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International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease

Prashanth Rajagopalan, Georgi Abraham, Yuvaram Nv Reddy, Ravivarman Lakshmanasami, M L Prakash, Yogesh Nv Reddy
This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Yanchen Zhang, Kristin M Corapi, Maria Luongo, Ravi Thadhani, Sagar U Nigwekar
BACKGROUND: Calciphylaxis is a rare but devastating condition in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Most research in the field of calciphylaxis is focused on hemodialysis (HD) patients; however, data on calciphylaxis incidence, risk factors, and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are limited. METHODS: In this cohort study, we examined data from adult patients who initiated PD for ESRD management at our institute's PD unit from January 2001 to December 2015...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Nina E Diana, Saraladevi Naicker
The prevalence of HIV-associated chronic kidney disease (CKD) varies geographically and depends on the definition of CKD used, ranging from 4.7% to 38% globally. The incidence, however, has decreased with the use of effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). A wide variety of histological patterns are seen in HIV-associated kidney diseases that include glomerular and tubulointerstitial pathology. In resource-rich settings, there has been a plateau in the incidence of end-stage renal disease secondary to HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN)...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Michele Andreucci, Teresa Faga, Eleonora Riccio, Massimo Sabbatini, Antonio Pisani, Ashour Michael
Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a problem associated with the use of iodinated contrast media, causing kidney dysfunction in patients with preexisting renal failure. It accounts for 12% of all hospital-acquired kidney failure and increases the length of hospitalization, a situation that is worsening with increasing numbers of patients with comorbidities, including those requiring cardiovascular interventional procedures. So far, its diagnosis has relied upon the rise in creatinine levels, which is a late marker of kidney damage and is believed to be inadequate...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Roberto Gordillo, Tania Ahluwalia, Robert Woroniecki
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common in critically ill children and have been associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The incidence of AKI in children is difficult to estimate because of the lack of a standard definition for AKI. The pediatric RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, and End-stage kidney disease) criteria can be used to define AKI in children. Various biomarkers in urine and blood have been studied to detect AKI in critically ill children...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Daniela Ponce, Andre Balbi
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major global health problem in both developed and developing nations, negatively affecting patient morbidity and responsible for an estimated 1.4 million deaths per year. Although the International Society of Nephrology set a goal of eliminating preventable deaths from AKI by 2025, implementation of this program in developing countries presents major challenges not only because of the lack of resources but also because of the scarce data addressing the epidemiology and causes of AKI in developing countries, the limited health care resources to diagnose and treat AKI, and the poor awareness of the impact of AKI on patient outcomes...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Amal A Al-Eisa, Mohammad Z Haider
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D activity is controlled by vitamin D receptors (VDRs), which are affected by different genetic polymorphisms, including TaqI and Apal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), which have been reported to be associated with several diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the association of VDR gene polymorphisms with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) and steroid responsiveness in Kuwaiti children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Genotypes of the VDR TaqI gene polymorphism and the Apal gene polymorphism were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-RFLP in 78 INS patients and 56 matched controls...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Daniel Kitterer, Niko Braun, M Dominik Alscher, Stephan Segerer, Joerg Latus
BACKGROUND: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is the most severe complication associated with long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD). Previous studies noticed a sharp decline in new patients with severe EPS. We investigated the number of severe EPS patients in our large referral center over almost 20 years. METHODS: All late-stage EPS patients who underwent major surgery due to extensive symptoms caused by bowel obstruction (vomiting, abdominal pain, and weight loss) between March 1997 and end of December 2015 in our hospital were included in the present study...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Hidehiro Sugisawa, Yumiko Shimizu, Tamaki Kumagai, Hiroaki Sugisaki, Seiji Ohira, Toshio Shinoda
STUDY PURPOSE: Whether or not socioeconomic status (SES)-related differences in the health of hemodialysis patients differ by age, period, and birth cohort remains unclear. We examined whether SES-related gaps in physical and mental health change with age, period, and birth cohort for hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Data were obtained from repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011, with members of a national patients' association as participants...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Munna Lal Patel, Rekha Sachan, Radhey Shyam, Satish Kumar, Ritul Kamal, Arvind Misra
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is the most common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Very few studies have investigated the predictive properties of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) as a marker of AKI in septic patients. The aim of this study is to examine uNGAL in septic patients with and without AKI and to evaluate its predictive value. METHODS: We prospectively studied 155 patients with sepsis over a period of 1 year. Urine was analyzed for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin at 12, 24, and 48 hours after admission...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Nicos Mitsides, Sandip Mitra, Tom Cornelis
Despite technological advances in renal replacement therapy, the preservation of health and quality of life for individuals on dialysis still remains a challenge. The high morbidity and mortality in dialysis warrant further research and insight into the clinical domains of the technique and practice of this therapy. In the last 20 years, the focus of development in the field of hemodialysis (HD) has centered around adequate removal of urea and other associated toxins. High-dose HD offers an opportunity to improve mortality, morbidity, and quality of life of patients with end-stage kidney disease...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Karen L Hardinger, Daniel Sunderland, Jennifer A Wiederrich
BACKGROUND: Belatacept is a novel immunosuppressive therapy designed to improve clinical outcomes associated with kidney transplant recipients while minimizing use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). METHODS: We searched for clinical trials related to administration of belatacept to kidney transplant patients compared to various immunosuppression regimens, as well as for studies that utilized data from belatacept trials to validate new surrogate measures. The purpose of this review is to consolidate the published evidence of belatacept's effectiveness and safety in renal transplant recipients to better elucidate its place in clinical practice...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Alistair Ms Chesser, Steven M Harwood, Martin J Raftery, Muhammad M Yaqoob
PURPOSE: Cardiac bioenergetics are known to be abnormal in experimental uremia as exemplified by a reduced phosphocreatine (PCr)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio. However, the progression of these bioenergetic changes during the development of uremia still requires further study and was therefore investigated at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after partial nephrectomy (PNx). METHODS: A two-stage PNx uremia model in male Wistar rats was used to explore in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscles' bioenergetic changes over time...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Robert Faulhaber-Walter, Sebastian Scholz, Herrmann Haller, Jan T Kielstein, Carsten Hafer
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) in need of renal replacement therapy (RRT) may have a protracted and often incomplete rehabilitation. Their long-term outcome has rarely been investigated. STUDY DESIGN: Survivors of the HANnover Dialysis OUTcome (HANDOUT) study were evaluated after 5 years for survival, health status, renal function, and quality of life (QoL). The HANDOUT study had examinded mortality and renal recovery of patients with AKI receiving either standard extendend or intensified dialysis after multi organ failure...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Amornpan Lertrit, Suchin Worawichawong, Somlak Vanavanan, Anchalee Chittamma, Dittapol Muntham, Piyanuch Radinahamed, Aumporn Nampoon, Chagriya Kitiyakara
The degree of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) is one of the strongest prognostic factors in glomerulonephritis (GN). In experimental models, high serum uric acid (UA) could contribute to IFTA through direct effects on the renal tubules, but the significance of this process has not been evaluated in patients. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is produced by renal tubules following acute or chronic damage. We investigated the relationship between UA and NGAL excretion in primary GN and tested whether these biomarkers are independently associated with IFTA...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Yuk Law, Yiu Che Chan, Stephen Wing-Keung Cheng
Due to the relatively low metabolic demand and extensive collaterals of the upper limb, peripheral arterial disease seldom leads to tissue loss, except in patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF), rheumatologic diseases, Raynaud's disease, frostbites, or distal emboli. We report a case of a 51-year-old lady with ESRF who presented to our tertiary referral vascular center with infected gangrene of her right ring finger. Duplex ultrasound showed that her forearm arteries were severely diseased. Digital subtraction angiogram showed severe multilevel stenoses/occlusions in her forearm radial and ulnar arteries...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Vivek Soi, Carol L Moore, Lalathakasha Kumbar, Jerry Yee
Catheter-related bloodstream infections are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the end-stage renal disease population. Although alternative accesses to undergoing renal replacement therapy exist, many patients begin hemodialysis with a dialysis catheter due to logistic and physiologic factors involved in arteriovenous fistula creation and maturation. Colonization of catheters via skin flora leads to the production of biofilm, which acts as a reservoir for virulent bacteria. Preventative therapies center on appropriate catheter maintenance, infection control measures, and early removal of devices as patients transition to other access...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Bruno C Silva, Camila E Rodrigues, Regina Crm Abdulkader, Rosilene M Elias
BACKGROUND: Nephrologists have increasingly participated in the conversion from temporary catheters (TC) to tunneled-cuffed catheters (TCCs) for hemodialysis. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively analyze the outcomes associated with TCC placement by nephrologists with expertise in such procedure, in different time periods at the same center. The impact of vancomycin or cefazolin as prophylactic antibiotics on the infection outcomes was also tested. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Hemodialysis patients who presented to such procedure were divided into two cohorts: A (from 2004 to 2008) and B (from 2013 to 2015)...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Bancha Satirapoj, Janjira Prapakorn, Dollapas Punpanich, Chantima Pongsuparbchon, Ouppatham Supasyndh
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is one common adverse consequence in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), and most patients have a lower-than-normal dietary energy intake. The present study was undertaken to examine whether orally administered ONCE Renal formula (ORF) supplement would improve energy intake without minerals and electrolytes disturbances in predialysis patients with CKD. METHODS: All eligible nondiabetic patients with CKD received ORF supplement for 1 week...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Kiyomi Koike, Kei Fukami, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Kazumasa Shimamatsu, Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Seiya Okuda
Higher doses of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) contribute to atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thrombocytosis is associated with increased mortality in ESA-treated HD patients. We investigated variables affecting platelet count and its variability (platelet count increment [Δplatelet count]) in HD patients. This retrospective longitudinal and observational study of HD outpatients was carried out over 3 years. The outcome was independent determinants of platelet count and Δplatelet count, which were associated with iron indices, ESA dose, and C-reactive protein...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
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