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Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30283713/allergic-diseases-and-immune-mediated-food-disorders-in-pediatric-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-syndrome
#1
Jaime S Rosa, Joseph D Hernandez, Janell A Sherr, Bridget M Smith, Kayla D Brown, Bahare Farhadian, Talia Mahony, Sean A McGhee, David B Lewis, Margo Thienemann, Jennifer D Frankovich
Background: The prevalence and impact of allergic and immune-mediated food disorders in pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) are mostly unknown. Objective: We sought to explore the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), IgE-mediated food allergies (FAs), and other immune-mediated food disorders requiring food avoidance in patients with PANS. In addition, to further understand the extent of food restriction in this population, we investigated the empiric use of dietary measures to improve PANS symptoms...
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30283712/perception-of-pulmonary-function-in-children-with-asthma-and-cystic-fibrosis
#2
Erick Forno, Neethu Abraham, Daniel G Winger, Christian Rosas-Salazar, Geoffrey Kurland, Daniel J Weiner
Background: Under-perception of pulmonary dysfunction may delay appropriate treatment, while over-perception may result in unnecessary treatments. Objectives: To evaluate the ability of patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis and their subspecialty caregivers to assess changes in lung function based on their subjective clinical impressions. Methods: Patients were asked to qualitatively describe how they felt compared to their prior visit (same/better/worse) and to quantitatively estimate their forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) after being reminded of their FEV1 at the prior visit...
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30283711/current-state-and-future-of-biologic-therapies-in-the-treatment-of-asthma-in-children
#3
REVIEW
Elissa M Abrams, Allan B Becker, Stanley J Szefler
There is increasing recognition of phenotypic variability in pediatric asthma, providing the opportunity for a more personalized approach to therapy. Increasingly biologic therapies, in particular those targeting the "allergic" (or T helper 2) pathway, are being considered for children with severe asthma. However, there is a great deal of variability in the extent these biologic therapies have been studied in children, as well as efficacy of results thus far. The goal of this article is to review the mechanism of action, efficacy, and potential predictive and monitoring biomarkers of the biologic medications focusing on the pediatric population, in an effort to establish a more personalized approach to asthma in the pediatric population for the 21st century...
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30279995/flexible-bronchoscopy-under-bronchoscopist-administered-moderate-sedation-versus-general-anesthesia-a-comparative-study-in-children
#4
Pritish Mondal, Priti Dalal, Niruja Sathiyadevan, David M Snyder, Satyanarayan Hegde
Background: Flexible bronchoscopy (FB) can be performed under bronchoscopist administered moderate sedation (BAMS) with a midazolam/fentanyl combination or general anesthesia (GA). However, the outcome of BAMS has not been well established in children. Currently, most of the centers prefer FB under GA. Both techniques have their advantages and disadvantages with implications for safety, complications, and diagnostic yield. The primary objective of our study was to evaluate the safety, time efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of FB under BAMS as compared with FB under GA in a similar setting...
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30069422/asthma-endotyping-and-biomarkers-in-childhood-asthma
#5
REVIEW
Amelia Licari, Riccardo Castagnoli, Ilaria Brambilla, Alessia Marseglia, Maria Angela Tosca, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Giorgio Ciprandi
Childhood asthma represents a heterogeneous challenging disease, in particular in its severe forms. The identification of different asthma phenotypes has stimulated research in underlying molecular mechanisms, such as the endotypes, and paved the way to the search for related specific biomarkers, which may guide diagnosis, management, and predict response to treatment. A limited number of biomarkers are currently available in clinical practice in the pediatric population, mostly reflecting type 2-high airway inflammation...
June 1, 2018: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588872/preventing-peanut-allergy
#6
REVIEW
Meng Chen, Michael Welch, Susan Laubach
The rising prevalence of food allergy and specifically peanut allergy has had significant implications for affected patients, families, and society. The current standard of care remains strict avoidance and the use of emergency medications for accidental ingestions. There is recent evidence-based information to suggest that one approach to preventing peanut allergy lies in early introduction of peanut. This represents a paradigm shift from previous recommendations and has led to updated guidelines in the United States, Europe, and Australasia on the introduction of potentially allergenic foods in the infant diet...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279792/personalized-medicine-in-preschool-children-with-asthma
#7
Hengameh Raissy, Kathryn Blake
A growing body of literature has investigated optimizing asthma management by identifying phenotypes and biomarkers to guide the treatment. In particular, management of asthma in preschool children remains challenging due to different phenotype presentation in early life. The focus of this review is to summarize the recent data on personalized medicine in management of preschool children with wheezing.
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279791/pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare-complex-infection-in-an-infant-a-silent-and-coincidental-finding
#8
Vishal Naik, Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, William Gershan, Andrew A Colin, Nadir Demirel
An 11-month-old healthy infant girl was noted to have left lower lobe (LLL) opacities on chest X-ray (CXR) after developing desaturations during an elective cochlear implant surgery. Repeat CXR 10 days later revealed hyperexpansion of the left lung and persistent LLL opacity. Chest computerized tomography revealed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, left mainstem bronchial obstruction, and nodular opacities. Bronchoscopic biopsy of the endobronchial tissue revealed multiple necrotizing granulomas and grew Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare , Streptococcus viridans , and Actinomyces odontolyticus ...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279790/developing-a-mobile-health-intervention-for-low-income-urban-caregivers-of-children-with-asthma-a-pilot-study
#9
Robin S Everhart, Kristin E Heron, Gillian G Leibach, Samantha A Miadich
Objective: This pilot study explored the initial feasibility and efficacy of providing feedback to low-income, urban caregivers of children with persistent asthma about their daily experiences reported via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) on caregiver emotional health (quality of life, perceived stress, and positive affect). Methods: Data were collected from 28 caregivers and their children (7-12 years). Caregivers completed a baseline session, 14 days of EMA surveys via smartphone, and were randomized to intervention or control groups...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279789/asthma-screening-in-pediatric-sickle-cell-disease-a-clinic-based-program-using-questionnaires-and-spirometry
#10
Sara C Sadreameli, Rachel O Alade, Peter J Mogayzel, Sharon McGrath-Morrow, John J Strouse
A clinician diagnosis of asthma is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in people with sickle cell disease (SCD). We hypothesized that a screening program would help identify children with asthma needing referral to pulmonary clinic. We conducted a single-center project to screen patients with SCD for asthma using a previously validated questionnaire (Breathmobile) and for pulmonary function abnormalities with portable spirometry. Participants with a positive questionnaire and/or abnormal spirometry were referred to pediatric pulmonary clinic...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279788/diet-lung-function-and-asthma-exacerbations-in-puerto-rican-children
#11
Yueh-Ying Han, Erick Forno, Maria Alvarez, Angel Colón-Semidey, Edna Acosta-Perez, Glorisa Canino, Juan C Celedón
Changes in dietary patterns may partly explain the epidemic of asthma in industrialized countries. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and lung function and asthma exacerbations in Puerto Rican children. This is a case-control study of 678 Puerto Rican children (ages 6-14 years) in San Juan (Puerto Rico). All participants completed a respiratory health questionnaire and a 75-item food frequency questionnaire. Food items were aggregated into 7 groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, protein, dairy, fats, and sweets...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279787/acute-chest-syndrome-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease
#12
REVIEW
Shilpa Jain, Nitya Bakshi, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti
Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a frequent cause of acute lung disease in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Patients may present with ACS or may develop this complication during the course of a hospitalization for acute vaso-occlusive crises (VOC). ACS is associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased risk of respiratory failure, and the potential for developing chronic lung disease. ACS in SCD is defined as the presence of fever and/or new respiratory symptoms accompanied by the presence of a new pulmonary infiltrate on chest X-ray...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062585/fetal-tobacco-smoke-exposure-in-the-third-trimester-of-pregnancy-is-associated-with-atopic-eczema-dermatitis-syndrome-in-infancy
#13
Miwa Shinohara, Kenji Matsumoto
The manifestation of atopic dermatitis (AD) is initially nonatopic eczema in early infancy; the manifestations subsequently change in age-specific stages. Since allergen-specific T-helper 2 cells appear in the fetus primarily after the third trimester of pregnancy and rapidly mature during the first 6 months of life, different timings of tobacco smoke exposure may have different effects on AD. In this study, we investigated whether the timing of fetal or/and infantile tobacco smoke exposure affects the cumulative incidence of atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS) in infants in Japan...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062584/adrenal-insufficiency-in-pediatric-eosinophilic-esophagitis-patients-treated-with-swallowed-topical-steroids
#14
Stephanie Hsu, Colleen Wood, Zhaoxing Pan, Haseeb Rahat, Philip Zeitler, David Fleischer, Calies Menard-Katcher, Glenn T Furuta, Dan Atkins
Swallowed topical steroids (STS) are the only effective pharmacological therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Thus far, studies of small populations of EoE patients have reported conflicting results in relation to adrenal insufficiency (AI). We sought to measure AI in a clinical setting in children taking STS for EoE. We performed a quality improvement study of pediatric EoE patients seen in a multidisciplinary clinic, who were treated with STS for at least 3 months. Two hundred twenty-five patients completed questionnaires to assess for signs of AI...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465864/parental-snoring-and-environmental-pollutants-but-not-aeroallergen-sensitization-are-associated-with-childhood-snoring-in-a-birth-cohort
#15
Jennifer A Kannan, Cole Brokamp, David I Bernstein, Grace K LeMasters, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Manuel S Villareal, James E Lockey, Patrick H Ryan
The objective of this study was to determine whether atopy and other clinical and environmental variables predict the risk of childhood habitual snoring (HS) in a birth cohort born to atopic parents. Participants completed clinical evaluations and questionnaires at ages 1-4 and age 7. HS was defined as snoring ≥3 nights/week. Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure was estimated using land-use regression. The association between early (≤age 4) and current (age 7) allergic disease, environmental exposures, and snoring at age 7 was examined using adjusted logistic regression...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465863/low-beta-adrenergic-sweat-responses-in-cystic-fibrosis-and-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator-related-metabolic-syndrome-children
#16
Danieli Barino Salinas, Lucia Kang, Colleen Azen, Paul Quinton
β-adrenergically stimulated sweat secretion depends on the function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and discriminates between cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and healthy controls. Therefore, we sought to determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of assaying β-adrenergic sweating in children identified by CF newborn screening to help determine prognoses for individuals with CFTR-related metabolic syndrome (CRMS). Preschool age children with a positive newborn screening test for CF participated in this cross-sectional study...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265481/anaphylaxis-in-schools-results-of-the-epipen4schools-survey-combined-analysis
#17
Martha V White, Susan L Hogue, Dawn Odom, Darryl Cooney, Jennifer Bartsch, Diana Goss, Kelly Hollis, Christopher Herrem, Suyapa Silvia
A pilot survey described the characteristics of anaphylactic events occurring in an initial set of participating U.S. schools during the 2013-2014 school year. This survey was subsequently readministered to large school districts, which were underrepresented in initial results. A cross-sectional survey was administered to the U.S. schools that were participating in the EPIPEN4SCHOOLS(®) program (Mylan Specialty L.P., Canonsburg, PA) to assess characteristics of anaphylactic events. Data from large school districts were added to initial findings in this comprehensive combined analysis...
September 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265480/proximity-to-a-major-road-and-plasma-cytokines-in-school-aged-children
#18
Franziska Rosser, Erick Forno, John Brehm, Yueh-Ying Han, Nadia Boutaoui, Angel Colón-Semidey, María Alvarez, Edna Acosta-Pérez, Kristen S Kurland, John F Alcorn, Glorisa Canino, Juan C Celedón
Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may affect immune responses, including those in the TH2 and TH17 pathways. To examine whether TRAP is associated with plasma level of TH17-, TH1-, and TH2-related cytokines in children with and without asthma, a cross-sectional study of 577 children (ages 6-14 years) with (n = 294) and without (n = 283) asthma in San Juan (Puerto Rico) was performed. Residential distance to a major road was estimated using geocoded home addresses for study participants. A panel of 14 cytokines, enriched for the TH17 pathway, was measured in plasma...
September 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583171/feasibility-of-picture-based-asthma-medication-plans-in-urban-pediatric-outpatient-clinics
#19
Stephanie J Mitchell, Andrew L Bilderback, Sande O Okelo
Picture-based Asthma Action Plans show promise for overcoming parental literacy barriers and improving child asthma outcomes, but it is uncertain how parents respond to pictures of specific medications, which may be particularly important for improving disease self-management. Thus, we assessed parent attitudes toward an asthma-related picture-based medication plan (PBMP) in an urban academic pediatric clinic and examined attitudes by literacy level. Surveys were administered to a convenience sample of parents of children presenting to an urban pediatric pulmonary clinic for asthma consultation between March and August 2011...
June 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458539/macrolides-for-acute-wheezing-episodes-in-preschool-children
#20
Hengameh H Raissy, Kathryn Blake
The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program's Expert Panel Report 3, Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma does not recommend antibiotics for the management of acute episodes of asthma exacerbation. Macrolides seem to have some potential effect beyond or in addition to their antibacterial effect. It has been reported that macrolides may potentially benefit patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases due to their antibacterial, antiviral, and/or anti-inflammatory effects. This review presents recent data on use of azithromycin in prevention and management of acute exacerbation of respiratory symptoms in infants and young children...
June 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
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