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Brain Connectivity

Myrle Mariska Stouten-Kemperman, Michiel B de Ruiter, Willem Boogerd, J Martijn Kerst, Clemens Kirschbaum, Liesbeth Reneman, Sanne B Schagen
Chemotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) has been associated with neurotoxic effects shortly post treatment. Late effects of chemotherapy on brain function in this patient group are still unknown. Here we investigated differences between patients with and without chemotherapy in functional brain networks at rest and during an affective processing fMRI task on average >14 years post-treatment. In addition we report on changes in cognitive functioning during survivorship by comparing current and previous performance on a neuropschological test battery on average 11 years earlier (3 years posttreatment)...
July 12, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Richard H Chen, Takuya Ito, Kaustubh R Kulkarni, Michael W Cole
Much of our lives are spent in unconstrained rest states, yet cognitive brain processes are primarily investigated using task-constrained states. It may be possible to utilize the insights gained from experimental control of task processes as reference points for investigating unconstrained rest. To facilitate comparison of rest and task functional MRI data we focused on activation amplitude patterns, commonly used for task but not rest analyses. During rest, we identified spontaneous changes in temporally extended whole-brain activation-pattern states...
July 12, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Shaminta Hamidian, Behroze Vachha, Mehrnaz Jenabi, Sasan Karimi, Robert J Young, Andrei I Holodny, Kyung K Peck
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The primary hand motor region is classically believed to be in the "hand knob" area in the precentral gyrus (PCG). However, hand motor task-based activation is often localized outside this area. The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural and functional connectivity driven by different seed locations corresponding to the little, index, and thumb in the PCG using probabilistic diffusion tractography (PDT) and resting state fMRI (rfMRI). METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects had three ROIs placed the left PCG: lateral to the hand knob (thumb area), within the hand knob (index finger area), and medial to the hand knob (little finger area)...
July 10, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Eva Mennigen, Susanna L Fryer, Barnaly Rashid, Eswar Damaraju, Yuhui Du, Rachel L Loewy, Barbara K Stuart, Vince D Calhoun, Daniel H Mathalon
Schizophrenia shows abnormal dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC), but it is unclear whether these abnormalities are present early in the illness course or precede illness onset in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. We examined dFNC from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in CHR (n = 53), early illness schizophrenia (ESZ; n = 58), and healthy control (HC; n = 70) individuals. We applied a sliding temporal window approach capturing five distinct dFNC states...
July 5, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Shelli Kesler, Robert Ogg, Wilburn Reddick, Nicholoas Phillips, Matthew Scoggins, John Glass, Yin Cheung, Ching-Hon Pui, Leslie Robison, Melissa Hudson, Kevin Krull
Chemotherapeutic agents used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common cancer affecting young children, have been associated with long-term cognitive impairments that reduce quality of life. Executive dysfunction is one of the most consistently observed deficits and can have substantial and pervasive effects on academic success, occupational achievement, psychosocial function and psychiatric status. We examined the neural mechanisms of executive dysfunction by measuring structural and functional connectomes in 161 long-term survivors of pediatric ALL age 8-21 years who were treated on a single contemporary chemotherapy-only protocol for standard/high or low risk disease...
June 25, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Pubuditha Abeyasinghe, Demetrius Ribeiro de Paula, Sina Khajehabdollahi, Sree Ram Valluri, Adrian Owen, Andrea Soddu
There is accumulating evidence that spontaneous fluctuations of the brain are sustained by a structural architecture of axonal fiber bundles. Various models have been employed to investigate this structure-function relationship. In this work, we implemented the Ising model using the number of fibers between each pair of brain regions as input. The output of the Ising model simulations on a structural connectome was then compared with empirical functional connectivity data. A simpler 2-dimensional classical Ising model was used as the baseline model for comparison purpose...
June 23, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Anna Lisowska, Islem Rekik
Diagnosis of brain dementia, particularly early mild cognitive impairment (eMCI), is critical for early intervention to prevent the onset of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), where cognitive decline is severe and irreversible. There is a large body of machine-learning based research investigating how dementia alters brain connectivity, mainly using structural (derived from diffusion MRI) and functional (derived from resting-state functional MRI) brain connectomic data. However, how early dementia affects cortical brain connections in morphology remains largely unexplored...
June 21, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Sheeba Arnold Anteraper, Xavier Guell, Anila D'Mello, Neha Joshi, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Gagan Joshi
OBJECTIVES: To examine the resting-state functional-connectivity (RsFc) in young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) using state-of-the-art fMRI data acquisition and analysis techniques. METHODS: Simultaneous multi-slice, high temporal resolution fMRI acquisition; unbiased whole-brain connectome-wide multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) techniques for assessing RsFc; and post-hoc whole-brain seed-to-voxel analyses using MVPA results as seeds...
June 13, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Hesamoddin Jahanian, Thomas Christen, Michael E Moseley, Greg Zaharchuk
In resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), functional networks are assessed utilizing the temporal correlation between spontaneous Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations of spatially remote brain regions. Recently, several groups have shown that temporal shifts are present in rs-fMRI maps in patients with cerebrovascular disease due to spatial differences in arterial arrival times, and that this can be exploited to map arrival times in the brain. This suggests that rs-fMRI connectivity mapping may be similarly sensitive to such temporal shifts, and that standard rs-fMRI analysis methods may fail to identify functional connectivity networks...
June 11, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Nan-Kuei Chen, Ying-Hui Chou, Mark Sundman, Patrick Hickey, Willard S Kasoff, Adam Bernstein, Theodore P Trouard, Tanya Lin, Steven Z Rapcsak, Scott J Sherman, Carol Weingarten
Many non-motor symptoms (e.g., hyposmia) appear years before the cardinal motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is thus desirable to be able to use noninvasive brain imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to detect brain abnormalities in early PD stages. Among the MRI modalities, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is suitable for detecting changes of brain tissue structure due to neurological diseases. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether DTI signals measured from brain regions involved in early stages of PD differ from those of healthy controls...
June 7, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Dídac Macià, Jesus Pujol, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Rocío Martín-Santos, Joan Deus
There is ample evidence from basic research in neuroscience of the importance of local corticocortical networks. Millimetric resolution is achievable with current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanners and sequences, and consequently a number of "local" activity similarity measures have been defined to describe patterns of segregation and integration at this spatial scale. We have introduced the use of IsoDistant Average Correlation (IDAC), easily defined as the average fMRI temporal correlation of a given voxel with other voxels placed at increasingly separated isodistant intervals, to characterize the curve of local fMRI signal similarities...
June 7, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Petra Zemankova, Jan Losak, Kristina Czekoova, Ovidiu Lungu, Martin Jani, Tomas Kasparek, Martin Bares
Patients with schizophrenia often demonstrate impairment in social-cognitive functions as well as disturbances in large-scale network connectivity. The ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is a core region of the default mode network, with projections to limbic structures. It plays an important role in social and emotional decision making. We investigated whether resting-state functional connectivity (FC) relates to the cognitive and affective domains of Theory of mind (ToM). Twenty-three schizophrenia patients (SCH) and 19 healthy controls (HC) underwent resting-state fMRI scanning...
June 5, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Michael T Jurkiewicz, Adrian P Crawley, David J Mikulis
Numerous studies have identified the default mode network (DMN) within the brain of healthy individuals, which has been attributed to the ongoing mental activity of the brain during the wakeful resting-state. While engaged during specific resting-state fMRI paradigms, it remains unclear as to whether traditional block-design simple movement fMRI experiments significantly influence the default mode network or other areas. Using blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI we characterized the pattern of functional connectivity in healthy subjects during a resting-state paradigm and compared this to the same resting-state analysis performed on motor task data residual time courses after regressing out the task paradigm...
April 18, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Seul Lee, Jonathan R Polimeni, Collin M Price, Brian L Edlow, Jennifer A McNab
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-FMRI) has been widely used to map brain functional connectivity, but it is unclear how to probe connectivity within and around lesions. Here we characterize RS-FMRI signal time-course properties and evaluate different seed placements within and around hemorrhagic traumatic axonal injury lesions. RS-FMRI was performed on a 7 Tesla scanner in a patient who recovered consciousness after traumatic coma and in three healthy controls. Eleven lesions in the patient were characterized in terms of: 1) temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR); 2) physiological noise, through comparison of noise regressors derived from the white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and gray matter (GM); and 3) seed-based functional connectivity...
April 18, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Derek M Smith, Yrian Zhao, Shella D Keilholz, Eric H Schumacher
Dynamic functional connectivity metrics have much to offer to the neuroscience of individual differences of cognition. Yet, despite the recent expansion in dynamic connectivity research, limited resources have been devoted to the study of the reliability of these connectivity measures. To address this, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 100 Human Connectome Project subjects were compared across 2 scan days. Brain states (i.e., patterns of coactivity across regions) were identified by classifying each time frame using k means clustering...
June 2018: Brain Connectivity
Casey Paquola, Maxwell R Bennett, Jim Lagopoulos
Structural covariance networks (SCNs) may offer unique insights into the developmental impact of childhood maltreatment (CM) because they are thought to reflect coordinated maturation of distinct gray matter regions. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 121 young people with emerging mental illness. Diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional imaging was also acquired from a random subset of participants (n = 62). Ten study-specific SCNs were identified using a whole-brain gray matter independent component analysis...
June 2018: Brain Connectivity
Ranjit Arulnayagam Thuraisingham
Statistical parameters that measure strength, integration, and segregation of a multichannel electroencephalograph (EEG) network are evaluated using a similarity measure based on mutual information (MI) between the measured channel data. Compared with the unsigned linear correlation coefficient, MI is more robust to volume conduction and is applicable to nonlinear data. The statistical parameters estimated are node strength, average path length, and clustering coefficient. These parameters provide valuable insights into the brain network of the subject...
June 2018: Brain Connectivity
Shiyang Chen, Xiaoping Hu
Individual identification based on brain function has gained traction in literature. Investigating individual differences in brain function can provide additional insights into the brain. In this work, we introduce a recurrent neural network-based model for identifying individuals based on only a short segment of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. In addition, we demonstrate how the global signal and differences in atlases affect individual identifiability. Furthermore, we investigate neural network features that exhibit the uniqueness of each individual...
May 2018: Brain Connectivity
Jared A Rowland, Jennifer R Stapleton-Kotloski, Dorothy L Dobbins, Emily Rogers, Dwayne W Godwin, Katherine H Taber
Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in active duty and veteran cohorts have both demonstrated that deployment-acquired traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an independent risk factor for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), beyond confounds such as combat exposure, physical injury, predeployment TBI, and pre-deployment psychiatric symptoms. This study investigated how resting-state brain networks differ between individuals who developed PTSD and those who did not following deployment-acquired TBI...
May 2018: Brain Connectivity
Anna M Wirth, Sebastian M Frank, Mark W Greenlee, Anton L Beer
The parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) and the posterior insular cortex (PIC) are key regions of the cortical vestibular network, both located in the midposterior section of the lateral sulcus. Little is known about the structural connectivity pattern of these areas. We used probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and compared the ipsilateral connectivity of PIVC and PIC. Seed areas for the tracking algorithm were identified in each brain by functional MRI activity during caloric and visual motion stimulation, respectively...
May 2018: Brain Connectivity
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