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Brain Connectivity

Veronique Paban, Claire Deshayes, Marie-Hélene Ferrer, Arnaud Weill, Beatrice Alescio-Lautier
The present study aims to investigate the effects of individual differences in trait coping on brain networks at rest using electroencephalography (EEG) data. EEG were processed using graph theory analysis. Active and passive coping styles were determined according to the factor structure of the Brief COPE questionnaire. A structural equation modeling analysis indicated that the influence of coping strategies on quality of life varies in strength and direction. In particular, active coping strategies were positively correlated with the psychological dimension...
September 17, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Paola V Olguín-Rodríguez, J Daniel Arzate-Mena, Maria Corsi-Cabrera, Heidemarie Gast, Arlex Marín-Gacría, Johannes Mathis, Julieta Ramos Loyo, Irma Yolanda Del Rio-Portilla, Christian Rummel, Kaspar Schindler, Markus Franziskus Müller
Since the discovery of electrical activity of the brain electroencephalographic recordings (EEG) constitute one of the most popular techniques of brain research. However, EEG-signals are highly non-stationary and one should expect that averages of the cross-correlation coefficient, which may take positive and negative values with equal probability, (almost) vanish when estimated over long data segments. Instead, we found that the average zero-lag cross-correlation matrix estimated with a running window over the whole night of sleep EEGs, or of resting state during eyes-open and eyes-closed condition of healthy subjects shows a characteristic correlation pattern containing pronounced non-zero values...
September 10, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Simon Zhornitsky, Jaime Ide, Wuyi Wang, Herta Chao, Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, John Krystal, Chiang-Shan Ray Li
Alcohol misuse is associated with thalamic dysfunction. The thalamus comprises subnuclei that relay and integrate information between cortical and subcortical structures. However, it is unclear how the subnuclei contribute to thalamic dysfunctions in problem drinking. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of thalamic subregions in 107 nondependent drinkers (57 women), using masks delineated by white matter tractography. Thalamus was parcelled into motor, somatosensory, visual, premotor, frontal association, parietal association, and temporal association subregions...
September 10, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Myrle M Stouten-Kemperman, Michiel B de Ruiter, Willem Boogerd, J Martijn Kerst, Clemens Kirschbaum, Liesbeth Reneman, Sanne B Schagen
Chemotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) has been associated with neurotoxic effects shortly post-treatment. Late effects of chemotherapy on brain function in this patient group are still unknown. In this study, we investigated differences between patients with and without chemotherapy in functional brain networks at rest and during an affective processing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task on average >14 years post-treatment. In addition, we report on changes in cognitive functioning during survivorship by comparing present and previous performance on a neuropsychological test battery on average 11 years earlier (3 years post-treatment)...
September 6, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Pubuditha M Abeyasinghe, Demetrius Ribeiro de Paula, Sina Khajehabdollahi, Sree Ram Valluri, Adrian M Owen, Andrea Soddu
There is accumulating evidence that spontaneous fluctuations of the brain are sustained by a structural architecture of axonal fiber bundles. Various models have been used to investigate this structure-function relationship. In this work, we implemented the Ising model using the number of fibers between each pair of brain regions as input. The output of the Ising model simulations on a structural connectome was then compared with empirical functional connectivity data. A simpler two-dimensional classical Ising model was used as the baseline model for comparison purpose...
September 4, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Vatika Harlalka, Raju S Bapi, Palakkad Krishnanunni Vinod, Dipanjan Roy
Brain connectivity analysis has provided crucial insights to pinpoint the differences between autistic and typically developing (TD) children during development. The aim of this study is to investigate the functional connectomics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) versus TD and underpin the effects of development, disease, and their interactions on the observed atypical brain connectivity patterns. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) data set, which is stratified into two cohorts: children (9-12 years) and adolescents (13-16 years), is used for the analysis...
August 29, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Karita Suvi-Tuuli Salo, Selja M Vaalto, Tuomas P Mutanen, Matti Stenroos, Risto J Ilmoniemi
BACKGROUND: The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) enables one to study effective connectivity and activation order in neuronal networks. OBJECTIVE: To characterize effective connectivity originating from the primary motor cortex (M1), dorsal premotor area (PMd), and supplementary motor area (SMA). METHODS: Three right-handed volunteers (2 males, aged 25-30) participated in a navigated TMS-EEG experiment...
August 28, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Richard H Chen, Takuya Ito, Kaustubh R Kulkarni, Michael W Cole
Much of our lives are spent in unconstrained rest states, yet cognitive brain processes are primarily investigated using task-constrained states. It may be possible to utilize the insights gained from experimental control of task processes as reference points for investigating unconstrained rest. To facilitate comparison of rest and task functional magnetic resonance imaging data, we focused on activation amplitude patterns, commonly used for task but not rest analyses. During rest, we identified spontaneous changes in temporally extended whole-brain activation-pattern states...
August 27, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Michelle Erica Fox, Tricia Z King
CONTEXT: Survivors of brain tumors (BTs) often experience reduced cognitive abilities and disrupted adaptive functioning before and after treatment. An innovative approach to understanding the underlying brain networks - that are associated with these outcomes has been to study the brain's functional connectivity (FC), the spatially distributed and temporally correlated activity throughout the brain, and how it can be affected by a tumor. OBJECTIVE: The present review synthesized the extant BT FC literature that utilizes fMRI to study FC strength of commonly observed networks during rest and task...
August 24, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Sara Lariviere, Reinder Vos de Wael, Casey Paquola, Seok-Jun Hong, Bratislav Misic, Neda Bernasconi, Andrea Bernasconi, Leonardo Bonilha, Boris Bernhardt
Rapid advances in neuroimaging and network science have produced powerful tools and measures to appreciate human brain organization at multiple spatial and temporal scales. It is now possible to obtain increasingly meaningful representations of whole-brain structural and functional brain networks and to formally assess macroscale principles of network topology. In addition to its utility in characterizing healthy brain organization, individual variability, and lifespan-related changes, there is high promise of network neuroscience for the conceptualization, and ultimately, management of brain disorders...
August 5, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Sheeba Arnold Anteraper, Xavier Guell, Anila D'Mello, Neha Joshi, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Gagan Joshi
This study examines the resting-state functional-connectivity (RsFc) in young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) using state-of-the-art fMRI data acquisition and analysis techniques. High temporal resolution fMRI using simultaneous multi-slice acquisition aided unbiased whole-brain connectome-wide multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) techniques for assessing RsFc. MVPA revealed two clusters (Crus I/II and lobule IX) of abnormal connectivity in the cerebellum that are consistent with the notion of a triple representation of nonmotor processing in the cerebellum...
July 31, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Eva Mennigen, Susanna L Fryer, Barnaly Rashid, Eswar Damaraju, Yuhui Du, Rachel L Loewy, Barbara K Stuart, Vince D Calhoun, Daniel H Mathalon
Schizophrenia shows abnormal dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC), but it is unclear whether these abnormalities are present early in the illness course or precede illness onset in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. We examined dFNC from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in CHR (n = 53), early illness schizophrenia (ESZ; n = 58), and healthy control (HC; n = 70) individuals. We applied a sliding temporal window approach capturing five distinct dFNC states...
July 5, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Byron Bernal, Magno Guillen, Brandon Korman
In this work, we will test the hypothesis that the connectivity of language areas in normal children is asymmetric between the hemispheres. Intrahemispheric region of interest (ROI)-to-ROI connectivity was assessed in 40 normal right-handed children. Asymmetries were assessed (1) between the hemispheres (global language connectivity); (2) between Brodmann areas (BAs) pairs (pairwise connectivity); and (3) between two homotopic BA (Global BA connectivity). Sixteen BAs were selected: 6, 7, 9, 19, 21, 22, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, and 47...
August 2018: Brain Connectivity
Andrei I Holodny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Brain Connectivity
Shaminta Hamidian, Behroze Vachha, Mehrnaz Jenabi, Sasan Karimi, Robert J Young, Andrei I Holodny, Kyung K Peck
The primary hand motor region is classically believed to be in the "hand knob" area in the precentral gyrus (PCG). However, hand motor task-based activation is often localized outside this area. The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural and functional connectivity driven by different seed locations corresponding to the little, index, and thumb in the PCG using probabilistic diffusion tractography (PDT) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI). Twelve healthy subjects had three regions of interest (ROIs) placed in the left PCG: lateral to the hand knob (thumb area), within the hand knob (index finger area), and medial to the hand knob (little finger area)...
August 2018: Brain Connectivity
Shelli R Kesler, Robert Ogg, Wilburn E Reddick, Nicholas Phillips, Matthew Scoggins, John O Glass, Yin Ting Cheung, Ching-Hon Pui, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Kevin R Krull
Chemotherapeutic agents used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common cancer affecting young children, have been associated with long-term cognitive impairments that reduce quality of life. Executive dysfunction is one of the most consistently observed deficits and can have substantial and pervasive effects on academic success, occupational achievement, psychosocial function, and psychiatric status. We examined the neural mechanisms of executive dysfunction by measuring structural and functional connectomes in 161 long-term survivors of pediatric ALL, age 8-21 years, who were treated on a single contemporary chemotherapy-only protocol for standard/high- or low-risk disease...
August 2018: Brain Connectivity
Hesamoddin Jahanian, Thomas Christen, Michael E Moseley, Greg Zaharchuk
In resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), functional networks are assessed utilizing the temporal correlation between spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent signal fluctuations of spatially remote brain regions. Recently, several groups have shown that temporal shifts are present in rs-fMRI maps in patients with cerebrovascular disease due to spatial differences in arterial arrival times, and that this can be exploited to map arrival times in the brain. This suggests that rs-fMRI connectivity mapping may be similarly sensitive to such temporal shifts, and that standard rs-fMRI analysis methods may fail to identify functional connectivity networks...
August 2018: Brain Connectivity
Nan-Kuei Chen, Ying-Hui Chou, Mark Sundman, Patrick Hickey, Willard S Kasoff, Adam Bernstein, Theodore P Trouard, Tanya Lin, Steven Z Rapcsak, Scott J Sherman, Carol P Weingarten
Many nonmotor symptoms (e.g., hyposmia) appear years before the cardinal motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is thus desirable to be able to use noninvasive brain imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to detect brain abnormalities in early PD stages. Among the MRI modalities, diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is suitable for detecting changes in brain tissue structure due to neurological diseases. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether DTI signals measured from brain regions involved in early stages of PD differ from those of healthy controls...
August 2018: Brain Connectivity
Petra Zemánková, Jan Lošák, Kristína Czekóová, Ovidiu Lungu, Martin Jáni, Tomáš Kašpárek, Martin Bareš
Patients with schizophrenia (SCH) often demonstrate impairment in social-cognitive functions as well as disturbances in large-scale network connectivity. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is a core region of the default mode network, with projections to limbic structures. It plays an important role in social and emotional decision-making. We investigated whether resting-state functional connectivity (FC) relates to the cognitive and affective domains of theory of mind (ToM). Twenty-three SCH patients and 19 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning...
August 2018: Brain Connectivity
Anna Lisowska, Islem Rekik
Diagnosis of brain dementia, particularly early mild cognitive impairment (eMCI), is critical for early intervention to prevent the onset of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), where cognitive decline is severe and irreversible. There is a large body of machine-learning based research investigating how dementia alters brain connectivity, mainly using structural (derived from diffusion MRI) and functional (derived from resting-state functional MRI) brain connectomic data. However, how early dementia affects cortical brain connections in morphology remains largely unexplored...
June 21, 2018: Brain Connectivity
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