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Translational Neuroscience

Binbin Wang, Shiwei Wang, Song Liu, Shaodong Zhang, Dezhi Li, Junhua Li, Xiongweiye Huang, Michael Schumacher, Hong Wan
Introduction This study investigated the effect of combining hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-side neurorrhaphy and electrical myostimulation in a rat model of facial palsy. Methods Rats with facial nerve crush injury were subjected to control condition, monotherapy of either neurorrhaphy or electrical myostimulation, or bitherapy of the two treatments. After 1, 3, and 6 months, rats were performed the facial symmetry evaluation, electrophysiological examination and the retrograde labeling of motor neurons...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Grant C O'Connell, Julia H C Chang
Growing evidence suggests that stroke alters the phenotype of the peripheral immune system; better characterization of this response could provide new insights into stroke pathophysiology. In this investigation, we employed a deconvolution approach to informatically infer the cellular composition of the circulating leukocyte pool at multiple timepoints following stroke onset based on whole blood mRNA expression. Microarray data generated from the peripheral blood of 23 cardiovascular disease controls and 23 ischemic stroke patients at 3, 5, and 24 hours post-symptom onset were obtained from a public repository...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Sulaiman Almobarak, Mohammad Almuhaizea, Musaad Abukhaled, Suad Alyamani, Omar Dabbagh, Aziza Chedrawi, Sameena Khan, Hesham Aldhalaan
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic neurocutaneous disorder, with heterogeneous manifestations. We aimed to review the clinical presentation of TSC and its association with epilepsy among Saudi population. This was a retrospective chart review study of 88 patients diagnosed with TSC with or without epilepsy. In 38.6% of patients, symptoms began before 1 year of age. The most frequent initial manifestations of TSC were new onset of seizures (68.2%), skin manifestations (46.6%) and development delay (23...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Ke Yang, XianHui Ding, ZhiMing Zhou, XiaoLei Shi
Background: The index to ring finger length (2D:4D) ratio is a proxy biomarker for prenatal exposure of sex hormones. Sex hormones are associated with the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the association between 2D:4D and ischemic stroke. Methodology: This study retrospectively reviewed the data of 100 patients with first ever ischemic stroke between September, 2016 and June, 2017. The lengths of index finger and ring finger of both hands were measured using electronic calipers and calculated for 2D:4D ratios...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Kwun Chung Yu, Ping Kwan, Stanley K K Cheung, Amy Ho, Larry Baum
Tauopathies are neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), in which tau protein aggregates within neurons. An effective treatment is lacking and is urgently needed. We evaluated two structurally similar natural compounds, morin and resveratrol, for treating tauopathy in JNPL3 P301L mutant human tau overexpressing mice. Rotarod tests were performed to determine effects on motor function. After treatment from age 11 to 14 months, brains of 26 mice were collected to quantify aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau by Thioflavin T and immunohistochemistry (IHC) and to quantify total tau (HT7 antibody) and hyperphosphorylated tau (AT8 antibody) in homogenates and a fraction enriched for paired helical filaments...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Jianying He, Wenwen Zhong, Ming Zhang, Rongping Zhang, Weiyan Hu
Parkinson's disease, the second major neurodegenerative disease, has created a great impact on the elder people. Although the mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease are not fully understood, considerable evidence suggests that neuro-inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis are involved in the disease. p38MAPK, an important member of the mitogen-activated protein family, controls several important functions in the cell, suggesting a potential pathogenic role in PD...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Qing Yang, Ying Li, Lin Luo
Background: Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma, with a multifactorial etiology that results in retinal ganglion cell death and loss of vision. In this study, we assessed the effects of myricetin on the trabecular meshwork cells in POAG. Methods: In the in-vivo model, glaucoma was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting hyaluronic acid into the anterior chamber of the eye (every week for six-weeks). Treatment group rats were administered myricetin (25, 50 or 100 mg/ kg body weight via oral gavage) each day for of six weeks...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Shiping Li, Qiaoying Zhang, Peiwu Li
Background: This study evaluated the protective effects of epifriedelinol (EFD) in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methodology: TBI was induced by dropping a weight from a specific height. The animals were separated into control, TBI, and EFD 100 and 200 mg/kg groups. The latter received 100 and 200 mg/kg EFD, respectively, for 2 days beginning 30 min after inducing TBI. The neurological examination score, permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), water content of the brain, cytokine levels, and oxidative stress parameters were measured in the rats...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Denis Frederic, Rat Corinne, Reynaud Matthieu, Siu-Paredes Francesca, Tubert-Jeannin Stephanie, Rude Nathalie
Background: The aim of this study was to present the different stages of development of the Schizophrenia Oral Health Profile (SOHP) questionnaire, aimed at assessing oral disorders and their impacts on functioning and psychosocial wellbeing for patients with schizophrenia (PWS) and to give the results of a feasibility study conducted in France. Materials and methods: The first step of this qualitative study was semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 PWS and 6 health professionals (HP)...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Ramazan Aldemir, Esra Demirci, Ayşe Kaçar Bayram, Mehmet Canpolat, Sevgi Ozmen, Hüseyin Per, Mahmut Tokmakci
Aims: The aim of this study is to evalute the effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine treatments on electroencephalography (EEG) signals in volunteer children diagnosed with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD). Methods: The study contained 40 children all of whom were between the ages of 7 and 17. The participants were classified into two groups as ADHD (n=20), which was in itself divided into two groups as ADHD-MPH (ADHD- Metylphenidate treatment) (n=10) and as ADHD-ATX (ADHD-Atomoxetin treatment) (n=10), and one control group (n=20)...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Ekkehard Kunze, Nadine Lilla, Christian Stetter, Ralf-Ingo Ernestus, Thomas Westermaier
Background: To analyze whether magnesium has a neuroprotective effect during episodes that indicate a critical brain perfusion after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: 107 patients with aSAH were randomized to continuously receive intravenous magnesium sulfate with target serum levels of 2.0 - 2.5 mmol/l (n = 54) or isotonic saline (n = 53). Neurological examination and transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) were performed daily, Perfusion-CT (PCT) was acquired in 3-day intervals, angiography in case of suspected vasospasm...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Si Wang, Yu Zhou
Background: Baicalein, a bioactive flavonoid was explored for its capability to attenuate sevoflurane induced neuronal apoptosis and to improve behavioural and cognitive impairments. Sevoflurane is a frequently used inhalation anesthetic in neonates and children. Neonatal sevoflurane exposure causes widespread neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments. Development of compounds that could effectively prevent/reduce the adverse effects is of tremendous medical value. Methods: Isolated groups of neonatal rats were regulated with baicalein (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg b...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Ding Yanbing, Huang Lixia, Chen Jun, Hu Song, Yuan Fahu, Tu Jinwen
This study evaluates the protective effect of corilagin against Parkinsonismin Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) induced Parkinson's disease. The JaGAr-01 strain of virus was used to induce JE. The virus was injected into the rats (13 days age) at the midpoint between the two ears. Adult rats, 12 week after the inoculation of virus, were used for the further study. Corilagin (20 mg/kg) and levodopa with dopa decarboxylase inhibitor (LEV, 10 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally for the duration of one week...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Xiangen Meng, Na Li, Yu Zhang, Danfeng Fan, Chen Yang, Hang Li, Dazhi Guo, Shuyi Pan
Background: Present study evaluates the neuroprotective effect of β-elemene alone and in combination with hyperbaric oxygen (HO) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methodology: TBI was induced by dropping a weight from a specific height. All the animals were separated in to five groups (n=20) like control group; TBI group; β-elemene treated group which receives β-elemene (100 mg/kg, i.p.) half an hour after the injury; HO group which receives hyperbaric oxygen therapy and β-elemene + HO group which receives β-elemene (100 mg/kg, i...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Duo Chen, Zhao-Bo Nie, Zhi-Hong Chi, Zhan-You Wang, Xiang-Tai Wei, Jun-Hong Guan
Background: The pathophysiology of early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is poorly understood. The present study evaluates the influence of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) knockout and the depletion of vesicular zinc on EBI. Methodology: SAH was induced in ZnT3 KO mice by internal carotid artery perforation. The changes in behavior were recorded at 24 hours after SAH. Hematoxylin-eosin, Nissl and TUNEL staining were performed to evaluate neuronal apoptosis...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Francesca Siu-Paredes, Nathalie Rude, Corinne Rat, Matthieu Reynaud, Mohamad Hamad, Sahar Moussa-Badran, Frederic Denis
Background: The aim of this work was to present the creation of appropriate tools to evaluate the coping strategies in Oral-Health-related Quality of Life (OHrQOL) implemented by persons with schizophrenia (PWS), the Schizophrenia Coping Oral Health Profile (SCOOHP), and the results of a feasibility study. Methods: A qualitative investigation was conducted between June 2016 and May 2017.The first step included 26 semi-structured individual interviews, 20 with PWS and 6 with health professionals (HPs), and 2 focus groups (PWS and HPs) to explore the experiences of the participants and how they felt about coping strategies in OHrQOL...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Ali K Bourisly, Ali Shuaib
We conducted an event-related potential (ERP) study using a 256-channel dense sensor array electroencephalography (EEG) system to examine how, and if the P200 neurophysiological signal is sexually dimorphic. We had two groups of participants: females (n= 15, mean age = 40.6 years old) and males (n = 15, mean age = 39.0 years old). ERPs from all participants were recorded while the participants performed an oddball task. Results showed that males on average had a significantly larger P200 peak amplitude and a significantly shorter P200 latency period...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Ali Shuaib, Ali K Bourisly
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) causes interruption along the severed axonal tract(s) resulting in complete or partial loss of sensation and motor function. SCI can cause tetraplegia or paraplegia. Both these conditions can have lifelong excessive medical costs, as well as can reduce life expectancy. Preclinical research showed that Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT), also known as Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT), possesses reparative and regenerative capabilities that have the potential to be used as a complimentary or supplementary SCI therapy...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Ali K Bourisly, Ali Shuaib
Age-related effects were studied in 14 younger (M = 34 years) and 14 (M = 47 years) older healthy participants. Event-related potential (ERP) recording was done using a 256-channel EEG system. Results indicated that ERP is affected by advanced age. There was a significant difference in P200 mean latency between the younger participants and older participants for the target (low-probability) stimuli, but no such significance was evident for the P200 mean latency during the presentation of the standard (high-probability) stimuli...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Gennadiy Fonar, Baruh Polis, Tomer Meirson, Alexander Maltsev, Evan Elliott, Abraham O Samson
Arginine is one of the most versatile semi-essential amino acids. Further to the primary role in protein biosynthesis, arginine is involved in the urea cycle, and it is a precursor of nitric oxide. Arginine deficiency is associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases (AD). In this study, we administer arginine intracerebroventricularly in a murine model of AD and evaluate cognitive functions in a set of behavioral tests. In addition, the effect of arginine on synaptic plasticity was tested electrophysiologically by assessment of the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP)...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
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