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Brain Connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177260/graph-theory-at-the-service-of-electroencephalograms
#1
Nantia D Iakovidou
The brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the human body and electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive electrophysiological monitoring method that is used to record the electrical activity of the brain. Lately, the functional connectivity in human brain has been regarded and studied as a complex network using electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This means that the brain is studied as a connected system where nodes, or units, represent different specialized brain regions and links, or connections, represent communication pathways between the nodes...
February 8, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173729/structural-and-functional-abnormalities-in-children-with-adhd-a-focus-on-subgenual-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#2
Chenyang Zhan, Yuhong Liu, Kai Wu, Yu Gao, Xiaobo Li
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), characterized by developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, or a combination of both, is a major public health problem. Neuroimaging studies have revealed associations of these cognitive impairments with structural and functional deficits all over the brain. Existing findings are not fully consistent due to the heterogeneity of study samples and diversity of research techniques. In the current study, we propose to utilize a multi-modal MRI approach to study the structural and functional brain networks in children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) with a focus on the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC)...
February 7, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142257/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-targeting-primary-motor-versus-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortices-proof-of-concept-study-investigating-functional-connectivity-of-thalamo-cortical-networks-specific-to-sensory-affective-information-processing
#3
Vishwanath Sankarasubramanian, David Cunningham, Kelsey Potter, Erik Beall, Sarah Roelle, Nicole Varnerin, Andre Machado, Stephen Jones, Mark Lowe, Ela Plow
Pain matrix is subtended by an extensive cortical network spanning across sensory and affective domains. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting primary motor (M1) or dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC) represent popular methods to modulate such networks. However, differences between their mechanisms remain unknown. Here, in a proof-of-concept study, resting-state functional MRI was used to investigate the effects of stimulating M1 versus DLPFC on functional connectivity (FC) of networks within a healthy pain matrix...
January 31, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125912/olfactory-network-differences-in-master-sommeliers-connectivity-analysis-using-granger-causality-and-graph-theoretical-approach
#4
Karthik R Sreenivasan, Xiaowei Zhuang, Sarah Banks, Virendra Mishra, Zhengshi Yang, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Dietmar Cordes
Previous studies investigating the differences in olfactory processing and judgments between trained sommeliers and controls have shown increased activations in brain regions involving higher-level cognitive processes in sommeliers. However, there is little information about the influence of expertise on causal connectivity and topological properties of the connectivity networks between these regions. Therefore, the current study focuses on addressing these questions in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of olfactory perception in Master Sommeliers...
January 26, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030956/effects-of-long-duration-administration-of-1-isoflurane-on-resting-cerebral-blood-flow-and-default-mode-network-in-macaque-monkeys
#5
Chun-Xia Li, Xiaodong Zhang
Isoflurane is an inhalational anesthetic that is widely used in medical procedures or biomedical research. The duration of anesthesia administration varies from minutes to hours. It is known that isoflurane has dose-dependent effects on brain functionality and physiology, and long-duration anesthesia administration could cause neurocognitive decline in animals and humans. However, the duration effect of isoflurane on the brain physiology and functionality still remains poorly understood. In the present study, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity of adult rhesus monkeys (maintained with 1% isoflurane for 4 h) were examined by using magnetic resonance imaging...
January 24, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092972/tracking-dynamic-interactions-between-structural-and-functional-connectivity-a-tms-eeg-dmri-study
#6
Enrico Amico, Olivier Bodart, Mario Rosanova, Olivia Gosseries, Lizette Heine, Pieter Van Mierlo, Charlotte Martial, Marcello Massimini, Daniele Marinazzo, Steven Laureys
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in combination with neuroimaging techniques allows to measure the effects of a direct perturbation of the brain. When coupled to high density electroencephalography (TMS/hd-EEG), TMS pulses revealed electrophysiological signatures of different cortical modules in health and disease. However, the neural underpinnings of these signatures remain unclear. Here, by applying multimodal analyses of cortical response to TMS recordings and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) tractography, we investigated the relationship between functional and structural features of different cortical modules in a cohort of awake healthy volunteers...
January 16, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084793/test-retest-reproducibility-of-the-intrinsic-default-mode-network-influence-of-fmri-slice-order-acquisition-and-head-motion-correction-methods
#7
Rocco Marchitelli, Olivier Collignon, Jorge Jovicich
Head-motion is a known challenge in resting-state fMRI studies for biasing functional connectivity among distinct anatomical regions. These persist even with small motion, limiting comparisons of groups with different head-motion characteristics. This motivates an interest in the optimization of acquisition and correction strategies to minimize motion sensitivity. In this test-retest study of healthy young volunteers (N=24), we investigate the effects of slice-order acquisitions (sequential or interleaved) and head-motion correction methods (volume- or slice-based) on the test-retest reproducibility of intrinsic connectivity of the default mode network (DMN)...
January 13, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076974/topological-organization-of-whole-brain-white-matter-in-hiv-infection
#8
Laurie M Baker, Sarah Cooley, Ryan P Cabeen, David H Laidlaw, John A Joska, Jacqueline Hoare, Dan J Stein, Jodi Heaps-Woodruff, Lauren E Salminen, Robert H Paul
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with neuroimaging alterations. However, little is known about the topological organization of whole-brain networks and the corresponding association with cognition. As such, we examined structural whole-brain white matter connectivity patterns and cognitive performance in 29 HIV+ young adults (mean age = 25.9) with limited or no HIV treatment history. HIV+ participants and demographically similar HIV- controls (n = 16) residing in South Africa underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing...
January 11, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006976/contrasting-effects-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-the-whole-brain-resting-state-network-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#9
Jared A Rowland, Jennifer R Stapleton-Kotloski, Greg E Alberto, Justin A Rawley, Robert J Kotloski, Katherine H Taber, Dwayne W Godwin
The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in whole-brain resting-state networks associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Networks were constructed from locations of peak statistical power on an individual basis from magnetoencephalography (MEG) source series data by applying the weighted phase lag index and surrogate data thresholding procedures. Networks representing activity in the alpha bandwidth as well as wideband activity (DC-80 Hz) were created...
February 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917679/the-default-mode-network-in-healthy-individuals-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Lauren E Mak, Luciano Minuzzi, Glenda MacQueen, Geoffrey Hall, Sidney H Kennedy, Roumen Milev
When the brain is not engaged in goal-directed activities and at rest, there are still measureable patterns of activity. One resting-state network, the default mode network (DMN) is responsible for a self-referential introspective state. There are many factors that influence normal changes in brain activity. The purpose of this review is to summarize differences in DMN functional connectivity in healthy individuals by age, sex, cognitive function, and analysis type to characterize what is "normal." Studies were systematically selected up to August 2016...
February 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897031/abnormal-coupling-between-default-mode-network-and-delta-and-beta-band-brain-electric-activity-in-psychotic-patients
#11
Anja Baenninger, Vanessa A Palzes, Brian J Roach, Daniel H Mathalon, Judith M Ford, Thomas Koenig
Common-phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations is a mechanism by which distributed brain regions can be integrated into transiently stable networks. Based on the hypothesis that schizophrenia is characterized by deficits in functional integration within neuronal networks, this study aimed to explore whether psychotic patients exhibit differences in brain regions involved in integrative mechanisms. We report an electroencephalography (EEG)-informed functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis of eyes-open resting-state data collected from patients and healthy controls at two study sites...
February 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875902/nuisance-regression-of-high-frequency-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-data-denoising-can-be-noisy
#12
Jingyuan E Chen, Hesamoddin Jahanian, Gary H Glover
Recently, emerging studies have demonstrated the existence of brain resting-state spontaneous activity at frequencies higher than the conventional 0.1 Hz. A few groups utilizing accelerated acquisitions have reported persisting signals beyond 1 Hz, which seems too high to be accommodated by the sluggish hemodynamic process underpinning blood oxygen level-dependent contrasts (the upper limit of the canonical model is ∼0.3 Hz). It is thus questionable whether the observed high-frequency (HF) functional connectivity originates from alternative mechanisms (e...
February 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846731/dynamic-connectivity-patterns-in-conscious-and-unconscious-brain
#13
Yuncong Ma, Christina Hamilton, Nanyin Zhang
Brain functional connectivity undergoes dynamic changes from the awake to unconscious states. However, how the dynamics of functional connectivity patterns are linked to consciousness at the behavioral level remains elusive. In this study, we acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data during wakefulness and graded levels of consciousness in rats. Data were analyzed using a dynamic approach combining the sliding window method and k-means clustering. Our results demonstrate that whole-brain networks contained several quasi-stable patterns that dynamically recurred from the awake state into anesthetized states...
February 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733049/sleep-deprivation-makes-the-young-brain-resemble-the-elderly-brain-a-large-scale-brain-networks-study
#14
Xinqi Zhou, Taoyu Wu, Jing Yu, Xu Lei
Decreased cognition performance and impaired brain function are similar results of sleep deprivation (SD) and aging, according to mounted supporting evidence. Some investigators even proposed SD as a model of aging. However, few direct comparisons were ever explored between the effects of SD and aging by network module analysis with the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, both within-module and between-module (BT) connectivities were calculated in the whole brain to describe a complete picture of brain networks' functional connectivity among three groups (young normal sleep, young SD, and old group)...
February 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784176/on-stabilizing-the-variance-of-dynamic-functional-brain-connectivity-time-series
#15
William Hedley Thompson, Peter Fransson
Assessment of dynamic functional brain connectivity based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is an increasingly popular strategy to investigate temporal dynamics of the brain's large-scale network architecture. Current practice when deriving connectivity estimates over time is to use the Fisher transformation, which aims to stabilize the variance of correlation values that fluctuate around varying true correlation values. It is, however, unclear how well the stabilization of signal variance performed by the Fisher transformation works for each connectivity time series, when the true correlation is assumed to be fluctuating...
December 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784161/using-cforest-to-analyze-diffusion-tensor-imaging-data-a-study-of-white-matter-integrity-in-healthy-aging
#16
Sean R McWhinney, Antoine Tremblay, Thérèse M Chevalier, Vanessa K Lim, Aaron J Newman
Healthy aging has been associated with a global reduction in white matter integrity, which is thought to reflect cognitive decline. The present study aimed to investigate this reduction over a broad range of the life span, using diffusion tensor imaging analyzed with conditional inference random forest modeling (CForest). This approach is sensitive to subtle and potentially nonlinear effects over the age continuum and was used to characterize the progression of decline in greater detail than has been possible in the past...
December 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758115/dynamical-signatures-of-structural-connectivity-damage-to-a-model-of-the-brain-posed-at-criticality
#17
Ariel Haimovici, Pablo Balenzuela, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Synchronization of brain activity fluctuations is believed to represent communication between spatially distant neural processes. These interareal functional interactions develop in the background of a complex network of axonal connections linking cortical and subcortical neurons, termed the human "structural connectome." Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence support the view that the human brain can be modeled as a system operating at a critical point between ordered (subcritical) and disordered (supercritical) phases...
December 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750434/the-brain-network-underpinning-novel-melody-creation
#18
Bhim M Adhikari, Martin Norgaard, Kristen M Quinn, Jenine Ampudia, Justin Squirek, Mukesh Dhamala
Musical improvisation offers an excellent experimental paradigm for the study of real-time human creativity. It involves moment-to-moment decision-making, monitoring of one's performance, and utilizing external feedback to spontaneously create new melodies or variations on a melody. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to study the brain activity during musical improvisation, aiming to unlock the mystery of human creativity. What brain resources come together and how these are utilized during musical improvisation are not well understood...
December 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527402/human-posterior-insula-functional-connectivity-differs-between-electrical-pain-and-the-resting-state
#19
Keith M Vogt, Christopher J Becker, Ajay D Wasan, James W Ibinson
The objective in this study was to directly compare MRI-based functional connectivity between conditions of rest and painful electrical nerve stimulation for key regions involved in pain processing: the anterior and posterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex. Electric nerve stimulation, rated 7/10 for pain, was delivered to the right index finger of 14 healthy pain-free adult volunteers in four 30-sec blocks and continuously for 2 min. Functional connectivity maps obtained at rest and during both pain tasks were compared using seed time courses from the left anterior and posterior insula and anterior cingulate...
December 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421840/structural-brain-connectivity-and-the-sit-to-stand-to-sit-performance-in-individuals-with-nonspecific-low-back-pain-a-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-based-network-analysis
#20
Madelon Pijnenburg, S M Hadi Hosseini, Simon Brumagne, Lotte Janssens, Nina Goossens, Karen Caeyenberghs
Individuals with nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) show an impaired sensorimotor control. They need significantly more time to perform five consecutive sit-to-stand-to-sit (STSTS) movements compared with healthy controls. Optimal sensorimotor control depends on the coactivation of many brain regions, which have to operate as a coordinated network to achieve correct motor output. Therefore, the examination of brain connectivity from a network perspective is crucial for understanding the factors that drive sensorimotor control...
December 2016: Brain Connectivity
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