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Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

Donna E Murray, Timothy C Durazzo, Thomas P Schmidt, Christoph Abé, Joseph Guydish, Dieter J Meyerhoff
OBJECTIVE: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in opiate dependence showed abnormalities in neuronal viability and glutamate concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Metabolite levels in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and their neuropsychological correlates have not been investigated in opiate dependence. METHODS: Single-volume proton MRS at 4 Tesla and neuropsychological testing were conducted in 21 opiate-dependent individuals (OD) on buprenorphine maintenance therapy...
August 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
Alcohol consumption with psychostimulants is very common among drug addicts. There is little known about the possible pharmacological interactions between alcohol and psychostimulants. Among most commonly co-abused psychostimulants with alcohol are methamphetamine, cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetaminen, and nicotine. Co-abuse of alcohol with psychostimulants can lead to several neurophysiological dysfunctions such as decrease in brain antioxidant enzymes, disruption of learning and memory processes, cerebral hypo-perfusion, neurotransmitters depletion as well as potentiation of drug seeking behaviour...
June 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Jed E Rose, Ozra Dehkordi, Kebreten F Manaye, Richard M Millis, Salman Ameri Cianaki, Annapurni Jayam-Trouth
The sensory experience of smoking is a key component of nicotine addiction known to result, in part, from stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at peripheral sensory nerve endings. Such stimulation of nAChRs is followed by activation of neurons at multiple sites in the mesocorticolimbic reward pathways. However, the neurochemical profiles of CNS cells that mediate the peripheral sensory impact of nicotine remain unknown. In the present study in mice, we first used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to identify CNS cells stimulated by nicotine (NIC, 40 μg/kg, IP) and by a peripherally-acting analog of nicotine, nicotine pyrrolidine methiodide (NIC-PM, 30 μg/kg, IP)...
April 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Cui Yang, Heidi M Crane, Karen Cropsey, Heidi Hutton, Geetanjali Chander, Michael Saag, Mary E McCaul
OBJECTIVE: Addressing alcohol use in primary HIV settings can improve medical outcomes and overall quality of life of persons living with HIV (PLWH). In order to assess the feasibility of computer-delivered brief alcohol intervention (CBI) and to inform future efforts to improve access to CBI, we examined patient-level socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with agreement to participate in CBI among non-treatment seeking PLWH with alcohol misuse. METHODS: Participants were recruited from two Centres for AIDS Research (CFAR) Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) HIV clinics...
April 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Eloise Dunlap, Emma J Brown
: Household space allocation by women who consume drugs in New York and North Florida is depicted to demonstrate the complex character of household space and social relations. Some parents attempt to hide their drug consumption through the allocation space in the household for drug use. Women allocation of space for drug use within their households and the impact of this on the household are relevant issues with implications for therapy and prevention. OBJECTIVE: The use of household space has not been a focus of social scientists...
April 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Susan B Brogly, Kristen A Hahn, Sonia Hernandez Diaz, Martha Werler
Prenatal opioid agonist therapy with methadone or buprenorphine prevents maternal illicit opioid use and withdrawal and improves pregnancy outcomes compared to heroin use alone. Historically, methadone has been the first-line opioid agonist therapy for pregnant opioid dependent women; in recent years buprenorphine has become first-line treatment for some opioid dependent pregnant women. While there is some evidence of better outcomes in neonates exposed to buprenorphine vs. methadone, the effect of confounding from differences in women who use buprenorphine and methadone has not been carefully examined in most studies...
December 2015: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Dawn W Foster, Norman B Schmidt, Michael J Zvolensky
OBJECTIVES: We examined behavioral and cognitively-based quit processes among concurrent alcohol and tobacco users and assessed whether smoking and drinking were differentially influenced. METHODS: Participants were 200 treatment-seeking smokers (37.50% female; Mage = 30.72; SD = 12.68) who reported smoking an average of 10 or more cigarettes daily for at least one year. RESULTS: Barriers to cessation (BCS) and reasons for quitting (RFQ) were generally correlated with substance use...
December 2015: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Shenell D Evans, Christine E Sheffer, Warren K Bickel, Naomi Cottoms, Mary Olson, Luana Panissidi Pitì, Tekeshia Austin, Helen Stayna
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death and disease and contributes significantly to socioeconomic health disparities. The prevalence of smoking among individuals of lower socioeconomic status (SES) in the US, many of whom are African American (AA), is three to four times greater than the prevalence of smoking among individuals of higher SES. The disparity in tobacco dependence treatment outcomes between lower and higher SES smokers contributes to tobacco-related health disparities and calls for adapting evidence-based treatment to more fully meet the needs of lower SES smokers...
March 2015: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Saurabh Mehandru, Sherry Deren, Sung-Yeon Kang, Angela Banfield, Aakash Garg, Donald Garmon, Melissa LaMar, Teresa H Evering, Martin Markowitz
OBJECTIVE: Injection drug use (IDU) remains a major risk factor for HIV-1 acquisition. The complex interplay between drug use, non-sterile injection, and Hepatitis C remains poorly understood. We conducted a pilot study to determine the effect of IDU on immune parameters among HIV-uninfected and -infected individuals. We hypothesized that IDU could further augment immunological changes associated with HIV-1 infection, which could in turn affect HIV pathogenesis. METHODS: HIV-uninfected and -infected subjects with IDU, and non-IDU controls were recruited to obtain socio-demographic and drug-related behaviours...
2015: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Julee P Farley, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon
Adolescent substance use is an increasing problem in the United States, and some researchers posit a bidirectional relation between adolescent substance use and the personality trait of impulsivity (e.g., Quinn, Stappenbeck, & Fromme, 2011). Friend substance use has been shown to be a powerful predictor of adolescent substance use, with prior research suggesting a bidirectional relation between adolescent substance use and friend substance use (e.g., Simons-Morton & Chen, 2006). Extant literature has not tested the bidirectional relation between adolescent substance use and impulsivity with longitudinal data nor has it examined this relation while considering the bidirectional relation with the social context factor of friend substance use...
2015: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Wallace B Pickworth, Zachary R Rosenberry, Wyatt Gold, Bartosz Koszowski
INTRODUCTION: Nicotine delivery from smokeless tobacco (ST) products leads to addiction and the use of ST causes pathology that is associated with increased initiation of cigarette smoking. The rapid delivery of nicotine from ST seems to be associated with the pH of the aqueous suspension of the products - high pH is associated with high nicotine absorption. However, early studies compared nicotine absorption from different commercial products that not only differed in pH but in flavoring, nicotine content, and in format-pouches and loose tobacco...
April 2014: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Bartosz Koszowski, Zachary R Rosenberry, Andrew A Strasser, Wallace B Pickworth
INTRODUCTION: There is currently the potential for a great deal of transition and product switching among cigarette smokers. Studies on the transition when cigarette smokers switch from one type of nicotine delivery product to another are needed to understand subsequent toxicant exposure. METHODS: A preliminary study was performed to determine the feasibility of experimentally replicating the transition from factory made (FM) to personal machine made (PMM) cigarette smoking...
April 2014: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Roger L Waite, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Eric RBraverman, Debmalya Barh, Kenneth Blum
INTRODUCTION: Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a noninvasive therapy that has been used for decades in the United States to treat anxiety, depression, and insomnia in the general population. The effectiveness of CES has been questioned by many and its use is considered controversial. In this study we are presenting data on one alcoholic patient using a newly engineered device we call Neuro-Electro-Adaptive Therapy 12™ [NEAT12]. This hybrid device utilizes TENS current characteristics yielding CES effects...
2014: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Pss Rao, Y Sari
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of ceftriaxone treatment in attenuating relapse-like ethanol drinking behavior in male P rats following 14-weeks of continuous ethanol consumption. METHODS: After 14-weeks of continuous access to free choice of 15% and 30% ethanol, male P rats were deprived of ethanol for two weeks. On the last five days of abstinence period, P rats were treated, once a day, with either saline or ceftriaxone (50 or 200 mg/kg; i.p.). This was followed by re-exposure to ethanol for the next 10 days to simulate the relapse-like ethanol drinking behavior...
2014: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, William Jacobs, Thomas McLaughlin, Mark S Gold
There is a plethora of research indicating the successful treatment of opioid dependence with either buprenorphine alone or in combination with naloxone (Suboxone®). However, we encourage caution in long-term maintenance with these drugs, albeit, lack of any other FDA approved opioid maintenance compound to date. Our concern has been supported by severe withdrawal (even with tapering of the dosage of for example Suboxone® which is 40 times more potent than morphine) from low dose of buprenorphine (alone or with naloxone)...
2014: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Scott D Lane, Charles E Green, Joy M Schmitz, Nuvan Rathnayaka, Wendy B Fang, Sergi Ferré, F Gerard Moeller
Due to indirect modulation of dopamine transmission, adenosine receptor antagonists may be useful in either treating cocaine use or improving disrupted cognitive-behavioral functions associated with chronic cocaine use. To compare and contrast the stimulant effects of adenosine antagonism to direct dopamine stimulation, we administered 150 mg and 300 mg caffeine, 20 mg amphetamine, and placebo to cocaine-dependent vs. healthy control subjects, matched on moderate caffeine use. Data were obtained on measures of cardiovascular effects, subjective drug effects (ARCI, VAS, DEQ), and a probabilistic reward-learning task sensitive to dopamine modulation...
2014: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Nicholas Dinubile, John Giordano, Eric R Braverman, Courtney E Truesdell, Debmalya Barh, Rajendra Badgaiyan
The endemic of legal opioid iatrogenic induced prescription drug abuse is of major world-wide concern. Understanding pain pathways and the role of dopaminergic tone in the neurophysiology of pain relief provides potential therapeutic solutions. A 2011 NIDA report indicated that approximately 8.7% of the entire US population above the age of 12 years has used a psychoactive drug within the past 30 days. It has been reported that the overall genetic contribution to the variance of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) was approximately 60% but each candidate gene evaluated by GWAS was relatively small...
October 31, 2013: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Kenneth Blum, Benjamin Thompson, Marlene Oscar-Berman, John Giordano, Eric Braverman, John Femino, Debmayla Barh, William Downs, Thomas Smpatico, Stephen Schoenthaler
Addictions to smoking, alcohol, illicit drugs, and certain behaviors like gambling, overeating, and sex, are prevalent worldwide. These behaviors are highly destructive and costly to individuals and society due to health consequences, criminality and lost productivity. The genetic vulnerability, environmental exposures, and individual behaviors that contribute to the brain dysfunction and compulsive tendencies that mark addiction make it one of the most complicated diseases to study and treat. Although much has been learned about the genetic basis of and biochemical imbalances associated with the addictions, research leading to effective treatments has been slow...
October 10, 2013: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Sarah E Zemore, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Nina Mulia
BACKGROUND: Economic conditions and drinking norms have been in considerable flux over the past 10 years. Accordingly, research is needed to evaluate both overall trends in alcohol problems during this period and whether changes within racial/ethnic groups have affected racial/ethnic disparities. METHODS: We used 3 cross-sectional waves of National Alcohol Survey data (2000, 2005, and 2010) to examine a) temporal trends in alcohol dependence and consequences overall and by race/ethnicity, and b) the effects of temporal changes on racial/ethnic disparities...
September 28, 2013: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Kelle M Franklin, Sheketha R Hauser, Richard L Bell, Eric A Engleman
Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual's physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual's health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol...
August 20, 2013: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
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