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Infection and Drug Resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225477/molecular-evaluation-of-colistin-resistant-gene-expression-changes-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-with-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction
#1
Shahriar Sepahvand, Mohammad Ali Davarpanah, Amir Roudgari, Abbas Bahador, Vajihe Karbasizade, Zahra Kargar Jahromi
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important human pathogen which has recently gained increased attention due to the occurrence of drug-resistant nosocomial infections in patients suffering from immune system disorders, and those in hospital intensive care units. The aim of this research was to identify and isolate A. baumannii strains resistant to colistin, determine antibiotic resistance pattern of this bacteria, investigate the presence of colistin-resistant genes, and finally assess the effect of expression changes in pmrA and pmrB genes resistant to A...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225476/association-between-the-il-6-gene-polymorphism-and-tuberculosis-risk-a-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Hao Wang, Caishuang Pang, Ni Zeng, Chun Wan, Yongchun Shen, Fuqiang Wen
Background: The gene polymorphism of interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been shown to be implicated in tuberculosis susceptibility in many studies, but with conflicting results. This study aimed to provide more accurate estimation of the relationship between IL-6 gene polymorphism and tuberculosis risk through a meta-analysis. Method: A literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and other databases. Data were retrieved, and pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI were calculated...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200878/in-vitro-activity-of-colistin-mono-and-combination-therapy-against-colistin-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-mechanism-of-resistance-and-clinical-outcomes-of-patients-infected-with-colistin-resistant-a-baumannii-at-a-thai-university-hospital
#3
Yongyut Lertsrisatit, Wichai Santimaleeworagun, Sudaluck Thunyaharn, Jantima Traipattanakul
Purpose: Colistin is a drug of last resort for treating multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. Unfortunately, colistin-resistant A. baumannii (CoR-AB) has been reported. Here, we examined the in vitro effect of mono- and combined antimicrobials against CoR-AB strains and their resistance mechanism, and evaluated the clinical outcomes of CoR-AB-infected patients. Patients and methods: Seventeen clinical CoR-AB strains were isolated from patients at Phramongkutklao hospital, 2011-2015...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184422/prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-resistant-association-substitutions-to-direct-acting-antiviral-agents-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hepatitis-c-genotype-1b-infected-patients-in-western-china
#4
Zhao Li, Zhi-Wei Chen, Hu Li, Hong Ren, Peng Hu
Background: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against hepatitis C virus (HCV) are potent and highly efficacious. However, resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) relevant to DAAs can impair treatment effectiveness even at baseline. Moreover, the prevalence of baseline RASs in HCV genotype 1b-infected patients in western China is still unclear. Materials and methods: Direct sequencing of the HCV NS3, NS5A, and NS5B regions was performed in baseline serum samples of 70 DAAs treatment-naïve HCV 1b-infected patients in western China...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158685/invasive-aspergillus-terreus-morphological-transitions-and-immunoadaptations-mediating-antifungal-resistance
#5
Louis Bengyella, Elsie Laban Yekwa, Muhammad Nasir Subhani, Ernest Tambo, Kiran Nawaz, Bakoena Ashton Hetsa, Sehrish Iftikhar, Sayanika Devi Waikhom, Pranab Roy
Background and aims: Aspergillus terreus Thom is a pathogen of public health and agricultural importance for its seamless abilities to expand its ecological niche. The aim of this study was holistically to investigate A. terreus morphological and immunoadaptations and their implication in antifungal resistance and proliferation during infection. Materials and methods: In-depth unstructured mining of relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed for A. terreus morphological, immune, resistance, and genetic diversity based on the sequenced calmodulin-like gene...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158684/right-and-left-ventricular-function-in-hospitalized-children-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#6
Thorsten Horter, Britt Nakstad, Omid Ashtari, Anne Lee Solevåg
Background: Extrapulmonary manifestations including cardiac dysfunction have been demonstrated in children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection requiring intensive care. The aim of this study was to examine cardiac function in hospitalized children with moderate RSV infection admitted to a regular pediatric ward. Methods: We used echocardiography to determine cardiac output, and right and left ventricular function in 26 patients (aged 2 weeks to 24 months) with RSV infection...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138583/efficacy-of-intravenous-tigecycline-in-patients-with-acinetobacter-complex-infections-results-from-14-phase-iii-and-phase-iv-clinical-trials
#7
Hal Tucker, Michele Wible, Ashesh Gandhi, Alvaro Quintana
Background: Acinetobacter infections, especially multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter infections, are a global health problem. This study aimed to describe clinical outcomes in patients with confirmed Acinetobacter spp. isolates who were treated with tigecycline in randomized clinical trials. Materials and methods: Data from 14 multinational, randomized (open-label or double-blind), and active-controlled (except one) Phase III and IV studies were analyzed using descriptive statistics...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138582/once-daily-intramuscular-amikacin-for-outpatient-treatment-of-lower-urinary-tract-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-children
#8
Meltem Polat, Soner Sertan Kara
Background: The rise in community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains raises the question of how to treat these infections effectively in pediatric outpatients. Amikacin has shown promising in vitro activity against ESBL-producing urinary isolates of E. coli; however, clinical data are limited. Objective: To investigate the clinical and microbiological outcomes of community-acquired lower UTIs caused by ESBL-producing E...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089778/treatment-of-pediatric-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-review-on-treatment-efficacy-and-economic-value
#9
REVIEW
Amanda R D'Ostroph, Tsz-Yin So
The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in pediatric patients continues to rise. Most of the pediatric recommendations for CDI treatment are extrapolated from the literature and guidelines for adults. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends oral metronidazole as the first-line treatment option for an initial CDI and the first recurrence if they are mild to moderate in severity. Oral vancomycin is recommended to be used for severe CDI and the second recurrent infection. Additional pulsed regimen of oral vancomycin, which is tapered, may increase efficacy in refractory patients...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089777/correlation-between-resistance-mechanisms-in-staphylococcus-aureus-and-cell-wall-and-septum-thickening
#10
Ana Belén García, José Manuel Viñuela-Prieto, Laura López-González, Francisco Javier Candel
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study is to examine cell wall and septum thickening of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and methicillin- and linezolid-resistant S. aureus (MLRSA) isolates by transmission electron microscopy to correlate the association of resistance mechanisms with major changes in the morphology of membrane or septum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MSSA, MRSA, and MLRSA strains obtained from clinical samples of an outbreak that occurred in 2010 at the Intensive Care Unit of our Hospital were thawed and sown at 37°C in blood agar overnight...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081666/high-rate-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-in-treatment-failure-patients-in-taiwan-2009-2014
#11
Hung-Chin Tsai, I-Tzu Chen, Kuan-Sheng Wu, Yu-Ting Tseng, Cheng-Len Sy, Jui-Kuang Chen, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Yao-Shen Chen
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors (PIs) has been associated with loss of viral suppression measured by a rise in HIV-1 RNA levels, a decline in CD4 cell counts, persistence on a failing treatment regimen, and lack of adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to monitor the prevalence and risk factors associated with drug resistance in Taiwan after failure of first-line therapy...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075131/diversity-and-evolution-of-drug-resistance-mechanisms-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
REVIEW
Mashael Al-Saeedi, Sahal Al-Hajoj
Despite the efficacy of antibiotics to protect humankind against many deadly pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nothing can prevent the emergence of drug-resistant strains. Several mechanisms facilitate drug resistance in M. tuberculosis including compensatory evolution, epistasis, clonal interference, cell wall integrity, efflux pumps, and target mimicry. In this study, we present recent findings relevant to these mechanisms, which can enable the discovery of new drug targets and subsequent development of novel drugs for treatment of drug-resistant M...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075130/national-antimicrobial-stewardship-and-fluoroquinolone-resistant-clostridium-difficile-in-china
#13
Meng Xiao, Jing-Wei Cheng, Timothy Kudinha, Fanrong Kong, Ying-Chun Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066921/prevalence-incidence-burden-and-clinical-impact-of-healthcare-associated-infections-and-antimicrobial-resistance-a-national-prevalent-cohort-study-in-acute-care-hospitals-in-greece
#14
Evangelos I Kritsotakis, Flora Kontopidou, Eirini Astrinaki, Maria Roumbelaki, Eleni Ioannidou, Achilles Gikas
BACKGROUND: Assessing the overall burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) is challenging, but imperative in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of infection control programs. This study aimed to estimate the point prevalence and annual incidence of HAIs in Greece and assess the excess length of stay (LOS) and mortality attributable to HAIs, overall and for main infection sites and tracer antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypes and pathogens. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prevalent cohort study used a nationally representative cross-section of 8,247 inpatients in 37 acute care hospitals to record active HAIs of all types at baseline and overall LOS and in-hospital mortality up to 90 days following hospital admission...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042801/investigating-a-rare-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strain-first-description-of-genome-sequencing-and-molecular-characterization-of-cc15-mrsa
#15
Abiola C Senok, Ali M Somily, Peter Slickers, Muhabat A Raji, Ghada Garaween, Atef Shibl, Stefan Monecke, Ralf Ehricht
PURPOSE: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC15 strains (CC15-MRSA) have only been sporadically described in literature. This study was carried out to describe the genetic make-up for this rare MRSA strain. METHODS: Four CC15-MRSA isolates collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 2013 and 2014 were studied. Two isolates were from clinical infection and 2 from retail meat products. Whole genome sequencing was carried out using Illumina HiSeq2500 genome analyzer...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026323/diagnostic-accuracy-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-musculoskeletal-tuberculosis-a-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Hai Wen, Pengzhi Li, Hong Ma, Guohua Lv
OBJECTIVES: Xpert MTB/RIF assay, a rapid and automated real-time nucleic acid amplification test, has been reported for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal tuberculosis (TB) in current years. This meta-analysis aims to determine the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert for the detection of musculoskeletal TB and rifampicin (RIF) resistance. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang for original articles published up to 1st June 2017 to identify studies in which the Xpert assay was applied to diagnose musculoskeletal TB...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979150/mycoplasma-genitalium-infections-current-treatment-options-and-resistance-issues
#17
REVIEW
Sunil Sethi, Kamran Zaman, Neha Jain
Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the important causes of non-gonococcal urethritis. Rising incidence and emerging antimicrobial resistance are a major concern these days. The poor clinical outcomes with doxycycline therapy led to the use of azithromycin as the primary drug of choice. Single-dose azithromycin regimen over a period of time was changed to extended regimen following studies showing better clinical cures and less risk of resistance development. However, emerging macrolide resistance, either due to transmission of resistance or drug pressure has further worsened the management of this infection...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919792/clinical-outcomes-and-nephrotoxicity-of-colistin-loading-dose-for-treatment-of-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-cancer-patients
#18
Wasan Katip, Suriyon Uitrakul, Peninnah Oberdorfer
BACKGROUND: Colistin is a last-line defense therapy against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). Despite a loading dose of colistin being applied in many clinical practices, studies evaluating the effect of the loading dose of colistin in cancer patients remain limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of cancer patients who received either a loading or non-loading dose of colistin for treatment of XDR-AB was conducted. For each group, the clinical response, bacteriological eradication and serum creatinine were recorded...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919791/pegylated-interferon-plus-ribavirin-treatment-does-not-alter-the-prevalence-of-resistance-associated-substitutions-to-direct-acting-antivirals-in-hcv-genotype-1a-patients
#19
Zhi-Wei Chen, Xi-Chen Pang, Zhao Li, Hong Ren, Peng Hu
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) can jeopardize the effectiveness of DAAs in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The selection pressure by pegylated-interferon (Peg-IFN) plus ribavirin (P/R) treatment may enhance HCV genome variation. However, whether P/R treatment alters the rate of change of RASs is still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrieved the genomic sequences of HCV genotype (GT) 1a patients from GenBank, which included patients naïve to P/R (pre-IFN group) and those previously treated with P/R (post-IFN group)...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919790/exploring-bacterial-outer-membrane-barrier-to-combat-bad-bugs
#20
REVIEW
Ishan Ghai, Shashank Ghai
One of the main fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria comprises an effective change in the membrane permeability to antibiotics. The Gram-negative bacterial complex cell envelope comprises an outer membrane that delimits the periplasm from the exterior environment. The outer membrane contains numerous protein channels, termed as porins or nanopores, which are mainly involved in the influx of hydrophilic compounds, including antibiotics. Bacterial adaptation to reduce influx through these outer membrane proteins (Omps) is one of the crucial mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
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