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Psychology of Violence

Kathleen A Parks, Kristine Levonyan-Radloff, Ronda L Dearing, Amy Hequembourg, Maria Testa
OBJECTIVE: Using an iterative process, a series of three video scenarios were developed for use as a standardized measure for assessing women's perception of risks for alcohol-related sexual assault (SA). The videos included ambiguous and clear behavioral and environmental risk cues. METHOD: Focus group discussions with young, female heavy drinkers (N = 42) were used to develop three videos at different risk levels (low, moderate, and high) in Study 1. Realism, reliability, and validity of the videos were assessed using multiple methods in Studies 2 and 3...
October 2016: Psychology of Violence
Emily F Rothman, Na Wang
OBJECTIVE: To describe the intervention development process and feasibility testing of a hospital-based brief intervention to reduce the perpetration of adolescent dating abuse (ADA). To our knowledge, this intervention is the first to focus exclusively on ADA perpetration reduction via a motivational interview-type intervention in this setting. METHOD: The rationale for and the six Intervention Mapping steps used to generate the intervention are described. Feasibility is conceptualized as intervention acceptability, demand, implementation, practicality, integration, and limited-efficacy...
July 2016: Psychology of Violence
Sarah L Desmarais, Julie S Gray, Candalyn B Rade, Amy M Cohn, Stephen Doherty, Kevin Knight
OBJECTIVE: This study explored medication-assisted treatment (MAT), the combined use of medication and psychosocial treatment, as a strategy for reducing violent outcomes in community-based offenders. The primary aims were to: 1) examine associations between participant characteristics and treatment adherence; 2) examine associations between treatment adherence and substance use; 3) examine associations between treatment adherence and violent outcomes; and 4) determine whether associations between treatment adherence and violent outcomes may be attributable to reductions in substance use...
July 2016: Psychology of Violence
Deborah A Levesque, Janet L Johnson, Carol A Welch, Janice M Prochaska, Andrea L Paiva
OBJECTIVE: Teen dating violence is a serious public health problem. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of Teen Choices, a 3-session online program that delivers assessments and individualized guidance matched to dating history, dating violence experiences, and stage of readiness for using healthy relationship skills. For high risk victims of dating violence, the program addresses readiness to keep oneself safe in relationships. METHOD: Twenty high schools were randomly assigned to the Teen Choices condition (n=2,000) or a Comparison condition (n=1,901)...
July 2016: Psychology of Violence
Jennifer A Wagman, Amy Paul, Fredinah Namatovu, Robert Ssekubugu, Fred Nalugoda
OBJECTIVE: We identify complexities encountered, including unanticipated crossover between trial arms and inadequate 'standard of care' violence services, during a cluster randomized trial (CRT) of a community-level intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV prevention intervention in Uganda. METHODS: Concepts in public health ethics - beneficence, social value of research, fairness, standard of care, and researcher responsibilities for post-trial benefits - are used to critically reflect on lessons learned and guide discussion on practical and ethical challenges of violence intervention CRTs...
July 2016: Psychology of Violence
Courtenay E Cavanaugh, Jacquelyn Campbell, Nikia Braxton, Jenna Harvey, Gina Wingood
OBJECTIVE: Despite the documented intersection of intimate partner violence and HIV, there is a paucity of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions for female survivors of intimate partner violence in the United States. This paper describes the adaptation of an effective HIV prevention intervention, Sisters Informing Sisters about Topics on AIDS (SISTA), for women in domestic violence shelters and the steps taken to improve the adapted intervention's implementation. METHOD: The adaptation process was guided by the ADAPT-ITT framework and data collected from directors, direct client service providers, and residents of two domestic violence shelters located in urban areas, as well as topical experts...
July 2016: Psychology of Violence
Amanda E B Bryan, Jeanette Norris, Devon Alisa Abdallah, Cynthia A Stappenbeck, Diane M Morrison, Kelly C Davis, William H George, Cinnamon L Danube, Tina Zawacki
OBJECTIVE: Women's alcohol consumption and vulnerability to sexual victimization (SV) are linked, but findings regarding the nature and direction of the association are mixed. Some studies have found support for the self-medication hypothesis (i.e., victimized women drink more to alleviate SV-related distress); others have supported routine activity theory (i.e., drinking increases SV vulnerability). In this study, we aimed to clarify the interplay between women's prior SV, typical drinking, and SV experiences prospectively over one year...
April 2016: Psychology of Violence
Caitlin Wolford-Clevenger, Heather Zapor, Hope Brasfield, Jeniimarie Febres, JoAnna Elmquist, Meagan Brem, Ryan C Shorey, Gregory L Stuart
OBJECTIVE: To examine the factor structure and convergent validity of a newly developed measure of an understudied form of partner abuse, cyber abuse, and to examine the prevalence of, and gender differences in, victimization by cyber abuse. METHOD: College students in a dating relationship (N = 502) completed the Partner Cyber Abuse Questionnaire (Hamby, 2013), as well as measures of partner abuse victimization and depression. RESULTS: Using exploratory factor analysis, we determined a one-factor solution was the most statistically and conceptually best fitting model...
January 1, 2016: Psychology of Violence
Zachary W Adams, Angela Moreland, Joseph R Cohen, Robert C Lee, Rochelle F Hanson, Carla Kmett Danielson, Shannon Self-Brown, Ernestine C Briggs
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to multiple traumatic events (polyvictimization) is a reliable predictor of deleterious health outcomes and risk behaviors in adolescence. The current study extends the literature on the prevalence and consequences of adolescent trauma exposure by (a) empirically identifying and characterizing trauma exposure profiles in a large, ethnically diverse, multi-site, clinical sample of adolescents, and (b) evaluating relations among identified profiles with demographic characteristics and clinical correlates...
January 1, 2016: Psychology of Violence
Megan L Haselschwerdt, Elissa Thomann Mitchell, Marcela Raffaelli, Jennifer L Hardesty
OBJECTIVE: The current study considered protective strategy use at various points in time for divorcing mothers with a range of marital violence experiences (including no history of violence and different types of violence). METHOD: Divorcing mothers (N = 170) from one Midwestern county participated in two in-person interviews that included structured assessments of intimate partner violence (IPV) during the last year of marriage and use of protective strategies at three time points - last year of marriage and at separation (both assessed at Time 1) and since the first interview (at a three month follow-up)...
January 1, 2016: Psychology of Violence
Randy J McCarthy, Julie L Crouch, Ariel R Basham, Joel S Milner, John J Skowronski
OBJECTIVE: Six studies (N = 1,081 general population parents) assessed the validity of the Voodoo Doll Task (VDT) as a proxy for aggressive parenting behaviors. METHODS: Participants were given an opportunity to symbolically inflict harm by choosing to stick "pins" into a doll representing their child. RESULTS: Individual differences in parents' trait aggression (Studies 1, 2, and 6), state hostility (Study 3), attitudes towards the corporal punishment of children (Study 4), self-control (Study 6), depression (Study 6), and child physical abuse risk (Study 6) were associated with increased pin usage...
January 1, 2016: Psychology of Violence
Tina Malti, Kristina McDonald, Kenneth H Rubin, Linda Rose-Krasnor, Cathryn Booth-LaForce
OBJECTIVE: To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends' aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. METHOD: Participants included a community sample of 230 5(th) grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6(th) grade)...
October 1, 2015: Psychology of Violence
Kevin M Swartout, Martie P Thompson, Mary P Koss, Nan Su
OBJECTIVE: Most frequency data on violence are non-normally distributed, which can lead to faulty conclusions when not modeled appropriately. And, we can't prevent what we can't accurately predict. We therefore review a series of methods specifically suited to analyze frequency data, with specific reference to the psychological study of sexual aggression. In the process, we demonstrate a model comparison exercise using sample data on college men's sexual aggression. METHOD: We used a subset (n=645) of a larger longitudinal dataset to demonstrate fitting and comparison of six analytic methods: OLS regression, OLS regression with a square-root-transformed outcome, Poisson regression, negative binomial regression, zero-inflated Poisson regression, and zero-inflated negative binomial regression...
July 2015: Psychology of Violence
Maria Testa, Joseph H Hoffman, Joseph F Lucke, Colleen E Pagnan
OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to provide a comparison of rates of self-reported sexual aggression perpetration obtained using two different measures - a version of the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Abbey et al, 2007; Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) and the Sexual Strategies Scale (SSS, Strang, et al, 2013; Struckman-Johnson, Struckman-Johnson, & Anderson, 2003). We also examined the psychometric structure of each measure using Rasch model item analysis (Rasch, 1966). METHOD: Two equivalent cohorts of entering freshman males (N = 994 and N = 1043) from a large northeastern university completed online measures at the end of their first semester...
July 2015: Psychology of Violence
Anne Kleinsasser, Ernest N Jouriles, Renee McDonald, David Rosenfield
OBJECTIVE: Because of its high prevalence and serious consequences for victims, sexual violence is a significant problem on college campuses. Sexual assault prevention programs based on the bystander intervention model have been shown to be effective; however, current programs are limited in terms of ease of distribution. To address this issue, we developed and evaluated "Take Care," an online bystander intervention program. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evaluation of an online bystander intervention program designed to prevent sexual violence...
July 2015: Psychology of Violence
Sarah L Cook, Kevin M Swartout, Bradley L Goodnight, Tracy N Hipp, Alexandra Bellis
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of answering survey questions about experiences of stressful, stigmatizing, potentially traumatic and sexually violating events on well being, defined as reactions to research, anxiety, and positive and negative affect over two weeks. METHOD: With an ethnically diverse sample of 559 higher education students, we employed a mixed experimental design (with between and within-subjects components) to evaluate changes in positive and negative affect, anxiety, traumatic stress symptoms, and reactions to research...
July 1, 2015: Psychology of Violence
Izabela Milaniak, Cathy Spatz Widom
OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which abused and neglected children perpetrate three different types of violence within and outside the home: criminal, child abuse, and intimate partner violence and determine whether childhood maltreatment leads to an increased risk for poly-violence perpetration. METHOD: Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 676) were matched with children without such histories (n = 520) and assessed in young adulthood (average age 29)...
July 1, 2015: Psychology of Violence
Hanna C Gustafsson, Jennifer L Coffman, Martha J Cox
OBJECTIVE: Despite knowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV) can negatively affect children's socioemotional and behavioral development, less is known about the impact of IPV on children's cognitive development, including whether it influences their executive functioning (EF). The goal of the current study was to address this gap in the literature, by examining the association between IPV that occurs early in life and EF at school entry. This study also allowed for the investigation of maternal sensitive parenting behaviors as a possible mediator of this relation...
July 1, 2015: Psychology of Violence
Dominic J Parrott, Claire G Lisco
OBJECTIVE: This study was the first to test the moderating effect of acute alcohol intoxication on the relation between heterosexual men's sexual prejudice and perpetration of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. METHOD: Participants were 320 heterosexual men aged 21-30 recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed a measure of prejudice toward sexual minorities and were randomly assigned to one of eight experimental groups within a 2 (Beverage: Alcohol, No-Alcohol Control) × 2 (Opponent Gender: Male, Female) × 2 (Opponent Sexual Orientation: Homosexual, Heterosexual) design...
July 2015: Psychology of Violence
Edelyn Verona, Brett Murphy, Shabnam Javdani
OBJECTIVE: Recent work has emphasized the role of violent victimization, along with risky contexts like sex exchange, in pathways to problems of externalizing and substance use in women. Nonetheless, few studies have empirically tested gender differences involving the roles of adversity factors (e.g., childhood violent maltreatment, sex exchange) in drug use patterns. The present study tested a model of gender differences in relationships between childhood physical and sexual abuse, sex exchange, and two indicators of drug use: engagement and symptoms of disorder...
April 20, 2015: Psychology of Violence
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