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Therapeutic Advances in Hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204262/the-role-of-oral-anticoagulant-therapy-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Jae Youn Moon, Deepa Nagaraju, Francesco Franchi, Fabiana Rollini, Dominick J Angiolillo
Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor antagonist represents the current standard of care to prevent atherothrombotic recurrences in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, despite the use of DAPT, the recurrence rate of cardiovascular ischemic events still remains high. This persistent risk may be in part attributed to the sustained activation of the coagulation cascade leading to generation of thrombin, which may continue to play a key role in thrombus formation. The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) as a strategy to reduce atherothrombotic recurrences after an ACS has been previously tested, leading to overall unfavorable outcomes due to the high risk of bleeding complications...
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204261/recombinant-human-factor-viia-rfviia-in-hemophilia-mode-of-action-and-evidence-to-date
#2
REVIEW
Muriel Giansily-Blaizot, Jean-François Schved
Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is a bypassing agent widely used both in the treatment and prevention of hemorrhagic complications due to hemophilia with inhibitor. In such cases, antihemophilic factors cannot be used. The normal physiology of factor VII/ factor VIIa (FVII/FVIIa) in the hemostatic process requires the presence of tissue factor (TF) that links to FVII leading to a FVIIa-TF complex which activates both factor X and factor IX. The therapeutic use of rFVIIa requires high amount of FVIIa...
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204260/the-evolving-role-of-targeted-biological-agents-in-the-management-of-indolent-b-cell-lymphomas
#3
REVIEW
Trent Peng Wang, John Harwood Scott, Stefan Klaus Barta
Improved understanding of the mechanisms of lymphomagenesis has resulted in a surge of development for new targeted agents. An impressive number of biological agents targeting different steps in the pathways of tumor proliferation, survival and apoptosis have become available. The management of patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (iNHLs) is rapidly transforming with incorporation of those targeted biological agents into the front-line and relapsed/refractory setting. This review highlights several categories of novel biological agents and will discuss their potential role in the contemporary management of patients with iNHLs...
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093807/biological-and-clinical-implications-of-telomere-dysfunction-in-myeloid-malignancies
#4
REVIEW
Ashwin Kishtagari, Justin Watts
Telomeres at the ends of linear chromosomes protect the genome. Telomeres shorten with each round of cell division, placing a finite limit on cell growth. Telomere attrition is associated with cell senescence and apoptosis. Telomerase, a specialized ribonucleoprotein complex, maintains telomeres homeostasis through repeat addition of telomere sequences to the 3' telomeric overhang. Telomere biology is closely related to cancer and normal aging. Upregulation of telomerase or activation of the alternative pathway of telomere lengthening is a hallmark of cancer cells, making telomerase an attractive target for cancer therapeutics...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051801/current-and-emerging-factor-viii-replacement-products-for-hemophilia-a
#5
REVIEW
Lorraine A Cafuir, Christine L Kempton
Hemophilia A is a congenital X-linked bleeding disorder caused by coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. Routine infusion of factor replacement products is the current standard of care; however, the development of alloantibodies against FVIII remains a challenge. The treatment of hemophilia has undergone major advances over the past century to improve safety, effectiveness, manufacturing, and convenience of factor products. Major recent advances in the treatment of hemophilia A include the emergence of extended half-life products, factor VIII orthologs, and gene therapy products...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051800/current-strategies-for-salvage-treatment-for-relapsed-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma
#6
REVIEW
Liana Nikolaenko, Robert Chen, Alex F Herrera
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is curable in 70-80% of patients with first-line therapy. However, relapses occur in a minority of patients with favorable early stage disease and are more frequent in patients with advanced HL. Salvage chemotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) for patients with chemotherapy-sensitive disease is a standard treatment sequence for relapsed or refractory (rel/ref) HL. Patients who achieve complete response prior to ASCT have better survival outcomes...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051799/red-cell-genotyping-precision-medicine-a-conference-summary
#7
REVIEW
Gregory A Denomme, Waseem Q Anani, Neil D Avent, Gregor Bein, Lynne B Briggs, Razvan C Lapadat, Celina Montemayor, Maria Rios, Maryse St-Louis, Lynne Uhl, Silvano Wendel, Willy A Flegel
This review summarizes the salient points of the symposium 'Red Cell Genotyping 2015: Precision Medicine' held on 10 September 2015 in the Masur Auditorium of the National Institutes of Health. The specific aims of this 6th annual symposium were to: (1) discuss how advances in molecular immunohematology are changing patient care; (2) exemplify patient care strategies by case reports (clinical vignettes); (3) review the basic molecular studies and their current implications in clinical practice; (4) identify red cell genotyping strategies to prevent alloimmunization; and (5) compare and contrast future options of red cell genotyping in precision transfusion medicine...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051805/corrigendum
#8
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1177/2040620717693972.].
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051804/review-of-recombinant-anti-haemophilic-porcine-sequence-factor-viii-in-adults-with-acquired-haemophilia-a
#9
REVIEW
Emma Fosbury, Anja Drebes, Anne Riddell, Pratima Chowdary
Acquired haemophilia A (AHA) is a rare, serious bleeding disorder most often encountered in elderly patients. The mainstay of haemostatic management is with bypassing agents (BPAs) including recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) and activated prothrombin complex concentrates (aPCCs). Their major limitation is incomplete efficacy, potential risk for thrombosis and the lack of routine laboratory assays for monitoring treatment response. Plasma-derived porcine FVIII (pd-pFVIII, Hyate C(®)), first used in the 1950s for the management of congenital haemophilia, has sufficient sequence homology to be haemostatic in humans, but the lack of complete homology facilitates efficacy even in the presence of human allo- and autoantibodies against human FVIII (hFVIII)...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051803/midostaurin-a-novel-therapeutic-agent-for-patients-with-flt3-mutated-acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-systemic-mastocytosis
#10
REVIEW
Molly M Gallogly, Hillard M Lazarus, Brenda W Cooper
The development of FLT3-targeted inhibitors represents an important paradigm shift in the management of patients with highly aggressive fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-mutated (FLT3-mut) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Midostaurin is an orally administered type III tyrosine kinase inhibitor which in addition to FLT3 inhibits c-kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptors, src, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. Midostaurin is the first FLT3 inhibitor that has been shown to significantly improve survival in younger patients with FLT3-mut AML when given in combination with standard cytotoxic chemotherapy based on the recently completed RATIFY study...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051802/radotinib-and-its-clinical-potential-in-chronic-phase-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-patients-an-update
#11
REVIEW
Ahmet Emre Eskazan, Dilek Keskin
Although imatinib has dramatically improved major outcomes in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), there are newer tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) approved worldwide for the treatment of resistant cases, and two second-generation TKIs (dasatinib, nilotinib) are approved in some nations for treating patients in the upfront setting. Radotinib (IY5511HCL, Supect®) is a novel and selective second-generation BCR-ABL1 TKI, which is currently approved in Korea for the treatment of patients with CML both in the upfront and salvage settings...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811872/current-and-emerging-treatment-options-for-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#12
REVIEW
Bita Fakhri, Brad Kahl
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with typically aggressive behavior. The genetic signature is the chromosomal translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32) resulting in overexpression of cyclin D1. Asymptomatic newly diagnosed MCL patients with low tumor burden can be closely observed, deferring therapy to the time of disease progression. Although MCL classically responds to upfront chemotherapy, it remains incurable with standard approaches. For patients in need of frontline therapy, the initial decision is whether to proceed with an intensive treatment strategy or a non-intensive treatment strategy...
August 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567239/bendamustine-and-its-role-in-the-treatment-of-unfit-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-a-perspective-review
#13
REVIEW
Othman Al-Sawaf, Paula Cramer, Valentin Goede, Michael Hallek, Natali Pflug
With a median age of 72 years at first diagnosis, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a disease of the elderly. At this age, many patients cannot bear an intensive chemoimmunotherapy like fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR), and therapeutic decisions are commonly complicated by a high burden of accompanying comorbidities. Clinical trials, on the other hand, are mostly designed to include a far healthier and younger trial population, with a median age in most studies well below 70 years, leading to an insufficient reflection of clinical reality...
June 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567238/vosaroxin-in-relapsed-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukemia-efficacy-and-safety-in-the-context-of-the-current-treatment-landscape
#14
REVIEW
Valeriy Sedov, Robert K Stuart
Treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) generally consists of a combination of cytarabine and an anthracycline. Although induction therapy leads to complete remission (CR) for most patients, refractoriness to chemotherapy or relapse after initial response is associated with poor outcomes. The 1-year survival rates after first relapse have been reported at 29%, declining to 11% at 5 years. Prognosis is particularly poor among older patients whose higher prevalence of unfavorable cytogenetics and high frequency of comorbidities diminish their ability to tolerate intensive chemotherapy...
June 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473905/targeting-the-programmed-cell-death-1-pathway-in-hodgkin-lymphoma-the-place-of-nivolumab
#15
REVIEW
Nathan D Gay, Craig Y Okada, Andy I Chen, Emma C Scott
Nivolumab is a humanized immunoglobulin gamma-4 kappa anti-programmed cell death 1 monoclonal antibody that is currently approved in the treatment of several solid tumors and recently gained accelerated approval in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) that has relapsed or progressed following autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and post-transplantation brentuximab vedotin. The purpose of this article is to review the immunophysiologic basis, clinical efficacy, and toxicity of nivolumab in the treatment of cHL...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473904/from-chronic-immune-thrombocytopenia-to-severe-aplastic-anemia-recent-insights-into-the-evolution-of-eltrombopag
#16
REVIEW
Harinder Gill, Raymond S M Wong, Yok-Lam Kwong
Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the most potent cytokine stimulating thrombopoiesis. Therapy with exogenous TPO is limited by the formation of antibodies cross-reacting with endogenous TPO. Mimetics of TPO are compounds with no antigenic similarity to TPO. Eltrombopag is an orally-active nonpeptide small molecule that binds to the transmembrane portion of the TPO receptor MPL. Initial trials of eltrombopag have centered on immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), which is due to both increased destruction and decreased production of platelets...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491266/point-of-care-ultrasonography-pocus-in-hemophilia-a-a-commentary-on-current-status-and-its-potential-role-for-improving-prophylaxis-management-in-severe-hemophilia-a
#17
REVIEW
Suchitra S Acharya, Brittny Rule, Omar McMillan, Thomas J Humphries
In patients with severe hemophilia A, recurrent bleeding into joints results in increased morbidity and reduced quality of life. Prophylaxis using replacement factor products, especially when initiated early, has established benefits in terms of reducing joint bleeds and preserving joint function. Poor adherence to prophylactic regimens is a common cause for breakthrough bleeds and resultant arthropathy. Improving prophylaxis management, especially in the transitional age group, is a challenge. Here, we discuss the current status of ultrasonography (US) in hemophilia A, challenges in its wider implementation, and the potential for use of point-of-care US (POCUS) as an adjunct in the routine management of patients with hemophilia following prophylaxis regimens...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491265/experience-with-ruxolitinib-in-the-treatment-of-polycythaemia-vera
#18
REVIEW
Samah Alimam, Claire Harrison
Polycythaemia vera (PV) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm classically characterized by an erythrocytosis and is associated with a high risk of thromboembolic events, constitutional symptoms burden and risk of transformation to myelofibrosis and acute myeloid leukaemia. Therapy is directed at the haematocrit (HCT) to reduce the risk of thrombotic events and usually comprises low-dose aspirin and phlebotomy to maintain HCT at >45%. Frequently in addition, cytoreductive therapy is indicated in high-risk patients for normalizing haematological parameters to mitigate the occurrence of thromboembolic events...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491264/priming-radioimmunotherapy-with-external-beam-radiation-in-patients-with-relapsed-low-grade-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#19
Yazan Abuodeh, Kamran Ahmed, Michelle Echevarria, Arash Naghavi, G Daniel Grass, Timothy J Robinson, Michael Tomblyn, Bijal Shah, Julio Chavez, Celeste Bello, Ghassan El-Haddad, Louis Harrison, Sungjune Kim
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of priming salvage radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with a low dose of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in patients with relapsed low grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (LG-NHL). METHODS: Patients who received salvage RIT with or without 2 × 2 Gy EBRT between March 2009 and February 2013 were retrospectively reviewed at a single institution. Planning target volume (PTV) for EBRT was created by adding a 1-2 cm expansion to the gross tumor volume depending on the anatomical location...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246555/management-of-thrombosis-in-paroxysmal-nocturnal-hemoglobinuria-a-clinician-s-guide
#20
REVIEW
Morag Griffin, Talha Munir
Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH), an ultra-orphan disease with a prevalence of 15.9 per million in Europe, is a life-threatening disorder, characterized by haemolysis, bone marrow failure and thrombosis. Patients with PNH prior to the availability of eculizumab had a median survival of between 10 and 22 years, with thrombosis accounting for 22-67% of deaths. 29-44% of patients had at least one thrombosis. This paper provides a clinician's guide to the diagnosis, management and complications of PNH, with an emphasis on thrombosis...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
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