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Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research

Najib Aziz, Roger Detels, L Cindy Chang, Anthony W Butch
OBJECTIVE: Uncontrolled HIV infection progresses to the depletion of systemic and mucosal CD4 and AIDS. Early HIV infection may be associated with increases in the concentration of MIP-3α in the blood and gut fluids. MIP-3α/CCL20 is the only chemokine known to interact with CCR6 receptors which are expressed on immature dendritic cells and both effector and memory CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. The role and prognostic value of blood levels of MIP-3α in HIV-infected individuals has yet to be described...
July 2016: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Jorge Alonzo, Lilli Mann, Amanda E Tanner, Christina J Sun, Thomas M Painter, Arin Freeman, Beth A Reboussin, Eunyoung Song, Scott D Rhodes
OBJECTIVE: The southeastern United States has the fastest-growing Hispanic/Latino population in the country and carries a disproportionate HIV burden. Among Hispanics/Latinos, men, and men who have sex with men (MSM) in particular, are at elevated risk of HIV infection; however, very few efficacious behavioral HIV prevention interventions are available for use with this vulnerable population. To address this shortage of prevention resources, our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and is currently evaluating the efficacy of the HOLA en Grupos intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM...
May 2016: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Elijah Paintsil, Ryan Martin, Ariel Goldenthal, Shreya Bhandari, Warren Andiman, Musie Ghebremichael
BACKGROUND: The clinical consequences of the magnitude and the duration of detectable viremia in HIV-infected children have not been well characterized. We examined the predictors and immunologic consequences over time of frequent episodes of detectable viremia in HIV-infected children followed at Yale-New Haven Hospital. METHODS: We analyzed the CD4+ T-cell and HIV viral load over a 19-year period (1996 to 2013) of 104 HIV-infected children enrolled in the Yale Prospective Longitudinal Pediatric HIV Cohort...
April 2016: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Adeline Delavande, Zachary Wagner, Neeraj Sood
A significant proportion of HIV-positive adults in sub-Saharan Africa are in serodiscordant relationships. Identification of such serodiscordant couples through couple HIV testing and counseling (HTC) is thought to promote safe sexual behavior and reduce the probability of within couple seroconversion. However, it is possible HTC benefits are not sustained over time and therefore repeated HTC may be more effective at preventing seroconversion than one time HTC. We tested this theory in Zomba, Malawi by randomly assigning 170 serodiscordant couples to receive repeated HTC and 167 serodiscordant couples to receive one time HTC upon study enrollment (control group)...
March 2016: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Jennifer A Ohtola, Jessica L Saul-McBeth, Anita S Iyer, David J Leggat, Sadik A Khuder, Noor M Khaskhely, Ma Julie Westerink
BACKGROUND: The number of aging human immunodeficiency virus-infected (HIV+) individuals living in the United States has substantially grown over the past two decades. Advanced age and HIV infection both increase susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection due to B cell dysfunction. The combined impact of these factors on pneumococcal vaccine responses remains unknown. METHODS: We assessed serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM levels and opsonophagocytic killing assay (OPA) titers to pneumococcal serotypes 14 and 23F in HIV+ subjects and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) controls 50-65 years old...
March 2016: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Alicia Sneij, Adriana Campa, Sabrina Sales Martinez, Tiffanie Stewart, Marianna Baum
BACKGROUND: Zinc deficiency is prevalent in HIV and hyperglycemic patients. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a treatment to control HIV progression; however it increases the risk for hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to assess the plasma zinc levels in hyperglycemic people living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: Secondary analysis was conducted on the data from the Miami Adult Studies in HIV (MASH) cohort in Florida. Patients were categorized into hyperglycemic group (fasting blood glucose ≥100 mg/dL) and normal group (<100 mg/dL)...
February 2016: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Richard M Grimes, Camden J Hallmark, Kellie L Watkins, Saroochi Agarwal, Marlene L McNeese
As many as 40-50% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) who once were in HIV care are no longer in care. It is estimated that these individuals account for over 60% of HIV transmissions. So, preventing the leaving of care and re-engaging PLWH with care are crucial if the HIV epidemic is to be brought under control. Clinicians can improve retention by keeping in close contact with patients. Governmental public health agencies have great expertise in finding and engaging in care persons with sexually transmitted infections...
February 2016: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Marya Gwadz, Charles M Cleland, Samuel M Jenness, Elizabeth Silverman, Holly Hagan, Amanda S Ritchie, Noelle R Leonard, Talaya McCright-Gill, Belkis Martinez, Quentin Swain, Alexandra Kutnick, Dawa Sherpa
Annual HIV testing is recommended for high-risk populations in the United States, to identify HIV infections early and provide timely linkage to treatment. However, heterosexuals at high risk for HIV, due to their residence in urban areas of high poverty and elevated HIV prevalence, test for HIV less frequently than other risk groups, and late diagnosis of HIV is common. Yet the factors impeding HIV testing in this group, which is predominantly African American/Black and Latino/Hispanic, are poorly understood...
February 2016: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Sophie Seang, Jordan E Lake, Fang Tian, Kathryn Anastos, Mardge H Cohen, Phyllis C Tien
OBJECTIVE: HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals may have differential risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) compared to the general population, and the optimal diagnostic algorithm for DM in HIV+ persons remains unclear. We aimed to assess the utility of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) for DM diagnosis in a cohort of women with or at risk for HIV infection. METHODS: Using American Diabetic Association DM definitions, DM prevalence and incidence were assessed among women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study...
February 2016: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Zongyuan Chen, Hui Zhu, Daniel Malamud, Cheryl Barber, Yhombi Yvon Serge Ongagna, Rubina Yasmin, Sayli Modak, Malvin N Janal, William R Abrams, Richard A Montagna
OBJECTIVE: We developed a microfluidic system to simultaneously detect host anti-HIV antibodies and viral RNA in the same specimen in order to satisfy two important diagnostic criteria, especially within resource-limited settings. First, the system can detect acute HIV infection and allow immediate confirmation of a seropositive screening result by detection of HIV RNA. It also addresses the well-known "seroconversion window" during early HIV infection when antibodies are not yet detectable and viral loads are at their highest...
January 2016: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Lakshmi Goparaju, Laure S Experton, Nathan C Praschan, Lari Warren-Jeanpiere, Mary A Young, Seble Kassaye
OBJECTIVES: The latest advancement in HIV prevention, Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), could reduce incidence among women. However, PrEP uptake has remained low among US women since its approval in 2012, while use has increased among men who have sex with men. This study addresses women's knowledge, attitudes and potential behaviors regarding PrEP. While HIV-negative women are the potential users of antiretroviral (ARV) medications for PrEP, HIV-positive women who have used ARVs could contribute immensely to our understanding of the complexities related to taking such medications...
November 2015: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Mariam Aziz, Fareeha Mahmood, Mariana Mata, Helen G Durkin, Chenglong Liu, Ruth M Greenblatt, Marek Nowicki, Elizabeth T Golub, Kathryn Anastos, Audrey L French, Linda L Baum
BACKGROUND: We measured antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity in serum and genital fluids of heterosexually exposed women during HIV seroconversion. METHODS: Plasma and cervico-vaginal lavage (CVL) fluid from 11 seroconverters (SC) were analyzed biannually from one year pre- to 6 year post-seroconversion using a (51)Cr-release assay to measure HIV-1 gp120 specific ADCC. RESULTS: No SC had significant HIV specific CVL ADCC activity before seroconversion or until 1...
July 2015: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Cosmas M Zyambo, James H Willig, Karen L Cropsey, April P Carson, Craig Wilson, Ashutosh R Tamhane, Andrew O Westfall, Greer A Burkholder
BACKGROUND: Treatment-related reductions in morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients have been attenuated by cigarette smoking, which increases risk of cardiovascular, respiratory, and neoplastic diseases. This study investigated factors associated with smoking status among HIV-positive patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,464 HIV-positive patients attending the HIV Clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham between April 2008 and December 2013...
July 2015: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Kateena Addae Konadu, Joseph S Anderson, Ming-Bo Huang, Syed A Ali, Michael D Powell, Francois Villinger, Vincent C Bond
CD4(+) T cell depletion and immune activation are hallmarks of HIV infection. Despite extensive studies, the mechanisms underlying immune modulation remain elusive. HIV-1 Nef protein is secreted in exosomes from infected cells and is abundant in the plasma of HIV+ individuals. Exosomal Nef (exNef) was also shown to induce apoptosis in bystander CD4(+) T cells. We hypothesized that exNef contributes to HIV pathogenesis. A HIV-1 NL4-3 virus containing alanine substitutions in the secretion modification region (SMR; amino acids 66 to 70; HIVNefsmr5a) was developed...
July 2015: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Jennifer Pharr, Victor Enejoh, Bertille Octavie Mavegam, Ayodotun Olutola, Haruna Karick, Echezona E Ezeanolue
HIV/AIDS knowledge has been rated as the most important factor for HIV prevention. However, studies have also shown that knowledge alone does not always translate into reduced risky sexual behavior (RSB). Health locus of control (HLC) categorized as perceived control over health status (internal locus of control) or attribution of health status to chance or fate (external health locus of control) is a psychological construct that has been shown to impact health outcomes including RSB. This study thus investigated the relationship between HLC and RSB among Nigerian adolescents...
June 2015: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Maricianah Onono, Zachary Kwena, Janet Turan, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Glenda E Gray
OBJECTIVE: Throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services are readily available. However, PMTCT programs in SSA have had suboptimal performance compared to other regions of the world. The main objective of this study is to explore the socio-ecological and individual factors influencing the utilization of PMTCT services among HIV-positive pregnant women in western Kenya using a social ecological model as our analytical lens. METHODS: Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 33 HIV-infected women attending government health facilities in rural western Kenya...
June 2015: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Adriana Weinberg, Amanda Allshouse, Kay Kinzie, Alice Cho, Jill K Davies, Elizabeth J Mc Farland
OBJECTIVES: Intra-hepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is uncommon, but has severe effects on pregnancy outcomes. ICP is characterized by elevated serum bile acids and liver enzymes and preferentially affects women with liver disorders. We compared bile acids and pregnancy outcomes of HIV-infected pregnant women, who commonly have elevated live enzymes, with uninfected controls. METHODS: Twenty-four HIV-infected, including 2 co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and 25 uninfected women were tested during early and late pregnancy and postpartum...
June 2015: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Jonathan D Fuchs, Pierre-Alexandre Bart, Nicole Frahm, Cecilia Morgan, Peter B Gilbert, Nidhi Kochar, Stephen C DeRosa, Georgia D Tomaras, Theresa M Wagner, Lindsey R Baden, Beryl A Koblin, Nadine G Rouphael, Spyros A Kalams, Michael C Keefer, Paul A Goepfert, Magdalena E Sobieszczyk, Kenneth H Mayer, Edith Swann, Hua-Xin Liao, Barton F Haynes, Barney S Graham, M Juliana McElrath
BACKGROUND: Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5)-vectored HIV-1 vaccines have not prevented HIV-1 infection or disease and pre-existing Ad5 neutralizing antibodies may limit the clinical utility of Ad5 vectors globally. Using a rare Ad serotype vector, such as Ad35, may circumvent these issues, but there are few data on the safety and immunogenicity of rAd35 directly compared to rAd5 following human vaccination. METHODS: HVTN 077 randomized 192 healthy, HIV-uninfected participants into one of four HIV-1 vaccine/placebo groups: rAd35/rAd5, DNA/rAd5, and DNA/rAd35 in Ad5-seronegative persons; and DNA/rAd35 in Ad5-seropositive persons...
May 2015: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Tomasz Rozmyslowicz, Johann deSa, Ryszard Lec, Glen N Gaulton
We report here a new diagnostic approach to the direct detection of HIV in blood or other body fluids that is rapid, sensitive and potentially applicable in a point-of-care setting. The approach follows on the development of a novel BioNanoSensor (BNS) device that utilizes piezoelectric technology to detect the presence of the HIV surface glycoprotein gp120 in a nanoscale format. The detection range of the BNS device for the biomarker gp120 displayed a low-end sensitivity of 6.5×10(4) HIV viral particles/ml, while using a small fluid sample (5 µl) and with a reaction time of less then 30 seconds...
May 2015: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Maxwell O Akanbi, Babafemi O Taiwo, Chad J Achenbach, Obianuju B Ozoh, Daniel O Obaseki, Halima Sule, Oche O Agbaji, Christiana O Ukoli
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among HIV-infected adults in Nigeria. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: HIV-infected adults aged ≥ 30 years with no acute ailments accessing care at the antiretroviral therapy clinic of Jos University Teaching Hospital were enrolled consecutively. Participants were interviewed to obtain pertinent demographic and clinical information, including exposure to risk factors for COPD...
May 2015: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
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