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Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology

Hengameh Raissy, Kathryn Blake
A growing body of literature has investigated optimizing asthma management by identifying phenotypes and biomarkers to guide the treatment. In particular, management of asthma in preschool children remains challenging due to different phenotype presentation in early life. The focus of this review is to summarize the recent data on personalized medicine in management of preschool children with wheezing.
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Vishal Naik, Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, William Gershan, Andrew A Colin, Nadir Demirel
An 11-month-old healthy infant girl was noted to have left lower lobe (LLL) opacities on chest X-ray (CXR) after developing desaturations during an elective cochlear implant surgery. Repeat CXR 10 days later revealed hyperexpansion of the left lung and persistent LLL opacity. Chest computerized tomography revealed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, left mainstem bronchial obstruction, and nodular opacities. Bronchoscopic biopsy of the endobronchial tissue revealed multiple necrotizing granulomas and grew Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Streptococcus viridans, and Actinomyces odontolyticus...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Robin S Everhart, Kristin E Heron, Gillian G Leibach, Samantha A Miadich
Objective: This pilot study explored the initial feasibility and efficacy of providing feedback to low-income, urban caregivers of children with persistent asthma about their daily experiences reported via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) on caregiver emotional health (quality of life, perceived stress, and positive affect). Methods: Data were collected from 28 caregivers and their children (7-12 years). Caregivers completed a baseline session, 14 days of EMA surveys via smartphone, and were randomized to intervention or control groups...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Sara C Sadreameli, Rachel O Alade, Peter J Mogayzel, Sharon McGrath-Morrow, John J Strouse
A clinician diagnosis of asthma is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in people with sickle cell disease (SCD). We hypothesized that a screening program would help identify children with asthma needing referral to pulmonary clinic. We conducted a single-center project to screen patients with SCD for asthma using a previously validated questionnaire (Breathmobile) and for pulmonary function abnormalities with portable spirometry. Participants with a positive questionnaire and/or abnormal spirometry were referred to pediatric pulmonary clinic...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Yueh-Ying Han, Erick Forno, Maria Alvarez, Angel Colón-Semidey, Edna Acosta-Perez, Glorisa Canino, Juan C Celedón
Changes in dietary patterns may partly explain the epidemic of asthma in industrialized countries. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and lung function and asthma exacerbations in Puerto Rican children. This is a case-control study of 678 Puerto Rican children (ages 6-14 years) in San Juan (Puerto Rico). All participants completed a respiratory health questionnaire and a 75-item food frequency questionnaire. Food items were aggregated into 7 groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, protein, dairy, fats, and sweets...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Shilpa Jain, Nitya Bakshi, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti
Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a frequent cause of acute lung disease in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Patients may present with ACS or may develop this complication during the course of a hospitalization for acute vaso-occlusive crises (VOC). ACS is associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased risk of respiratory failure, and the potential for developing chronic lung disease. ACS in SCD is defined as the presence of fever and/or new respiratory symptoms accompanied by the presence of a new pulmonary infiltrate on chest X-ray...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Miwa Shinohara, Kenji Matsumoto
The manifestation of atopic dermatitis (AD) is initially nonatopic eczema in early infancy; the manifestations subsequently change in age-specific stages. Since allergen-specific T-helper 2 cells appear in the fetus primarily after the third trimester of pregnancy and rapidly mature during the first 6 months of life, different timings of tobacco smoke exposure may have different effects on AD. In this study, we investigated whether the timing of fetal or/and infantile tobacco smoke exposure affects the cumulative incidence of atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS) in infants in Japan...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Stephanie Hsu, Colleen Wood, Zhaoxing Pan, Haseeb Rahat, Philip Zeitler, David Fleischer, Calies Menard-Katcher, Glenn T Furuta, Dan Atkins
Swallowed topical steroids (STS) are the only effective pharmacological therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Thus far, studies of small populations of EoE patients have reported conflicting results in relation to adrenal insufficiency (AI). We sought to measure AI in a clinical setting in children taking STS for EoE. We performed a quality improvement study of pediatric EoE patients seen in a multidisciplinary clinic, who were treated with STS for at least 3 months. Two hundred twenty-five patients completed questionnaires to assess for signs of AI...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Jennifer A Kannan, Cole Brokamp, David I Bernstein, Grace K LeMasters, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Manuel S Villareal, James E Lockey, Patrick H Ryan
The objective of this study was to determine whether atopy and other clinical and environmental variables predict the risk of childhood habitual snoring (HS) in a birth cohort born to atopic parents. Participants completed clinical evaluations and questionnaires at ages 1-4 and age 7. HS was defined as snoring ≥3 nights/week. Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure was estimated using land-use regression. The association between early (≤age 4) and current (age 7) allergic disease, environmental exposures, and snoring at age 7 was examined using adjusted logistic regression...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Danieli Barino Salinas, Lucia Kang, Colleen Azen, Paul Quinton
β-adrenergically stimulated sweat secretion depends on the function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and discriminates between cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and healthy controls. Therefore, we sought to determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of assaying β-adrenergic sweating in children identified by CF newborn screening to help determine prognoses for individuals with CFTR-related metabolic syndrome (CRMS). Preschool age children with a positive newborn screening test for CF participated in this cross-sectional study...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Martha V White, Susan L Hogue, Dawn Odom, Darryl Cooney, Jennifer Bartsch, Diana Goss, Kelly Hollis, Christopher Herrem, Suyapa Silvia
A pilot survey described the characteristics of anaphylactic events occurring in an initial set of participating U.S. schools during the 2013-2014 school year. This survey was subsequently readministered to large school districts, which were underrepresented in initial results. A cross-sectional survey was administered to the U.S. schools that were participating in the EPIPEN4SCHOOLS(®) program (Mylan Specialty L.P., Canonsburg, PA) to assess characteristics of anaphylactic events. Data from large school districts were added to initial findings in this comprehensive combined analysis...
September 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Franziska Rosser, Erick Forno, John Brehm, Yueh-Ying Han, Nadia Boutaoui, Angel Colón-Semidey, María Alvarez, Edna Acosta-Pérez, Kristen S Kurland, John F Alcorn, Glorisa Canino, Juan C Celedón
Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may affect immune responses, including those in the TH2 and TH17 pathways. To examine whether TRAP is associated with plasma level of TH17-, TH1-, and TH2-related cytokines in children with and without asthma, a cross-sectional study of 577 children (ages 6-14 years) with (n = 294) and without (n = 283) asthma in San Juan (Puerto Rico) was performed. Residential distance to a major road was estimated using geocoded home addresses for study participants. A panel of 14 cytokines, enriched for the TH17 pathway, was measured in plasma...
September 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Stephanie J Mitchell, Andrew L Bilderback, Sande O Okelo
Picture-based Asthma Action Plans show promise for overcoming parental literacy barriers and improving child asthma outcomes, but it is uncertain how parents respond to pictures of specific medications, which may be particularly important for improving disease self-management. Thus, we assessed parent attitudes toward an asthma-related picture-based medication plan (PBMP) in an urban academic pediatric clinic and examined attitudes by literacy level. Surveys were administered to a convenience sample of parents of children presenting to an urban pediatric pulmonary clinic for asthma consultation between March and August 2011...
June 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Hengameh H Raissy, Kathryn Blake
The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program's Expert Panel Report 3, Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma does not recommend antibiotics for the management of acute episodes of asthma exacerbation. Macrolides seem to have some potential effect beyond or in addition to their antibacterial effect. It has been reported that macrolides may potentially benefit patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases due to their antibacterial, antiviral, and/or anti-inflammatory effects. This review presents recent data on use of azithromycin in prevention and management of acute exacerbation of respiratory symptoms in infants and young children...
June 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Meredith A Dilley, Joyce P Lee, Craig D Platt, Ana Dioun Broyles
Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody (mAb) primarily used to treat oncologic and autoinflammatory conditions. Although hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) and desensitization protocols to mAbs have been well described in adults, the experience in the pediatric population is very limited. We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of desensitization to rituximab in the pediatric population at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed the experience with HSRs and desensitization to rituximab during a 5-year period in our tertiary care pediatric center, including reaction evaluation, premedication regimens, and desensitization procedures and protocols...
June 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Hengameh H Raissy, Graham Timmins, Lea Davies, Theresa Heynekamp, Michelle Harkins, Zachary D Sharp, H William Kelly
This is a "proof of concept" study to determine whether inhalation of 13C-urea can be safely used to detect the presence of urease producing bacteria in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by detecting 13CO2 in breath. This was a prospective, 2-part, open label, single-center, single-arm, single-administration, dose-escalation investigational device exemption trial. First, the safety of 20 and 50 mg inhaled 13C-urea was evaluated in 6 healthy adult participants. Then, 3 adult CF participants colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa were enrolled for each dose of inhaled 13C-urea...
June 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Giovanni B Pajno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
John M Kelso
With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.
March 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Joshua Blatter, Stuart Sweet
This article is not an overview of all facets of lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis (CF), but rather it is intended as a review of current allocation controversies, as well as of trends in diagnostics and management in lung transplant recipients and in patients with end-stage lung disease. Despite changes in donor and recipient selection, long-term survival in pediatric lung transplant has continued to be limited by chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Due to, in part, this short survival benefit, transplant continues to be an appropriate option for only a subset of pediatric patients with CF...
December 1, 2015: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Hengameh Raissy, Kathryn Blake
Recently, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) elected not to approve a once-daily inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2 agonist combination product in 12-17-year-old patients due to lack of sufficient data, despite approval of previous combination products with similar levels of supporting evidence. As the FDA's stance toward adolescent data is changing, the opportunity to learn about their response to asthma medication has now arisen. A review of the relevant issues pertinent to pharmacotherapy of asthma in the 12-17-year-old population is discussed in this review...
September 1, 2015: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
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