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Infection and Drug Resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214260/overview-of-pneumococcal-serotypes-and-genotypes-causing-diseases-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-a-spanish-hospital-between-2013-and-2016
#1
Hisashi Shoji, Daniel A Vázquez-Sánchez, Aida Gonzalez-Diaz, Meritxell Cubero, Fe Tubau, Salud Santos, Dolores García-Somoza, Josefina Liñares, José Yuste, Sara Martí, Carmen Ardanuy
Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed at showing the recent changes in the epidemiology of pneumococcal diseases in patients with COPD, especially after the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Methods: From 2013 to 2016, strains causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (non-BPP), and acute exacerbation of COPD (AE-COPD) were prospectively included...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214259/in-vivo-antimicrobial-activity-of-the-hybrid-peptide-h4-a-follow-up-study
#2
Ammar Almaaytah, Qosay Albalas, Karem H Alzoubi
Background: The consistent upsurge in antimicrobial resistance globally is threatening the world population with the prospect of facing the post-antibiotic era. Dry pipelines and a drastic decrease of antimicrobial drug development accompany this rise in antimicrobial resistance. Governments and health authorities are calling for the development of novel classes of antimicrobial agents that would tackle this problem. Antimicrobial peptides represent a promising group of molecules for antimicrobial drug development due to their potency and rapid mode of killing...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214258/benchmarking-for-surgical-site-infections-among-gastrointestinal-surgeries-and-related-risk-factors-multicenter-study-in-kuwait
#3
Wafaa S Hamza, Mona F Salama, Samar S Morsi, Naglaa M Abdo, Mariam A Al-Fadhli
Purpose: To measure surgical site infection (SSI) rates among gastrointestinal surgeries and to identify the associated risk factors. Patients and methods: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, surveillance-based study of adults undergoing gastric, colon, and small bowel (SB) procedures from January to December 2016. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine the predictive variables in each surgery. Results: In total, 71 of 2,099 patients developed SSI - 0...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214257/efficacy-of-intraventricular-amikacin-treatment-in-pan-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-postsurgical-meningitis
#4
Mariadelfina Molinaro, Paola Morelli, Manuela De Gregori, Simona De Gregori, Ilaria Giardini, Federica Tordato, Vincenzina Monzillo, Daria Pocaterra, Erminia Casari
Background: We describe a case of pan-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa postsurgical meningitis associated with the presence of an external ventricular device. We changed therapy twice; finally, by using amikacin and a continuous infusion of cefepime, we obtained clinical improvement. Case presentation: A female patient, who underwent surgery for a cavernous angioma, presented with meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid culture revealed a multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa , initially sensitive only to colistin...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214256/management-and-outcome-of-bloodstream-infections-a-prospective-survey-in-121-french-hospitals-spa-bact-survey
#5
Oliver Robineau, Jérome Robert, Christian Rabaud, Jean-Pierre Bedos, Emmanuelle Varon, Yves Péan, Rémy Gauzit, Serge Alfandari
Background: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are severe infections that can be community or hospital acquired. Effects of time to appropriate treatment and impact of antimicrobial management team are discussed in terms of outcome of BSI. We sought to evaluate the impact of initial BSI management on short-term mortality. Patients and methods: A prospective, multicenter survey was conducted in 121 French hospitals. Participants declaring BSI during a 1-month period were included consecutively...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214255/comparison-of-five-commonly-used-automated-susceptibility-testing-methods-for-accuracy-in-the-china-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-system-carss-hospitals
#6
Menglan Zhou, Yao Wang, Chang Liu, Timothy Kudinha, Xiaolin Liu, Yanping Luo, Qiwen Yang, Hongli Sun, Jihong Hu, Ying-Chun Xu
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of five commonly used automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) systems in China (Vitek 2, Phoenix, Microscan, TDR, and DL). Materials and methods: Two "unknown" isolates, S1 (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli ) and S2 (KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ), were sent to 886 hospitals in China for identification and AST. Using broth microdilution method (BMD) as gold standard, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214254/epidemiology-of-and-risk-factors-for-infection-with-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-results-of-a-double-case-control-study
#7
Xiaolang Tian, Shan Sun, Xiaojiong Jia, Hua Zou, Shuang Li, Liping Zhang
Purpose: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have been increasingly reported worldwide and pose a serious public threat, but the clinical significance of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production in CRE is not well established. Patients and methods: A retrospective case-case-control study was conducted to identify the clinical characteristics of patients with ESBL-CRE. The susceptibility of isolates obtained from these patients was assessed. The detection of ESBL and carbapenemase-related genes was performed by PCR methods...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214253/prevalence-of-plasmodium-falciparum-antimalarial-drug-resistance-genes-in-southeastern-gabon-from-2011-to-2014
#8
Dominique Fatima Voumbo-Matoumona, Lady Charlène Kouna, Marylin Madamet, Sydney Maghendji-Nzondo, Bruno Pradines, Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki
Purpose: The introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in treating uncomplicated malaria and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy drastically decreased the burden of malarial disease around the world. However, ACTs are known to select for drug resistance markers. In Gabon, artemether-lumefantrine induced an increase in the prevalence of N86- Pfmdr1 , which is associated with treatment failure. However, little data are available regarding resistance markers in Southeastern Gabon...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214252/the-changes-of-expressive-levels-of-il-17a-stat3-and-ror%C3%AE-t-in-different-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-mice
#9
Lingna Xu, Ren-Ai Xu, Dan Zhang, Shanshan Su, Hanyan Xu, Qing Wu, Yuping Li
Background: T helper 17 (Th17) lymphocytes play an important role in Aspergillus adaptive immune response against Aspergillus fumigatus , but there is little attention focused on the different types of immunosuppressive models in which invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) develops. In addition, the expression levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear receptor gamma (RORγt)/interleukin (IL)-17A signaling pathway, which is involved in the regulation of Th17 cells, as well as whether there are differences between two types of IPA mice models, remain unknown...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214251/susceptibility-to-ceftobiprole-of-respiratory-tract-pathogens-collected-in-the-united-kingdom-and-ireland-during-2014-2015
#10
Anne Santerre Henriksen, Jennifer I Smart, Kamal Hamed
Purpose: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) can cause significant morbidity and mortality and are becoming increasingly difficult to treat because of the growing prevalence of resistance to conventional antimicrobial agents. This study aimed to assess the current in vitro susceptibility of respiratory tract pathogens collected from the UK and Ireland to ceftobiprole, an advanced-generation cephalosporin, as compared with other antibiotics. Methods: Pathogens isolated from patients with LRTIs were analyzed as part of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Programme during 2014-2015...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30197527/phenotypic-and-molecular-characteristics-of-methicillin-resistant-and-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-pigs-implication-for-livestock-association-markers-and-vaccine-strategies
#11
Dan Guo, Yangqun Liu, Changlin Han, Zhiyao Chen, Xiaohua Ye
Background: Routine non-therapeutic antimicrobial use and overcrowding in animal farming may facilitate the propagation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to examine the carriage prevalence and phenotype-genotype characteristics of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolated from pigs. Methods: Nasal swabs were collected from 1,458 pigs in 9 pig farms and 3 slaughterhouses. All strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, resistance genes, and virulence genes, and characterized by multilocus sequence typing...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30197526/trough-concentration-of-itraconazole-and-its-relationship-with-efficacy-and-safety-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Jingru Zhang, Yiwei Liu, Xiaolu Nie, Yuncui Yu, Jian Gu, Libo Zhao
Objectives: The optimum trough concentration of itraconazole for clinical response and safty is controversial. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the optimum trough concentration of itraconazole and evaluate its relationship with efficacy and safety. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, Clinical-Trials.gov, and three Chinese literature databases (CNKI, WanFang, and CBM). We included observational studies that compared clinical outcomes below or above the trough concentration cut-off value which we set as 0...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30197525/application-of-tuf-gene-sequence-analysis-for-the-identification-of-species-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-in-clinical-samples-and-evaluation-of-their-antimicrobial-resistance-pattern
#13
Azar Dokht Khosravi, Mitra Roointan, Effat Abbasi Montazeri, Sajad Aslani, Mohammad Hashemzadeh, Moslem Taheri Soodejani
Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are normal inhabitants of human skin and mucous membranes. However, CoNS represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, especially in immunocompromised patients. The increasing incidence of CoNS and mainly methicillin-resistant strains underlines the need for an accurate identification of Staphylococcus isolates at the species level. Analysis of the tuf gene proved to be an accurate tool for the species identification of CoNS. The aims of this study were to identify the CoNS species by tuf gene-based polymerase chain reaction method and sequencing, and to determine the frequency of CoNS clinical isolates resistant to methicillin (MRCoNS) and other antibiotics...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30197524/carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-characterization-of-carbapenemase-genes-and-e-test-evaluation-of-colistin-based-combinations
#14
Raghdaa A Ramadan, Manar G Gebriel, Heba M Kadry, Ahmed Mosallem
Background: Carbapenamase producing Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are emerging worldwide limiting the use of carbapenems as effective and safe drugs. Purpose: To characterize different carbapenemase genes carried by carbapenem-resistant (CR) A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa isolates and to evaluate the in vitro effect of some colistin-based combinations by E-test method in Zagazig University Hospitals ICU isolates. Methods: CR A...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174449/two-residues-in-staphylococcus-aureus-%C3%AE-hemolysin-related-to-hemolysis-and-self-assembly
#15
Yufeng Du, Li Liu, Chunping Zhang, Yani Zhang
Staphylococcus aureus is becoming increasingly intractable because of its ability to acquire antimicrobial resistance and secrete numerous virulence factors that can exacerbate inflammation. Alpha-hemolysin (Hla) is a pore-forming virulence factor produced by S. aureus that can self-assemble into heptameric mushroom-structured pores in target cell membranes, leading to cell lysis and death. In the present study, we sought to better understand the mechanism underlying hemolysis and the oligomerization of Hla by creating nine mutants with single amino acid changes in different positions of the Hla protein: N17C, T18C, P103C, N105C, M113C, T117C, N121C, D128C, and T129C...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174448/insight-into-acinetobacter-baumannii-pathogenesis-global-resistance-mechanisms-of-resistance-treatment-options-and-alternative-modalities
#16
REVIEW
Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Ahmad Alvi, Shafiq Ur Rehman
Acinetobacter baumannii , once considered a low-category pathogen, has emerged as an obstinate infectious agent. The scientific community is paying more attention to this pathogen due to its stubbornness to last resort antimicrobials, including carbapenems, colistin, and tigecycline, its high prevalence of infections in the hospital setting, and significantly increased rate of community-acquired infections by this organism over the past decade. It has given the fear of pre-antibiotic era to the world. To further enhance our understanding about this pathogen, in this review, we discuss its taxonomy, pathogenesis, current treatment options, global resistance rates, mechanisms of its resistance against various groups of antimicrobials, and future therapeutics...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30154670/genetic-polymorphisms-of-exon-1-of-mbl2-contribute-to-tuberculosis-risk-especially-in-asian-populations-an-updated-meta-analysis-of-26-studies
#17
Yu-Jiao Wu, Xin Yang, Ting-di Chen, Zhi-Xin Zhang, Yi-Zhong You, Zheng-da Fan
Background: Evidence suggests that genetic variations of exon 1 of mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) may contribute to tuberculosis (TB) risk. Many studies have investigated the association between MBL2 exon 1 polymorphisms (rs1800450, rs1800451, and rs5030737) and TB risk, but yielded inconclusive results. Method: We conducted this meta-analysis of 26 eligible case-control studies that included 7952 cases and 9328 controls to identify the strength of association...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30154669/carbapenem-resistant-and-cephalosporin-susceptible-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-a-notable-phenotype-in-patients-with-bacteremia
#18
Shuang Li, Xiaojiong Jia, Congya Li, Hua Zou, Hang Liu, Yuanbiao Guo, Liping Zhang
Purpose: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognized as a major cause of severe and potentially life-threatening infection. However, P. aeruginosa isolates with the phenotype of being carbapenem resistant and cephalosporin susceptible (Carb-R/Ceph-S) have not been thoroughly characterized to date. The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms, risk factors, and clinical impact of Carb-R/Ceph-S P. aeruginosa bacteremia on mortality. Patients and methods: We conducted a retrospective case-case-control study of the risk factors and clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients with Carb-R/Ceph-S P...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30154668/effectiveness-and-safety-of-polymyxin-b-for-the-treatment-of-infections-caused-by-extensively-drug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-in-thailand
#19
Thundon Ngamprasertchai, Adhiratha Boonyasiri, Lantharita Charoenpong, Sireethorn Nimitvilai, Narisorn Lorchirachoonkul, Luksame Wattanamongkonsil, Visanu Thamlikitkul
Background: Colistimethate sodium (colistin) has been used in the treatment of infections caused by extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria in Thailand over the past decade, with a mortality rate of 50% and a nephrotoxicity rate of 40%. Polymyxin B has not been available in Thailand. We conducted a Phase II clinical study to determine the effectiveness and safety of polymyxin B, compared with colistin, for the treatment of XDR Gram-negative bacterial infections in Thai patients...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30147349/impact-of-teicoplanin-maintenance-dose-and-mic-values-on-the-clinical-outcomes-of-patients-treated-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#20
Ching-Yen Tsai, Chen-Hsiang Lee, Chun-Chih Chien, I-Ling Chen
Objectives: Teicoplanin, a glycopeptide, is regarded as among the drug choices for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Few studies have evaluated the relationship between teicoplanin minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and outcomes among patients with serious MRSA infections. Subjects and methods: We investigated the relationship between teicoplanin maintenance dose and clinical outcomes, on the completion of teicoplanin therapy, in bacteremia patients with MRSA infection, with different teicoplanin MICs...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
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