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Infection and Drug Resistance

I-Huang Lin, Sung-Huei Tseng, Fu-Chin Huang, Yi-Hsun Huang
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of ethanol pretreatment in Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Patients and methods: This single-center, retrospective, interventional study included 22 patients (24 eyes) who developed AK and underwent ethanol pretreatment between 2009 and 2015. Samples for smears, polymerase chain reaction, and culture for evidence of Acanthamoeba were collected. After ethanol pretreatment, the patients were treated with corneal epithelial debridement, topical 0...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Elisabet Guiral, Maria Jesús Pons, Delfino Vubil, Marta Marí-Almirall, Betuel Sigaúque, Sara Maria Soto, Pedro Luís Alonso, Joaquim Ruiz, Jordi Vila, Inácio Mandomando
Background: The emergence and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), especially CTX-M, is an important public health problem with serious implications for low-income countries where second-line treatment is often unavailable. Knowledge of the local prevalence of ESBL is critical to define appropriate empirical therapeutic strategies for multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms. This study aimed to assess and characterize the presence of ESBL and especially CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli MDR isolates from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bacteremia in a rural hospital in Mozambique...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Elisabetta de Alteriis, Valeria Maselli, Annarita Falanga, Stefania Galdiero, Federica Maria Di Lella, Renato Gesuele, Marco Guida, Emilia Galdiero
Background: This article examines the use of a novel nano-system, gold nanoparticles coated with indolicidin (AuNPs-indolicidin), against pathogenic Candida albicans biofilms. Candida species cause frequent infections owing to their ability to form biofilms, primarily on implant devices. Materials and methods: We used an integrated approach, evaluating the effect of AuNPs-indolicidin on prevention and eradication of Candida biofilms formed in multi-well polystyrene plates, with relative gene expression assays...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Laura C García-Carnero, Luis A Pérez-García, José A Martínez-Álvarez, Juana E Reyes-Martínez, Héctor M Mora-Montes
Human fungal infections remain a major challenge in medicine. Only a limited number of antifungal drugs are available, which are often related to severe adverse effects. In addition, there is an increased emergence related to resistant strains, which makes imperative to understand the host-pathogen interactions as well as to develop alternative treatments. Host innate and adaptive immunity play a crucial role controlling fungal infections; therefore, vaccines are a viable tool to prevent and treat fungal pathogens...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Amro M Hassan, Heba A Osman, Hasan S Mahmoud, Mohammed H Hassan, Abdel-Kader A Hashim, Hesham H Ameen
Background and aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with extrahepatic manifestations such as cryoglobulinemia and accounts for up to 90% of all cases of mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC). The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sofosbuvir-daclatasvir therapy on symptomatic HCV-related MC and sustained virologic response (SVR) achievement. Patients and methods: This prospective cohort study was carried out on 120 patients with chronic HCV infection, clinically suspected to have MC, but only 63 of whom were positive for cryoglobulins...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Julius Mugweru, Jianxiong Liu, Gaelle Makafe, Gift Chiwala, Bangxing Wang, Changwei Wang, Xinjie Li, Yaoju Tan, Wing Wai Yew, Shouyong Tan, Tianyu Zhang
Ethionamide (ETA) and prothionamide (PRO) are interchangeably used in tuberculosis (TB) chemotherapy regimens. Subtle discrepancies between biochemical and genetic information on the modes of sensitivity and resistance of isoniazid (INH) and ETA warrants further studies. We report a new mutation - EthAW21R - in Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin that corresponds with co-resistance to both PRO and ETA, which to the best of our knowledge has not been reported before. Our findings suggest that mutation EthAW21R could be used as a marker site for testing PRO and ETA cross-resistance...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
(no author information available yet)
[This retracts the article on p. 359 in vol. 11, PMID: 29563816.].
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Ming-Gui Wang, Wei-Wei Huang, Yu Wang, Yun-Xia Zhang, Miao-Miao Zhang, Shou-Quan Wu, Andrew J Sandford, Jian-Qing He
Background: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for tuberculosis but little is known about the relationship between tobacco smoking and drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between DR-TB and tobacco smoking. Methods: We searched for relevant studies in the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG, and WEIPU data-bases from inception to September 1, 2017...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Andrés Martín-Aspas, Francisca M Guerrero-Sánchez, Francisco García-Colchero, Sebastián Rodríguez-Roca, José-Antonio Girón-González
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to detect those characteristics that were specifically associated with infection or colonization by Acinetobacter baumannii , describe the clinical manifestations of those patients in whom the infection was detected in intensive care unit (ICU) or non-ICU wards, and analyze the prognosis-associated factors in patients from whom A. baumannii was isolated. Patients and methods: A sample of 122 patients from whom A. baumannii was recovered during an endemic period in a teaching hospital was included...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Ammar Almaaytah, Mohammed T Qaoud, Ahmad Abualhaijaa, Qosay Al-Balas, Karem H Alzoubi
Introduction: As the development of new antimicrobial agents faces a historical decline, the issue of bacterial drug resistance has become a serious dilemma that threatens the human population worldwide. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent an attractive and a promising class of antimicrobial agents. Aim: The hybridization of AMPs aimed at merging two individual active fragments of native peptides to generate a new AMP with altered physicochemical properties that translate into an enhanced safety profile...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Ryuichi Hirano, Yuichi Sakamoto, Junichi Kitazawa, Shoji Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Kayaba
Background: Candidemia is associated with high mortality, and its prognostic factors need to be examined in more detail in order to improve its management. A case of breakthrough (BT) candidemia is defined as the development of candidemia during antifungal therapy. The microbiological characteristics of and appropriate clinical practices for BT candidemia remain unclear. Objectives: The primary objective of the present study was to identify the prognostic factors of candidemia, while the secondary objective was to elucidate the microbiological characteristics of patients with BT candidemia...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Chien-Yu Cheng, Mao-Song Tsai, Chia-Jui Yang, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Hsin-Yun Sun, Shu-Fang Chang, Li-Hsin Su, Yi-Ching Su, Chien-Ching Hung, Sui-Yuan Chang
Background: Increasing trends of resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) to non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (nNRTIs) have raised concerns about the effectiveness of the regimens in the national HIV treatment programs in resource-limited countries. We aimed to retrospectively investigate the incidence and patterns of emergent RAMs of HIV-1 in HIV-positive adults experiencing virological failure to first-line nNRTI-containing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Taiwan...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Siang Fei Yeoh, Tae Jin Lee, Ka Lip Chew, Stephen Lin, Dennis Yeo, Sajita Setia
Candida species remains one of the most important causes of opportunistic infections worldwide. Invasive candidiasis (IC) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in liver disease (LD) patients if not treated promptly. Echinocandins are often recommended as a first-line empirical treatment for managing IC and can especially play a critical role in managing IC in LD patients. However, advanced LD patients are often immunocompromised and critically ill. Hence altered pharmacokinetics, drug interactions as well as tolerance issues of antifungal treatments are a concern in these patients...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Sally Tohamy Tohamy, Khaled Mohamed Aboshanab, Hadir Ahmed El-Mahallawy, Mona R El-Ansary, Salwa Selim Afifi
Introduction: Bloodstream infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) are among the most frequent complications in immunocompromised cancer patients because of their considerable morbidity and mortality. Several guidelines on antimicrobial therapy have addressed empirical treatment for such serious infections; however, the emergence of microbial resistance has become a significant problem worldwide. Materials and methods: In this study, starting from November 2015 to October 2016, a total of 529 blood specimens were collected from febrile neutropenic cancer patients at a tertiary care cancer hospital in Egypt...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Joseph L Kuti, Qi Wang, Hongbin Chen, Henan Li, Hui Wang, David P Nicolau
Objectives: We report the in vitro activity of amikacin and comparators against Gram-negative bacteria collected from blood and respiratory specimens in China during a 1-year period between December 2015 and December 2016. Materials and methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution methods using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, and susceptibility was assessed using CLSI breakpoints, except for tigecycline against Enterobacteriaceae...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Jialing Lin, Jianping Liang, Ting Zhang, Chan Bai, Jiaping Ye, Zhenjiang Yao
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can cause serious infections in elementary students. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the quantitative associations of school environmental contamination with nasal carriage of MRSA by students in a dose-response manner. Phenotypic and molecular characterizations were performed to further assess the associations. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to August 2016 in eight elementary schools in Guangzhou, China...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Filip Jansåker, Niels Frimodt-Møller, Thomas L Benfield, Jenny Dahl Knudsen
Purpose: The pharmacokinetic properties of mecillinam (MEC) for urinary tract infections are excellent, and the resistance rate in Enterobacteriaceae is low compared to other recommended antibiotics. The oral prodrug pivmecillinam (P-MEC) has been used successfully as first choice for cystitis in the Nordic countries for many years. Norwegian and Danish guidelines also recommend P-MEC for acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (AUP) and intravenous (IV) MEC for suspected urosepsis (only in Denmark)...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Hazal Boral, Murat Durdu, Macit Ilkit
Majocchi's granuloma (MG) is a rare fungal infection of the dermis that is mainly caused by dermatophytes (in ≥95% of cases); the most frequently identified cause is anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum . In the rest of the cases, the causes are non-dermatophytic fungi such as Aspergillus species. This review aimed to provide information about the current perspectives on MG regarding its clinical characteristics, predisposing factors, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment strategies. Although the lower extremities were reported to be the most common site of infection, facial involvement has been predominant in the past 5 years...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Monica Licker, Teodora Sorescu, Maria Rus, Natalia Cirlea, Florin Horhat, Cristiana Jurescu, Mircea Botoca, Alin Cumpănaş, Romulus Timar, Delia Muntean
Purpose: We report an outbreak of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Myroides odoratimimus , which occurred in the largest clinical hospital in western Romania. Patients and methods: From June to August 2017, four strains of M. odoratimimus were isolated from the urine samples of patients hospitalized in the urology, diabetes, and surgery departments. Hospital records of all patients whose urine cultures were positive for M. odoratimimus were reviewed retrospectively...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Nadjette Bourafa, Wafaa Chaalal, Sofiane Bakour, Rym Lalaoui, Nafissa Boutefnouchet, Seydina M Diene, Jean-Marc Rolain
Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from inpatients and outpatients in Algeria between July and September 2015, and to screen their resistance mechanisms and genetic relatedness. Materials and methods: A total of 68 non-redundant isolates were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
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