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Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology

Jennifer A Kannan, Cole Brokamp, David I Bernstein, Grace K LeMasters, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Manuel S Villareal, James E Lockey, Patrick H Ryan
The objective of this study was to determine whether atopy and other clinical and environmental variables predict the risk of childhood habitual snoring (HS) in a birth cohort born to atopic parents. Participants completed clinical evaluations and questionnaires at ages 1-4 and age 7. HS was defined as snoring ≥3 nights/week. Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure was estimated using land-use regression. The association between early (≤age 4) and current (age 7) allergic disease, environmental exposures, and snoring at age 7 was examined using adjusted logistic regression...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Danieli Barino Salinas, Lucia Kang, Colleen Azen, Paul Quinton
β-adrenergically stimulated sweat secretion depends on the function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and discriminates between cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and healthy controls. Therefore, we sought to determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of assaying β-adrenergic sweating in children identified by CF newborn screening to help determine prognoses for individuals with CFTR-related metabolic syndrome (CRMS). Preschool age children with a positive newborn screening test for CF participated in this cross-sectional study...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Martha V White, Susan L Hogue, Dawn Odom, Darryl Cooney, Jennifer Bartsch, Diana Goss, Kelly Hollis, Christopher Herrem, Suyapa Silvia
A pilot survey described the characteristics of anaphylactic events occurring in an initial set of participating U.S. schools during the 2013-2014 school year. This survey was subsequently readministered to large school districts, which were underrepresented in initial results. A cross-sectional survey was administered to the U.S. schools that were participating in the EPIPEN4SCHOOLS(®) program (Mylan Specialty L.P., Canonsburg, PA) to assess characteristics of anaphylactic events. Data from large school districts were added to initial findings in this comprehensive combined analysis...
September 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Franziska Rosser, Erick Forno, John Brehm, Yueh-Ying Han, Nadia Boutaoui, Angel Colón-Semidey, María Alvarez, Edna Acosta-Pérez, Kristen S Kurland, John F Alcorn, Glorisa Canino, Juan C Celedón
Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may affect immune responses, including those in the TH2 and TH17 pathways. To examine whether TRAP is associated with plasma level of TH17-, TH1-, and TH2-related cytokines in children with and without asthma, a cross-sectional study of 577 children (ages 6-14 years) with (n = 294) and without (n = 283) asthma in San Juan (Puerto Rico) was performed. Residential distance to a major road was estimated using geocoded home addresses for study participants. A panel of 14 cytokines, enriched for the TH17 pathway, was measured in plasma...
September 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Stephanie J Mitchell, Andrew L Bilderback, Sande O Okelo
Picture-based Asthma Action Plans show promise for overcoming parental literacy barriers and improving child asthma outcomes, but it is uncertain how parents respond to pictures of specific medications, which may be particularly important for improving disease self-management. Thus, we assessed parent attitudes toward an asthma-related picture-based medication plan (PBMP) in an urban academic pediatric clinic and examined attitudes by literacy level. Surveys were administered to a convenience sample of parents of children presenting to an urban pediatric pulmonary clinic for asthma consultation between March and August 2011...
June 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Hengameh H Raissy, Kathryn Blake
The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program's Expert Panel Report 3, Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma does not recommend antibiotics for the management of acute episodes of asthma exacerbation. Macrolides seem to have some potential effect beyond or in addition to their antibacterial effect. It has been reported that macrolides may potentially benefit patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases due to their antibacterial, antiviral, and/or anti-inflammatory effects. This review presents recent data on use of azithromycin in prevention and management of acute exacerbation of respiratory symptoms in infants and young children...
June 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Meredith A Dilley, Joyce P Lee, Craig D Platt, Ana Dioun Broyles
Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody (mAb) primarily used to treat oncologic and autoinflammatory conditions. Although hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) and desensitization protocols to mAbs have been well described in adults, the experience in the pediatric population is very limited. We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of desensitization to rituximab in the pediatric population at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed the experience with HSRs and desensitization to rituximab during a 5-year period in our tertiary care pediatric center, including reaction evaluation, premedication regimens, and desensitization procedures and protocols...
June 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Hengameh H Raissy, Graham Timmins, Lea Davies, Theresa Heynekamp, Michelle Harkins, Zachary D Sharp, H William Kelly
This is a "proof of concept" study to determine whether inhalation of (13)C-urea can be safely used to detect the presence of urease producing bacteria in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by detecting (13)CO2 in breath. This was a prospective, 2-part, open label, single-center, single-arm, single-administration, dose-escalation investigational device exemption trial. First, the safety of 20 and 50 mg inhaled (13)C-urea was evaluated in 6 healthy adult participants. Then, 3 adult CF participants colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa were enrolled for each dose of inhaled (13)C-urea...
June 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Giovanni B Pajno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
John M Kelso
With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.
March 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Joshua Blatter, Stuart Sweet
This article is not an overview of all facets of lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis (CF), but rather it is intended as a review of current allocation controversies, as well as of trends in diagnostics and management in lung transplant recipients and in patients with end-stage lung disease. Despite changes in donor and recipient selection, long-term survival in pediatric lung transplant has continued to be limited by chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Due to, in part, this short survival benefit, transplant continues to be an appropriate option for only a subset of pediatric patients with CF...
December 1, 2015: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Hengameh Raissy, Kathryn Blake
Recently, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) elected not to approve a once-daily inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2 agonist combination product in 12-17-year-old patients due to lack of sufficient data, despite approval of previous combination products with similar levels of supporting evidence. As the FDA's stance toward adolescent data is changing, the opportunity to learn about their response to asthma medication has now arisen. A review of the relevant issues pertinent to pharmacotherapy of asthma in the 12-17-year-old population is discussed in this review...
September 1, 2015: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Aravind Yadav, Fernando F Corrales-Medina, James M Stark, S Shahrukh Hashmi, Mary P Carroll, Keely G Smith, Kristen M Meulmester, Deborah L Brown, Cindy Jon, Ricardo A Mosquera
Objective: Asthma in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients is associated with elevated morbidity and mortality. Early detection and initiation of treatment may therefore lead to improved outcome. Utility of an asthma screening questionnaire to identify obstructive airway disease and physician diagnosed asthma in children with SCD at an outpatient setting as an effective, easy-to-administer screening tool has not previously been evaluated in this population. Methods: A previously validated asthma screening questionnaire and spirometry were prospectively administered to 41 SCD children at a routine clinic visit...
September 1, 2015: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Christian Rosas-Salazar, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Kecia N Carroll, Sara Reiss, Nancy Wickersham, Emma K Larkin, Kristina M James, E Kathryn Miller, Larry J Anderson, Tina V Hartert
Background: Infants with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are at an increased risk of developing childhood wheezing illnesses (including asthma), but it is not currently possible to predict those at risk for these long-term outcomes. The current objective was to examine whether urine levels of club cell 16-kDa secretory protein (CC16) at the time of an infant LRTI are associated with the development of childhood wheezing illnesses. Methods: Prospective study of 133 previously healthy infants enrolled during a healthcare visit for a LRTI and followed longitudinally for childhood wheezing illnesses...
September 1, 2015: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Chelsea A Young, Curtis Chan, Jodi Stookey, Anisha I Patel, Jane Evans, Karen Cohn, Luz Agana, Irene H Yen, Alicia Fernandez, Michael D Cabana
Introduction: Asthma is a common condition affecting many children in child-care centers. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program offers recommendations about creating an asthma-friendly child-care setting. However, no studies have investigated the extent to which child-care centers adhere to these recommendations. This study describes the development of a novel instrument to determine the ability of child-care centers to meet national recommendations for asthma. Methods: The Preparing for Asthma in Child Care (PACC) Instrument was developed using information from existing recommendations and standards, the peer-reviewed literature, site visits, and expert interviews...
June 1, 2015: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Amy S Feldman, Tina V Hartert, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Kecia N Carroll, Patricia A Minton, Kimberly B Woodward, Emma K Larkin, Eva Kathryn Miller, Robert S Valet
Background: A respiratory severity score (RSS) describing acute respiratory illness (ARI) severity would be useful for research and clinical purposes. Methods: A total of 630 term infants presenting with ARI had their RSS measured. Results: RSS was higher in those with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) compared with those with upper respiratory infection (URI; LRTI 6.5 [4-8.5]; URI 1 [0-2], p<0.001) and in hospitalized infants compared with outpatients (hospitalized 6.5 [4-9]; outpatient 1 [0-3], p<0...
June 1, 2015: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Young A Park, Yoon Hee Kim, In Suk Sol, Seo Hee Yoon, Jung Yeon Hong, Mi Na Kim, Kyung Eun Lee, Kyung Won Kim, Kyu-Earn Kim, Myung Hyun Sohn
Background: Recent discovery of the Th17 pathway is providing new opportunities for understanding chronic immune-mediated diseases. The Th17 pathway has been historically associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Among Th17 cytokines, pathogenic roles of IL-17A and IL-17F in asthma have been well described. Recently, the number of peripheral blood Th17 cells was found to correlate with disease severity in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD)...
June 1, 2015: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Kamleshun Ramphul, Li Hua, Yi Xiao Bao, Jing Yang Li, Quan Hua Liu, Ruo Xu Ji, Ding Zhu Fang
Background: Research increasingly suggests that asthma is a familial and hereditary disorder and that genetic and environmental factors play a key role in its pathogenesis. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between 10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in the development of asthma in children from the Mauritian population. Methods: The study population consisted of 193 children with asthma and 189 healthy controls from the Mauritian population. Asthma was diagnosed in accordance with the American Thoracic Society criteria...
June 1, 2015: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Martin Liska, Vaclava Gutova, Petr Panzner, Petra Brodska
Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions can play a role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). We tested 71 patients (median age 5 years) with AD for hypersensitivity to grass and birch pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and Dermatophagoides farinae using atopy patch test (APT), skin prick test (SPT), and specific IgE measurement. The sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) of the tests were calculated on the basis of personal history of AD exacerbation, clinical AD score (SCORAD) changes, and the number of days with need for topical anti-inflammatory treatment (AITD) in relation to exposure to the allergens being tested...
June 1, 2015: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Hengameh Raissy, Kathryn Blake
Many observational studies have investigated the potential association between vitamin D and asthma. However, it is difficult to find a temporal causal relationship in cross-sectional or observational studies. This review presents recent clinical trials and the evidence of association between vitamin D and asthma in different patient populations and asthma status. Well-designed clinical trials are warranted in order to define the optimal level of vitamin D, as well as dosing and duration of vitamin D supplementation, in pediatric patients...
March 1, 2015: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
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