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Infection and Drug Resistance

Devjit S Nayar
Background: In order to mitigate potential issues with antibiotic resistance in the treatment of patients with Helicobacter pylori infection, the selection of a therapeutic regimen is optimized by being aware of local eradication rates as well as the patient's medication history and previous diagnoses. Purpose: This study primarily aimed to calculate the eradication rate of H. pylori infection in the New York Metropolitan area when using clarithromycin-based triple therapy per the dosing instructions for Omeclamox ® -Pak...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Vanesa García, Inácio Mandomando, Joaquim Ruiz, Silvia Herrera-León, Pedro L Alonso, M Rosario Rodicio
Background and purpose: Invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis, mostly caused by serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis of Salmonella enterica, has emerged as a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was the clinical and microbiological characterization of nontyphoidal salmonellosis episodes affecting febrile children in Mozambique. Patients and methods: The clinical records of the patients were evaluated, and S. enterica isolates were characterized with regard to serovar, phage type, antimicrobial resistance (phenotype/responsible genes), plasmid content, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Li-Li Xia, Su-Fen Li, Kan Shao, Xin Zhang, Shan Huang
To investigate the correlation between computed tomography (CT) features and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) complicated with primary pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). One hundred and eighty untreated PTB patients complicated with T2DM were selected. Based on the HbAlc level, the patients were divided into three groups: HbAlc level <7% (Group I: 32 patients), 7%-9% (Group II: 48 patients), and >9% (Group III: 100 patients). The changes of CT manifestations and HbAlc were analyzed after TB and T2DM treatment...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Marco Fiore, Marco Cascella, Sabrina Bimonte, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Ivan Gentile, Vincenzo Schiavone, Maria Caterina Pace
Fungal infections of the liver, most commonly caused by Candida spp., often occur in patients with hematologic malignancies treated with chemotherapy. Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to be the main origin of dissemination of Candida ; mucositis and neutropenia facilitate the spread of Candida from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver. Hepatic involvement due to other fungi is a less common infectious complication in this setting. Fungal infections represent a less common cause of hepatic abscesses in non-oncohematologic population and the trend appears to be decreasing in recent years...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Mallika Lavania, Itu Singh, Ravindra P Turankar, Anuj Kumar Gupta, Madhvi Ahuja, Vinay Pathak, Utpal Sengupta
Despite more than three decades of multidrug therapy (MDT), leprosy remains a major public health issue in several endemic countries, including India. The emergence of drug resistance in Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) is a cause of concern and poses a threat to the leprosy-control program, which might ultimately dampen the achievement of the elimination program of the country. Rifampicin resistance in clinical strains of M. leprae are supposed to arise from harboring bacterial strains with mutations in the 81-bp rifampicin resistance determining region (RRDR) of the rpoB gene...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Yoshiro Hadano
Fourteen cases of reported melioidosis in Japan were reviewed. The mean age was 52.4 years (33-69 years), and all patients were male. All of the presumed exposures originated in Southeast Asia. The most common underlying disease was diabetes mellitus, including those patients with impaired glucose tolerance (n=8). As for mode of onset, 13 patients had acute infections and one had chronic infection. Of these 14 patients, the most common infection site on admission was lung (n=8), followed by bone (n=5), skin (n=4), gastrointestinal abscess formation (n=3), urinary tract (n=3), aorta (n=2), mediastinal lymph node swelling (n=1), and central nervous system (n=1)...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Meng Xiao, Xin Fan, Xin Hou, Sharon Ca Chen, He Wang, Fanrong Kong, Zi-Yong Sun, Yun-Zhuo Chu, Ying-Chun Xu
Echinocandin antifungal agents have become the first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis (IC) in many countries. Despite their increasing use, resistance to this class of drug is, overall, still uncommon. Here, we report two patients from the People's Republic of China with IC, one with infection caused by pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida tropicalis and the other by pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida glabrata. We also describe the mechanisms of drug resistance of these isolates. The echinocandin-resistant C...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Lingshuang Lv, Tiecheng Li, Kun Xu, Peiyi Shi, Biyu He, Weimin Kong, Jianming Wang, Jian Sun
Purpose: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) requires long-term treatment, has a high fatality rate, and constitutes a global threat. Earlier detection of treatment failure is required to predict therapeutic efficacy. Patients and methods: We enrolled MDR-TB patients consecutively from January 2011 through December 2012 in Lianyungang, China. Sputum smear microscopy tests and sputum cultures were performed once a month for the first 6 months following initiation of antituberculosis treatment and once every 2 months thereafter until the end of therapy...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Anum Saqib, Sadia Iftikhar, Tayyaba Sadiq
Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of community pharmacists about antibiotics, and their perceptions and practices toward antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) in Punjab, Pakistan. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among community pharmacists in Punjab, Pakistan from April 1, 2017 to May 31, 2017. A self-administered and pretested questionnaire was used for data collection. A simple random-sampling method was used to select community pharmacies...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Veerapong Vattanavanit, Theerapat Buppodom, Bodin Khwannimit
Background: The timing of intravenous antibiotic administration and lactate measurement is associated with survival of septic shock patients. Septic shock patients were admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) from 2 major sources: hospital ward and emergency department (ED). This study aimed to compare the timing of antibiotic administration and lactate measurement between hospital wards and the ED. Patients and methods: Medical data were collected from adult patients admitted to the MICU with septic shock from January 2015 to December 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Lee-Chung Lin, Shih-Cheng Chang, Mao-Cheng Ge, Tsui-Ping Liu, Jang-Jih Lu
Prolonged vancomycin usage may cause methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to become vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and heterogeneous VISA (hVISA). Mechanisms of vancomycin resistance of VISA and hVISA are still unclear. In this study, analyses of nucleotide sequence variations in 30 vancomycin-sensitive S. aureus (VSSA), 41 hVISA and 16 VISA isolates revealed 29 single-nucleotide variations in 12 genes (fmtC, graR, graS, htrA, mecA, pbp2, pbp4, srtA, tcaA, upps, vicK and vraR) that are related to cell wall synthesis or the two-component system...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Chen Huang, Beiwen Zheng, Wei Yu, Tianshui Niu, Tingting Xiao, Jing Zhang, Yonghong Xiao
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effects of moxalactam (MOX), cefotaxime (CTX), and cefoperazone/sulbactam (CFZ/SBT) against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, using an in vitro pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics model. Methods: Two clinical ESBL-producing strains (blaCTX-M-15 positive E. coli 3376 and blaCTX-M-14 positive K. pneumoniae 2689) and E. coli American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)25922 were used in the study...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Neha Rajpara, Mrinalini Nair, Goutam Chowdhury, Asish K Mukhopadhyay, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, Ashima Kushwaha Bhardwaj
To understand the genetic basis of high drug resistance in Shigella, 95 clinical isolates of Shigella spp. (2001-2010) were obtained from the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kolkata, India. Ninety-three isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Resistance to nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, streptomycin, and co-trimoxazole was most common in this population. Dendrogram analysis showed that S. sonnei strains were more clonally related when compared to the other Shigella species. The role of mobile genetic elements and chromosome-borne resistance factors was analyzed in detail...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Robert Bucki, Bonita Durnaś, Marzena Wątek, Ewelina Piktel, Katrina Cruz, Przemysław Wolak, Paul B Savage, Paul A Janmey
The response of the human immune system to most bacterial infections results in accumulation of neutrophils at infection sites that release a significant quantity of DNA and F-actin. Both are negatively charged polyelectrolytes that can interact with positively charged host defense molecules such as cathelicidin-delivered LL-37 peptide or other cationic antibiotic agents. Evaluation of the ability of bacterial outgrowth (using luminescence measurements or counting colony-forming units) to form a biofilm (quantified by crystal violet staining) and analysis of the structure of DNA/F-actin network by optical microscopy in human pus samples treated with different antibiotics in combination with plasma gelsolin, DNAse 1, and/or poly-aspartic acid revealed that bactericidal activity of most tested antibacterial agents increases in the presence of DNA/F-actin depolymerizing factors...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Karuna Gokarn, Ramprasad B Pal
Infections by drug-resistant bacteria are life-threatening. As iron is a vital element for the growth of bacteria, iron-chelating agents (siderophores) can be used to arrest their multiplication. Exogenous siderophores - exochelin-MS and deferoxamine-B - were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and metallo-β-lactamase producers - Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii - by disc diffusion, micro-broth dilution, and turbidimetric growth assays...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Haishen Kong, Lingmei Fang, Rujin Jiang, Jixiang Tong
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen. Various virulence and antiseptic-resistant factors increase the pathogenicity of MRSA strains and allow for increased infection rates. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of virulence-associated and antiseptic-resistant genes from epidemic MRSA strains isolated from East China. Methods: A newly designed multiplex PCR assay was used to assess whether the virulence-associated genes sasX and pvl and the chlorhexidine tolerance gene qacA/B were present in 189 clinical isolates of MRSA...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Huiqin Liu, Weina Kong, Weina Yang, Gukui Chen, Haihua Liang, Yani Zhang
Objectives: To provide information about the genetic relationships and mechanism underlying carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates of a hospital in China. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from a hospital in China. Susceptibility to 14 antimicrobial agents was determined by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Multilocus sequence typing was used to characterize the genetic backgrounds of these clinical isolates...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Yosra M Alkabab, Mushira A Enani, Nouf Y Indarkiri, Scott K Heysell
Background: Prior research suggests that diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increasing risk for developing cavitary lung disease in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Additionally, chest computed tomography (CT) scan may be more sensitive than chest X-ray in detecting cavitary disease in such patients. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of chest CT to chest X-ray in detecting cavitary lung disease and to compare the frequency of cavities between TB patients with DM and without DM...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Lijuan Zhou, Yanqiu Gao, Wei Cao, Jia Liu, Hongya Guan, Hua Zhang, Yun Shi, Wenying Lv, Long Cheng
Objectives: Teicoplanin, an antibiotic, has poor clinical efficacy when using the current drug label's recommended regimen, which is approved by the China Food and Drug Administration. This study explores the appropriate loading and maintenance doses of teicoplanin and evaluates the therapeutic target of teicoplanin trough concentration (minimum concentration [Cmin]). Subjects and methods: All patients treated with teicoplanin from February 2015 to August 2016 at Zhengzhou Central Hospital were screened for enrollment...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
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[This corrects the article on p. 333 in vol. 10, PMID: 29075131.].
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
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