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Brain Connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707959/interactions-of-the-salience-network-and-its-subsystems-with-the-default-mode-and-the-central-executive-networks-in-normal-aging-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#1
Ganesh B Chand, Junjie Wu, Ihab Hajjar, Deqiang Qiu
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations suggest that the intrinsically organized large-scale networks and the interaction between them might be crucial for cognitive activities. A triple network model, which consists of the default-mode network, salience network, and central-executive network, has been recently used to understand the connectivity patterns of the cognitively normal brains versus the brains with disorders. This model suggests that the salience network dynamically controls the default-mode and central-executive networks in healthy young individuals...
August 10, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782373/correlating-resting-state-functional-mri-connectivity-by-independent-component-analysis-based-epileptogenic-zones-with-intracranial-eeg-localized-seizure-onset-zones-and-surgical-outcomes-in-prospective-pediatric-intractable-epilepsy-study
#2
Varina Boerwinkle, Deepankar Mohanty, Stephen Foldes, Danielle Guffey, Charles G Minard, Lucia Mirea, Aditya Vedantam, Jeffery S Raskin, Sandi Lam, Margaret Bond, P David Adelson, Angus A Wilfong, Daniel J Curry
OBJECTIVE: Prospective investigation determining agreement between the epileptogenic zone(s) (EZ) localization by resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and the seizure onset zone(s) (SOZ) identified by intracranial EEG (ic-EEG) using novel differentiating and ranking criteria of rs-fMRI abnormal independent components in a consecutive heterogeneous pediatric intractable epilepsy population prospectively was conducted. METHODS: The EZ criteria were developed from an initial cohort of 350 patients evaluated for epilepsy surgery over a 3-year period...
August 7, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762756/intranasal-oxytocin-selectively-modulates-large-scale-brain-networks-in-humans
#3
Katja Brodmann, Oliver Gruber, Roberto Goya-Maldonado
A growing body of evidence indicates that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) alters the neural correlates of socio-emotional and salience processing. Yet the effects of OT over important large-scale networks involved in these processes, such as the default mode (DM), ventral attention (VA) and cingulo-opercular (CO) networks, remain unknown. Therefore, we conducted a placebo-controlled crossover study with intranasal 24IU OT in 38 healthy male subjects using a resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) paradigm to investigate its impact over these three candidate networks...
August 1, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747064/graph-lasso-based-test-for-evaluating-functional-brain-connectivity-in-sickle-cell-disease
#4
Julie Coloigner, Ronald Phlypo, Thomas D Coates, Nastasha Lepore, John C Wood
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a vascular disorder that is often associated with recurrent ischemia-reperfusion injury, anemia, vasculopathy and strokes. These cerebral injuries are associated with neurological dysfunction, limiting the full developing potential of the patient. However, recent large studies of SCD have demonstrated that cognitive impairment occurs even in the absence of brain abnormalities on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These observations support an emerging consensus that brain injury in SCD is diffuse and that conventional neuroimaging often underestimates the extent of injury...
July 26, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666395/can-a-resting-state-functional-connectivity-index-identify-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-across-multiple-sites
#5
Keiichi Onoda, Nobuhiro Yada, Kentaro Ozasa, Shinji Hara, Yasushi Yamamoto, Hajime Kitagaki, Shuhei Yamaguchi
Resting-state functional connectivity is one promising biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is still not known how accurately network analysis identifies AD and MCI across multiple sites. In this study, we examined whether resting-state functional connectivity data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) could identify patients with AD and MCI at our site. We implemented an index based on the functional connectivity frequency distribution, and compared performance for AD and MCI identification with multi-voxel pattern analysis...
June 30, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657774/integrative-structural-brain-network-analysis-in-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#6
Moo K Chung, Jamie L Hanson, Nagesh Adluru, Andrew L Alexander, Richard J Davidson, Seth D Pollak
In diffusion tensor imaging, structural connectivity between brain regions is often measured by the number of white matter fiber tracts connecting them. Other features such as the length of tracts or fractional anisotropy (FA) are also used in measuring the strength of connectivity. In this study, we investigated the effects of incorporating the number of tracts, the tract length, and FA values into the connectivity model. Using various node-degree-based graph theory features, the three connectivity models are compared...
June 28, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657344/value-of-frequency-domain-resting-state-fmri-metrics-alff-falff-in-the-assessment-of-brain-tumor-induced-neurovascular-uncoupling
#7
Shruti Agarwal, Hanzhang Lu, Jay J Pillai
AIM: To explore whether the phenomenon of brain tumor-related neurovascular uncoupling (NVU) in resting state BOLD fMRI (rsfMRI) may also affect the rsfMRI frequency domain metrics ALFF (the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation) & fALFF (fractional ALFF). METHODS: Twelve de novo brain tumor patients who underwent clinical fMRI exams including task-based fMRI (tbfMRI) and rsfMRI were included in this IRB-approved study. Each patient displayed decreased/absent tbfMRI activation in the primary ipsilesional sensorimotor cortex in the absence of a corresponding motor deficit or suboptimal task performance, consistent with NVU...
June 28, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657334/large-scale-network-analysis-of-whole-brain-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-spinal-cord-injury-a-comparative-study
#8
Mayank Kaushal, Akinwunmi Oni-Orisan, Gang Chen, Wenjun Li, Jack Leschke, Doug Ward, Benjamin Kalinosky, Matthew Budde, Brain Schmit, Shi-Jiang Li, Vaishnavi Muqeet, Shekar Kurpad
BACKGROUND: Network analysis based on graph theory depicts the brain as a complex network that allows for inspection of overall brain connectivity pattern and calculation of quantifiable network metrics. To date, large-scale network analysis has not been applied to resting-state functional networks in complete spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. OBJECTIVE: To characterize modular reorganization of whole brain into constituent nodes and compare network metrics between SCI and control subjects...
June 28, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554230/transcutaneous-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-alters-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#9
Lauren Schweizer, Christine H Meyer-Frieβem, Peter K Zahn, Martin Tegenthoff, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke
Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a noninvasive method that can modulate spinal reflexes, sensory afferent conduction, and even pain perception. Although neurophysiological evidence suggests that tsDCS alters somatosensory and nociceptive afferent conduction to the cortex, its supraspinal effects have not yet been investigated by using functional imaging to investigate tsDCS-induced alterations in intrinsic functional connectivity (FC). Therefore, we hypothesize that tsDCS-induced changes in neurophysiological measures might also be reflected in spontaneous brain activity...
June 28, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583034/aging-related-microstructural-alterations-along-the-length-of-the-cingulum-bundle
#10
Francesca Sibilia, Elizabeth Grace Kehoe, Dervla Farrell, Christian Kerskens, Desmond O'Neill, Jonathan Paul McNulty, Paul Gerald Mullins, Arun Bokde
The aim of this study was to investigate the aging-related structural changes of the cingulum, one of the major components of the limbic network, which has a critical role in emotion, attention and memory. 35 healthy young adults (22.3 ± 2.7 years) and 33 healthy older adults (69.5 ± 3.5 years) were recruited. Diffusion weighted imaging data were acquired with a b-value = 2000 s/mm2, 61 diffusion directions and 4 non-weighted images. The fiber directions in each voxel were based on the constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) model...
June 5, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540741/fine-grained-parcellation-of-brain-connectivity-improves-differentiation-of-states-of-consciousness-during-graded-propofol-sedation
#11
Xiaolin Liu, Kathryn K Lauer, Doug Ward, Christopher Roberts, Suyan Liu, Gollapudy Suneeta, Robert Rohloff, William Gross, Zhan Xu, Guangyu Chen, Jeff Binder, Shi-Jiang Li, Anthony G Hudetz
Conscious perception relies on interactions between spatially and functionally distinct modules of the brain at various spatiotemporal scales. These interactions are altered by anesthesia - an intervention that leads to fading consciousness. Relatively little is known about brain functional connectivity and its anesthetic modulation at a fine spatial scale. Here, we used functional imaging to examine propofol-induced changes in functional connectivity in brain networks defined at a fine-grained parcellation based on a combination of anatomical and functional features...
May 25, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595456/altered-brain-wiring-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-structural-connectome-based-analysis
#12
Apurva Shah, Abhishek Lenka, Jitender Saini, Shivali Wagle, Rajini M Naduthota, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Kumar Pal, Madhura Ingalhalikar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects the motor system. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has demonstrated deficits in anisotropy as well as increased diffusivity in the sub-cortical structures, primarily in the substantia nigra in PD. However, the clinical spectrum of PD is not limited to motor symptoms; rather, it encompasses several nonmotor symptoms such as depression, psychosis, olfactory dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. These nonmotor symptoms underscore PD as a complex neurological disorder arising from dysfunction of several network components...
August 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520468/the-hierarchy-of-brain-networks-is-related-to-insulin-growth-factor-1-in-a-large-middle-aged-healthy-cohort-an-exploratory-magnetoencephalography-study
#13
Pierpaolo Sorrentino, Dagmar Nieboer, Jos W R Twisk, Cornelis J Stam, Linda Douw, Arjan Hillebrand
Recently, a large study demonstrated that lower serum levels of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) relate to brain atrophy and to a greater risk for developing Alzheimer's disease in a healthy elderly population. We set out to test if functional brain networks relate to IGF-1 levels in the middle aged. Hence, we studied the association between IGF-1 and magnetoencephalography-based functional network characteristics in a middle-aged population. The functional connections between brain areas were estimated for six frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta, gamma) using the phase lag index...
June 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506079/the-neural-correlates-of-emotional-lability-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Randi H Bennett, Krishna Somandepalli, Amy K Roy, Adriana Di Martino
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is exceptionally heterogeneous in both clinical and physiopathological presentations. Clinical variability applies to ASD-specific symptoms and frequent comorbid psychopathology such as emotional lability (EL). To date, the physiopathological underpinnings of the co-occurrence of EL and ASD are unknown. As a first step, we examined within-ASD inter-individual variability of EL and its neuronal correlates using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI). We analyzed R-fMRI data from 58 children diagnosed with ASD (5-12 years) in relation to the Conners' Parent Rating Scale EL index...
June 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494616/breakdown-of-thalamo-cortical-connectivity-precedes-spike-generation-in-focal-epilepsies
#15
Vitalie Chiosa, Stanislav A Groppa, Dumitru Ciolac, Nabin Koirala, Liudmila Mişina, Yaroslav Winter, Maria Moldovanu, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa
Electroencephalography (EEG) spikes and focal epileptic seizures are generated in circumscribed cerebral networks that have been insufficiently described. For precise time and spatial domain network characterization, we applied in patients with focal epilepsy dense array 256-channel EEG recordings with causal connectivity estimation by using time-resolved partial directed coherence and 3T-magnetic resonance imaging-derived cortical and thalamus integrity reconstruction. Before spike generation, significant theta and alpha bands driven information flows alterations were noted from both temporal and frontal lobes to the thalamus and from the thalamus to the frontal lobe...
June 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486817/altered-network-topology-in-patients-with-primary-brain-tumors-after-fractionated-radiotherapy
#16
Naeim Bahrami, Tyler M Seibert, Roshan Karunamuni, Hauke Bartsch, AnithaPriya Krishnan, Nikdokht Farid, Jona A Hattangadi-Gluth, Carrie R McDonald
Radiation therapy (RT) is a critical treatment modality for patients with brain tumors, although it can cause adverse effects. Recent data suggest that brain RT is associated with dose-dependent cortical atrophy, which could disrupt neocortical networks. This study examines whether brain RT affects structural network properties in brain tumor patients. We applied graph theory to MRI-derived cortical thickness estimates of 54 brain tumor patients before and after RT. Cortical surfaces were parcellated into 68 regions and correlation matrices were created for patients pre- and post-RT...
June 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478685/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-social-anxiety-disorder-evidence-for-a-dimensional-approach
#17
Liron Rabany, Gretchen J Diefenbach, Laura B Bragdon, Brian P Pittman, Luis Zertuche, David F Tolin, John W Goethe, Michal Assaf
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are currently considered distinct diagnostic categories. Accumulating data suggest the study of anxiety disorders may benefit from the use of dimensional conceptualizations. One such dimension of shared dysfunction is emotion regulation (ER). The current study evaluated dimensional (ER) and categorical (diagnosis) neurocorrelates of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in participants with GAD and SAD and healthy controls (HC). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) rsFC was estimated between all regions of the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and bilateral amygdala (N = 37: HC-19; GAD-10; SAD-8)...
June 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462586/infraslow-electroencephalographic-and-dynamic-resting-state-network-activity
#18
Joshua K Grooms, Garth J Thompson, Wen-Ju Pan, Jacob Billings, Eric H Schumacher, Charles M Epstein, Shella D Keilholz
A number of studies have linked the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in traditional frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ), but the relationship between BOLD and its direct frequency correlates in the infraslow band (<1 Hz) has been little studied. Previously, work in rodents showed that infraslow local field potentials play a role in functional connectivity, particularly in the dynamic organization of large-scale networks. To examine the relationship between infraslow activity and network dynamics in humans, direct current (DC) EEG and resting state magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired simultaneously...
June 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462585/pramipexole-modulates-interregional-connectivity-within-the-sensorimotor-network
#19
Zheng Ye, Anke Hammer, Thomas F Münte
Pramipexole is widely prescribed to treat Parkinson's disease but has been reported to cause impulse control disorders such as pathological gambling. Recent neurocomputational models suggested that D2 agonists may distort functional connections between the striatum and the motor cortex, resulting in impaired reinforcement learning and pathological gambling. To examine how D2 agonists modulate the striatal-motor connectivity, we carried out a pharmacological resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study with a double-blind randomized within-subject crossover design...
May 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443736/brain-resting-state-functional-connectivity-is-preserved-under-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-patients-with-pervasive-developmental-disorders-a-pilot-study
#20
Lakshmikumar Venkatraghavan, Suparna Bharadwaj, Vincent Wourms, Audrey Tan, Michael T Jurkiewicz, David J Mikulis, Adrian P Crawley
Functional connectivity studies play a huge role in understanding the relationship between the network connections and the behavioral phenotype of patients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Some patients with PDD may not be able to tolerate the imaging procedure while they are awake, and, hence, they often need general anesthesia. General anesthesia is a confounding factor in functional imaging studies due to its effect on the functional connectivity. The objective of this study is to look at the resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with PDDs...
May 2017: Brain Connectivity
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