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Frontiers of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306382/bile-acids-and-their-effects-on-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Cynthia Rajani, Wei Jia
Diabetes is a widespread, rapidly increasing metabolic disease that is driven by hyperglycemia. Early glycemic control is of primary importance to avoid vascular complications including development of retinal disorders leading to blindness, end-stage renal disease, and accelerated atherosclerosis with a higher risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and limb amputations. Even after hyperglycemia has been brought under control, "metabolic memory," a cluster of irreversible metabolic changes that allow diabetes to progress, may persist depending on the duration of hyperglycemia...
October 10, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30280308/epidemic-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents-risk-factors-and-prevention
#2
REVIEW
Eun Young Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon
The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents (aged 2-18 years) has increased rapidly, with more than 100 million affected in 2015. Moreover, the epidemic of obesity in this population has been an important public health problem in developed and developing countries for the following reasons. Childhood and adolescent obesity tracks adulthood obesity and has been implicated in many chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, childhood and adolescent obesity is linked to adulthood mortality and premature death...
October 2, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30280307/histone-variants-critical-determinants-in-tumour-heterogeneity
#3
REVIEW
Tao Wang, Florent Chuffart, Ekaterina Bourova-Flin, Jin Wang, Jianqing Mi, Sophie Rousseaux, Saadi Khochbin
Malignant cell transformation could be considered as a series of cell reprogramming events driven by oncogenic transcription factors and upstream signalling pathways. Chromatin plasticity and dynamics are critical determinants in the control of cell reprograming. An increase in chromatin dynamics could therefore constitute an essential step in driving oncogenesis and in generating tumour cell heterogeneity, which is indispensable for the selection of aggressive properties, including the ability of cells to disseminate and acquire resistance to treatments...
October 2, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206768/homoharringtonine-synergy-with-oridonin-in-treatment-of-t-8-21-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#4
Weina Zhang, Ying Lu, Tao Zhen, Xinjie Chen, Ming Zhang, Ping Liu, Xiangqin Weng, Bing Chen, Yueying Wang
Collaboration of c-KIT mutations with AML1-ETO (AE) has been demonstrated to induce t(8; 21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Targeted therapies designed to eliminate AE and c-KIT oncoproteins may facilitate effective treatment of t(8; 21) AML. Homoharringtonine (HHT) features activity against tumor cells harboring c-KIT mutations, whereas oridonin can induce t(8; 21) AML cell apoptosis and AE cleavage. Therefore, studies should explore the efficacy of combination therapy with oridonin and HHT in t(8; 21) AML...
September 11, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194619/changes-in-public-trust-in-physicians-empirical-evidence-from-china
#5
Dahai Zhao, Zhiruo Zhang
Studies examining the trends in public trust in physicians have provided a considerable amount of valuable policy implications for policymakers compared with cross-sectional studies on this topic in many countries. This study investigated changes in public trust in physicians in China based on two cross-sectional national surveys conducted in 2011 and 2016 and identified the determinants of these changes. The results indicated 83.4% of respondents in 2011 reported trust or strong trust in physicians in China, which decreased to 64...
September 7, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178233/mechanistic-and-therapeutic-advances-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-targeting-the-gut-microbiota
#6
REVIEW
Ruiting Han, Junli Ma, Houkai Li
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common metabolic diseases currently in the context of obesity worldwide, which contains a spectrum of chronic liver diseases, including hepatic steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatic carcinoma. In addition to the classical "Two-hit" theory, NAFLD has been recognized as a typical gut microbiota-related disease because of the intricate role of gut microbiota in maintaining human health and disease formation. Moreover, gut microbiota is even regarded as a "metabolic organ" that play complementary roles to that of liver in many aspects...
September 4, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159670/combination-of-biomaterial-transplantation-and-genetic-enhancement-of-intrinsic-growth-capacities-to-promote-cns-axon-regeneration-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
REVIEW
Bin Yu, Xiaosong Gu
The inhibitory environment that surrounds the lesion site and the lack of intrinsic regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) impede the regrowth of injured axons and thereby the reestablishment of neural circuits required for functional recovery after spinal cord injuries (SCI). To circumvent these barriers, biomaterial scaffolds are applied to bridge the lesion gaps for the regrowing axons to follow, and, often by combining stem cell transplantation, to enable the local environment in the growth-supportive direction...
August 30, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159669/four-year-follow-up-of-patients-with-imatinib-resistant-or-intolerant-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-receiving-dasatinib-efficacy-and-safety
#8
Xiaojun Huang, Qian Jiang, Jianda Hu, Jianyong Li, Jie Jin, Fanyi Meng, Zhixiang Shen, Ting Liu, Depei Wu, Jianmin Wang, Jianxiang Wang
Dasatinib is a highly effective second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In 2007, a pivotal phase-2 study of dasatinib as second-line treatment was initiated in 140 Chinese CML patients. This report from the 4-year follow-up revealed that 73% of 59 patients in chronic phase (CML-CP) and 32% of 25 patients in accelerated phase (CML-AP) remained under treatment. The initial dosage of dasatinib for CML-CP and CML-AP patients were 100 mg once daily and 70 mg twice daily (total = 140 mg/ day), respectively...
August 30, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159668/tprn-is-essential-for-the-integrity-of-stereociliary-rootlet-in-cochlear-hair-cells-in-mice
#9
Yuqin Men, Xiujuan Li, Hailong Tu, Aizhen Zhang, Xiaolong Fu, Zhishuo Wang, Yecheng Jin, Congzhe Hou, Tingting Zhang, Sen Zhang, Yichen Zhou, Boqin Li, Jianfeng Li, Xiaoyang Sun, Haibo Wang, Jiangang Gao
Tprn encodes the taperin protein, which is concentrated in the tapered region of hair cell stereocilia in the inner ear. In humans, TPRN mutations cause autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB79) by an unknown mechanism. To determine the role of Tprn in hearing, we generated Tprn-null mice by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 genome-editing technology from a CBA/CaJ background. We observed significant hearing loss and progressive degeneration of stereocilia in the outer hair cells of Tprn-null mice starting from postnatal day 30...
August 30, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097960/classification-and-treatment-of-orbital-venous-malformations-an-updated-review
#10
REVIEW
Tianyuan Li, Renbing Jia, Xianqun Fan
Orbital venous malformation (OVM) is a congenital vascular disease. As a common type of vascular malformation in the orbit, OVM may result in vision deterioration and cosmetic defect. Classification of orbital vascular malformations, especially OVMs, is carried out on the basis of different categories, such as angiogenesis, hemodynamics, and locations. Management of OVM is complicated and challenging. Treatment approaches include sclerotherapy, laser therapy, embolization, surgical resection, and radiotherapy...
August 10, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097959/comparative-analysis-of-membranous-and-other-nephropathy-subtypes-and-establishment-of-a-diagnostic-model
#11
Hanyu Zhu, Bo Fu, Yong Wang, Jing Gao, Qiuxia Han, Wenjia Geng, Xiaoli Yang, Guangyan Cai, Xiangmei Chen, Dong Zhang
This study aimed to compare clinical features between membranous nephropathy (MN) and nonmembranous nephropathy (non-MN), to explore the clinically differential diagnosis of these two types, and to establish a diagnostic model of MN. After renal biopsy was obtained, 798 patients were divided into two groups based on their examination results: primary MN group (n = 248) and non-MN group (n = 550). Their data were statistically analyzed. Logistic regression analysis indicated that anti-PLA2R antibodies, IgG, and Cr were independently correlated with MN, and these three parameters were then used to establish the MN diagnostic model...
August 10, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30066061/cytokines-and-inflammation-in-adipogenesis-an-updated-review
#12
REVIEW
Ning Jiang, Yao Li, Ting Shu, Jing Wang
The biological relevance of cytokines is known for more than 20 years. Evidence suggests that adipogenesis is one of the biological events involved in the regulation of cytokines, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNFα and IL-1β) inhibit adipogenesis through various pathways. This inhibitory effect can constrain the hyperplastic expandability of adipose tissues. Meanwhile, chronic low-grade inflammation is commonly observed in obese populations. In some individuals, the impaired ability of adipose tissues to recruit new adipocytes to adipose depots during overnutrition results in adipocyte hypertrophy, ectopic lipid accumulation, and insulin resistance...
August 1, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062557/mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-immune-disorders-from-basic-science-to-clinical-transition
#13
REVIEW
Shihua Wang, Rongjia Zhu, Hongling Li, Jing Li, Qin Han, Robert Chunhua Zhao
As a promising candidate seed cell type in regenerative medicine, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted considerable attention. The unique capacity of MSCs to exert a regulatory effect on immunity in an autologous/allergenic manner makes them an attractive therapeutic cell type for immune disorders. In this review, we discussed the current knowledge of and advances in MSCs, including its basic biological properties, i.e., multilineage differentiation, secretome, and immunomodulation. Specifically, on the basis of our previous work, we proposed three new concepts of MSCs, i...
July 30, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047029/current-advances-for-bone-regeneration-based-on-tissue-engineering-strategies
#14
REVIEW
Rui Shi, Yuelong Huang, Chi Ma, Chengai Wu, Wei Tian
Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is a rapidly developing strategy for repairing critical-sized bone defects to address the unmet need for bone augmentation and skeletal repair. Effective therapies for bone regeneration primarily require the coordinated combination of innovative scaffolds, seed cells, and biological factors. However, current techniques in bone tissue engineering have not yet reached valid translation into clinical applications because of several limitations, such as weaker osteogenic differentiation, inadequate vascularization of scaffolds, and inefficient growth factor delivery...
July 25, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112717/regulation-of-t-cell-immunity-by-cellular-metabolism
#15
REVIEW
Zhilin Hu, Qiang Zou, Bing Su
T cells are an important adaptive immune response arm that mediates cell-mediated immunity. T cell metabolism plays a central role in T cell activation, proliferation, differentiation, and effector function. Specific metabolic programs are tightly controlled to mediate T cell immune responses, and alterations in T cell metabolism may result in many immunological disorders. In this review, we will summarize the main T cell metabolic pathways and the important factors participating in T cell metabolic programming during T cell homeostasis, differentiation, and function...
August 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097962/complex-interplay-between-tumor-microenvironment-and-cancer-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Minhong Shen, Yibin Kang
Tumor microenvironment (TME) is comprised of cellular and non-cellular components that exist within and around the tumor mass. The TME is highly dynamic and its importance in different stages of cancer progression has been well recognized. A growing body of evidence suggests that TME also plays pivotal roles in cancer treatment responses. TME is significantly remodeled upon cancer therapies, and such change either enhances the responses or induces drug resistance. Given the importance of TME in tumor progression and therapy resistance, strategies that remodel TME to improve therapeutic responses are under developing...
August 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097961/rna-m-6-a-modification-and-its-function-in-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Jiyu Tong, Richard A Flavell, Hua-Bing Li
N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) is the most common post-transcriptional RNA modification throughout the transcriptome, affecting fundamental aspects of RNA metabolism. m6 A modification could be installed by m6 A "writers" composed of core catalytic components (METTL3/METTL14/WTAP) and newly defined regulators and removed by m6 A "erasers" (FTO and ALKBH5). The function of m6 A is executed by m6 A "readers" that bind to m6 A directly (YTH domain-containing proteins, eIF3 and IGF2BPs) or indirectly (HNRNPA2B1)...
August 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062558/activation-of-phagocytosis-by-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#18
REVIEW
Chia-Wei Li, Yun-Ju Lai, Jennifer L Hsu, Mien-Chie Hung
Inhibition of macrophage-mediated phagocytosis has emerged as an essential mechanism for tumor immune evasion. One mechanism inhibiting the innate response is the presence of the macrophage inhibitory molecule, signal regulatory protein-α (SIRPα), on tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and its cognate ligand cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) on tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment. On the basis of a recently discovered programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) in TAMs, we discuss the potential inhibitory receptors that possess new functions beyond T cell exhaustion in this review...
August 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054854/deubiquitinases-as-pivotal-regulators-of-t-cell-functions
#19
REVIEW
Xiao-Dong Yang, Shao-Cong Sun
T cells efficiently respond to foreign antigens to mediate immune responses against infections but are tolerant to self-tissues. Defect in T cell activation is associated with severe immune deficiencies, whereas aberrant T cell activation contributes to the pathogenesis of diverse autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. An emerging mechanism that regulates T cell activation and tolerance is ubiquitination, a reversible process of protein modification that is counter-regulated by ubiquitinating enzymes and deubiquitinases (DUBs)...
August 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054853/the-myc-transcription-factor-network-balancing-metabolism-proliferation-and-oncogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Patrick A Carroll, Brian W Freie, Haritha Mathsyaraja, Robert N Eisenman
Transcription factor networks have evolved in order to control, coordinate, and separate, the functions of distinct network modules spatially and temporally. In this review we focus on the MYC network (also known as the MAX-MLX Network), a highly conserved super-family of related basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper (bHLHZ) proteins that functions to integrate extracellular and intracellular signals and modulate global gene expression. Importantly the MYC network has been shown to be deeply involved in a broad spectrum of human and other animal cancers...
August 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
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