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Infection and Drug Resistance

Mutshiene Deogratias Ekwanzala, John Barr Dewar, Ilunga Kamika, Maggy Ndombo Benteke Momba
A systematic review was conducted to determine the distribution and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), antimicrobial-resistant genes (ARGs), and antimicrobial-resistant gene determinants (ARGDs) in clinical, environmental, and farm settings and to identify key knowledge gaps in a bid to contain their spread. Fifty-three articles were included. The prevalence of a wide range of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and their genes was reviewed. Based on the studies reviewed in this systematic review, mutation was found to be the main genetic element investigated...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Zulqarnain Baloch, Bilal Aslam, Saima Muzammil, Mohsin Khurshid, Muhammad Hidayat Rasool, Ke Ma
Antibiotic therapy has a dual impact: wanted, in which it immediately inhibits the growth of bacteria and the unwanted, which is responsible for the evolution of antibiotic resistance. The dissociation of therapeutic effectiveness from the possible risk of the antibiotic resistance may be attained by taking the advantage of specific relations between these drugs, and the methods in which mutations associated with resistance against a specific antibiotic may modify these relations or it may increase the sensitivity of the bacterium to the other antibiotics...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Fen Qin, Quan Wang, Chunlian Zhang, Caiyun Fang, Liping Zhang, Hailin Chen, Mi Zhang, Fei Cheng
Purpose: Antifungal drugs are used frequently in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), but have shown controversial results. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different antifungal drugs in the treatment of VVC and to provide an evidence-based reference for clinical use. Methods: The published studies on the effectiveness of antifungal drugs in the treatment of VVC (up to April 2018) were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Clini-calTrials...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Shio-Shin Jean, Wen-Sen Lee, Po-Ren Hsueh
Objectives: This study investigated the prevalence rates of carbapenemase positivity, antibiotic susceptibility, and independent predictors of carbapenemase producers among the Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAI) in the Asia-Pacific region between 2008 and 2014. Materials and methods: Multiplex PCR was used for the detection of specific β-lactamases, while the broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics among the IAI-related Enterobacteriaceae isolates...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Effat Davoudi-Monfared, Hossein Khalili
Data on the status of carbapenem-resistant microorganisms in the Middle East countries are scarce. The aim of this review was to collect available data regarding resistance to carbapenems in a Middle East region. Available data regarding carbapenem-resistant isolates were considered for evaluation in this review. Biomedical electronic databases were systematically searched to find related articles. The key terms used were "carbapenem-resistant, resistant gram-negative bacilli, Enterobacteriaceae , fermenting and non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli, Pseudomonas , Acinetobacter , Klebsiella and Iran"...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Mehrandokht Sirous, Azar Dokht Khosravi, Mohammad Reza Tabandeh, Shokrollah Salmanzadeh, Nazanin Ahmadkhosravi, Sirus Amini
Background: The emergence of drug resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains is a serious health concern worldwide. The development of rapid molecular diagnostic methods in recent years has a significant impact on the early detection of resistance to major anti-TB drugs in MTB isolates, which helps in employing appropriate treatment regimen and prevents the spread of drug-resistant strains. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of real-time PCR and high-resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis for the determination of resistance to rifampin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), and ofloxacin (OFX) in MTB isolates and to investigate their resistance-related mutations...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Pavlina Jelinkova, Zbynek Splichal, Ana Maria Jimenez Jimenez, Yazan Haddad, Aninda Mazumdar, Vishma Pratap Sur, Vedran Milosavljevic, Pavel Kopel, Hana Buchtelova, Roman Guran, Ondrej Zitka, Lukas Richtera, Dagmar Hegerova, Zbynek Heger, Amitava Moulick, Vojtech Adam
Background: Increase in vancomycin (Van)-resistant bacterial strains including vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and lack of new effective antibiotics have become a formidable health problem. Materials and methods: We designed a new conjugate composed of Van and a peptide Hecate (Hec; Van/Hec), and its potential antimicrobial activity was evaluated. Results: Results from disk diffusion test, time-kill assay, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), microscopy, and comet assay showed strong antimicrobial effects of Van/Hec against wild-type, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and VRSA...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Dan Zhang, Xiaojiao Li, Hua Xiong, Chao Yang, Fajin Lv, Xianlong Huang, Qi Li, Zhuoyue Tang, Tianyou Luo
Objectives: To characterize clinical, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of tuberculosis (TB) of the parotid nodes. Materials and methods: CT (n=21) and MR (n=7) images, and clinical data from 25 patients with TB of the parotid nodes were retrospectively analyzed by two experienced radiologists who reached consensus. Results: Younger patients (aged <50 years) accounted for 72%. Eighty percent of patients were asymptomatic, and had no history of TB exposure...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Lining Shi, Jiao Feng, Zhe Zhan, Yuzong Zhao, Haijian Zhou, Haifeng Mao, Yingjie Gao, Ying Zhang, Zhe Yin, Bo Gao, Yigang Tong, Yanping Luo, Defu Zhang, Dongsheng Zhou
Background: We recently reported the complete sequence of a bla KPC-2- and rmtB -carrying IncFII-family plasmid p675920-1 with the pKPC-LK30/pHN7A8 hybrid structure. Comparative genomics of additional sequenced plasmids with similar hybrid structures and their prevalence in bla KPC -carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from China were investigated in this follow-up study. Methods: A total of 51 bla KPC -carrying K. pneumoniae strains were isolated from 2012 to 2016 from five Chinese hospitals and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Arianna Pompilio, Cristina Geminiani, Paolo Mantini, Thissa N Siriwardena, Ivan Di Bonaventura, Jean Louis Reymond, Giovanni Di Bonaventura
Aim: In the present work, the potential of the D-enantiomeric dendrimers dG3KL and dTNS18 was evaluated in relation to tobramycin (Tob), for the development of novel antibacterials to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Results: The activity of dendrimers against planktonic P. aeruginosa cells was less than Tob against three of the four strains tested (median minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] 8 vs 1 µg/mL, respectively), but 32-fold higher against the PaPh32 strain isolated at posttransplantation stage...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Eric S Donkor, Dorota Jamrozy, Richael O Mills, Thomas Dankwah, Philip K Amoo, Beverly Egyir, Ebenezer V Badoe, Joana Twasam, Stephen D Bentley
Background: Whole genome sequencing analysis (WGSA) provides the best resolution for typing of bacterial isolates and has the potential for identification of transmission pathways. The aim of the study was to apply WGSA to elucidate the possible transmission events involved in two suspected Staphylococcus aureus hospital outbreaks in Ghana and describe genomic features of the S. aureus isolates sampled in the outbreaks. Methods: The study was carried out at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital and Lekma Hospital where the suspected outbreaks occurred in 2012 and 2015, respectively...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
William Toledo-Rueda, Nora H Rosas-Murrieta, José E Muñoz-Medina, César R González-Bonilla, Julio Reyes-Leyva, Gerardo Santos-López
Background: Influenza causes high rates of morbidity and mortality. Genetic variability of influenza viruses generates resistance to antivirals, which are of two types, since they act on two different viral targets: adamantanes, which block the M2 ion channel, and the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors. Methods: In Mexico, the available studies on the antiviral resistance of circulating influenza strains are scarce, so this work undertook an analysis of the Mexican sequences reported in public gene banks to perform a systematic analysis of the antiviral resistance markers on both M2 and NA...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Yongyu Rui, Wengting Lu, Si Li, Cancan Cheng, Jingjing Sun, Qiu Yang
Background: Integron, ISCR1 and complex class 1 integrons lead bacteria to become resistant to antibiotic regimens. The aim of this study was to detect common mobile genetic elements of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli and evaluate the genotyping of these bacilli in blood specimens from septicemia patients in southern China. Methods: A total of 837 Gram-negative bacilli including 578 strains containing Enterobacteriaceae and 259 strains containing non-fermentative bacilli were investigated in blood samples collected from septicemia patients between 2011 and 2014 in southern China...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Xiaodan Jiang, Aihua Deng, Jiarui Yang, Hua Bai, Zhao Yang, Jie Wu, Huibin Lv, Xuemin Li, Tingyi Wen
Objective: To explore the composition of the ocular microbiome in normal subjects and patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Subjects and methods: Seventy subjects (140 eyes) were enrolled in our study. Signs of dry eye were evaluated and bacterial species in the conjunctival sac (CS) and Meibomian gland (MG) secretions were then identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Additionally, 17 subjects (34 eyes) were further evaluated to determine differences in the microbiomes in the surface and deep layers of MG using a segmental secretion analysis...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Fatemeh Keihanian, Amin Saeidinia, Keivan Abbasi, Faeze Keihanian
Introduction: Septicemia is an emergency in medicine due to various dangers and lethality. In patients with septicemia, blood culture and other cultures should be done before antibiotic therapy. Determination of each isolated bacterium from blood culture and pattern of antibiotic sensitivity have an important role epidemiologically in a region and can assist physicians in the determination of primary antimicrobial agents. In this study, the researchers evaluated the schema of resistance of antibiotics in blood culture during the years 2014-2015 at eight educational hospitals in Rasht, North of Iran...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Satoshi Nishida, Yasuo Ono
Introduction: The pathogenicity of fatal-outbreak Acinetobacter baumannii isolates has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to compare the pathogenicity between A. baumannii clinical isolates, including multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRA). Materials and methods: Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the broth microdilution method, and drug-resistant genes were characterized by PCR and sequencing. The pathogenicity of A. baumannii and antibiotic responses were evaluated using the Galleria mellonella infection model...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Daisuke Kobayashi, Yuichiro Shindo, Ryota Ito, Mai Iwaki, Junya Okumura, Toshihiro Sakakibara, Ikuo Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Yagi, Tomohiko Ogasawara, Yasuteru Sugino, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Hiroshi Saito, Hideo Saka, Takashi Kawamura, Yoshinori Hasegawa
Background: Appropriate initial antibiotic treatment and avoiding administration of unnecessary broad-spectrum antibiotics are important for the treatment of pneumonia. To achieve this, assessment of risk for drug-resistant pathogens (DRPs) at diagnosis is essential. Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate a predictive rule for DRPs that we previously proposed (the community-acquired pneumonia drug-resistant pathogen [CAP-DRP] rule), comparing several other predictive methods...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Mario Juárez-Ortega, Oscar Rojas-Espinosa, Raquel Muñiz-Salazar, Enrique Becerril-Villanueva, Alejandro Hernández-Solís, Patricia Arce-Paredes, Sergio Islas-Trujillo, Raúl Cicero-Sabido
Background: Resident alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells, and immigrating neutrophils (NEU) are the first cells to contact Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lung. These cells, and additional lymphoid cells in the developing granuloma, release a series of components that may concentrate in the serum and affect disease progression. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the serum from tuberculosis (TB) patients and their household contacts (HHC) on the nuclear morphology of NEU...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Madhvi Ahuja, Mallika Lavania, Itu Singh, Ravindra P Turankar, Seema Chhabra, Tarun Narang, Sunil Dogra, Utpal Sengupta
Introduction: The most commonly noted reactions in leprosy patients are type 1 reactions and erythema nodosum leprosum, with some rare phenomenon of host response known as Lucio phenomenon or leprosy of Lucio and Latapi which is caused by Mycobacterium lepromatosis . So far, no case of M. lepromatosis has been reported from India. Materials and methods: The main objective of this study was to detect any positive cases of M. lepromatosis in India with such a complication...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Chen-Hsiang Lee, Seng-Kee Chuah, Wei-Chen Tai, I-Ling Chen
Objective: Platelets catalyze the development of hyperinflammation and microthrombosis and contribute to increases in accumulation of circulating platelet-leukocyte complex, the key event in the development of disseminated infection. Subjects and methods: To determine the relationships of platelet activity in diabetic patients with invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess syndrome (IKLAS), a total of 175 diabetic patients with community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) bacteremia were included in this study...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
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