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Brain Connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443736/brain-resting-state-functional-connectivity-is-preserved-under-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-patients-with-pervasive-developmental-disorders-a-pilot-study
#1
Lakshmikumar Venkat Raghavan, Suparna Bharadwaj, Vincent Wourms, Audrey Tan, Michael T Jurkiewicz, David J Mikulis, Adrian P Crawley
Background Functional connectivity studies play a huge role in understanding the relationship between the network connections and the behavioral phenotype of patients with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). However, some patients with PDD may not tolerate the imaging procedure while awake and they often need general anesthesia. General anesthesia is a confounding factor in functional imaging studies due to its effect on the functional connectivity. The objective of this study is to look at the resting state functional connectivity (RS-FC) under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with pervasive developmental disorders...
April 26, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316255/a-bayesian-double-fusion-model-for-resting-state-brain-connectivity-using-joint-functional-and-structural-data
#2
Hakmook Kang, Hernando Ombao, Christopher Fonnesbeck, Zhaohua Ding, Victoria L Morgan
Current approaches separately analyze concurrently acquired diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The primary limitation of these approaches is that they do not take advantage of the information from DTI that could potentially enhance estimation of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between brain regions. To overcome this limitation, we develop a Bayesian hierarchical spatiotemporal model that incorporates structural connectivity (SC) into estimating FC...
April 24, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363248/the-resting-state-fmri-regional-homogeneity-reho-metrics-kcc-reho-cohe-reho-are-valid-indicators-of-tumor-related-neurovascular-uncoupling
#3
Shruti Agarwal, Haris I Sair, Jay J Pillai
AIM: To determine whether regional homogeneity (ReHo) of resting state BOLD fMRI (rsfMRI) data based on Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC-ReHo) & Coherence (Cohe-ReHo) metrics may allow detection of brain tumor-induced NVU in the sensorimotor network similar to findings in standard motor task-based BOLD fMRI (tbfMRI) activation. METHODS: Twelve de novo brain tumor patients undergoing clinical fMRI exams (tbfMRI and rsfMRI) were included in this IRB-approved study...
March 31, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316248/assessing-the-impact-of-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-on-resting-state-function-networks-in-a-military-chronic-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-sample
#4
Dominic E Nathan, Julie F Bellgowan, Louis M French, Jonathan P Wolf, Terry Oakes, Jeannine B Mielke, Elyssa B Sham, Wei Liu, Gerard Riedy
The relationship between post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is difficult to discern and poorly understood. An accurate differential diagnosis, assessment and treatment of mTBI and PTSD is challenging due to significant symptom overlap and the absence of clearly established biomarkers. The objective of this work is to examine how post traumatic stress influences task-free brain networks in chronic mTBI subjects. Control subjects (N=44) were compared with chronic mTBI subjects with low (N=58, PCLC total<30), medium (N=124, PCLC total = 31-49) and high (N=105, PCLC total ≥ 60) post traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)...
March 19, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398813/neural-correlates-of-consciousness-at-near-electrocerebral-silence-in-an-asphyxial-cardiac-arrest-model
#5
Donald E Lee, Lauren G Lee, Danny Siu, Afsheen K Bazrafkan, Maryam H Farahabadi, Tin J Dinh, Josue Orellana, Wei Xiong, Beth A Lopour, Yama Akbari
Recent electrophysiological studies have suggested surges in electrical correlates of consciousness (i.e., elevated gamma power and connectivity) after cardiac arrest (CA). This study examines electrocorticogram (ECoG) activity and coherence of the dying brain during asphyxial CA. Male Wistar rats (n = 16) were induced with isoflurane anesthesia, which was washed out before asphyxial CA. Mean phase coherence and ECoG power were compared during different stages of the asphyxial period to assess potential neural correlates of consciousness...
April 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398812/fmri-clustering-in-afni-false-positive-rates-redux
#6
Robert W Cox, Gang Chen, Daniel R Glen, Richard C Reynolds, Paul A Taylor
Recent reports of inflated false-positive rates (FPRs) in FMRI group analysis tools by Eklund and associates in 2016 have become a large topic within (and outside) neuroimaging. They concluded that existing parametric methods for determining statistically significant clusters had greatly inflated FPRs ("up to 70%," mainly due to the faulty assumption that the noise spatial autocorrelation function is Gaussian shaped and stationary), calling into question potentially "countless" previous results; in contrast, nonparametric methods, such as their approach, accurately reflected nominal 5% FPRs...
April 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260394/evidence-for-behaviorally-segregated-spatiotemporally-overlapping-subnetworks-in-phantom-sound-perception
#7
Anusha Mohan, Nicole Moreno, Jae-Jin Song, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
One of the most intriguing questions in neuroscience is to understand the mechanism of information transfer between different brain areas. Recently, network theory has gained traction and is at the forefront of providing a possible explanation to not only the mechanism of information transfer but also in the identification of different neuropathologies. The perception of a phantom ringing in the ear called tinnitus, similar to other neuropathologies, has been shown to be accompanied by aberrant functional connectivity between different brain areas...
April 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260392/caudate-precuneus-functional-connectivity-is-associated-with-obesity-preventive-eating-tendency
#8
Yuko Nakamura, Toshikazu Ikuta
There exists diversity among individuals in difficulty controlling body weight. Body weight control, or obesity prevention, requires cognitive control over ingestive behavior, which may account for the diverse ability of body weight control. The caudate nuclei, especially the dorsal area, have been shown to play critical roles in ingestive behaviors, which significantly influences body weight control. However, the practice of body weight control is dependent on the body weight status, because the current obesity status determines the need for body weight control...
April 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177260/graph-theory-at-the-service-of-electroencephalograms
#9
REVIEW
Nantia D Iakovidou
The brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the human body and EEG is a noninvasive electrophysiological monitoring method that is used to record the electrical activity of the brain. Lately, the functional connectivity in human brain has been regarded and studied as a complex network using EEG signals. This means that the brain is studied as a connected system where nodes, or units, represent different specialized brain regions and links, or connections, represent communication pathways between the nodes...
April 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142257/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-targeting-primary-motor-versus-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortices-proof-of-concept-study-investigating-functional-connectivity-of-thalamocortical-networks-specific-to-sensory-affective-information-processing
#10
Vishwanath Sankarasubramanian, David A Cunningham, Kelsey A Potter-Baker, Erik B Beall, Sarah M Roelle, Nicole M Varnerin, Andre G Machado, Stephen E Jones, Mark J Lowe, Ela B Plow
The pain matrix is comprised of an extensive network of brain structures involved in sensory and/or affective information processing. The thalamus is a key structure constituting the pain matrix. The thalamus serves as a relay center receiving information from multiple ascending pathways and relating information to and from multiple cortical areas. However, it is unknown how thalamocortical networks specific to sensory-affective information processing are functionally integrated. Here, in a proof-of-concept study in healthy humans, we aimed to understand this connectivity using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting primary motor (M1) or dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC)...
April 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173729/structural-and-functional-abnormalities-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-focus-on-subgenual-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#11
Chenyang Zhan, Yuhong Liu, Kai Wu, Yu Gao, Xiaobo Li
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, or a combination of both, is a major public health problem. Neuroimaging studies have revealed associations of these cognitive impairments with structural and functional deficits all over the brain. Existing findings are not fully consistent because of the heterogeneity of study samples and diversity of research techniques. In this study, we propose to utilize a multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to study the structural and functional brain networks in children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) with a focus on the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC)...
March 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125912/olfactory-network-differences-in-master-sommeliers-connectivity-analysis-using-granger-causality-and-graph-theoretical-approach
#12
Karthik Sreenivasan, Xiaowei Zhuang, Sarah J Banks, Virendra Mishra, Zhengshi Yang, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Dietmar Cordes
Previous studies investigating the differences in olfactory processing and judgments between trained sommeliers and controls have shown increased activations in brain regions involving higher level cognitive processes in sommeliers. However, there is little information about the influence of expertise on causal connectivity and topological properties of the connectivity networks between these regions. Therefore, the current study focuses on addressing these questions in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of olfactory perception in Master Sommeliers...
March 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092972/tracking-dynamic-interactions-between-structural-and-functional-connectivity-a-tms-eeg-dmri-study
#13
Enrico Amico, Olivier Bodart, Mario Rosanova, Olivia Gosseries, Lizette Heine, Pieter Van Mierlo, Charlotte Martial, Marcello Massimini, Daniele Marinazzo, Steven Laureys
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in combination with neuroimaging techniques allows to measure the effects of a direct perturbation of the brain. When coupled with high-density electroencephalography (TMS/hd-EEG), TMS pulses revealed electrophysiological signatures of different cortical modules in health and disease. However, the neural underpinnings of these signatures remain unclear. Here, by applying multimodal analyses of cortical response to TMS recordings and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) tractography, we investigated the relationship between functional and structural features of different cortical modules in a cohort of awake healthy volunteers...
March 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084793/test-retest-reproducibility-of-the-intrinsic-default-mode-network-influence-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-slice-order-acquisition-and-head-motion-correction-methods
#14
Rocco Marchitelli, Olivier Collignon, Jorge Jovicich
Head motion is a known challenge in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies for biasing functional connectivity (FC) among distinct anatomical regions. These persist even with small motion, limiting comparisons of groups with different head-motion characteristics. This motivates an interest in the optimization of acquisition and correction strategies to minimize motion sensitivity. In this test-retest (TRT) study of healthy young volunteers (N = 23), we investigate the effects of slice-order acquisitions (sequential or interleaved) and head-motion correction methods (volume- or slice-based) on the TRT reproducibility of intrinsic connectivity of the default mode network (DMN)...
March 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076974/topological-organization-of-whole-brain-white-matter-in-hiv-infection
#15
Laurie M Baker, Sarah A Cooley, Ryan P Cabeen, David H Laidlaw, John A Joska, Jacqueline Hoare, Dan J Stein, Jodi M Heaps-Woodruff, Lauren E Salminen, Robert H Paul
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with neuroimaging alterations. However, little is known about the topological organization of whole-brain networks and the corresponding association with cognition. As such, we examined structural whole-brain white matter connectivity patterns and cognitive performance in 29 HIV+ young adults (mean age = 25.9) with limited or no HIV treatment history. HIV+ participants and demographically similar HIV- controls (n = 16) residing in South Africa underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing...
March 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030956/effects-of-long-duration-administration-of-1-isoflurane-on-resting-cerebral-blood-flow-and-default-mode-network-in-macaque-monkeys
#16
Chun-Xia Li, Xiaodong Zhang
Isoflurane is an inhalational anesthetic that is widely used in medical procedures or biomedical research. The duration of anesthesia administration varies from minutes to hours. It is known that isoflurane has dose-dependent effects on brain functionality and physiology, and long-duration anesthesia administration could cause neurocognitive decline in animals and humans. However, the duration effect of isoflurane on the brain physiology and functionality still remains poorly understood. In the present study, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity of adult rhesus monkeys (maintained with 1% isoflurane for 4 h) were examined by using magnetic resonance imaging...
March 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006976/contrasting-effects-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-the-whole-brain-resting-state-network-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#17
Jared A Rowland, Jennifer R Stapleton-Kotloski, Greg E Alberto, Justin A Rawley, Robert J Kotloski, Katherine H Taber, Dwayne W Godwin
The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in whole-brain resting-state networks associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Networks were constructed from locations of peak statistical power on an individual basis from magnetoencephalography (MEG) source series data by applying the weighted phase lag index and surrogate data thresholding procedures. Networks representing activity in the alpha bandwidth as well as wideband activity (DC-80 Hz) were created...
February 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917679/the-default-mode-network-in-healthy-individuals-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Lauren E Mak, Luciano Minuzzi, Glenda MacQueen, Geoffrey Hall, Sidney H Kennedy, Roumen Milev
When the brain is not engaged in goal-directed activities and at rest, there are still measureable patterns of activity. One resting-state network, the default mode network (DMN) is responsible for a self-referential introspective state. There are many factors that influence normal changes in brain activity. The purpose of this review is to summarize differences in DMN functional connectivity in healthy individuals by age, sex, cognitive function, and analysis type to characterize what is "normal." Studies were systematically selected up to August 2016...
February 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897031/abnormal-coupling-between-default-mode-network-and-delta-and-beta-band-brain-electric-activity-in-psychotic-patients
#19
Anja Baenninger, Vanessa A Palzes, Brian J Roach, Daniel H Mathalon, Judith M Ford, Thomas Koenig
Common-phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations is a mechanism by which distributed brain regions can be integrated into transiently stable networks. Based on the hypothesis that schizophrenia is characterized by deficits in functional integration within neuronal networks, this study aimed to explore whether psychotic patients exhibit differences in brain regions involved in integrative mechanisms. We report an electroencephalography (EEG)-informed functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis of eyes-open resting-state data collected from patients and healthy controls at two study sites...
February 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875902/nuisance-regression-of-high-frequency-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-data-denoising-can-be-noisy
#20
Jingyuan E Chen, Hesamoddin Jahanian, Gary H Glover
Recently, emerging studies have demonstrated the existence of brain resting-state spontaneous activity at frequencies higher than the conventional 0.1 Hz. A few groups utilizing accelerated acquisitions have reported persisting signals beyond 1 Hz, which seems too high to be accommodated by the sluggish hemodynamic process underpinning blood oxygen level-dependent contrasts (the upper limit of the canonical model is ∼0.3 Hz). It is thus questionable whether the observed high-frequency (HF) functional connectivity originates from alternative mechanisms (e...
February 2017: Brain Connectivity
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