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Frontiers of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097962/complex-interplay-between-tumor-microenvironment-and-cancer-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Minhong Shen, Yibin Kang
Tumor microenvironment (TME) is comprised of cellular and non-cellular components that exist within and around the tumor mass. The TME is highly dynamic and its importance in different stages of cancer progression has been well recognized. A growing body of evidence suggests that TME also plays pivotal roles in cancer treatment responses. TME is significantly remodeled upon cancer therapies, and such change either enhances the responses or induces drug resistance. Given the importance of TME in tumor progression and therapy resistance, strategies that remodel TME to improve therapeutic responses are under developing...
August 10, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097961/rna-m-6-a-modification-and-its-function-in-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Jiyu Tong, Richard A Flavell, Hua-Bing Li
N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) is the most common post-transcriptional RNA modification throughout the transcriptome, affecting fundamental aspects of RNA metabolism. m6 A modification could be installed by m6 A "writers" composed of core catalytic components (METTL3/METTL14/WTAP) and newly defined regulators and removed by m6 A "erasers" (FTO and ALKBH5). The function of m6 A is executed by m6 A "readers" that bind to m6 A directly (YTH domain-containing proteins, eIF3 and IGF2BPs) or indirectly (HNRNPA2B1)...
August 10, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097960/classification-and-treatment-of-orbital-venous-malformations-an-updated-review
#3
REVIEW
Tianyuan Li, Renbing Jia, Xianqun Fan
Orbital venous malformation (OVM) is a congenital vascular disease. As a common type of vascular malformation in the orbit, OVM may result in vision deterioration and cosmetic defect. Classification of orbital vascular malformations, especially OVMs, is carried out on the basis of different categories, such as angiogenesis, hemodynamics, and locations. Management of OVM is complicated and challenging. Treatment approaches include sclerotherapy, laser therapy, embolization, surgical resection, and radiotherapy...
August 10, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097959/comparative-analysis-of-membranous-and-other-nephropathy-subtypes-and-establishment-of-a-diagnostic-model
#4
Hanyu Zhu, Bo Fu, Yong Wang, Jing Gao, Qiuxia Han, Wenjia Geng, Xiaoli Yang, Guangyan Cai, Xiangmei Chen, Dong Zhang
This study aimed to compare clinical features between membranous nephropathy (MN) and nonmembranous nephropathy (non-MN), to explore the clinically differential diagnosis of these two types, and to establish a diagnostic model of MN. After renal biopsy was obtained, 798 patients were divided into two groups based on their examination results: primary MN group (n = 248) and non-MN group (n = 550). Their data were statistically analyzed. Logistic regression analysis indicated that anti-PLA2R antibodies, IgG, and Cr were independently correlated with MN, and these three parameters were then used to establish the MN diagnostic model...
August 10, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30066061/cytokines-and-inflammation-in-adipogenesis-an-updated-review
#5
REVIEW
Ning Jiang, Yao Li, Ting Shu, Jing Wang
The biological relevance of cytokines is known for more than 20 years. Evidence suggests that adipogenesis is one of the biological events involved in the regulation of cytokines, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNFα and IL-1β) inhibit adipogenesis through various pathways. This inhibitory effect can constrain the hyperplastic expandability of adipose tissues. Meanwhile, chronic low-grade inflammation is commonly observed in obese populations. In some individuals, the impaired ability of adipose tissues to recruit new adipocytes to adipose depots during overnutrition results in adipocyte hypertrophy, ectopic lipid accumulation, and insulin resistance...
August 1, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062558/activation-of-phagocytosis-by-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#6
REVIEW
Chia-Wei Li, Yun-Ju Lai, Jennifer L Hsu, Mien-Chie Hung
Inhibition of macrophage-mediated phagocytosis has emerged as an essential mechanism for tumor immune evasion. One mechanism inhibiting the innate response is the presence of the macrophage inhibitory molecule, signal regulatory protein-α (SIRPα), on tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and its cognate ligand cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) on tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment. On the basis of a recently discovered programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) in TAMs, we discuss the potential inhibitory receptors that possess new functions beyond T cell exhaustion in this review...
July 30, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062557/mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-immune-disorders-from-basic-science-to-clinical-transition
#7
REVIEW
Shihua Wang, Rongjia Zhu, Hongling Li, Jing Li, Qin Han, Robert Chunhua Zhao
As a promising candidate seed cell type in regenerative medicine, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted considerable attention. The unique capacity of MSCs to exert a regulatory effect on immunity in an autologous/allergenic manner makes them an attractive therapeutic cell type for immune disorders. In this review, we discussed the current knowledge of and advances in MSCs, including its basic biological properties, i.e., multilineage differentiation, secretome, and immunomodulation. Specifically, on the basis of our previous work, we proposed three new concepts of MSCs, i...
July 30, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054854/deubiquitinases-as-pivotal-regulators-of-t-cell-functions
#8
REVIEW
Xiao-Dong Yang, Shao-Cong Sun
T cells efficiently respond to foreign antigens to mediate immune responses against infections but are tolerant to self-tissues. Defect in Tcell activation is associated with severe immune deficiencies, whereas aberrant T cell activation contributes to the pathogenesis of diverse autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. An emerging mechanism that regulates T cell activation and tolerance is ubiquitination, a reversible process of protein modification that is counter-regulated by ubiquitinating enzymes and deubiquitinases (DUBs)...
July 27, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054853/the-myc-transcription-factor-network-balancing-metabolism-proliferation-and-oncogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Patrick A Carroll, Brian W Freie, Haritha Mathsyaraja, Robert N Eisenman
Transcription factor networks have evolved in order to control, coordinate, and separate, the functions of distinct network modules spatially and temporally. In this review we focus on the MYC network (also known as the MAX-MLX Network), a highly conserved super-family of related basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper (bHLHZ) proteins that functions to integrate extracellular and intracellular signals and modulate global gene expression. Importantly the MYC network has been shown to be deeply involved in a broad spectrum of human and other animal cancers...
July 27, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047029/current-advances-for-bone-regeneration-based-on-tissue-engineering-strategies
#10
REVIEW
Rui Shi, Yuelong Huang, Chi Ma, Chengai Wu, Wei Tian
Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is a rapidly developing strategy for repairing critical-sized bone defects to address the unmet need for bone augmentation and skeletal repair. Effective therapies for bone regeneration primarily require the coordinated combination of innovative scaffolds, seed cells, and biological factors. However, current techniques in bone tissue engineering have not yet reached valid translation into clinical applications because of several limitations, such as weaker osteogenic differentiation, inadequate vascularization of scaffolds, and inefficient growth factor delivery...
July 25, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047028/challenges-of-nk-cell-based-immunotherapy-in-the-new-era
#11
REVIEW
Fang Fang, Weihua Xiao, Zhigang Tian
Natural killer cells (NKs) have a great potential for cancer immunotherapy because they can rapidly and directly kill transformed cells in the absence of antigen presensitization. Various cellular sources, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), stem cells, and NK cell lines, have been used for producing NK cells. In particular, NK cells that expanded from allogeneic PBMCs exhibit better efficacy than those that did not. However, considering the safety, activities, and reliability of the cell products, researchers must develop an optimal protocol for producing NK cells from PBMCs in the manufacture setting and clinical therapeutic regimen...
July 25, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30043222/paradoxical-role-of-id-proteins-in-regulating-tumorigenic-potential-of-lymphoid-cells
#12
REVIEW
Sumedha Roy, Yuan Zhuang
A family of transcription factors known as Id proteins, or inhibitor of DNA binding and differentiation, is capable of regulating cell proliferation, survival and differentiation, and is often upregulated in multiple types of tumors. Due to their ability to promote self-renewal, Id proteins have been considered as oncogenes, and potential therapeutic targets in cancer models. On the contrary, certain Id proteins are reported to act as tumor suppressors in the development of Burkitt's lymphoma in humans, and hepatosplenic and innate-like T cell lymphomas in mice...
July 24, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30043221/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-cancer-complexity-and-opportunities
#13
REVIEW
Yun Zhang, Robert A Weinberg
The cell-biological program termed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in both development and cancer progression. Depending on the contextual signals and intracellular gene circuits of a particular cell, this program can drive fully epithelial cells to enter into a series of phenotypic states arrayed along the epithelial-mesenchymal phenotypic axis. These cell states display distinctive cellular characteristics, including stemness, invasiveness, drug-resistance and the ability to form metastases at distant organs, and thereby contribute to cancer metastasis and relapse...
July 24, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30043220/intracellular-and-extracellular-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-cancer-some-recent-topics
#14
REVIEW
Kohei Miyazono, Yoko Katsuno, Daizo Koinuma, Shogo Ehata, Masato Morikawa
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β regulates a wide variety of cellular responses, including cell growth arrest, apoptosis, cell differentiation, motility, invasion, extracellular matrix production, tissue fibrosis, angiogenesis, and immune function. Although tumor-suppressive roles of TGF-β have been extensively studied and well-characterized in many cancers, especially at early stages, accumulating evidence has revealed the critical roles of TGF-β as a pro-tumorigenic factor in various types of cancer...
July 24, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022460/taking-advantage-of-drug-resistance-a-new-approach-in-the-war-on-cancer
#15
Liqin Wang, Rene Bernards
Identification of the driver mutations in cancer has resulted in the development of a new category of molecularly targeted anti-cancer drugs. However, as was the case with conventional chemotherapies, the effectiveness of these drugs is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant variants. While most cancer therapies are given in combinations that are designed to avoid drug resistance, we discuss here therapeutic approaches that take advantage of the changes in cancer cells that arise upon development of drug resistance...
July 18, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003403/ecrg4-a-new-potential-target-in-precision-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Xin Qin, Ping Zhang
Given the rapid development in precision medicine, tremendous efforts have been devoted to discovering new biomarkers for disease diagnosis and treatment. Esophageal cancer-related gene-4 (ECRG4), which is initially known as a new candidate tumor suppressor gene, is emerging as a sentinel molecule for gauging tissue homeostasis. ECRG4 is unique in its cytokine-like functional pattern and epigenetically-regulated gene expression pattern. The gene can be released from the cell membrane upon activation and detected in liquid biopsy, thus offering considerable potential in precision medicine...
July 12, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974325/hla-and-lung-transplantation
#17
REVIEW
Liya Ju, Caroline Suberbielle, Xiaofan Li, Nuala Mooney, Dominique Charron
Lung transplantation is increasingly practiced for patients with end-stage lung disease. The successful outcome of solid organ transplantation today is severely impeded by the production of alloantibodies, mainly directed against the protein products of the HLA complex of the organ donor. While the association between antibody mediated rejection and allograft damage has been well established in renal and heart transplantation, it has not yet been well characterized in lung transplantation. This review addresses the question of HLA matching in lung transplantation and current knowledge of the allogenicity of different HLA class I and II antigens...
July 5, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29971640/dental-stem-cell-and-dental-tissue-regeneration
#18
REVIEW
Qiming Zhai, Zhiwei Dong, Wei Wang, Bei Li, Yan Jin
The teeth are highly differentiated chewing organs formed by the development of tooth germ tissue located in the jaw and consist of the enamel, dentin, cementum, pulp, and periodontal tissue. Moreover, the teeth have a complicated regulatory mechanism, special histologic origin, diverse structure, and important function in mastication, articulation, and aesthetics. These characteristics, to a certain extent, greatly complicate the research in tooth regeneration. Recently, new ideas for tooth and tissue regeneration have begun to appear with rapid developments in the theories and technologies in tissue engineering...
July 4, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29971639/g-protein-coupled-receptor-lgr6-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-colon-adenocarcinoma
#19
Wenjing Wang, Shigang Ding, Hejun Zhang, Jun Li, Jun Zhan, Hongquan Zhang
LGR6 is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family that plays a tumor-suppressive role in colon cancer. However, the relationship between LGR6 expression in patients and clinicopathological factors remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify whether the expression level of LGR6 is correlated with colon adenocarcinoma progression. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect LGR6 expression in colon adenoma tissues (n = 21), colon adenocarcinoma tissues (n = 156), and adjacent normal tissues (n = 124). The expression levels of LGR6 in colon adenoma and adenocarcinoma were significantly higher than those in normal colon epithelial tissues (P < 0...
July 4, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947015/effect-of-antitubercular-treatment-on-the-pregnancy-outcomes-and-prognoses-of-patients-with-genital-tuberculosis
#20
LETTER
Jing Yue, Bo Zhang, Mingyue Wang, Junning Yao, Yifan Zhou, Ding Ma, Lei Jin
This retrospective study aims to demonstrate the effect of antitubercular treatment (ATT) on the pregnancy outcomes and prognoses of patients with genital tuberculosis (GTB) who had received laparoscopy and/or hysteroscopy. This study included 78 patients with infertility and who were diagnosed with GTB through laparoscopy and/or hysteroscopy over the period of November 2005 to October 2015. The recruited patients were divided into ATT and nonATT groups on the basis of ATT duration. The GTB recurrence rates, menstrual patterns, and pregnancy outcomes of the patients were determined at follow-up...
June 27, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
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