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Brain Connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595456/altered-brain-wiring-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-structural-connectome-based-analysis
#1
Apurva K Shah, Abhishek Lenka, Jitender Saini, Shivali Wagle, Rajini M Naduthota, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Pal, Madhura A Ingalhalikar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neuro-degenerative disorder, which predominantly affects the motor system. Diffusion MRI has demonstrated deficits in anisotropy as well as increased diffusivity in the sub-cortical structures, primarily in the substantia nigra in PD. However, the clinical spectrum of PD is not limited to motor symptoms, rather it encompasses several non-motor symptoms such as depression, psychosis, olfactory dysfunction and cognitive impairment. These non-motor symptoms underscore PD as a complex neurological disorder arising from dysfunction of several network components...
June 8, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583034/aging-related-microstructural-alterations-along-the-length-of-the-cingulum-bundle
#2
Francesca Sibilia, Elizabeth Grace Kehoe, Dervla Farrell, Christian Kerskens, Desmond O'Neill, Jonathan Paul McNulty, Paul Gerald Mullins, Arun Bokde
The aim of this study was to investigate the aging-related structural changes of the cingulum, one of the major components of the limbic network, which has a critical role in emotion, attention and memory. 35 healthy young adults (22.3 ± 2.7 years) and 33 healthy older adults (69.5 ± 3.5 years) were recruited. Diffusion weighted imaging data were acquired with a b-value = 2000 s/mm2, 61 diffusion directions and 4 non-weighted images. The fiber directions in each voxel were based on the constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) model...
June 5, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554230/transcutaneous-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-alters-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#3
Lauren Schweizer, Christine H Meyer-Frießem, Peter K Zahn, Martin Tegenthoff, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke
Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a non-invasive method that can modulate spinal reflexes, sensory afferent conduction, and even pain perception. While neurophysiological evidence suggests that tsDCS alters somatosensory and nociceptive afferent conduction to the cortex, its supraspinal effects have not yet been investigated using functional imaging to investigate tsDCS-induced alterations in intrinsic functional connectivity (FC). Therefore, we hypothesize that tsDCS-induced changes in neurophysiological measures might also be reflected in spontaneous brain activity...
May 29, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540741/fine-grained-parcellation-of-brain-connectivity-improves-differentiation-of-states-of-consciousness-during-graded-propofol-sedation
#4
Xiaolin Liu, Kathryn K Lauer, Doug Ward, Christopher Roberts, Suyan Liu, Gollapudy Suneeta, Robert Rohloff, William Gross, Zhan Xu, Guangyu Chen, Jeff Binder, Shi-Jiang Li, Anthony G Hudetz
Conscious perception relies on interactions between spatially and functionally distinct modules of the brain at various spatiotemporal scales. These interactions are altered by anesthesia - an intervention that leads to fading consciousness. Relatively little is known about brain functional connectivity and its anesthetic modulation at a fine spatial scale. Here, we used functional imaging to examine propofol-induced changes in functional connectivity in brain networks defined at a fine-grained parcellation based on a combination of anatomical and functional features...
May 25, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520468/the-hierarchy-of-brain-networks-is-related-to-insulin-growth-factor-1-in-a-large-middle-aged-healthy-cohort-an-exploratory-magnetoencephalography-study
#5
Pierpaolo Sorrentino, Dagmar Nieboer, Jos W R Twisk, Cornelis J Stam, Linda Douw, Arjan Hillebrand
Recently, a large study demonstrated that lower serum levels of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) relate to brain atrophy and to a greater risk for developing Alzheimer's disease in a healthy elderly population. We set out to test if functional brain networks relate to IGF-1 levels in the middle aged. Hence, we studied the association between IGF-1 and magnetoencephalography-based functional network characteristics in a middle-aged population. The functional connections between brain areas were estimated for six frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta, gamma) using the phase lag index...
June 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506079/the-neural-correlates-of-emotional-lability-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Randi H Bennett, Krishna Somandepalli, Amy K Roy, Adriana Di Martino
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is exceptionally heterogeneous in both clinical and physiopathological presentations. Clinical variability applies to ASD-specific symptoms and frequent comorbid psychopathology such as emotional lability (EL). To date, the physiopathological underpinnings of the co-occurrence of EL and ASD are unknown. As a first step, we examined within-ASD inter-individual variability of EL and its neuronal correlates using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI). We analyzed R-fMRI data from 58 children diagnosed with ASD (5-12 years) in relation to the Conners' Parent Rating Scale EL index...
June 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494616/breakdown-of-thalamo-cortical-connectivity-precedes-spike-generation-in-focal-epilepsies
#7
Vitalie Chiosa, Stanislav A Groppa, Dumitru Ciolac, Nabin Koirala, Liudmila Mişina, Yaroslav Winter, Maria Moldovanu, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa
Electroencephalography (EEG) spikes and focal epileptic seizures are generated in circumscribed cerebral networks that have been insufficiently described. For precise time and spatial domain network characterization, we applied in patients with focal epilepsy dense array 256-channel EEG recordings with causal connectivity estimation by using time-resolved partial directed coherence and 3T-magnetic resonance imaging-derived cortical and thalamus integrity reconstruction. Before spike generation, significant theta and alpha bands driven information flows alterations were noted from both temporal and frontal lobes to the thalamus and from the thalamus to the frontal lobe...
June 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486817/altered-network-topology-in-patients-with-primary-brain-tumors-after-fractionated-radiotherapy
#8
Naeim Bahrami, Tyler M Seibert, Roshan Karunamuni, Hauke Bartsch, AnithaPriya Krishnan, Nikdokht Farid, Jona A Hattangadi-Gluth, Carrie R McDonald
Radiation therapy (RT) is a critical treatment modality for patients with brain tumors, although it can cause adverse effects. Recent data suggest that brain RT is associated with dose-dependent cortical atrophy, which could disrupt neocortical networks. This study examines whether brain RT affects structural network properties in brain tumor patients. We applied graph theory to MRI-derived cortical thickness estimates of 54 brain tumor patients before and after RT. Cortical surfaces were parcellated into 68 regions and correlation matrices were created for patients pre- and post-RT...
June 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478685/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-social-anxiety-disorder-evidence-for-a-dimensional-approach
#9
Liron Rabany, Gretchen J Diefenbach, Laura B Bragdon, Brian P Pittman, Luis Zertuche, David F Tolin, John W Goethe, Michal Assaf
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are currently considered distinct diagnostic categories. Accumulating data suggest the study of anxiety disorders may benefit from the use of dimensional conceptualizations. One such dimension of shared dysfunction is emotion regulation (ER). The current study evaluated dimensional (ER) and categorical (diagnosis) neurocorrelates of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in participants with GAD and SAD and healthy controls (HC). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) rsFC was estimated between all regions of the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and bilateral amygdala (N = 37: HC-19; GAD-10; SAD-8)...
June 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462586/infraslow-electroencephalographic-and-dynamic-resting-state-network-activity
#10
Joshua K Grooms, Garth J Thompson, Wen-Ju Pan, Jacob Billings, Eric H Schumacher, Charles M Epstein, Shella D Keilholz
A number of studies have linked the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in traditional frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ), but the relationship between BOLD and its direct frequency correlates in the infraslow band (<1 Hz) has been little studied. Previously, work in rodents showed that infraslow local field potentials play a role in functional connectivity, particularly in the dynamic organization of large-scale networks. To examine the relationship between infraslow activity and network dynamics in humans, direct current (DC) EEG and resting state magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired simultaneously...
June 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462585/pramipexole-modulates-interregional-connectivity-within-the-sensorimotor-network
#11
Zheng Ye, Anke Hammer, Thomas F Münte
Pramipexole is widely prescribed to treat Parkinson's disease but has been reported to cause impulse control disorders such as pathological gambling. Recent neurocomputational models suggested that D2 agonists may distort functional connections between the striatum and the motor cortex, resulting in impaired reinforcement learning and pathological gambling. To examine how D2 agonists modulate the striatal-motor connectivity, we carried out a pharmacological resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study with a double-blind randomized within-subject crossover design...
May 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443736/brain-resting-state-functional-connectivity-is-preserved-under-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-patients-with-pervasive-developmental-disorders-a-pilot-study
#12
Lakshmikumar Venkatraghavan, Suparna Bharadwaj, Vincent Wourms, Audrey Tan, Michael T Jurkiewicz, David J Mikulis, Adrian P Crawley
Functional connectivity studies play a huge role in understanding the relationship between the network connections and the behavioral phenotype of patients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Some patients with PDD may not be able to tolerate the imaging procedure while they are awake, and, hence, they often need general anesthesia. General anesthesia is a confounding factor in functional imaging studies due to its effect on the functional connectivity. The objective of this study is to look at the resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with PDDs...
May 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363248/the-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-regional-homogeneity-metrics-kendall-s-coefficient-of-concordance-regional-homogeneity-and-coherence-regional-homogeneity-are-valid-indicators-of-tumor-related-neurovascular-uncoupling
#13
Shruti Agarwal, Haris I Sair, Jay J Pillai
The aim of this study is to determine whether regional homogeneity (ReHo) of resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data based on Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC-ReHo) and coherence (Cohe-ReHo) metrics may allow detection of brain tumor-induced neurovascular uncoupling (NVU) in the sensorimotor network similar to findings in standard motor task-based BOLD fMRI (tbfMRI) activation. Twelve de novo brain tumor patients undergoing clinical fMRI exams (tbfMRI and rsfMRI) were included in this Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved study...
May 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316255/a-bayesian-double-fusion-model-for-resting-state-brain-connectivity-using-joint-functional-and-structural-data
#14
Hakmook Kang, Hernando Ombao, Christopher Fonnesbeck, Zhaohua Ding, Victoria L Morgan
Current approaches separately analyze concurrently acquired diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The primary limitation of these approaches is that they do not take advantage of the information from DTI that could potentially enhance estimation of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between brain regions. To overcome this limitation, we develop a Bayesian hierarchical spatiotemporal model that incorporates structural connectivity (SC) into estimating FC...
May 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316248/assessing-the-impact-of-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-on-the-resting-state-default-mode-network-in-a-military-chronic-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-sample
#15
Dominic E Nathan, Julie A Frost Bellgowan, Louis M French, Jonathan Wolf, Terrence R Oakes, Jeannine Mielke, Elyssa B Sham, Wei Liu, Gerard Riedy
The relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is difficult to discern and poorly understood. An accurate differential diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of mTBI and PTSD are challenging due to significant symptom overlap and the absence of clearly established biomarkers. The objective of this work is to examine how post-traumatic stress influences task-free default mode network in chronic mTBI subjects. Control subjects (N = 44) were compared with chronic mTBI subjects with low (N = 58, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version [PCL-C] total < 30), medium (N = 124, PCL-C total = 31-49), and high (N = 105, PCL-C total ≥ 60) post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)...
May 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398813/neural-correlates-of-consciousness-at-near-electrocerebral-silence-in-an-asphyxial-cardiac-arrest-model
#16
Donald E Lee, Lauren G Lee, Danny Siu, Afsheen K Bazrafkan, Maryam H Farahabadi, Tin J Dinh, Josue Orellana, Wei Xiong, Beth A Lopour, Yama Akbari
Recent electrophysiological studies have suggested surges in electrical correlates of consciousness (i.e., elevated gamma power and connectivity) after cardiac arrest (CA). This study examines electrocorticogram (ECoG) activity and coherence of the dying brain during asphyxial CA. Male Wistar rats (n = 16) were induced with isoflurane anesthesia, which was washed out before asphyxial CA. Mean phase coherence and ECoG power were compared during different stages of the asphyxial period to assess potential neural correlates of consciousness...
April 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398812/fmri-clustering-in-afni-false-positive-rates-redux
#17
Robert W Cox, Gang Chen, Daniel R Glen, Richard C Reynolds, Paul A Taylor
Recent reports of inflated false-positive rates (FPRs) in FMRI group analysis tools by Eklund and associates in 2016 have become a large topic within (and outside) neuroimaging. They concluded that existing parametric methods for determining statistically significant clusters had greatly inflated FPRs ("up to 70%," mainly due to the faulty assumption that the noise spatial autocorrelation function is Gaussian shaped and stationary), calling into question potentially "countless" previous results; in contrast, nonparametric methods, such as their approach, accurately reflected nominal 5% FPRs...
April 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260394/evidence-for-behaviorally-segregated-spatiotemporally-overlapping-subnetworks-in-phantom-sound-perception
#18
Anusha Mohan, Nicole Moreno, Jae-Jin Song, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
One of the most intriguing questions in neuroscience is to understand the mechanism of information transfer between different brain areas. Recently, network theory has gained traction and is at the forefront of providing a possible explanation to not only the mechanism of information transfer but also in the identification of different neuropathologies. The perception of a phantom ringing in the ear called tinnitus, similar to other neuropathologies, has been shown to be accompanied by aberrant functional connectivity between different brain areas...
April 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260392/caudate-precuneus-functional-connectivity-is-associated-with-obesity-preventive-eating-tendency
#19
Yuko Nakamura, Toshikazu Ikuta
There exists diversity among individuals in difficulty controlling body weight. Body weight control, or obesity prevention, requires cognitive control over ingestive behavior, which may account for the diverse ability of body weight control. The caudate nuclei, especially the dorsal area, have been shown to play critical roles in ingestive behaviors, which significantly influences body weight control. However, the practice of body weight control is dependent on the body weight status, because the current obesity status determines the need for body weight control...
April 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177260/graph-theory-at-the-service-of-electroencephalograms
#20
REVIEW
Nantia D Iakovidou
The brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the human body and EEG is a noninvasive electrophysiological monitoring method that is used to record the electrical activity of the brain. Lately, the functional connectivity in human brain has been regarded and studied as a complex network using EEG signals. This means that the brain is studied as a connected system where nodes, or units, represent different specialized brain regions and links, or connections, represent communication pathways between the nodes...
April 2017: Brain Connectivity
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