protease family. Initially, they were reported to be associated with the early onset of familial, early-onset Alzheimer's disease. PS1 has been implicated in several crucial brain functions including developmental processes, synaptic plasticity, and processing of various molecules, while PS2 has been poorly studied and is considered to be a compensatory partner of PS1. Certain controversial reports have suggested that PS2 has a role in apoptosis, though the underlying mechanism is not clear...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
Irine Sakhelashvili, Marine Eliozishvili, Tamar Basishvili, Maia Datunashvili, Nikoloz Oniani, Katerina Cervena, Nato Darchia
OBJECTIVES: Sleep problems represent a worldwide health concern but their prevalence and impacts are unknown in most non-European/North American countries. This study aimed to evaluate sleep-wake patterns, sleep quality and potential correlates of poor sleep in a sample of the urban Georgian population. METHODS: Analyses are based on 395 volunteers (267 females, 128 males, aged 20-60 years) of the Georgia Somnus Study. Subjects completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
Fada Pan, Qingyun Lu, Yan Chen, Xiaogang Wu, Qiwei Li
The present study used paired-picture paradigm, where either congruent or incongruent emotional expressions were presented side by side to measure the neural correlates underlying the processing of emotional conflict effect. Event-related potentials were recorded while participants identified whether the valences of the paired-picture were consistent or not. The results showed that incongruent and congruent picture pairs both elicited larger N2 (210-310 ms) amplitudes than neutral pairs. In contrast, the conflict picture pairs elicited a larger conflict slow potential (conflict SP, 700-1000 ms) than did the positive and neutral picture pairs...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
Xiaoping Wang, Xiaojia Li, Bin Huang, Shuai Ma
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an extremely serious type of physical trauma observed in clinics. Neuropathic pain resulting from SCI has a lasting and significant impact on most aspects of daily life. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular pathways responsible for the cause of neuropathic pain observed in SCI is important to develop effective therapeutic agents and treatment strategies. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is well known for its critical roles in regulating protein synthesis and growth...
2016: Translational Neuroscience
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