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Brain Connectivity

John J Sidtis, Muhammad Asim Mubeen, Ali Asaei, Babak Ardekani, Diana Van Lancker Sidtis
Contemporary imaging techniques have increased the potential for establishing how brain regions interact during spoken language. While some imaging methods report bilateral changes in brain activity during speech, another approach finds that the relationship between individual variability in speech measures and individual variability in brain activity more closely resembles clinical observations. This approach has repeatedly demonstrated that speaking rate for phonological and lexical items can be predicted by an inverse relationship between cerebral blood flow in the left inferior frontal region and the right caudate nucleus...
November 15, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Antonio Ulloa, Barry Horwitz
Establishing a connection between intrinsic and task-evoked brain activity is critical because it would provide a way to map task-related brain regions in patients unable to comply with such tasks. A crucial question within this realm is to what extent the execution of a cognitive task affects the intrinsic activity of brain regions not involved in the task. Computational models can be useful to answer this question because they allow us to distinguish task from non-task neural elements while giving us the effects of task execution on non-task regions of interest at the neuroimaging level...
November 15, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Jacob Cookey, Candice Crocker, Denise Bernier, Aaron Newman, Sherry Stewart, David McAllindon, Phil Tibbo
Accumulating evidence suggests that brain white matter (WM) abnormalities may be central to the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. In addition, there is evidence that cannabis use and alcohol use each are associated with WM abnormalities. However, there is very limited data on the effects of these substances on WM microstructure in patients with psychosis, especially for those at the early phase of illness. This project aimed to examine the impact of cannabis use and alcohol use on WM tissue in early phase psychosis (EPP)...
November 12, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Jonathan P Stange, Lisanne M Jenkins, Katie L Bessette, Leah R Kling, John Bark, Robert Shepard, Elissa J Hamlat, Sophie R DelDonno, Luan Phan, Alessandra M Passarotti, Olusola Ajilore, Scott A Langenecker
OBJECTIVE: Attrition is a major problem in longitudinal neuroimaging studies, as it may lead to unreliable estimates of the stability of trait-like processes over time, of the identification of risk factors for clinical outcomes, and of the effects of treatment. Identification of characteristics associated with attrition has implications for participant recruitment and participant retention to achieve representative longitudinal samples. We investigated inhibitory control deficits, head motion, and resting-state functional connectivity within the cognitive control network as predictors of attrition...
November 9, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Brian Cechmanek, Harriet Johnson, Sherene Vazhappilly, Catherine Lebel, Signe Bray
An estimated 70-90% of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have sensory symptoms, which may present as hyper- or hypo-responsivity in one or more sensory modalities. These sensitivities correlate with social symptoms, activity and social interaction levels. Interestingly, sensory symptoms appear to be most prevalent in late childhood, suggesting a developmental component. While the neural basis of sensory sensitivities remains unclear, atypical functional connectivity of sensory brain regions has been suggested as a potential mechanism...
November 9, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Jennifer Barredo, Emily Aiken, Mascha van 't Wout-Frank, Benjamin D Greenberg, Linda L Carpenter, Noah Philip
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with disrupted functional connectivity in multiple neural networks. Multi-network models of PTSD hypothesize that aberrant regional connectivity emerges from broad network-level disruptions. However, few studies have tested how characteristics of network-level organization influence regional functional connectivity in PTSD. This gap in knowledge impacts both our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disorder and the development of network-targeted PTSD treatments...
November 6, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Rosaleena Mohanty, Veena A Nair, Neelima Tellapragada, Leroy M Wiliams, Theresa J Kang, Vivek Prabhakaran
Post-stroke neuropsychological evaluation can take a long time to assess impairments in subjects without overt clinical deficits. We utilized functional connectivity (FC) from ten-minute non-invasive resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to identify stroke subjects at risk for subclinical language deficit (SLD) using a machine learning classifier. Discriminative ability of FC derived from slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz), slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz) and low frequency oscillations (LFO; 0.01-0.1 Hz) were compared. Sixty clinically non-aphasic right-handed subjects were categorized into three groups based on stroke status and normalized verbal fluency score (VFS): 20 ischemic stroke subjects at a higher risk of SLD (LD+; mean VFS=-1...
November 6, 2018: Brain Connectivity
João Ricardo Sato, Cristiane Maria Sato, Marcel Carli Silva, Claudinei Eduardo Biazoli
Graph theory has been extensively applied to investigate the brain complex networks in current neuroscience research. Many metrics derived from graph theory, such as local and global efficiencies, are based on the path length between nodes. These approaches are commonly used in the analyses of brain networks assessed by resting-state fMRI, though relying on the strong assumption that information flow throughout the network is restricted to the shortest paths. In this study, we propose the utilization of the commute time as a tool to investigate regional centrality on the functional Connectome...
November 6, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Justin P Yuan, Eva Henje Blom, Trevor Flynn, Yiran Chen, Tiffany C Ho, Colm G Connolly, Rebecca A Dumont Walter, Tony Yang, Duan Xu, Olga Tymofiyeva
Graph theory analysis of structural brain networks derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become a popular analytical method in neuroscience, enabling advanced investigations of neurological and psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate: 1) the effects of edge weighting schemes, and 2) the effects of varying interscan periods on graph metrics' test-retest reliability within the adolescent brain. We compared a binary (B) network definition with three weighting schemes: fractional anisotropy (FA), streamline count (SC), and streamline count with density and length correction (SDL)...
November 6, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Cole John Cook, Gyujoon Hwang, Jedidiah Mathis, Veena A Nair, Lisa Conant, Linda Allen, Dace N Almane, Rasmus Birn, Edgar DeYoe, Elizabeth Felton, Courtney Forseth, Colin Humphries, Peter Kraegel, Andrew Nencka, Onyekachi Nwoke, Manoj Raghavan, Charlene Rivera-Bonet, Megan Rozman, Neelima Tellapragada, Candida Ustine, Doug Ward, Aaron Struck, Rama Maganti, Bruce Hermann, Vivek Prabhakaran, Jeff Binder, Mary E Meyerand
The Epilepsy Connectome Project examines the differences in connectomes between temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and healthy controls. Using this data, the effective connectivity of the default mode network in patients with left TLE compared to healthy controls was investigated using spectral dynamic causal modeling of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Group comparisons were made using two parametric empirical Bayes (PEB) models. The first level of each PEB model consisted of each participant's spectral dynamic causal modeling...
November 6, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Fatemeh Mokhtari, Paul J Laurienti, W Jack Rejeski, Grey Ballard
As brain network organization likely fluctuates over time to react to internal and external stimuli, the validity of conventional static brain connectivity models are being questioned. Thus, there is a growing interest in using so-called dynamic network analyses. Brain network analyses yield complex network data that is difficult to analyze and interpret. To deal with the complex structures, data reduction techniques that simplify the data are often used. For dynamic network analyses, data simplification is even of greater importance, as dynamic connectivity analyses result in a time series of complex networks...
October 15, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Sara Larivière, Reinder Vos de Wael, Casey Paquola, Seok-Jun Hong, Bratislav Mišić, Neda Bernasconi, Andrea Bernasconi, Leonardo Bonilha, Boris C Bernhardt
Rapid advances in neuroimaging and network science have produced powerful tools and measures to appreciate human brain organization at multiple spatial and temporal scales. It is now possible to obtain increasingly meaningful representations of whole-brain structural and functional brain networks and to formally assess macroscale principles of network topology. In addition to its utility in characterizing healthy brain organization, individual variability, and life span-related changes, there is high promise of network neuroscience for the conceptualization and, ultimately, management of brain disorders...
October 12, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Graham Little, James Reynolds, Christian Beaulieu
Studies of brain structure in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) have shown the global and focal effects that prenatal alcohol exposure has on the brain, albeit suggesting but not measuring altered function in FASD. This study aimed to i) identify resting-state functional networks in children and adolescents with FASD, ii) investigate functional connectivity differences compared to healthy controls, and iii) assess the links to cognitive deficits. Participants included 66 children/adolescents with FASD (aged 5...
October 5, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Longchuan Li, Jocelyne Bachevalier, Xiaoping P Hu, Ami Klin, Todd Preuss, Sarah Shultz, Warren Jones
OBJECTIVE: Although a large body of research has identified discrete neuroanatomical regions involved in social cognition and behavior (the 'social brain'), the existing findings are based largely on studies of specific brain structures defined within the context of particular tasks or for specific types of social behavior. The objective of the current work is to view these regions as nodes of a larger collective network and to quantitatively characterize both the topology of that network and the relative criticality of its many nodes...
October 3, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Alexander Petersen, Chun-Jui Chen, Hans-Georg Müller
The use of correlation densities is introduced to quantify and provide visual interpretation for intraregional functional connectivity in the brain. For each brain region, pairwise correlations are computed between a seed voxel and other gray matter voxels within the region, and the distribution of the ensemble of these correlation values is represented as a probability density, the correlation density. The correlation density can be estimated by kernel smoothing. It provides an intuitive and comprehensive representation of subject-specific functional connectivity strength at the local level for each region...
September 28, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Seong Jae Hwang, Nagesh Adluru, Won Hwa Kim, Sterling Johnson, Barbara B Bendlin, Vikas Singh
Characterizing Alzheimer's disease (AD) at preclinical stages is crucial for initiating early treatment strategies. It is widely accepted that amyloid accumulation is a primary pathological event in AD. Also, loss of connectivity between brain regions is suspected of contributing to cognitive decline, but studies which test these associations using either local (i.e., individual edges) or global (i.e., modularity) connectivity measures may be limited. In the current study, we utilized data acquired in 139 cognitively unimpaired participants...
September 26, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Yan Fan, Viola Borchardt, Felicia von Düring, Anna Linda Leutritz, Marie Dietz, Ana Lucía Herrera-Meléndez, Malek Bajbouj, Meng Li, Simone Grimm, Martin Walter
The Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC) is often used as seed region for probing Default Mode Network (DMN) connectivity. However, there is evidence for a functional segregation between its dorsal (dPCC) and ventral (vPCC) subregions, which suggests differential involvements of d-/vPCC in regulating cognitive demands. Our paradigm included fMRI measures for baseline resting-state, affective or cognitive tasks, and post-task resting-states. We investigated the effect of task demands on intra-PCC coupling and d-/vPCC network assignment to major intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs), which was estimated via edge weights of a graph network encompassing DMN, Dorsal Attention Network, and Central Executive Network (CEN)...
September 26, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Veronique Paban, Claire Deshayes, Marie-Hélene Ferrer, Arnaud Weill, Beatrice Alescio-Lautier
The present study aims to investigate the effects of individual differences in trait coping on brain networks at rest using electroencephalography (EEG) data. EEG were processed using graph theory analysis. Active and passive coping styles were determined according to the factor structure of the Brief COPE questionnaire. A structural equation modeling analysis indicated that the influence of coping strategies on quality of life varies in strength and direction. In particular, active coping strategies were positively correlated with the psychological dimension...
September 17, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Paola V Olguín-Rodríguez, J Daniel Arzate-Mena, Maria Corsi-Cabrera, Heidemarie Gast, Arlex Marín-Gacría, Johannes Mathis, Julieta Ramos Loyo, Irma Yolanda Del Rio-Portilla, Christian Rummel, Kaspar Schindler, Markus Franziskus Müller
Since the discovery of electrical activity of the brain electroencephalographic recordings (EEG) constitute one of the most popular techniques of brain research. However, EEG-signals are highly non-stationary and one should expect that averages of the cross-correlation coefficient, which may take positive and negative values with equal probability, (almost) vanish when estimated over long data segments. Instead, we found that the average zero-lag cross-correlation matrix estimated with a running window over the whole night of sleep EEGs, or of resting state during eyes-open and eyes-closed condition of healthy subjects shows a characteristic correlation pattern containing pronounced non-zero values...
September 10, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Myrle M Stouten-Kemperman, Michiel B de Ruiter, Willem Boogerd, J Martijn Kerst, Clemens Kirschbaum, Liesbeth Reneman, Sanne B Schagen
Chemotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) has been associated with neurotoxic effects shortly post-treatment. Late effects of chemotherapy on brain function in this patient group are still unknown. In this study, we investigated differences between patients with and without chemotherapy in functional brain networks at rest and during an affective processing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task on average >14 years post-treatment. In addition, we report on changes in cognitive functioning during survivorship by comparing present and previous performance on a neuropsychological test battery on average 11 years earlier (3 years post-treatment)...
September 6, 2018: Brain Connectivity
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