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Brain Connectivity

Keith M Vogt, Christopher J Becker, Ajay D Wasan, James W Ibinson
The objective in this study was to directly compare MRI-based functional connectivity between conditions of rest and painful electrical nerve stimulation for key regions involved in pain processing: the anterior and posterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex. Electric nerve stimulation, rated 7/10 for pain, was delivered to the right index finger of 14 healthy pain-free adult volunteers in four 30-sec blocks and continuously for 2 min. Functional connectivity maps obtained at rest and during both pain tasks were compared using seed time courses from the left anterior and posterior insula and anterior cingulate...
October 21, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Ariel Haimovici, Pablo Balenzuela, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Synchronization of brain activity fluctuations is believed to represent communication between spatially distant neural processes. These inter-areal functional interactions develop in the background of a complex network of axonal connections linking cortical and sub-cortical neurons, termed the human "structural connectome". Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence support the view that the human brain can be modeled as a system operating at a critical point between ordered (sub-critical) and disordered (super-critical) phases...
October 19, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Bhim Mani Adhikari, Martin Norgaard, Kristen M Quinn, Jenine Ampudia, Justin Squirek, Mukesh Dhamala
Musical improvisation offers an excellent experimental paradigm for the study of real-time human creativity. It involves moment-to-moment decision-making, monitoring of one's performance, and utilizing external feedback to spontaneously create new melodies or variations on a melody. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to study the brain activity during musical improvisation, aiming to unlock the mystery of human creativity. What brain resources come together and how these are utilized during musical improvisation is not well understood...
October 18, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Xinqi Zhou, Taoyu Wu, Jing Yu, Xu Lei
Accumulating evidence supports that sleep deprivation (SD) and aging have similar effects: decreased cognition performance and impaired brain function. Some investigators even proposed the SD as a model of aging. However, few direct comparisons were ever explored between the effects of SD and aging by network module analysis with the resting-state fMRI. In this study, both within- and between-module connectivities were calculated in the whole brain to describe a complete picture of brain networks' functional connectivity among three groups (young normal sleep, young SD and old group)...
October 12, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Sarah Kann, Sheng Zhang, Peter Manza, Hoi-Chung Leung, Chiang-Shan R Li
Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is widely used to examine cerebral functional organization. The imaging literature has described lateralization of insula activations during cognitive and affective processing. Evidence appears to support a role of the right-hemispheric insula in attentional orientation to salient stimulus, interoception, and physiological arousal, and a role of the left-hemispheric insula in cognitive and affective control, as well as perspective taking. In this study, in a large data set of healthy adults, we examined lateralization of the rsFC of the anterior insula (AI) by computing a laterality index (LI) of connectivity with 54 regions from the Automated Anatomic Labeling atlas...
September 30, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Lauren E Libero, Wesley K Burge, Hrishikesh D Deshpande, Franco Pestilli, Rajesh K Kana
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder found to have widespread alterations in the function and synchrony of brain regions. These differences may underlie alterations in microstructural organization, such as in white matter pathways. To investigate the diffusion of major white matter tracts, the current study examined multiple indices of white matter diffusion in 42 children and adults with ASD and 44 typically developing (TD) age- and IQ-matched peers using diffusion tensor imaging...
September 30, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Gregory C Burgess, Sridhar Kandala, Dan Nolan, Timothy O Laumann, Jonathan Power, Babatunde Adeyemo, Michael P Harms, Steven E Petersen, Deanna M Barch
Like all resting-state functional connectivity data, the data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) are adversely affected by structured noise artifact arising from head motion and physiological processes. Functional connectivity estimates (Pearson's correlation coefficients) were inflated for high-motion time points and for high-motion participants. This inflation occurred across the brain, suggesting the presence of globally-distributed artifact. The degree of inflation was further increased for connections between nearby regions compared to distant regions, suggesting the presence of distance-dependent, spatially-specific artifact...
August 29, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Arka N Mallela, Kyung K Peck, Nicole M Petrovich-Brennan, Zhigang Zhang, William Lou, Andrei I Holodny
To examine the functional connectivity of the primary and supplementary motor areas (SMA) in glioma patients using resting-state functional MRI (rfMRI). To correlate rfMRI data with tumor characteristics and clinical information to characterize functional reorganization of resting-state networks (RSN) and the limitations of this method. This study was IRB approved and in compliance with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Informed consent was waived in this retrospective study. We analyzed rfMRI in 24 glioma patients and 12 age- and sex-matched controls...
August 22, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Chao Zhang, Nathan D Cahill, Mohammad R Arbabshirani, Tonya White, Stefi A Baum, Andrew Michael
Functional connectivity (FC) in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to find co-activating regions in the human brain. Despite its widespread use, the effects of sex and age on resting FC are not well characterized, especially during early adulthood. Here we apply regression and graph theoretical analyses to explore the effects of sex and age on FC between the 116 AAL atlas parcellations (a total of 6,670 FC measures). Rs-fMRI data of 494 healthy subjects (203 males and 291 females; age range: 22-36 years) from the Human Connectome Project were analyzed...
August 15, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Sahil Bajaj, Bhim M Adhikari, Karl J Friston, Mukesh Dhamala
Granger causality (GC) and dynamic causal modeling (DCM) are the two key approaches used to determine the directed interactions among brain areas. Recent discussions have provided a constructive account of the merits and demerits. GC, on one side, considers dependencies among measured responses, whereas DCM, on the other, models how neuronal activity in one brain area causes dynamics in another. Here, our objective was to establish construct validity between GC and DCM in the context of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
August 10, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Vladislav Balaev, Alexey Petruchevsky, Olga Martynova
To evaluate the influence of post-stroke aphasia on the functional association of widespread largescale neuronal networks, we analyzed functional connectivity between resting state brain networks (RSNs) in aphasic patients (N = 15) and in healthy volunteers (N = 17) of the same age using resting state fMRI. As a result, six RSNs were isolated and cross-correlation matrices were computed for their time courses. Aphasic patients showed decreased correlations between posterior part of the default mode (pDMN) and both auditory (AUD) and right frontoparietal (RFP) networks...
August 10, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Jessica Foster-Dingley, Anne Hafkemeijer, Anne van den Berg-Huysmans, Justine Moonen, Wouter de Ruijter, Anton de Craen, Roos van der Mast, Serge A Rombouts, Jeroen van der Grond
Recently, cerebral structural covariance networks (SCNs) have been shown to partially overlap with functional networks. However, although for some of these SCNs a strong association with age is reported, less is known about the association of individual SCNs with separate cognition domains and the potential mediation effect in this of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). In 219 participants (aged 75-96 years) with mild cognitive deficits, eight SCNs were defined based on structural covariance of grey matter intensity with independent component analysis on 3DT1-weighted MRI...
August 10, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Syed Hamza Waheed, Saeedeh Mirbagheri, Shruti Agarwal, Arash Kamali, Noushin Yahyavi-Firouz-Abadi, Ammar Chaudhry, Michael DiGianvittorio, Sachin K Gujar, Jay J Pillai, Haris I Sair
There has been a rapid increase in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) literature in the past few years. We aim to highlight the variability in the current reporting practices of rs-fMRI acquisition and preprocessing parameters. The PubMed database was searched for the selection of appropriate articles in the rs-fMRI literature and the most recent 100 articles were selected based on our criteria. These articles were evaluated based on a checklist for reporting of certain preprocessing steps...
August 9, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Varina Louise Boerwinkle, Angus A Wilfong, Daniel J Curry
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate a clinically practical functional connectivity protocol designed to blindly identify the corresponding areas of initial seizure propagation and also to differentiate these areas from remote secondary areas affected by seizure. The patients in this cohort had intractable epilepsy caused by intrahypothalamic hamartoma, which is the location of the ictal focus. The ictal propagation pathway is homogeneous and established, thus creating the optimum situation for the proposed method validation study...
August 8, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Luciana Monteiro de Moura, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Clara Regina Brandão de Ávila, Pedro Mario Pan, Ary Gadelha, Tais Moriyama, Marco Antonio Del Aquilla, Marcelo Hoexter, Giovanni Abrahão Salum, Felipe Almeida Picon, Mauricio Anés, Marcos Tomanik Mercadante, Acioly Lacerda, Edson Amaro, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Luis Augusto Rohde, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan, Philip McGuire, João Ricardo Sato, Jair de Jesus Mari, Andrea Parolin Jackowski
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies showed that microstructural alterations are correlated to reading skills. In this study, we aim to investigate white matter microstructure of a group of Portuguese speakers with poor reading level, using different parameters of DTI. To perform this analysis, we selected children ranging from 8 to 12 years of age, poor readers (n = 17) and good readers (n = 23), evaluated in the word-level ability based on a Latent Class Analysis (LCA) of Academic Performance Test (TDE)...
September 2016: Brain Connectivity
Julia P Owen, Maxwell B Wang, Pratik Mukherjee
The edges of the structural connectome traverse the white matter to connect cortical and subcortical nodes, although the anatomic embedding of these edges is generally overlooked in the literature. Characterization of the geometry of the structural connectome could provide an improved understanding of the relative importance of various white matter regions to the network architecture of the human brain in normal development and aging, as well as in white matter diseases with regionally specific patterns of vulnerability...
September 2016: Brain Connectivity
E Susan Duncan, Steven L Small
The networks that emerge in the analysis of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data are believed to reflect the intrinsic organization of the brain. One key property of such complex biological networks is modularity, a measure of community structure. This topological characteristic changes in neurological disease and recovery. Nineteen subjects with language disorders after stroke (aphasia) underwent neuroimaging and behavioral assessment at multiple time points before (baseline) and after an imitation-based therapy...
September 2016: Brain Connectivity
Alexander Petersen, Jianyang Zhao, Owen Carmichael, Hans-Georg Müller
In typical functional connectivity studies, connections between voxels or regions in the brain are represented as edges in a network. Networks for different subjects are constructed at a given graph density and are summarized by some network measure such as path length. Examining these summary measures for many density values yields samples of connectivity curves, one for each individual. This has led to the adoption of basic tools of functional data analysis, most commonly to compare control and disease groups through the average curves in each group...
September 2016: Brain Connectivity
Belinda Pletzer, Julia Sophia Crone, Martin Kronbichler, Hubert Kerschbaum
Menstrual cycle-dependent changes have been reported for a variety of functions, including cognition, attention, emotion, inhibition, and perception. For several of these functions, an effect of hormonal contraceptives has also been discussed. Cognitive, attentional, emotional, inhibitory, and perceptual functions have been linked to distinct intrinsic connectivity networks during the resting state. However, changes in resting-state connectivity across the menstrual cycle phase and due to hormonal contraceptive use have only been investigated in two selected networks and without controlling for the type of hormonal contraceptives...
September 2016: Brain Connectivity
Bidhan Lamichhane, Bhim M Adhikari, Mukesh Dhamala
The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the anterior insulae (AIs) are coactivated in various perceptual decision-making (PDM) tasks and form the salience network (SN): a key network in sensory perception and the coordination of behavioral responses. However, what the functional role of SN is, how these key SN nodes interact with each other to form a network in a perceptual decision, and how the network depends on the perceptual difficulty remain largely unknown. In the present study, we measured blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
September 2016: Brain Connectivity
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