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Infection and Drug Resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096686/peptide-consensus-sequence-determination-for-the-enhancement-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-and-selectivity-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#1
Ammar Almaaytah, Ya'u Ajingi, Ahmad Abualhaijaa, Shadi Tarazi, Nizar Alshar'i, Qosay Al-Balas
The rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria is causing a serious threat to the world's human population. Recent reports have identified bacterial strains displaying pan drug resistance against antibiotics and generating fears among medical health specialists that humanity is on the dawn of entering a post-antibiotics era. Global research is currently focused on expanding the lifetime of current antibiotics and the development of new antimicrobial agents to tackle the problem of antimicrobial resistance. In the present study, we designed a novel consensus peptide named "Pepcon" through peptide consensus sequence determination among members of a highly homologous group of scorpion antimicrobial peptides...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994476/a-novel-combination-approach-of-human-polyclonal-ivig-and-antibiotics-against-multidrug-resistant-gram-positive-bacteria
#2
Mariam Madkour Sallam, Khaled Abou-Aisha, Mohamed El-Azizi
BACKGROUND: Gram-positive bacteria, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and enterococci, have shown a remarkable ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess possible enhancement of the antimicrobial activity of vancomycin, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin by human polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) against 34 multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial isolates, including MRSA, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994475/isavuconazole-for-the-treatment-of-invasive-aspergillosis-and-mucormycosis-current-evidence-safety-efficacy-and-clinical-recommendations
#3
REVIEW
Suganthini Krishnan Natesan, Pranatharthi H Chandrasekar
The majority of invasive mold infections diagnosed in immunocompromised cancer patients include invasive aspergillosis (IA) and mucormycosis. Despite timely and effective therapy, mortality remains considerable. Antifungal agents currently available for the management of these serious infections include triazoles, polyenes, and echinocandins. Until recently, posaconazole has been the only triazole with a broad spectrum of anti-mold activity against both Aspergillus sp. and mucorales. Other clinically available triazoles voriconazole and itraconazole, with poor activity against mucorales, have significant drug interactions in addition to a side effect profile inherent for all triazoles...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994474/probiotics-improve-the-efficacy-of-standard-triple-therapy-in-the-eradication-of-helicobacter-pylori-a-meta-analysis
#4
Christine S M Lau, Amanda Ward, Ronald S Chamberlain
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori colonization is present in half of the world's population and can lead to numerous gastrointestinal diseases if left untreated, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Although concurrent triple therapy remains the recommended treatment regimen for H. pylori eradication, its success rate and efficacy have been declining. Recent studies have shown that the addition of probiotics can significantly increase eradication rates by up to 50%. This meta-analysis examines the impact of probiotic supplementation on the efficacy of standard triple therapy in eradicating H...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980428/availability-perceptions-and-characteristics-of-antibiograms-among-illinois-pediatricians
#5
Kathryn M Spiekerman, Sameer J Patel, Rupal Patel, Larry K Kociolek
Despite the enormous volume of antibiotics prescribed by pediatricians, resources to promote judicious antibiotic use are primarily limited to hospitals. The primary objective of this survey was to delineate the availability, characteristics, and perceptions of antibiograms among pediatricians. As a secondary objective, we sought to delineate the availability of other infectious diseases (ID)-related educational resources among pediatricians, the perceived need for additional resources, and their general educational preferences...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920563/assessing-parasite-clearance-during-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-treated-with-artesunate-monotherapy-in-suriname
#6
Stephen Gs Vreden, Rakesh D Bansie, Jeetendra K Jitan, Malti R Adhin
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is suspected when the day 3 parasitemia is >10% when treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy or if >10% of patients treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy or artesunate monotherapy harbored parasites with half-lives ≥5 hours. Hence, a single-arm prospective efficacy trial was conducted in Suriname for uncomplicated P. falciparum infection treated with artesunate-based monotherapy for 3 days assessing day 3 parasitemia, treatment outcome after 28 days, and parasite half-life...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920562/the-pharmacokinetics-of-vancomycin-during-the-initial-loading-dose-in-patients-with-septic-shock
#7
Wasan Katip, Sutep Jaruratanasirikul, Sutthiporn Pattharachayakul, Wibul Wongpoowarak, Arnurai Jitsurong, Aroonrut Lucksiri
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of vancomycin in patients in the initial phase of septic shock. METHODS: Twelve patients with septic shock received an intravenous infusion of vancomycin 30 mg/kg over 2 h. The vancomycin PK study was conducted during the first 12 h of the regimen. Serum vancomycin concentration-time data were analyzed using the standard model-independent analysis and the compartment model. RESULTS: For the noncompartment analysis the mean values ± standard deviation (SD) of the estimated clearance and volume of distribution of vancomycin at steady state were 6...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789965/pharmacist-managed-dose-adjustment-feedback-using-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-vancomycin-was-useful-for-patients-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-a-single-institution-experience
#8
Ryuichi Hirano, Yuichi Sakamoto, Junichi Kitazawa, Shoji Yamamoto, Naoki Tachibana
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin (VCM) requires dose adjustment based on therapeutic drug monitoring. At Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, physicians carried out VCM therapeutic drug monitoring based on their experience, because pharmacists did not participate in the dose adjustment. We evaluated the impact of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) on attaining target VCM trough concentrations and pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD) parameters in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713645/evaluating-vancomycin-susceptibility-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Marcelo J Mimica, Alessandra Navarini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703383/aspergillus-fumigatus-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-lung-pros-and-cons-of-azole-therapy
#10
Pierre-Régis Burgel, André Paugam, Dominique Hubert, Clémence Martin
Aspergillus fumigatus is the main fungus cultured in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis occurs in ~10% of CF patients and is clearly associated with airway damage and lung function decline. The effects of A. fumigatus colonization in the absence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis are less well established. Retrospective clinical studies found associations of A. fumigatus-positive cultures with computed tomography scan abnormalities, greater risk of CF exacerbations and hospitalizations, and/or lung function decline...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695351/lemierre-s-syndrome-current-perspectives-on-diagnosis-and-management
#11
REVIEW
Katrine M Johannesen, Uffe Bodtger
This is a systematic review of cases with Lemierre's syndrome (LS) in the past 5 years. LS is characterized by sepsis often evolving after a sore throat or tonsillitis and then complicated by various septic emboli and thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Symptoms include sepsis, pain, and/or swelling in the throat or neck, as well as respiratory symptoms. Laboratory findings show elevated infectious parameters and radiological findings show thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and emboli in the lungs or other organs...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672336/lyme-disease-the-promise-of-big-data-companion-diagnostics-and-precision-medicine
#12
Raphael B Stricker, Lorraine Johnson
Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has become a major worldwide epidemic. Recent studies based on Big Data registries show that >300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease each year in the USA, and up to two-thirds of individuals infected with B. burgdorferi will fail conventional 30-year-old antibiotic therapy for Lyme disease. In addition, animal and human evidence suggests that sexual transmission of the Lyme spirochete may occur. Improved companion diagnostic tests for Lyme disease need to be implemented, and novel treatment approaches are urgently needed to combat the epidemic...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578993/peramivir-injection-in-the-treatment-of-acute-influenza-a-review-of-the-literature
#13
REVIEW
Ashley Wester, Avinash K Shetty
Influenza virus infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults globally. Seasonal epidemics are common due to the rapid virus evolution, whereas the frequent emergence of antigenic variants can result in pandemics and sporadic/endemic avian influenza virus infections. Although annual vaccination is the mainstay for influenza prevention and control, the use of antiviral agents must be considered for treatment and prophylaxis against influenza. Currently available antiviral drugs include neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), adamantanes, and a novel polymerase inhibitor (favipiravir)...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578992/erratum-strategies-for-prevention-of-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy-infections-erratum
#14
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 161 in vol. 9, PMID: 27468242.].
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578991/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-improving-awareness-prevention-and-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Breanne B Das, Jocelyn Ronda, Maria Trent
PURPOSE: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a common disorder of the reproductive tract that is frequently misdiagnosed and inadequately treated. PID and its complications, such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain, are preventable by screening asymptomatic patients for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and promptly treating individuals with STIs and PID. RECENT FINDINGS: The rates of adverse outcomes in women with PID are high and disproportionately affect young minority women...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578990/efficacy-of-ultraviolet-c-light-at-sublethal-dose-in-combination-with-antistaphylococcal-antibiotics-to-disinfect-catheter-biofilms-of-methicillin-susceptible-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-staphylococcus-epidermidis-in-vitro
#16
Mohamed El-Azizi, Nancy Khardori
BACKGROUND: Biofilm formation inside inserted medical devices leads to their failure and acts as a source of refractory infections. The ultraviolet C (UVC) light is a potential therapy that can be used against the biofilm of bacterial pathogens. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy of sublethal dose of UVC light with anti-staphylococcal antibiotics against biofilms made from 30 isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468243/early-detection-of-neonatal-group-b-streptococcus-sepsis-and-the-possible-diagnostic-utility-of-il-6-il-8-and-cd11b-in-a-human-umbilical-cord-blood-in-vitro-model
#17
Britt Nakstad, Tonje Sonerud, Anne Lee Solevåg
BACKGROUND: Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, and GBS III is the predominant strain in early-onset GBS neonatal sepsis. To avoid both over- and undertreatment of infants with nonspecific signs of infection, early diagnostic tools are warranted. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity in an early stage of GBS infection. A secondary aim was to assess the utility of a human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) model system of early-onset neonatal sepsis...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468242/strategies-for-prevention-of-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy-infections
#18
REVIEW
Diane D Lu, Jay D Raman
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male patients and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in males. To confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer, an ultrasound-guided needle biopsy is necessary to obtain prostate tissue sufficient for histologic analysis by pathologists. Ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy can be accomplished via a transperineal or transrectal approach. The latter biopsy technique involves placing an ultrasound probe into the rectum, visualizing the prostate located just anterior to it, and then obtaining 12-14 biopsies...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418844/emerging-resistant-serotypes-of-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#19
Sittana Elshafie, Saad J Taj-Aldeen
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of meningitis and sepsis. The aim of the study was to analyze the distribution, vaccine serotype coverage, and antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae serotypes isolated from patients with invasive diseases, after the introduction of pneumococcal 7-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-7). METHODS: A total of 134 isolates were collected from blood and cerebrospinal fluid specimens at Hamad Hospital during the period from 2005 to 2009...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418843/concern-over-zika-virus-outbreak-another-alarming-global-threat
#20
Muhammad Yusuf Hafiz, Syed Uzair Mahmood, Maria Shoaib, Farah Hafiz Yusuf
Zika virus, as highlighted by the World Health Organization in February 2016, has emerged as a public health emergency of international concern. Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral, and has a nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. It belongs to Flaviviridae family. Aedes aegypticus mosquito is the known vector. Transmission is anthroponotic (human to vector to human) during outbreaks, or occurs perinatally in utero, sexually, and via transfusion of infected blood. Zika virus is turning out to be a major public health concern...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
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