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Brain Connectivity

Zack Y Shan, Kevin Finegan, Sandeep Bhuta, Timothy Ireland, Donald R Staines, Sonya M Marshall-Gradisnik, Leighton R Barnden
The chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS) is a debilitating disease with unknown pathophysiology and no diagnostic test. This study investigated the default mode network (DMN) in order to understand the pathophysiology of CFS and to identify potential biomarkers. Using functional MRI (fMRI) collected from 72 subjects (45 CFS and 27 controls) with a temporal resolution of 0.798s, we evaluated the default mode network using static functional connectivity (FC), dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) and DFC complexity, blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps and complexity of activity...
November 20, 2017: Brain Connectivity
Anna Custo, Dimitri Van De Ville, William M Wells, Miralena I Tomescu, Denis Brunet, Christoph M Michel
Using electroencephalography (EEG) to elucidate the spontaneous activation of brain resting-state networks (RSNs) is nontrivial as the signal of interest is of low amplitude and it is difficult to distinguish the underlying neural sources. Using the principles of electric field topographical analysis, it is possible to estimate the meta-stable states of the brain (i.e., the resting-state topographies, so-called microstates). We estimated seven resting-state topographies explaining the EEG data set with k-means clustering (N = 164, 256 electrodes)...
November 17, 2017: Brain Connectivity
Elena Bilevicius, Stephen D Smith, Jennifer Kornelsen
Mindfulness refers to attending to moment-to-moment experiences with acceptance and no judgment. Several scales have been developed to quantify different components of mindfulness. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) is particularly sensitive to trait mindfulness and is proposed to measure the attentional component of mindfulness. The purpose of the current study was to identify the neural correlates of the MAAS in four resting state networks related to attention-the default mode network (DMN), the salience network (SN), and the left and right central executive network (lCEN and rCEN)...
November 12, 2017: Brain Connectivity
Tianyi Qian, Davide Zanchi, Cristelle Rodriguez, Marine Ackermann, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Sven Haller
INTRODUCTION: RS-fMRI is based on the assumption that the vascular response and the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response are homogenous across the entire brain. However, this a priori hypothesis is not consistent with the well-known variability of cerebral vascular territories. In order to explore whether the RS networks are influenced by varied vascular speed in different vascular territories, we assessed the time-shift maps that give an estimate of the local timing of the vascular response and check whether local differences in this timing have an impact on the estimates of RS networks...
November 8, 2017: Brain Connectivity
Raissa Benocci Thibes, Natalia P Novaes, Leandro T Lucato, Kenia R Campanholo, Luciano M Melo, Claudia C Leite, Edson Amaro, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, Ellison Fernando Cardoso, João Ricardo Sato
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects motor skills and cognition. As brain structure and function are compromised, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be a helpful tool to further investigate how intrinsic connectivity is impaired on the disease. The precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex are hub regions involved on the Default Mode Network, a system which is active during rest and related to cognitive processes. We hypothesized that PD patients would present a decrease in functional connectivity amongst these two regions and the rest of the brain...
October 25, 2017: Brain Connectivity
Kanishka Sharma, Richa Trivedi, Ashok Kumar Dubey, Kavita Singh, Pawan Kumar, Prabhjot Kaur, Sushil Chandra, Subash Khushu
Meditation has a versatile nature to affect the cognitive functioning of human brain. Recent researches demonstrated its effects on white matter properties of the human brain. In this research, we aim to investigate white matter microstructure of corpus callosum (CC) in long-term meditators (LTM) of rajayoga meditation using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). For this cross-sectional analysis, twenty-two LTM and seventeen control participants of age ranged (30-50 yrs.) were recruited. Results show high fractional anisotropy (FA) values with low mean diffusivity (MD) in whole as well as different segments of CC in LTM group...
October 25, 2017: Brain Connectivity
Pierre Mégevand, David M Groppe, Stephan Bickel, Manuel R Mercier, Matthew S Goldfinger, Corey J Keller, Laszlo Entz, Ashesh D Mehta
Brain stimulation is increasingly viewed as an effective approach to treat neuropsychiatric disease. The brain's organization in distributed networks suggests that the activity of a remote brain structure could be modulated by stimulating cortical areas that strongly connect to the target. Most connections between cerebral areas are asymmetric, and a better understanding of the relative direction of information flow along connections could improve the targeting of stimulation to influence deep brain structures...
October 5, 2017: Brain Connectivity
Maleeha Fatima Syed, Martin Lindquist, Jay J Pillai, Shruti Agarwal, Sachin K Gujar, Ann S Choe, Brian S Caffo, Haris I Sair
Functional connectivity in resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) has received substantial attention since the initial findings of Biswal et al. Traditional network correlation metrics assume that the functional connectivity in the brain remains stationary over time. However, recent studies have shown that robust temporal fluctuations of functional connectivity among as well as within functional networks exist, challenging this assumption. In this study, these dynamic correlation differences were investigated between the dorsal and ventral sensorimotor networks by applying the Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) model to rs-fMRI data of 20 healthy subjects...
October 2, 2017: Brain Connectivity
Kaundinya Gopinath, Venkatagiri Krishnamurthy, K Sathian
In a recent study Eklund et al. (Eklund et al., 2016) employing resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data as a surrogate for null fMRI datasets posited that cluster-wise family-wise error (FWE) rate corrected inferences made using parametric statistical methods in fMRI studies over the past two decades may have been invalid, particularly for cluster defining thresholds (CDTs) less stringent than p < 0.001; principally because the spatial autocorrelation functions (sACF) of fMRI data had been modeled incorrectly to follow a Gaussian form, whereas empirical data suggested otherwise (Eklund et al...
September 19, 2017: Brain Connectivity
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Marios Antonakakis, Panagiotis Simos, Jack M Fletcher, Andrew C Papanicolaou
In the present study a novel data-driven topological filtering technique is introduced to derive the backbone of functional brain networks relying on orthogonal minimal spanning trees (OMST). The method aims to identify the essential functional connections to ensure optimal information flow via the objective criterion of global efficiency minus the cost of surviving connections. The OMST technique was applied to multichannel, resting-state neuromagnetic recordings from four groups of participants: healthy adults (n=50), adults who have suffered mild traumatic brain injury (n=30), typically developing children (n=27), and reading-disabled children (n=25)...
September 11, 2017: Brain Connectivity
Han Yuan, Guofa Shou, Diamond Gleghorn, Lei Ding, Yoon-Hee Cha
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used in experimental protocols to treat mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS), a neurological condition that represents a maladaptive brain state resulting from entrainment to external oscillating motion. Medical treatments and biomarkers for MdDS remain limited but neuromodulation with rTMS has shown evidence for therapeutic effects. This study took a neuroimaging approach to examine the neuromodulatory effect of rTMS on MdDS. Twenty individuals with MdDS underwent five daily treatments of rTMS over bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
November 2017: Brain Connectivity
Sheng Zhang, Chiang-Shan R Li
As a key structure to relay and integrate information, the thalamus supports multiple cognitive and affective functions through the connectivity between its subnuclei and cortical and subcortical regions. Although extant studies have largely described thalamic regional functions in anatomical terms, evidence accumulates to suggest a more complex picture of subareal activities and connectivities of the thalamus. In this study, we aimed to parcellate the thalamus and examine whole-brain connectivity of its functional clusters...
November 2017: Brain Connectivity
Zhenni Gao, Delong Zhang, Aiying Liang, Bishan Liang, Zengjian Wang, Yuxuan Cai, Junchao Li, Mengxia Gao, Xiaojin Liu, Song Chang, Bingqing Jiao, Ruiwang Huang, Ming Liu
The present study aimed to explore the association between resting-state functional connectivity and creativity ability. Toward this end, the figural Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) scores were collected from 180 participants. Based on the figural TTCT measures, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data for participants with two different levels of creativity ability (a high-creativity group [HG, n = 22] and a low-creativity group [LG, n = 20]). For the aspect of group difference, this study combined voxel-wise functional connectivity strength (FCS) and seed-based functional connectivity to identify brain regions with group-change functional connectivity...
November 2017: Brain Connectivity
Fon Powell, Eve LoCastro, Diana Acosta, Mohamed Ahmed, Stefani O'Donoghue, Natalie Forde, Dara Cannon, Cathy Scanlon, Tushar Rao, Colm McDonald, Ashish Raj
Current hypotheses stipulate core symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ) result from the brain's incapacity to integrate neural processes. Converging diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory studies provide evidence of macrostructural alterations in SZ. However, age-related topological changes within and between white matter (WM) networks and its relationship to gene expression with disease progression remain incompletely understood. This cross-sectional study uses network modeling to investigate changes in WM network organization with disease progression in chronic SZ as well its relationship with gene expression in healthy brains...
November 2017: Brain Connectivity
Gagan Joshi, Sheeba Arnold Anteraper, Kaustubh R Patil, Meha Semwal, Rachel L Goldin, Stephannie L Furtak, Xiaoqian Jenny Chai, Zeynep M Saygin, John D E Gabrieli, Joseph Biederman, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli
The aim of this study is to assess the resting-state functional connectivity (RsFc) profile of the default mode network (DMN) in transition-age males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from adolescent and young adult males with high-functioning ASD (n = 15) and from age-, sex-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls (HCs; n = 16). The DMN was examined by assessing the positive and negative RsFc correlations of an average of the literature-based conceptualized major DMN nodes (medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC], posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral angular, and inferior temporal gyrus regions)...
November 2017: Brain Connectivity
Silvana Silva Pereira, Rikkert Hindriks, Stefanie Mühlberg, Eric Maris, Freek van Ede, Alessandra Griffa, Patric Hagmann, Gustavo Deco
A popular way to analyze resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) and magneto encephalography (MEG) data is to treat them as a functional network in which sensors are identified with nodes and the interaction between channel time series and the network connections. Although conceptually appealing, the network-theoretical approach to sensor-level EEG and MEG data is challenged by the fact that EEG and MEG time series are mixtures of source activity. It is, therefore, of interest to assess the relationship between functional networks of source activity and the ensuing sensor-level networks...
November 2017: Brain Connectivity
Satoru Hayasaka
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based functional connectivity networks are often constructed by thresholding a correlation matrix of nodal time courses. In a typical thresholding approach known as hard thresholding, a single threshold is applied to the entire correlation matrix to identify edges representing superthreshold correlations. However, hard thresholding is known to produce a network with uneven allocation of edges, resulting in a fragmented network with a large number of disconnected nodes...
October 2017: Brain Connectivity
Tanzil Mahmud Arefin, Anna E Mechling, Aura Carole Meirsman, Thomas Bienert, Neele Saskia Hübner, Hsu-Lei Lee, Sami Ben Hamida, Aliza Ehrlich, Dan Roquet, Jürgen Hennig, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Brigitte Lina Kieffer, Laura-Adela Harsan
Recent studies have demonstrated that orchestrated gene activity and expression support synchronous activity of brain networks. However, there is a paucity of information on the consequences of single gene function on overall brain functional organization and connectivity and how this translates at the behavioral level. In this study, we combined mouse mutagenesis with functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether targeted inactivation of a single gene would modify whole-brain connectivity in live animals...
October 2017: Brain Connectivity
Shella Keilholz, Cesar Caballero-Gaudes, Peter Bandettini, Gustavo Deco, Vince Calhoun
Time-resolved analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data allows researchers to extract more information about brain function than traditional functional connectivity analysis, yet a number of challenges in data analysis and interpretation remain. This article briefly summarizes common methods for time-resolved analysis and presents some of the pressing issues and opportunities in the field. From there, the discussion moves to interpretation of the network dynamics observed with rs-fMRI and the role that rs-fMRI can play in elucidating the large-scale organization of brain activity...
October 2017: Brain Connectivity
Maxime Chamberland, Gabriel Girard, Michaël Bernier, David Fortin, Maxime Descoteaux, Kevin Whittingstall
Fingerprint patterns derived from functional connectivity (FC) can be used to identify subjects across groups and sessions, indicating that the topology of the brain substantially differs between individuals. However, the source of FC variability inferred from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging remains unclear. One possibility is that these variations are related to individual differences in white matter structural connectivity (SC). However, directly comparing FC with SC is challenging given the many potential biases associated with quantifying their respective strengths...
October 2017: Brain Connectivity
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