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Frontiers of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218679/possibility-of-women-treated-with-fertility-sparing-surgery-for-non-epithelial-ovarian-tumors-to-safely-and-successfully-become-pregnant-a-chinese-retrospective-cohort-study-among-148-cases
#1
Bin Yang, Yan Yu, Jing Chen, Yan Zhang, Ye Yin, Nan Yu, Ge Chen, Shifei Zhu, Haiyan Huang, Yongqun Yuan, Jihui Ai, Xinyu Wang, Kezhen Li
This study was performed to evaluate the oncological and reproductive outcomes of childbearing-age women treated with fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) for non-epithelial ovarian tumors in China. One hundred and forty eight non-epithelial ovarian tumor women treated with FSS between January 1, 2000 and August 31, 2015 from two medical centers in China were identified. Progression-free survival (PFS) was 88.5%, whereas overall survival (OS) was 93.9%. Univariate analysis suggested that delivery after treatment is related to PFS (P = 0...
December 7, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218678/low-dose-ct-for-lung-cancer-screening-opportunities-and-challenges
#2
Hongbing Shen
Lung cancer is among the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in both males and females. Screening for lung cancer coupled with earlier intervention has long been studied as an approach to mortality reduction. However, minimal progress was achieved until recently, when lowdose spiral computed tomography (LDCT) screening demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality from lung cancer in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), the National Lung Screening Trial, from the United States...
December 7, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209918/molecular-classification-and-precision-therapy-of-cancer-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#3
Yingyan Yu
On May 23, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a treatment for cancer patients with positive microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) markers or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) markers. This approach is the first approved tumor treatment using a common biomarker rather than specified tumor locations in the body. FDA previously approved Keytruda for treatment of several types of malignancies, such as metastatic melanoma, metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer, recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer, refractory Hodgkin lymphoma, and urothelial carcinoma, all of which carry positive programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 biomarkers...
December 5, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209917/cluster-analysis-for-syndromes-of-real-world-coronary-heart-disease-with-angina-pectoris
#4
Yufeng Zhao, Xueyun Yu, Xinyu Cao, Lin Luo, Liyun He, Shusong Mao, Li Ma, Peijing Rong, Yuxue Zhao, Guozheng Li, Baoyan Liu
Syndromes of coronary heart disease with angina pectoris were analyzed to provide guidance for clinical practice and to improve accuracy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) diagnoses and efficacy of TCM treatment. A total of 860 cases with coronary heart disease with angina pectoris were selected from TCM Clinical Research Information Sharing System for TCM clinics and research. Syndromes were automatically extracted with the cluster method and were analyzed to provide objective evidence for clinical studies...
December 5, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209916/carcinogens-that-induce-the-a-t-t-a-nucleotide-substitutions-in-the-genome
#5
Guangbiao Zhou, Xinchun Zhao
Recently, Ng et al. reported that the A:T > T:A substitutions, proposed to be a signature of aristolochic acid (AA) exposure, were detected in 76/98 (78%) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from the Taiwan Province of China, and 47% to 1.7% of HCCs from the Chinese mainland and other countries harbored the nucleotide changes. However, other carcinogens, e.g., tobacco carcinogens 4-aminobiphenyl and 1,3-butadiene, air toxic vinyl chloride and its reactive metabolites chloroethylene oxide, melphalan and chlorambucil, also cause this signature in the genome...
December 5, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185122/genomic-variations-in-the-counterpart-normal-controls-of-lung-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#6
Liwei Qu, Bo Zhou, Guizhen Wang, Guangbiao Zhou
Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) causes approximately 400 000 deaths each year worldwide. The occurrence of LUSC is attributed to exposure to cigarette smoke, which induces the development of numerous genomic abnormalities. However, few studies have investigated the genomic variations that occur only in normal tissues that have been similarly exposed to tobacco smoke as tumor tissues. In this study, we sequenced the whole genomes of three normal lung tissue samples and their paired adjacent squamous cell carcinomas...
November 28, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181691/irreversible-phenotypic-perturbation-and-functional-impairment-of-b-cells-during-hiv-1-infection
#7
Jingjing Yan, Shuye Zhang, Jun Sun, Jianqing Xu, Xiaoyang Zhang
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection can damage humoral immunity. The knowledge of B cell perturbations during chronic HIV-1 infection and their recovery after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is not complete yet, and thus attempts to further improve humoral immunity are impeded. In this study, an HIV-1 chronically infected cohort with similar demographics, infection history, genetic background, and HIV-1 genotype was established to probe B cell perturbations. Results showed that the B cells from this cohort were highly activated and prone to cell death, and B cell compartments were altered significantly...
November 27, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181690/association-of-maternal-depression-with-dietary-intake-growth-and-development-of-preterm-infants-a-cohort-study-in-beijing-china
#8
Han Wang, Hong Zhou, Yan Zhang, Yan Wang, Jing Sun
This study aimed to explore the association of maternal depression with nutrient intake, growth, and development of preterm infants. A cohort study of 201 infants was conducted in Beijing. Based on the gestational age of an infant and status of the mother, the infants were divided into four groups: non-depression-fullterm (64), non-depression-preterm (70), depression-fullterm (36), and depression-preterm (31). Data on sociodemographic characteristics, nutritional intake, growth, and developmental status of children at 8 months (corrected ages) were collected using a quantitative questionnaire, a 24-Hour Dietary Recall, anthropometric measurements, and the Bayley-III scale...
November 27, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170919/current-advances-in-the-elimination-of-hepatitis-b-in-china-by-2030
#9
REVIEW
Shuye Zhang, Fusheng Wang, Zheng Zhang
With its 78 million chronic carriers, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still one of the leading public health challenges in China. Over the last two decades, China has made great progress on the prevention of HBV transmission through national vaccination programs. Zero transmission from mother to infant has been proposed as the current goal. Available anti-HBV therapy is efficacious in suppressing HBV replication; however, it fails to completely cure patients with chronic hepatitis B and even requires lifelong treatment...
November 23, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170918/determining-abnormal-levator-hiatus-distensibility-using-three-dimensional-transperineal-ultrasound-in-chinese-women
#10
LETTER
Chaoran Dou, Qin Li, Tao Ying, Yulin Yan, Xia Wang, Bing Hu
The dimension of the levator hiatus is a possible predictor of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This retrospective study investigated 360 women who went to urogynecological clinic for pelvic floor discomfort. Levator hiatus dimensions were obtained by three-dimensional transperineal ultrasound and results were compared between women with and without significantly objective prolapse (International Continence Society POP quantification, grade 2 or higher). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine valid screening index for detecting abnormal levator hiatus distensibility...
November 23, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170917/radical-versus-conservative-surgical-treatment-of-liver-hydatid-cysts-a-meta-analysis
#11
LETTER
Qing Pang, Hao Jin, Zhongran Man, Yong Wang, Song Yang, Zongkuang Li, Yimin Lu, Huichun Liu, Lei Zhou
To date, the efficacy of radical surgery (RS) versus conservative surgery (CS) for liver hydatid cysts (LHC) remains controversial. This meta-analysis was conducted to compare the two interventions. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched from their inceptions until June 2016. Meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0 software. We identified 19 eligible studies from 10 countries by retrieval. In total, 1853 LHC patients who received RS were compared with 2274 patients treated by CS. The risk of postoperative overall complication, biliary fistula, and recurrence was significantly lower, and operation time was significantly longer in the RS group...
November 23, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170916/development-of-small-molecule-viral-inhibitors-targeting-various-stages-of-the-life-cycle-of-emerging-and-re-emerging-viruses
#12
REVIEW
Xiaohuan Wang, Peng Zou, Fan Wu, Lu Lu, Shibo Jiang
In recent years, unexpected outbreaks of infectious diseases caused by emerging and re-emerging viruses have become more frequent, which is possibly due to environmental changes. These outbreaks result in the loss of life and economic hardship. Vaccines and therapeutics should be developed for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize and discuss the latest progress in the development of small-molecule viral inhibitors against highly pathogenic coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus, and Zika virus...
November 23, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170915/potential-use-of-serum-hbv-rna-in-antiviral-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-the-era-of-nucleos-t-ide-analogs
#13
REVIEW
Fengmin Lu, Jie Wang, Xiangmei Chen, Dongping Xu, Ningshao Xia
Although the efficacy of nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) has been confirmed for treatment of chronic hepatitis B, long-term therapy has been recommended due to the high frequency of off-therapy viral DNA rebound and disease relapse. In this review, the RNA virion-like particles of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are integrated into the life cycle of HBV replication, and the potential significance of serum HBV RNA is systematically described. The production of HBV RNA virion-like particles should not be blocked by NA; in this regard, serum HBV RNA is found to be a suitable surrogate marker for the activity of intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), particularly among patients receiving NA therapy...
November 23, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170914/immunological-and-virological-characteristics-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-superinfection-implications-in-vaccine-design
#14
REVIEW
Yang Gao, Wen Tian, Xiaoxu Han, Feng Gao
Superinfection is frequently detected among individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1). Superinfection occurs at similar frequencies at acute and chronic infection stages but less frequently than primary infection. This observation indicates that the immune responses elicited by natural HIV-1 infection may play a role in curb of superinfection; however, these responses are not sufficiently strong to completely prevent superinfection. Thus, a successful HIV-1 vaccine likely needs to induce more potent and broader immune responses than those elicited by primary infection...
November 23, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170913/impact-of-hbv-replication-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-on-hbv-intrauterine-transmission
#15
Xiaohong Shi, Xuefei Wang, Xixi Xu, Yongliang Feng, Shuzhen Li, Shuying Feng, Bo Wang, Suping Wang
This study determined the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from HBsAg-positive mothers on HBV intrauterine transmission. A total of 150 HBsAg-positive mothers and their neonates were recruited in this study. Within 24 h after birth, HBV serological markers, serum HBV DNA, PBMC HBV relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA), and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) were measured in the HBsAg-positive mothers and their neonates before passive-active immune prophylaxis...
November 23, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159597/universal-influenza-virus-vaccines-what-can-we-learn-from-the-human-immune-response-following-exposure-to-h7-subtype-viruses
#16
REVIEW
Daniel Stadlbauer, Raffael Nachbagauer, Philip Meade, Florian Krammer
Several universal influenza virus vaccine candidates based on eliciting antibodies against the hemagglutinin stalk domain are in development. Typically, these vaccines induce responses that target group 1 or group 2 hemagglutinins with little to no cross-group reactivity and protection. Similarly, the majority of human anti-stalk monoclonal antibodies that have been isolated are directed against group 1 or group 2 hemagglutinins with very few that bind to hemagglutinins of both groups. Here we review what is known about the human humoral immune response to vaccination and infection with H7 subtype influenza viruses on a polyclonal and monoclonal level...
November 20, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159596/human-monoclonal-antibodies-as-candidate-therapeutics-against-emerging-viruses
#17
REVIEW
Yujia Jin, Cheng Lei, Dan Hu, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Tianlei Ying
The emergence of new pathogens, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Ebola virus, poses serious challenges to global public health and highlights the urgent need for novel antiviral approaches. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been successfully used to treat various diseases, particularly cancer and immunological disorders. Antigen-specific mAbs have been isolated using several different approaches, including hybridoma, transgenic mice, phage display, yeast display, and single B-cell isolation...
November 20, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119382/role-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-metabolic-syndrome-aging-and-cancer-cachexia
#18
REVIEW
Meng Dong, Jun Lin, Wonchung Lim, Wanzhu Jin, Hyuek Jong Lee
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a fundamental role in maintaining body temperature by producing heat. BAT that had been know to exist only in mammals and the human neonate has received great attention for the treatment of obesity and diabetes due to its important function in energy metabolism, ever since it is recently reported that human adults have functional BAT. In addition, beige adipocytes, brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT), have also been shown to take part in whole body metabolism. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that transplantation or activation of BAT or/and beige adipocytes reversed obesity and improved insulin sensitivity...
November 8, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101755/sub-cytotoxic-concentrations-of-ionic-silver-promote-the-proliferation-of-human-keratinocytes-by-inducing-the-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#19
Xiaodong Duan, Daizhi Peng, Yilan Zhang, Yalan Huang, Xiao Liu, Ruifu Li, Xin Zhou, Jing Liu
Silver-containing preparations are widely used in the management of skin wounds, but the effects of silver ions on skin wound healing remain poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of silver ions (Ag(+)) on the proliferation of human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). After treating HaCaT cells with Ag(+) and/or the active oxygen scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), cell proliferation and intracellular ROS generation were assessed using CCK-8 reagent and DCFH-DA fluorescent probe, respectively...
November 3, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101754/testing-of-tuberculosis-infection-among-chinese-adolescents-born-after-terminating-the-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-booster-vaccination-subgroup-analysis-of-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#20
Hengjing Li, Henan Xin, Shukun Qian, Xiangwei Li, Haoran Zhang, Mufei Li, Boxuan Feng, Qi Jin, Lei Gao
The prevalence of tuberculosis infection among adolescents born after terminating the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) booster vaccination in China was estimated using tuberculin skin testing (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold assay (QFT) to investigate the influence of neonatal BCG vaccination on the performance of TST. Data analysis was conducted for 2831 eligible participants aged 5-15 years from the baseline survey of a population-based multi-center prospective study. The prevalence rates of TST (induration = 10 mm) and QFT positivity were 9...
November 3, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
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