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Psychology of Violence

Tyson R Reuter, Michael E Newcomb, Sarah W Whitton, Brian Mustanski
OBJECTIVE: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health problem with high prevalence and serious costs. Although literature has largely focused on IPV among heterosexuals, studies have recently begun examining IPV in LGBT samples, with mounting evidence suggesting IPV may be more common among LGBT individuals than heterosexuals. Less research has examined the specific health consequences of IPV in this population, particularly across time and among young people, and it remains unclear whether experiences of IPV differ between subgroups within the LGBT population (e...
January 2017: Psychology of Violence
Kathryn M Yount, Kathleen H Krause
OBJECTIVE: To provide the first study in Vietnam of how gendered social learning about violence and exposure to non-family institutions influence women's attitudes about a wife's recourse after physical IPV. METHOD: A probability sample of 532 married women, ages 18-50 years, was surveyed in July-August, 2012 in Mỹ Hào district. We fit a multivariate linear regression model to estimate correlates of favoring recourse in six situations using a validated attitudinal scale...
January 2017: Psychology of Violence
Robin J Lewis, Tyler B Mason, Barbara A Winstead, Michelle L Kelley
OBJECTIVE: This study proposed and tested the first conceptual model of sexual minority specific (discrimination, internalized homophobia) and more general risk factors (perpetrator and partner alcohol use, anger, relationship satisfaction) for intimate partner violence among partnered lesbian women. METHOD: Self-identified lesbian women (N=1048) were recruited from online market research panels. Participants completed an online survey that included measures of minority stress, anger, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, relationship satisfaction, psychological aggression, and physical violence...
January 2017: Psychology of Violence
Cynthia A Stappenbeck, William H George, Jennifer Staples, Hong Nguyen, Kelly Cue Davis, Debra Kaysen, Julia R Heiman, N Tatiana Masters, Jeanette Norris, Cinnamon L Danube, Amanda K Gilmore, Kelly F Kajumulo
OBJECTIVE: Prior research on the effects of sexual trauma has examined dissociation but not emotional numbing during sex and has relied exclusively on retrospective surveys. The present experiment examined associations among distal factors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA), and trauma symptoms and the proximal factor of acute alcohol intoxication on in-the-moment dissociation, emotional numbing, and sexual risk intentions. METHOD: Young adult female drinkers (N = 436) at elevated sexual risk were randomized to receive alcohol (target peak breath alcohol concentration = ...
October 2016: Psychology of Violence
Reout Arbel, Aubrey J Rodriguez, Gayla Margolin
OBJECTIVE: Though family-of-origin aggression (FOA) is a known risk for later emotional and physical problems in adulthood, little is known about how early exposure to aggression influences physiological reactivity in the domain-specific context of family conflict experienced as an adult. This study investigates whether report of FOA influences spouses' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses during conflict discussions with their family-of-procreation and also whether current hostilities, observed during a family discussion, moderate those responses...
October 2016: Psychology of Violence
Ryan C Shorey, Todd M Moore, James K McNulty, Gregory L Stuart
OBJECTIVE: Dating violence is a serious and prevalent problem, with females being victimized by partners at high rates with numerous negative health consequences. Previous research has been equivocal on whether substance use on the part of the victim temporally precedes and, thus, increases the odds of victimization. While the sole responsibility for violence is always with the perpetrator, knowing this information could provide useful information for theory as well as interventions designed to keep women safe...
October 2016: Psychology of Violence
Kathleen A Parks, Kristine Levonyan-Radloff, Ronda L Dearing, Amy Hequembourg, Maria Testa
OBJECTIVE: Using an iterative process, a series of three video scenarios were developed for use as a standardized measure for assessing women's perception of risks for alcohol-related sexual assault (SA). The videos included ambiguous and clear behavioral and environmental risk cues. METHOD: Focus group discussions with young, female heavy drinkers (N = 42) were used to develop three videos at different risk levels (low, moderate, and high) in Study 1. Realism, reliability, and validity of the videos were assessed using multiple methods in Studies 2 and 3...
October 2016: Psychology of Violence
Ernest N Jouriles, Renee McDonald, David Rosenfield, Nicole Levy, Kelli Sargent, Christina Caiozzo, John H Grych
OBJECTIVE: The present research reports on two randomized controlled trials evaluating TakeCARE, a video bystander program designed to help prevent sexual violence on college campuses. METHOD: In Study 1, students were recruited from psychology courses at two universities. In Study 2, first-year students were recruited from a required course at one university. In both studies, students were randomly assigned to view one of two videos: TakeCARE or a control video on study skills...
July 2016: Psychology of Violence
Emily F Rothman, Na Wang
OBJECTIVE: To describe the intervention development process and feasibility testing of a hospital-based brief intervention to reduce the perpetration of adolescent dating abuse (ADA). To our knowledge, this intervention is the first to focus exclusively on ADA perpetration reduction via a motivational interview-type intervention in this setting. METHOD: The rationale for and the six Intervention Mapping steps used to generate the intervention are described. Feasibility is conceptualized as intervention acceptability, demand, implementation, practicality, integration, and limited-efficacy...
July 2016: Psychology of Violence
Sarah L Desmarais, Julie S Gray, Candalyn B Rade, Amy M Cohn, Stephen Doherty, Kevin Knight
OBJECTIVE: This study explored medication-assisted treatment (MAT), the combined use of medication and psychosocial treatment, as a strategy for reducing violent outcomes in community-based offenders. The primary aims were to: 1) examine associations between participant characteristics and treatment adherence; 2) examine associations between treatment adherence and substance use; 3) examine associations between treatment adherence and violent outcomes; and 4) determine whether associations between treatment adherence and violent outcomes may be attributable to reductions in substance use...
July 2016: Psychology of Violence
Deborah A Levesque, Janet L Johnson, Carol A Welch, Janice M Prochaska, Andrea L Paiva
OBJECTIVE: Teen dating violence is a serious public health problem. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of Teen Choices, a 3-session online program that delivers assessments and individualized guidance matched to dating history, dating violence experiences, and stage of readiness for using healthy relationship skills. For high risk victims of dating violence, the program addresses readiness to keep oneself safe in relationships. METHOD: Twenty high schools were randomly assigned to the Teen Choices condition (n=2,000) or a Comparison condition (n=1,901)...
July 2016: Psychology of Violence
Jennifer A Wagman, Amy Paul, Fredinah Namatovu, Robert Ssekubugu, Fred Nalugoda
OBJECTIVE: We identify complexities encountered, including unanticipated crossover between trial arms and inadequate 'standard of care' violence services, during a cluster randomized trial (CRT) of a community-level intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV prevention intervention in Uganda. METHODS: Concepts in public health ethics - beneficence, social value of research, fairness, standard of care, and researcher responsibilities for post-trial benefits - are used to critically reflect on lessons learned and guide discussion on practical and ethical challenges of violence intervention CRTs...
July 2016: Psychology of Violence
Courtenay E Cavanaugh, Jacquelyn Campbell, Nikia Braxton, Jenna Harvey, Gina Wingood
OBJECTIVE: Despite the documented intersection of intimate partner violence and HIV, there is a paucity of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions for female survivors of intimate partner violence in the United States. This paper describes the adaptation of an effective HIV prevention intervention, Sisters Informing Sisters about Topics on AIDS (SISTA), for women in domestic violence shelters and the steps taken to improve the adapted intervention's implementation. METHOD: The adaptation process was guided by the ADAPT-ITT framework and data collected from directors, direct client service providers, and residents of two domestic violence shelters located in urban areas, as well as topical experts...
July 2016: Psychology of Violence
Amanda E B Bryan, Jeanette Norris, Devon Alisa Abdallah, Cynthia A Stappenbeck, Diane M Morrison, Kelly C Davis, William H George, Cinnamon L Danube, Tina Zawacki
OBJECTIVE: Women's alcohol consumption and vulnerability to sexual victimization (SV) are linked, but findings regarding the nature and direction of the association are mixed. Some studies have found support for the self-medication hypothesis (i.e., victimized women drink more to alleviate SV-related distress); others have supported routine activity theory (i.e., drinking increases SV vulnerability). In this study, we aimed to clarify the interplay between women's prior SV, typical drinking, and SV experiences prospectively over one year...
April 2016: Psychology of Violence
Valerie A Simon, Candice Feiring, Charles M Cleland
OBJECTIVE: Trauma processing is central to healthy recovery, but few studies examine how youth process experiences of child sexual abuse (CSA). The current study builds on our prior work identifying individual differences in CSA processing strategies (i.e., Constructive, Absorbed, Avoidant) to examine whether abuse stigmatization, PTSD symptoms, and negative reactions from others experienced during the year after abuse discovery were associated with subsequent CSA processing strategies...
January 2016: Psychology of Violence
Caitlin Wolford-Clevenger, Heather Zapor, Hope Brasfield, Jeniimarie Febres, JoAnna Elmquist, Meagan Brem, Ryan C Shorey, Gregory L Stuart
OBJECTIVE: To examine the factor structure and convergent validity of a newly developed measure of an understudied form of partner abuse, cyber abuse, and to examine the prevalence of, and gender differences in, victimization by cyber abuse. METHOD: College students in a dating relationship (N = 502) completed the Partner Cyber Abuse Questionnaire (Hamby, 2013), as well as measures of partner abuse victimization and depression. RESULTS: Using exploratory factor analysis, we determined a one-factor solution was the most statistically and conceptually best fitting model...
January 1, 2016: Psychology of Violence
Zachary W Adams, Angela Moreland, Joseph R Cohen, Robert C Lee, Rochelle F Hanson, Carla Kmett Danielson, Shannon Self-Brown, Ernestine C Briggs
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to multiple traumatic events (polyvictimization) is a reliable predictor of deleterious health outcomes and risk behaviors in adolescence. The current study extends the literature on the prevalence and consequences of adolescent trauma exposure by (a) empirically identifying and characterizing trauma exposure profiles in a large, ethnically diverse, multi-site, clinical sample of adolescents, and (b) evaluating relations among identified profiles with demographic characteristics and clinical correlates...
January 1, 2016: Psychology of Violence
Megan L Haselschwerdt, Elissa Thomann Mitchell, Marcela Raffaelli, Jennifer L Hardesty
OBJECTIVE: The current study considered protective strategy use at various points in time for divorcing mothers with a range of marital violence experiences (including no history of violence and different types of violence). METHOD: Divorcing mothers (N = 170) from one Midwestern county participated in two in-person interviews that included structured assessments of intimate partner violence (IPV) during the last year of marriage and use of protective strategies at three time points - last year of marriage and at separation (both assessed at Time 1) and since the first interview (at a three month follow-up)...
January 1, 2016: Psychology of Violence
Randy J McCarthy, Julie L Crouch, Ariel R Basham, Joel S Milner, John J Skowronski
OBJECTIVE: Six studies (N = 1,081 general population parents) assessed the validity of the Voodoo Doll Task (VDT) as a proxy for aggressive parenting behaviors. METHODS: Participants were given an opportunity to symbolically inflict harm by choosing to stick "pins" into a doll representing their child. RESULTS: Individual differences in parents' trait aggression (Studies 1, 2, and 6), state hostility (Study 3), attitudes towards the corporal punishment of children (Study 4), self-control (Study 6), depression (Study 6), and child physical abuse risk (Study 6) were associated with increased pin usage...
January 1, 2016: Psychology of Violence
Tina Malti, Kristina McDonald, Kenneth H Rubin, Linda Rose-Krasnor, Cathryn Booth-LaForce
OBJECTIVE: To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends' aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. METHOD: Participants included a community sample of 230 5(th) grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6(th) grade)...
October 1, 2015: Psychology of Violence
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