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American Journal of Cancer Research

Xiaoming Yang, Lei Shi, Chengzhi Yi, Yang Yang, Liansheng Chang, Dongkui Song
Current evidence indicates that microRNAs are widely down-regulated in various tumors including colorectal carcinoma, liver cancer and lung cancer, and function as tumor suppressors through inhibiting cancer cell growth, invasion and migration. Here, we demonstrated that miR-210-3p level was significantly reduced in the bladder cancer compared to paratumor tissues, and attempt to reveal the regulatory role of miR-210-3p in bladder cancer progression. Exogenous overexpression of miR-210-3p inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells in vitro...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Yinfei Tan, Eleonora Sementino, Jonathan Chernoff, Joseph R Testa
Clinical management of malignant mesothelioma (MM) is very challenging due to marked resistance of this tumor to chemotherapy. Various mechanisms lead to a less than ideal drug concentration inside of MM cells, diminishing cytotoxicity. Consequently, single cytotoxic drugs achieve very modest response rates in MM patients, and combination regimens using standard and novel therapies have achieved only limited improvement in overall survival. Here, we demonstrate that MYC has either proliferative or pro-survival effects in MM cells during normal or stressed conditions, respectively...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Feng Han, Rong Hu, Min Su, Yanni Yu, Hua Yang, Laijun Lai
We purified a hybrid cytokine that contains interleukin-7 (IL-7) and the beta-chain of hepatocyte growth factor (HGFβ) from a unique long-term murine bone marrow culture system. We have cloned and expressed the human form of IL-7/HGFβ in which the IL-7 and HGFβ genes are connected by a flexible linker to produce a single-chain recombinant human IL-7/HGFβ protein (hrIL-7/HGFβ). To determine whether hrIL-7/HGFβ has antitumor activity, we injected this hybrid cytokine into melanoma and colon cancer animal models, and then assessed the local tumor growth and tumor metastasis...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Baoming He, Ying Bai, Wei Kang, Xiaoping Zhang, Xiaojian Jiang
Imatinib resistance has become a major obstacle for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the long non-coding RNA, SNHG5 on imatinib resistance in CML and explored the underlying mechanisms. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that SNHG5 and ABCC2 expressions were up-regulated in the isolated peripheral blood cells of the CML patients when compared with healthy controls, and SNHG5 expression levels was positively correlated with ABCC2 in CML patients...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Rui Tanaka, Fumi Goshima, Shinichi Esaki, Yoshitaka Sato, Takayuki Murata, Yukihiro Nishiyama, Daisuke Watanabe, Hiroshi Kimura
Advanced melanoma has long been treated with chemotherapy using cytotoxic agents like dacarbazine (DTIC), but overall survival rates with these drugs have been generally low. Recently, immunoregulatory monoclonal antibodies and molecularly targeted therapy with a BRAF inhibitor and/or a MEK inhibitor, have been used to treat malignant melanoma and have improved the survival rate of patients with advanced melanoma. However, high prices of these drugs are problematic. In this study, we evaluated the oncolytic efficacy of HF10, an attenuated, replication-competent HSV, with DTIC in immunocompetent mice model of malignant melanoma...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Xiupeng Xu, Ning Cai, Tongle Zhi, Zhongyuan Bao, Dong Wang, Yinlong Liu, Kuan Jiang, Liang Fan, Jing Ji, Ning Liu
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an extraordinary aggressive disease that requires more effective therapeutic options. In the past few years, many microRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to have important roles in promoting GBM progression. However, little is known about the role of miR-1179 in GBM. In the present study, we found that miR-1179 was significantly downregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines. Functional experiments showed that introduction of miR-1179 dramatically suppressed GBM cell proliferation and cell cycle progression...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Hong Yan Zhu, Guan Yi Cao, Shi Ping Wang, Yu Chen, Guo Dong Liu, Yu Jie Gao, Jian Ping Hu
Increasing evidence suggests that POU domain class 2 transcription factor 1 (POU2F1) participates in carcinogenesis and cancer progression via promotion of cell proliferation and metastasis; however, the functional role of POU2F1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is largely unknown. In this study, we determined that POU2F1 was significantly up-regulated in HCC tumor tissue and cell lines. We demonstrated that POU2F1 over-expression promoted HCC cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion, while silencing of POU2F1 inhibited these malignant phenotypes...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Sonali Joshi, Jun Yang, Qingfei Wang, Ping Li, Hai Wang, Qingling Zhang, Yan Xiong, Brian F Pickering, Jan Parker-Thornburg, Richard R Behringer, Dihua Yu
The 14-3-3ζ protein belongs to the 14-3-3 family of regulatory eukaryotic proteins that modulate signaling by binding to wide variety of signaling molecules. 14-3-3ζ expression is amplified in over 40% breast cancer patients and is associated with a poor prognosis. Various in vitro and xenograft models have suggested that attenuating 14-3-3ζ expression may provide therapeutic benefits but there has been no study looking at tumor onset and metastasis in breast cancer mouse models with a targeted deletion of 14-3-3ζ...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Xiaoming Zhu, Li Wei, Yangqiu Bai, Sen Wu, Shuangyin Han
Esophageal cancer (EC) was one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide with intricate mechanisms. Here we reported that Forkhead box C1 (FoxC1), a member of the forkhead family transcription factors, was up-regulated in EC tissues and cell lines in comparison with controls. FoxC1 levels were negatively correlated with tumor stage, lymph node metastasis and survival status of EC patients. Knockdown of FoxC1 inhibited the proliferation, colony formation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of EC cells, while overexpression of FoxC1 promoted these biological behaviors...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Joseph D Malaer, Porunelloor A Mathew
CS1 (also known as CD319, CRACC and SLAMF7) was identified as an NK cell receptor regulating immune functions. It is also expressed on B cells, T cells, Dendritic cells, NK-T cells, and monocytes. CS1 is overexpressed in multiple myeloma and makes it a target for immunotherapy. A humanized anti-CS1 antibody, Elotuzumab or Empliciti has shown promising results in clinical studies. This review focuses on the biology of CS1 in NK and other hematopoietic cells and multiple myeloma. Anti-CS1 mAb can activate natural cytotoxicity of NK cells as well as enhance ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) and thus makes an effective target for immunotherapy of MM...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Maggie C Louie, Mary B Sevigny
Despite the existence of many promising anti-cancer therapies, not all breast cancers are equally treatable, due partly to the fact that focus has been primarily on a few select breast cancer biomarkers- notably ERα, PR and HER2. In cases like triple negative breast cancer (ERα(-), PR(-), and HER2(-)), there is a complete lack of available biomarkers for prognosis and therapeutic purposes. The goal of this review is to determine if other steroid receptors, like ERβ and AR, could play a prognostic and/or therapeutic role...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Wesley F Taylor, Ehsan Jabbarzadeh
The cancer stem cell hypothesis has been used to explain many cancer complications resulting in poor patient outcomes including induced drug resistance, metastases to distant organs, and tumor recurrence. While the validity of the cancer stem cell model continues to be the cause of much scientific debate, a number of putative cancer stem cell markers have been identified making studies concerning the targeting of cancer stem cells possible. In this review, a number of identifying properties of cancer stem cells have been outlined including properties contributing to the drug resistance and metastatic potential commonly observed in supposed cancer stem cells...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Rosemary A Poku, Olufisayo O Salako, Felix Amissah, Augustine T Nkembo, Elizabeth Ntantie, Nazarius S Lamango
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is the most aggressive and deadly form of prostate cancer. It is characterized by the overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptors whose signals are mediated by small monomeric G proteins of the Ras superfamily. These require polyisoprenylation for functional activity. Polyisoprenylated cysteinyl amide inhibitors (PCAIs) of polyisoprenylated methylated protein methyl esterase (PMPMEase) were developed as potential targeted therapies to mitigate excessive growth signaling in mCRPC either by inhibiting PMPMEase and/or perturbing the polyisoprenylation-dependent functional interactions...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Smita Matkar, Chiying An, Xianxin Hua
Inhibitors of the HER2/PI3K/AKT pathway are being developed, and shown promise in clinical trials for various types of cancers. However, development of drug resistance is a challenging problem for therapy. Elucidating various adaptive pathways leading to resistance or reduced sensitivity to drugs targeting the HER2/PI3K/AKT pathway may provide new insights into countering the resistance. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, aka HER1), which can dimerize with HER2, can activate a cascade consisting of Ras/RAF/MEK/ERK, promoting tumorigenesis...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Larion Santiago, Garrett Daniels, Dongwen Wang, Fang-Ming Deng, Peng Lee
Transcription factors are regulatory proteins that either activate or repress the transcription of genes via binding to DNA regulatory sequences and regulating recruitment of transcriptional complexes. Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1), a member of the T-cell Factor (TCF)/LEF1 family of high-mobility group transcription factors, is a downstream mediator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, but can also modulate gene transcription independently. LEF1 is essential in stem cell maintenance and organ development, especially in its role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by activating the transcription of hallmark EMT effectors including N-Cadherin, Vimentin, and Snail...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Jie Jin, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Jin-Lei Shi, Xue-Feng Xue, Ling-Ling Lu, Jian-Hua Lu, Xiao-Ping Jiang, Jiang-Feng Hu, Ben-Song Duan, Chang-Qing Yang, Da-Ru Lu, De-Li Lu, Jian-Guo Chen, Heng-Jun Gao
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a big problem in China where the Hepatitis B (HBV) infection patients are near to 120 million. Early screening and diagnosis is the key to reduce the incidence and mortality of HCC. Serum AFP detection is the main methods for diagnosis, recurrent monitoring and therapeutic evaluation of primary HCC. Hepatitis patients should detect the AFP at least once every six months to help early diagnosis of HCC. Unfortunately, most hepatitis and other liver disease patients do not test their AFP regularly...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Hyerim Suh, Krishna Pillai, David Lawson Morris
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth highest cause of cancer mortality in the world. It has very low survival rates owing to late diagnosis resulting from the absence of accurate diagnostic tools and effective therapies. Hence, there is a pressing need to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. In the recent years, there has been new evidence implicating the importance of mucins in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Mucins belong to a group of heavily glycosylated proteins, and are often aberrantly expressed in a number of cancers such as pancreatic cancer...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Marta Geretto, Alessandra Pulliero, Camillo Rosano, Dinara Zhabayeva, Rakhmet Bersimbaev, Alberto Izzotti
Chemo-resistance, which is the main obstacle in cancer therapy, is caused by the onset of drug-resistant cells in the heterogeneous cell population in cancer tissues. MicroRNAs regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, and they are involved in many different biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, stress response, and apoptosis. The aberrant expression of microRNAs plays a major pathogenic role from the early stages of the carcinogenesis process. Recently, microRNAs have been reported to play an important role in inducing resistance to anti-cancer drugs...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Bing Zhang, Panpan Zhou, Xue Li, Qing Shi, Dong Li, Xiuli Ju
Abnormal cellular energetics has emerged as a hallmark of cancer cells. Deregulating aerobic glycolysis can alter multiple metabolic and signaling pathways in cancer cells, and trigger unlimited growth and proliferation. Accumulating evidence suggests that elevated levels of protein modification with β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) along with dysregulation of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and/or O-GlcNAcase (OGA) levels may act as a nutrient sensor in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism of O-GlcNAcylation and the relationship between O-GlcNAcylation and glycolysis are largely unknown in pre-B acute lymphocytic leukemia (pre-B-ALL)...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Nina Pauline Holzapfel, Ali Shokoohmand, Ferdinand Wagner, Marietta Landgraf, Simon Champ, Boris Michael Holzapfel, Judith Ann Clements, Dietmar Werner Hutmacher, Daniela Loessner
Mutagens like oxidants cause lesions in the DNA of ovarian and fallopian tube epithelial cells, resulting in neoplastic transformation. Reduced exposure of surface epithelia to oxidative stress may prevent the onset or reduce the growth of ovarian cancer. Lycopene is well-known for its excellent antioxidant properties. In this study, the potential of lycopene in the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer was investigated using an intraperitoneal animal model. Lycopene prevention significantly reduced the metastatic load of ovarian cancer-bearing mice, whereas treatment of already established ovarian tumors with lycopene significantly diminished the tumor burden...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
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