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Brain Connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338310/therapy-induced-plasticity-in-chronic-aphasia-is-associated-with-behavioral-improvement-and-time-since-stroke
#1
Priya Santhanam, E Susan Duncan, Steven L Small
Cortical reorganization after stroke is thought to underlie functional improvement. Patterns of reorganization may differ depending on the amount of time since the stroke or the degree of improvement. We investigated these issues in a study of brain connectivity changes with aphasia therapy. Twelve individuals with chronic aphasia participated in a 6-week trial of imitation-based speech therapy. We assessed improvement on a repetition test and analyzed effective connectivity during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of a speech observation task before and after therapy...
January 16, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291634/revisiting-the-functional-and-structural-connectivity-of-large-scale-cortical-networks
#2
Tien-Wen Lee, Shao-Wei Xue
Multi-modal neuroimaging research has become increasingly popular, and structure-function correspondence is tacitly assumed. Researchers have not yet adequately assessed whether the functional connectivity (FC) and structural connectivity (SC) of large-scale cortical networks are in agreement. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), resting-state functional MRI (rfMRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) datasets from 36 healthy subjects (age 27.4) were selected from a Rockland sample (Enhanced Nathan Kline Institute)...
January 1, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291624/whole-brain-connectivity-in-a-large-study-of-huntington-s-disease-gene-mutation-carriers-and-healthy-controls
#3
Flor A Espinoza, Jessica A Turner, Victor M Vergara, Robyn L Miller, Eva Mennigen, Jingyu Liu, Maria B Misiura, Jennifer Ciarochi, Hans J Johnson, Jeffrey D Long, Henry J Bockholt, Vincent A Magnota, Jane S Paulsen, Vince D Calhoun
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited brain disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions. It is caused by abnormally large trinucleotide cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat expansions on exon 1 of the Huntingtin gene. CAG repeat length (CAG-RL) inversely correlates with an earlier age of onset. Region-based studies have shown that Huntington's disease gene mutation carriers (HDgmc) individuals (CAG-RL ≥ 36) present functional connectivity (FC) alterations in subcortical and default mode networks...
January 1, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237276/differential-effects-of-left-and-right-prefrontal-high-frequency-rtms-on-resting-state-fmri-in-healthy-individuals
#4
Renee S Schluter, Jochem M Jansen, Ruth J van Holst, Wim van den Brink, Anna E Goudriaan
High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) has gained great interest in multiple clinical and research fields and is believed to accomplish its effect by influencing neuronal networks. The dlPFC is frequently chosen as the cortical target for HF-rTMS. However very little is known about the differential effect of HF-rTMS over the left and right dlPFC on intrinsic functional connectivity networks in patients or in healthy individuals. The current study assessed the differential effects of left or right HF-rTMS (corrected for sham) on intrinsic Independent Component Analysis (ICA) defined functional connectivity networks in a sample of 45 healthy individuals...
December 14, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226709/enhanced-brain-network-activity-in-complex-movement-rhythms-a-simultaneous-fmri-eeg-study
#5
Bhim Mani Adhikari, Charles M Epstein, Mukesh Dhamala
Generating movement rhythms is known to involve a network of distributed brain regions associated with motor planning, control, execution, and perception of timing for the repertoire of motor actions. What brain areas are bound in the network and how the network activity is modulated by rhythmic complexity have not been completely explored. To contribute to answering these questions, we designed a study in which nine healthy participants performed simple to complex rhythmic finger movement tasks while undergoing simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography (fMRI-EEG) recordings of their brain activity during the tasks and rest...
December 10, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226703/sex-differences-in-the-relationship-between-global-advantage-lateralization-and-inter-hemispheric-connectivity-in-a-navon-paradigm
#6
Belinda Pletzer, TiAnni Harris
Sex, stimulus material and attention condition have previously been related to global advantage (faster responses to global targets than to local targets), as well as lateralization during global-local processing. It is presumed that the lateralization of brain functions is either related to the inhibitory influence of the dominant on the non-dominant hemisphere or reduced excitation between hemispheres. However, a direct relationship between the global advantage and lateralization, as well as inter-hemispheric connectivity has not been previously established...
December 10, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226700/retrospective-correction-of-physiological-noise-impact-on-sensitivity-specificity-and-reproducibility-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-a-reading-network-model
#7
Venkatagiri Krishnamurthy, Lisa C Krishnamurthy, Dina M Schwam, Ashley Ealey, Jaemin Shin, Daphne Greenberg, Robin D Morris
It is well accepted that physiological noise (PN) obscures the detection of neural fluctuations in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) MRI. However, a clear consensus for an optimal PN correction (PNC) methodology and how it can impact the rsFC signal characteristics is still lacking. In this study, we probe the impact of three PNC methods: RETROICOR: (Glover, et al. 2000), ANATICOR: (Jo, et al. 2010), and RVTMBPM: (Bianciardi, et al. 2009). Using a reading network model, we systematically explore the effects of PNC optimization on sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of rsFC signals...
December 10, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226689/simultaneous-multi-slice-resting-state-fmri-at-3-tesla-slice-acceleration-related-biases-in-physiological-effects
#8
Ali M Golestani, Zahra Faraji-Dana, M Aras Kayvanrad, Kawin Setsompop, Simon Graham, J Jean Chen
Simultaneous multi-slice echo-planar imaging (EPI) can enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) by encoding and simultaneously imaging "groups" of slices. However, phenomena including respiration, cardiac pulsatility, respiration volume per time (RVT) and cardiac-rate variation (CRV), referred to as "physiological processes", impact SMS-EPI rs-fMRI in a manner that has yet to be well characterized. In particular, physiological noise may incur aliasing and introduce spurious signals from one slice into another within the "slice-group" in rs-fMRI data, resulting in a deleterious effect on resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) maps...
December 10, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212344/results-obtained-by-combining-different-estimators-of-eeg-connectivity-become-uninterpretable-if-the-underlying-models-are-incompatible
#9
Thomas Koenig, Pedro A Valdes-Sosa
We comment on a recent paper published in Brain Connectivity (Hatz et al. 2016) that combined EEG microstate analysis with the phase locking index and found that the test-retest reliability of connectivity patterns as obtained by the phase locking index increased when the data had been previously parcellated into microstates. While we acknowledge the need to parcellate the continuous data into periods that supposedly correspond to transiently stable patterns of connectivity, we believe that the approach chosen by the authors is seriously mistaken...
December 6, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161884/accounting-for-non-gaussian-sources-of-spatial-correlation-in-parametric-fmri-paradigms-ii-a-method-to-obtain-first-level-analysis-residuals-with-uniform-and-gaussian-spatial-autocorrelation-function-and-independent-and-identically-distributed-time-series
#10
Kaundinya Gopinath, Venkatagiri Krishnamurthy, Simon Lacey, K Sathian
A recent study (Eklund et al., 2016) has shown that cluster-wise family-wise error (FWE) rate corrected inferences made in parametric statistical methods based fMRI studies over the past couple of decades may have been invalid, particularly for cluster defining thresholds less stringent than p < 0.001; principally because the spatial autocorrelation functions (sACF) of fMRI data had been modeled incorrectly to follow a Gaussian form, whereas empirical data suggests otherwise (Eklund et al., 2016). Hence the residuals from general linear model (GLM) based fMRI activation estimates in these studies may not have possessed a homogenously Gaussian sACF (Eklund et al...
November 22, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160088/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-to-limbic-associative-and-motor-networks
#11
Sheeba Arnold Anteraper, Xavier Guell, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Christina Triantafyllou, Aaron Mattfeld, John D Gabrieli, Maiya Geddes
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a small structure situated deep in the mid-brain that exhibits wide-ranging functionality. In addition to its role in motor control, the STN is considered a hub for synchronizing aspects of emotion and cognition including attention, inhibitory control, motivation, and working memory. Evidence from neuroanatomical tracer studies suggests that the medial, ventromedial, and dorsolateral parts of the STN correspond to limbic, associative, and motor subdivisions respectively. While the extent of STN functional anatomical overlap remains unclear, BOLD imaging of the STN may provide complementary information about the diverse functions of this structure...
November 21, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152994/decreased-connectivity-and-increased-bold-complexity-in-the-default-mode-network-in-individuals-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#12
Zack Y Shan, Kevin Finegan, Sandeep Bhuta, Timothy Ireland, Donald R Staines, Sonya M Marshall-Gradisnik, Leighton R Barnden
The chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS) is a debilitating disease with unknown pathophysiology and no diagnostic test. This study investigated the default mode network (DMN) in order to understand the pathophysiology of CFS and to identify potential biomarkers. Using functional MRI (fMRI) collected from 72 subjects (45 CFS and 27 controls) with a temporal resolution of 0.798s, we evaluated the default mode network using static functional connectivity (FC), dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) and DFC complexity, blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps and complexity of activity...
November 20, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938855/electroencephalographic-resting-state-networks-source-localization-of-microstates
#13
Anna Custo, Dimitri Van De Ville, William M Wells, Miralena I Tomescu, Denis Brunet, Christoph M Michel
Using electroencephalography (EEG) to elucidate the spontaneous activation of brain resting-state networks (RSNs) is nontrivial as the signal of interest is of low amplitude and it is difficult to distinguish the underlying neural sources. Using the principles of electric field topographical analysis, it is possible to estimate the meta-stable states of the brain (i.e., the resting-state topographies, so-called microstates). We estimated seven resting-state topographies explaining the EEG data set with k-means clustering (N = 164, 256 electrodes)...
November 17, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130326/resting-state-network-functional-connectivity-patterns-associated-with-the-mindful-attention-awareness-scale
#14
Elena Bilevicius, Stephen D Smith, Jennifer Kornelsen
Mindfulness refers to attending to moment-to-moment experiences with acceptance and no judgment. Several scales have been developed to quantify different components of mindfulness. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) is particularly sensitive to trait mindfulness and is proposed to measure the attentional component of mindfulness. The purpose of the current study was to identify the neural correlates of the MAAS in four resting state networks related to attention-the default mode network (DMN), the salience network (SN), and the left and right central executive network (lCEN and rCEN)...
November 12, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117709/detecting-perfusion-pattern-based-on-the-background-low-frequency-fluctuation-in-resting-state-functional-mri-data-and-its-influence-on-resting-state-networks-an-iterative-post-processing-approach
#15
Tianyi Qian, Davide Zanchi, Cristelle Rodriguez, Marine Ackermann, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Sven Haller
INTRODUCTION: RS-fMRI is based on the assumption that the vascular response and the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response are homogenous across the entire brain. However, this a priori hypothesis is not consistent with the well-known variability of cerebral vascular territories. In order to explore whether the RS networks are influenced by varied vascular speed in different vascular territories, we assessed the time-shift maps that give an estimate of the local timing of the vascular response and check whether local differences in this timing have an impact on the estimates of RS networks...
November 8, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065697/altered-functional-connectivity-between-precuneus-and-motor-systems-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#16
Raissa Benocci Thibes, Natalia P Novaes, Leandro T Lucato, Kenia R Campanholo, Luciano M Melo, Claudia C Leite, Edson Amaro, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, Ellison Fernando Cardoso, João Ricardo Sato
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects motor skills and cognition. As brain structure and function are compromised, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be a helpful tool to further investigate how intrinsic connectivity is impaired on the disease. The precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex are hub regions involved on the Default Mode Network, a system which is active during rest and related to cognitive processes. We hypothesized that PD patients would present a decrease in functional connectivity amongst these two regions and the rest of the brain...
October 25, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065696/enhanced-white-matter-integrity-in-corpus-callosum-of-long-term-brahmakumaris-rajayoga-meditators
#17
Kanishka Sharma, Richa Trivedi, Ashok Kumar Dubey, Kavita Singh, Pawan Kumar, Prabhjot Kaur, Sushil Chandra, Subash Khushu
Meditation has a versatile nature to affect the cognitive functioning of human brain. Recent researches demonstrated its effects on white matter properties of the human brain. In this research, we aim to investigate white matter microstructure of corpus callosum (CC) in long-term meditators (LTM) of rajayoga meditation using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). For this cross-sectional analysis, twenty-two LTM and seventeen control participants of age ranged (30-50 yrs.) were recruited. Results show high fractional anisotropy (FA) values with low mean diffusivity (MD) in whole as well as different segments of CC in LTM group...
October 25, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967282/resting-state-functional-connectivity-signature-of-treatment-effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-mal-de-debarquement-syndrome
#18
Han Yuan, Guofa Shou, Diamond Gleghorn, Lei Ding, Yoon-Hee Cha
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used in experimental protocols to treat mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS), a neurological condition that represents a maladaptive brain state resulting from entrainment to external oscillating motion. Medical treatments and biomarkers for MdDS remain limited but neuromodulation with rTMS has shown evidence for therapeutic effects. This study took a neuroimaging approach to examine the neuromodulatory effect of rTMS on MdDS. Twenty individuals with MdDS underwent five daily treatments of rTMS over bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
November 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954523/functional-connectivity-parcellation-of-the-human-thalamus-by-independent-component-analysis
#19
Sheng Zhang, Chiang-Shan R Li
As a key structure to relay and integrate information, the thalamus supports multiple cognitive and affective functions through the connectivity between its subnuclei and cortical and subcortical regions. Although extant studies have largely described thalamic regional functions in anatomical terms, evidence accumulates to suggest a more complex picture of subareal activities and connectivities of the thalamus. In this study, we aimed to parcellate the thalamus and examine whole-brain connectivity of its functional clusters...
November 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950708/exploring-the-associations-between-intrinsic-brain-connectivity-and-creative-ability-using-functional-connectivity-strength-and-connectome-analysis
#20
Zhenni Gao, Delong Zhang, Aiying Liang, Bishan Liang, Zengjian Wang, Yuxuan Cai, Junchao Li, Mengxia Gao, Xiaojin Liu, Song Chang, Bingqing Jiao, Ruiwang Huang, Ming Liu
The present study aimed to explore the association between resting-state functional connectivity and creativity ability. Toward this end, the figural Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) scores were collected from 180 participants. Based on the figural TTCT measures, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data for participants with two different levels of creativity ability (a high-creativity group [HG, n = 22] and a low-creativity group [LG, n = 20]). For the aspect of group difference, this study combined voxel-wise functional connectivity strength (FCS) and seed-based functional connectivity to identify brain regions with group-change functional connectivity...
November 2017: Brain Connectivity
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