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Infection and Drug Resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765240/seasonality-of-cellulitis-evidence-from-google-trends
#1
Xin Zhang, Shuangsuo Dang, Fanpu Ji, Juanjuan Shi, Yaping Li, Mei Li, Xiaoli Jia, Yueqiang Wan, Xiongxiong Bao, Wenjun Wang
Introduction: According to our clinical experience, cellulitis is common in summer; however, very few studies have mentioned this trend. Methods: Using Google Trends, we analyzed the monthly data of Google searches for "cellulitis" from 31 countries on 6 continents. Results: Seasonality explained 34%-92% of the variability in search volume, with peaks occurring in summer months. Conclusion: The analyses offered new insights into the epidemiology of cellulitis on national and international scales...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765239/the-clinical-significance-of-silent-mutations-with-respect-to-ciprofloxacin-resistance-in-mrsa
#2
Chih-Cheng Lai, Chi-Chung Chen, Ying-Chen Lu, Yin-Ching Chuang, Hung-Jen Tang
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic differences between different sequence type MRSA isolates, especially focusing on silent rpoB 474 mutations and the relationship between such mutations and ciprofloxacin resistance. Methods: Seventy-nine MRSA isolates were obtained for antibiotic susceptibility tests and molecular study. Results: Among these isolates, we found that the MIC50 , MIC90 , and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of ciprofloxacin were much higher for the isolates without the rpoB 474 mutation than for isolates with the rpoB 474 mutation...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765238/higher-baseline-viral-diversity-correlates-with-lower-hbsag-decline-following-pegylated-interferon-alpha-therapy-in-patients-with-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b
#3
Hu Li, Li Zhang, Hong Ren, Peng Hu
Background: Viral diversity seems to predict treatment outcomes in certain viral infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between baseline intra-patient viral diversity and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) decline following PEGylated interferon-alpha (Peg-IFN-α) therapy. Patients and methods: Twenty-six HBeAg-positive patients who were treated with Peg-IFN-α were enrolled. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning, and sequencing of the hepatitis B virus S gene were performed on baseline samples, and normalized Shannon entropy (Sn) was calculated as a measure of small hepatitis B surface protein (SHBs) diversity...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765237/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates
#4
Fen Pan, Hong Zhang, Xiaoyan Dong, Weixing Ye, Ping He, Shulin Zhang, Jeff Xianchao Zhu, Nanbert Zhong
Introduction: Multidrug resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has emerged as a serious problem to public health. A further understanding of the genetic diversity in antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates is needed. Methods: We conducted whole-genome resequencing for 25 pneumococcal strains isolated from children with different antimicrobial resistance profiles. Comparative analysis focus on detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (indels) was conducted...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765236/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-among-liver-transplant-recipients-epidemiology-and-associated-risk-factors-for-morbidity-and-mortality
#5
REVIEW
Taohua Liu, Yuezhong Zhang, Qiquan Wan
Bacteremia due to Staphylococcus aureus , especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), complicates the clinical course of liver transplantation and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Intravascular catheters had been reported to be the most frequent source of MRSA bacteremia. Among bacteremic liver recipients, 26.3%-100% of S. aureus were MRSA. Previous studies identified pre-transplant and post-transplant acquired S. aureus carriage, greater severity of liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma and infection with immuno-modulatory viruses as predictors of S...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750044/successful-control-of-resistance-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-using-antibiotic-stewardship-and-infection-control-programs-at-a-chinese-university-hospital-a-6-year-prospective-study
#6
Lei Liu, Bin Liu, Yu Li, Wei Zhang
Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is emerging as a highly multidrug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogen. Data on the efficacy of infection control measures in endemic situations are lacking. We investigated the effect of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and infection control programs (ICPs) in controlling the resistance of P. aeruginosa at a tertiary hospital center. Methods: Susceptibility and resistance were investigated using broth microdilution, as per the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750043/analysis-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-hospital-infections-in-patients-treated-at-the-intensive-care-unit-of-the-university-hospital-wroclaw-poland-a-6-year-single-center-retrospective-study
#7
Wieslawa Duszynska, Agnieszka Litwin, Stanislaw Rojek, Aleksander Szczesny, Alfonso Ciasullo, Waldemar Gozdzik
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) is one of the most frequently isolated strains of bacteria in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, which provides huge therapeutic problems due to its multidrug resistance (MDR). Patients and methods: The overall purpose of the study was analysis of health care- associated infections in terms of the incidence of AB strain infections and the changing susceptibility of this strain within a 6-year observation (2011-2016). The study was carried out in an ICU of the University Hospital in Wroclaw (Poland)...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731651/a-case-of-lyme-disease-in-a-japanese-woman
#8
Masafumi Seki, Yuji Watanabe, Hiroki Kawabata
This report presents the case of a Japanese patient who developed Lyme disease. The patient was a 44-year-old woman who had general fatigue and the inability to open her mouth. She was initially suspected of having mild tetanus with lockjaw; however, she reported a past history of a tick bite while camping in the USA and had erythema migrans 2 months before this visit. Finally, Lyme disease was serologically confirmed. A few cases of Lyme disease are annually reported in Japan; however, this infectious disease should also be suspected...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731650/durability-safety-and-efficacy-of-rilpivirine-in-clinical-practice-results-from-the-scolta-project
#9
Paola Bagella, Giuseppe Vl De Socio, Elena Ricci, Barbara Menzaghi, Canio Martinelli, Nicola Squillace, Paolo Maggi, Giancarlo Orofino, Leonardo Calza, Laura Carenzi, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Giovanni Penco, Antonio Di Biagio, Laura Valsecchi, Francesca Vichi, Valeria Colombo, Giustino Parruti, Chiara Dentone, Katia Falasca, Paolo Bonfanti, Giordano Madeddu
Rilpivirine is associated with a good efficacy and safety profile. However, data from real-life settings are scarce. Methods: We investigated the durability, safety and efficacy of Rilpivirine-based antiretroviral therapy in a prospective, observational, multicenter study. Results: We enrolled 499 HIV-infected patients, 360 (72.1%) males, mean age 43.4 ± 10.5 years, mean CD4 600 ± 327 cell/μL, mean HIV-RNA 3.80 ± 1.15 log10 cp/mL. After a median follow up of 16 months, 81 (16...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731649/comparative-evaluation-of-methods-for-the-detection-of-biofilm-formation-in-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-and-correlation-with-antibiogram
#10
Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal
Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are normal commensals of human skin and mucous membranes. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of CNS among clinical isolates, characterize them up to species level, compare the three conventional methods for detection of biofilm formation, and study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Materials and methods: CNS were obtained from various clinical samples including blood, urine, central venous catheter tips, endotracheal tube aspirate, and pus during a 1-year period (July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015)...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731648/a-retrospective-comparative-analysis-of-risk-factors-and-outcomes-in-carbapenem-susceptible-and-carbapenem-nonsusceptible-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infections-tigecycline-significantly-increases-the-mortality
#11
Tingting Xiao, Wei Yu, Tianshui Niu, Chen Huang, Yonghong Xiao
Background: Carbapenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (CnSKP) is rapidly emerging as a life-threatening nosocomial infection. The efficacy of tigecycline in the treatment of bloodstream infections (BSIs) remains controversial. Methods: Data from a total of 428 patients with carbapenem-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (CSKP) and CnSKP BSIs were collected at a single center between January 2013 and December 2015. A three-part analysis was conducted to identify the risk factors associated with CnSKP, explore prognosis, and evaluate treatments...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731647/ambulance-vehicles-as-a-source-of-multidrug-resistant-infections-a-multicenter-study-in-assiut-city-egypt
#12
Mohamed A El-Mokhtar, Helal F Hetta
Background: Ambulances may represent a potential source of infection to patients, patients' relatives, and paramedical staffs. In this study, we analyzed the extent of bacterial contamination in ambulance vehicles and measured the degree of antimicrobial resistance among isolated pathogens. Materials and methods: Twenty-five vehicles were included and 16 sampling points were swabbed in each vehicle. Then the swabs were immediately transferred to the laboratory to identify bacterial contaminants utilizing standard microbiological procedures and API® systems...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731646/in-vitro-antibacterial-effect-of-fosfomycin-combination-therapy-against-colistin-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#13
Wei Yu, Qixia Luo, Qingyi Shi, Chen Huang, Xiao Yu, Tianshui Niu, Kai Zhou, Jiajie Zhang, Yonghong Xiao
Objectives: Colistin is still a "last-resort" antibiotic used to manage human infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae . However, colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae (CR-Kp) isolates emerged a decade ago and had a worldwide distribution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genetic data of CR-Kp and identify the antibacterial activity of fosfomycin (FM) alone and in combination with amikacin (AMK) or colistin (COL) against CR-Kp in vitro. Methods: Three clinical CR-Kp isolates from three patients were collected...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731645/antimicrobial-use-of-reactive-oxygen-therapy-current-insights
#14
REVIEW
Mohammad Yousef Memar, Reza Ghotaslou, Mohammad Samiei, Khosro Adibkia
Infections caused by drug-resistant pathogens are a global public health problem. The introduction of a new antimicrobial strategy is an unavoidable option for the management of drug-resistant pathogens. Induction of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by several procedures has been extensively studied for the treatment of infections. In this article, the general aspects of ROS production and the common procedures that exert their antimicrobial effects due to ROS formation are reviewed. ROS generation is the antimicrobial mechanism of nanoparticles, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, medical honey, and photodynamic therapy...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731644/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-carriage-in-neonates-the-role-of-maternal-carriage-and-phenotypic-and-molecular-characteristics
#15
Jialing Lin, Chuanan Wu, Chunrong Yan, Qianting Ou, Dongxin Lin, Junli Zhou, Xiaohua Ye, Zhenjiang Yao
Background: Staphylococcus aureus , particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), in mothers can cause serious outcomes in neonates. We aimed to elucidate the associations of S. aureus and MRSA carriage between mothers and neonates. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted between August and November 2015 in two hospitals in Shenzhen, China. Chinese pregnant women and their neonates who met the inclusion criteria were included in this study; samples and relevant information were collected...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731643/ugly-bugs-in-healthy-guts-carriage-of-multidrug-resistant-and-esbl-producing-commensal-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-intestine-of-healthy-nepalese-adults
#16
Anjila Maharjan, Anjeela Bhetwal, Shreena Shakya, Deepa Satyal, Shashikala Shah, Govardhan Joshi, Puspa Raj Khanal, Narayan Prasad Parajuli
Background: Fecal carriage of multidrug-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is one of the important risk factors for infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this report, we examined the prevalence of multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing common enterobacterial strains colonizing the intestinal tract of apparently healthy adults in Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods: During a 6-month period (February-July 2016), a total of 510 stool specimens were obtained from apparently healthy students of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695923/antibiotic-sensitivities-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-and-staphylococcus-aureus-in-hip-and-knee-periprosthetic-joint-infections-does-this-differ-if-patients-meet-the-international-consensus-meeting-criteria
#17
Elena De Vecchi, David A George, Carlo L Romanò, Fabrizio E Pregliasco, Roberto Mattina, Lorenzo Drago
Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the main pathogens responsible for prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). As normal inhabitants of human skin, it is often difficult to define if they are contaminants, or if they have an active role in initiating infection. This study aims to evaluate differences in CoNS organisms ( Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus capitis , Staphylococcus haemolyticus , Staphylococcus warneri) and Staphylococcus aureus in terms of isolation rate and antimicrobial susceptibility from patients who met the International Consensus Meeting (ICM) criteria for PJIs and those who did not...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695922/characterization-of-enterotoxin-a-producing-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Dong Chen, Qifa Song, Zhaojun Xu, Dandan Zhang
Purpose: This study aims to characterize the wild-type staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA)-producing Staphylococcus aureus . Materials and methods: We identified 29 wild-type sea -positive S. aureus isolates from dairy and meat samples, as well as from patients, measured the amount of SEA produced under favorable cultivation conditions using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and sea mRNA transcriptional level and investigated the phage type as well as genetic diversity by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695921/understanding-antibiotic-resistance-via-outer-membrane-permeability
#19
REVIEW
Ishan Ghai, Shashank Ghai
Collective antibiotic drug resistance is a global threat, especially with respect to Gram-negative bacteria. The low permeability of the bacterial outer cell wall has been identified as a challenging barrier that prevents a sufficient antibiotic effect to be attained at low doses of the antibiotic. The Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope comprises an outer membrane that delimits the periplasm from the exterior milieu. The crucial mechanisms of antibiotic entry via outer membrane includes general diffusion porins (Omps) responsible for hydrophilic antibiotics and lipid-mediated pathway for hydrophobic antibiotics...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674849/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-related-to-fluoroquinolone-and-aminoglycoside-resistance-in-mycobacterium-avium-isolates
#20
Hui Pang, Kanglin Wan, Lin Wei
Objective: The relationships between fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside resistance and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in gyrA , gyrB , and rpsL genes were investigated in 95 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium avium from China. Methods: Fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside resistance were determined by the broth microdilution method. GyrA , gyrB , and rpsL were sequenced, SNPs were identified, and the corresponding amino acid mutations were recorded. Results: The M...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
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