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Frontiers of Medicine

Shuhang Wang, Yongping Song, Feifei Yan, Delong Liu
The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are becoming the first line of therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Acquired mutations in EGFR account for one of the major mechanisms of resistance to the TKIs. Three generations of EGFR TKIs have been used in clinical applications. AZD9291 (osimertinib; Tagrisso) is the first and only FDA approved third-generation EGFR TKI for T790M-positive advanced NSCLC patients. However, resistance to AZD9291 arises after 9-13 months of therapy...
October 21, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Yugang Cheng, Hanxiang Zhan, Lei Wang, Jianwei Xu, Guangyong Zhang, Zongli Zhang, Sanyuan Hu
The incidence rate of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs) has increased rapidly in recent years. However, the clinicopathological characteristics of pNENs are poorly understood. Medical records of patients who underwent surgery and were confirmed as pNENs by pathological examination from January 2003 to February 2015 in Qilu Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 100 patients, 36 males and 64 females, were included with a mean operation age of 46.26 + 13.41 years. Among the 100 cases, 76 had insulinomas and 24 had non-functional pNENs...
October 17, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Qanta A Ahmed, Ziad A Memish
Hajj is among the world's largest mass gatherings, drawing between 2 and 3.5 million Muslims from 183 nations annually to perform pilgrimage in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Infectious disease outbreaks can be imported both into the Hajj population and exported internationally by returning pilgrims. The domestic Saudi population can also be at risk of outbreaks traveling amid this mass migration. With yellow fever reported for the first time in China following the infection of expatriate Chinese workers in Angola and a full blown outbreak underway in wider West Africa, the prospect of yellow fever outbreaks in Asia threatens to impact Saudi Arabia, both during and beyond the Hajj season...
October 17, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Hainv Gao, Hangping Yao, Shigui Yang, Lanjuan Li
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel zoonotic pathogen. In 2012, the infectious outbreak caused by MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia has spread to more than 1600 patients in 26 countries, resulting in over 600 deaths.Without a travel history, few clinical and radiological features can reliably differentiate MERS from SARS. But in real world, comparing with SARS, MERS presents more vaguely defined epidemiology, more severe symptoms, and higher case fatality rate. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in the field of MERS-CoV, especially its molecular virology, interspecies mechanisms, clinical features, antiviral therapies, and the further investigation into this disease...
October 1, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Zhen He, Cheng Hu, Weiping Jia
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and is a considerable threat to public health. miRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, and the dysregulation of miRNAs is involved in various biological processes in the liver, including lipid homeostasis, inflammation, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. Recently, a number of studies have described the association between miRNAs and NAFLD progression and have shown that circulating miRNAs reflect histological changes in the liver...
September 28, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Zeyu Chen, Rong Guo, Jianghong Xu, Chuangjun Qiu
This study evaluated the immunogenicity and protective immunity of a Hemophilus influenzae b (Hib) polysaccharide conjugate vaccine with the pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) protein carrier in young mice. The Hib polysaccharide was conjugated with the rPsaA protein carrier, which was produced using recombinant DNA technology. A total of 15 young mice aged 3 weeks to 5 weeks were immunized with the conjugate vaccine, and another 15 young mice of the same age were immunized with the licensed Hib-tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine...
September 20, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Hui Han, Yanjia Chen, Zhengbin Zhu, Xiuxiu Su, Jingwei Ni, Run Du, Ruiyan Zhang, Wei Jin
Coronary atherosclerosis is a major complication of chronic kidney disease. This condition contributes to the increased mortality in dialysis patients. p-Cresyl sulfate (PCS) is a prototype of protein-bound uremic toxins that cannot be efficiently removed through routine dialysis procedures. In the present study, ApoE(-/-) mice that underwent 5/6 nephrectomy were randomly divided into two groups, namely, vehicle-treated group (n = 20) and PCS-treated group (n = 20). Mice were sacrificed for en face and immunohistological analyses after 8 or 24 weeks of high-fat diet...
September 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Fatemeh Mehravar, Soheil Rafiee, Behnaz Bazrafshan, Mahmoud Khodadost
Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children, and its incidences are often imminent among elementary schoolchildren. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of asthma symptoms in Golestan schoolchildren aged 6-7 and 13-14 years in Northeast Iran. The prevalence rate was compared according to age group (aged 6-7 years vs. aged 13-14 years) and gender (male vs. female). In this cross-sectional study, 1706 Iranian schoolchildren aged 6-7 and 13-14 years in Golestan Province were enrolled. Participants completed questionnaires between February and July 2014...
September 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Gang Zhang, Jun Luo, Guo Chen
This paper discusses two male patients with severe aortic stenosis, whose right coronary arteries (RCA) were completely occluded during transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), leading to fatal hemodynamic disorder. Occlusions of RCA complicated by TAVI are rare. In addition, emergency cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) played a critical role in rescuing our second patient. Both patients were admitted for "severe aortic stenosis," and TAVIs were performed. The first patient's blood pressure immediately dropped to 70/40 mmHg after the balloon expansion and did not increase much after the administration of aramine or fluid therapy...
September 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Muhammad Waqas, Shasha Zhang, Zuhong He, Mingliang Tang, Renjie Chai
Sensory hair cells in the inner ear are responsible for sound recognition. Damage to hair cells in adult mammals causes permanent hearing impairment because these cells cannot regenerate. By contrast, newborn mammals possess limited regenerative capacity because of the active participation of various signaling pathways, including Wnt and Notch signaling. The Wnt and Notch pathways are highly sophisticated and conserved signaling pathways that control multiple cellular events necessary for the formation of sensory hair cells...
September 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Qingqiang Ni, Lin Yun, Rui Xu, Guohua Li, Yucai Yao, Jiamin Li
Classic constrictive pericarditis (CP) is characterized by fibrous scarring and adhesion of both the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium, which leads to restricted cardiac filling. However, diagnosing CP with normal thickness pericardium and without calcification is still a challenge. The predominant cause in the developed world is idiopathic or viral pericarditis followed by post-cardiac surgery and post-radiation. Tuberculosis still remains a common cause of CP in developing countries. In this report, we describe a rare case of idiopathic localized constrictive visceral pericardium with normal thickness of the parietal pericardium in a middle-aged man...
September 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Jiansong Huang, Yulan Zhou, Xiaoyu Su, Yuanjing Lyu, Lanlan Tao, Xiaofeng Shi, Ping Liu, Zhangbiao Long, Zheng Ruan, Bing Xiao, Wenda Xi, Quansheng Zhou, Jianhua Mao, Xiaodong Xi
We evaluated the roles of calpain cleavage-related mutations of the integrin β3 cytoplasmic tail in integrin αIIbβ3 bidirectional signaling using a trans-dominant inhibition model. Chimeric Tac-β3 proteins (i.e., Tac-β3, Tac-β3Δ741, Tac-β3Δ747, Tac-β3Δ754, Tac-β3Δ759, and Tac-β3ΔNITY) consisting of the extracellular and transmembrane domains of human IL-2 receptor (Tac) and the human integrin β3 cytoplasmic domain were stably expressed in the 123 CHO cells harboring human glycoprotein Ib-IX and wild-type integrin αIIbβ3...
September 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Lan Wang, Sen Jiang, Jingyun Shi, Sugang Gong, Qinhua Zhao, Rong Jiang, Ping Yuan, Bigyan Pudasaini, Jing He, Zhicheng Jing, Jinming Liu
Pulmonary hypertension (PH), as a complication of bronchiectasis, is associated with increased mortality. However, hemodynamic characteristics and the efficacy of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) therapies in patients with bronchiectasis and PH remain unknown. Patients with bilateral bronchiectasis and concurrent PH were included in the study. Patient characteristics at baseline and during follow-up, as well as survival, were analyzed. This observational study was conducted in 36 patients with a mean age of 51...
September 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Yujiao Liu, Chao Liu, Wen Dong, Wei Li
The N-end rule pathway is a unique branch of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in which the determination of a protein's half-life is dependent on its N-terminal residue. The N-terminal residue serves as the degradation signal of a protein and thus called N-degron. N-degron can be recognized and modifed by several steps of post-translational modifications, such as oxidation, deamination, arginylation or acetylation, it then polyubiquitinated by the N-recognin for degradation. The molecular basis of the N-end rule pathway has been elucidated and its physiological functions have been revealed in the past 30 years...
September 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Abdelmonem A Hegazy
Umbilicus is considered a mirror of the abdomen in newborns. Despite its importance, the umbilicus has been stated in literature and textbooks as discrete subjects with many body systems, such as the urinary, digestive, and cardiovascular ones. This article aimed to address the basic knowledge of the umbilicus in relation to clinical disorders under one integrated topic to aid physicians and surgeons in assessing newborns and infants. The umbilicus appears as early as the fourth week of fetal life when the folding of the embryonic plate occurs...
September 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Yunfang Liu, Zhiping Yang, Jing Cheng, Daiming Fan
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the unique cultural treasures of Chinese; it represents a significant feature and prominent advantage of the healthcare cause in China. Data in this paper were fromWorld Health Organization, Chinese Bureau of Statistics, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and PubMed. In recent years, TCM has established a solid foundation in Europe, which made great strides in legislation, education, research, and international exchange, and has enjoyed a vast development space in the continent...
September 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Yan Chen, Wenyan Li, Wen Li, Renjie Chai, Huawei Li
The enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (Ezh2) is a histone-lysine Nmethyltransferase enzyme that participates in DNA methylation. Ezh2 has also been reported to play crucial roles in stem cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the detailed expression profile of Ezh2 during mouse cochlear development has not been investigated. Here, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of Ezh2 in the cochlea during embryonic and postnatal development. Ezh2 expression began to be observed in the whole otocyst nuclei at embryonic day 9...
September 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Yanfei Wang, Yueyue Liu, Hongyun Nie, Xin Ma, Zhigang Xu
Alternative splicing plays a fundamental role in the development and physiological function of the inner ear. Inner-ear-specific gene splicing is necessary to establish the identity and maintain the function of the inner ear. For example, exon 68 of Cadherin 23 (Cdh23) gene is subject to inner-ear-specific alternative splicing, and as a result, Cdh23(+ 68) is only expressed in inner ear hair cells. Alternative splicing along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea contributes to frequency tuning, particularly in lower vertebrates, such as chickens and turtles...
September 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Xiaoyu Wang, Yuxuan Gao, Haigang Shi, Na Liu, Wei Zhang, Hongbo Li
Exogenic electric fields can effectively accelerate bone healing and remodeling through the enhanced migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) toward the injured area. This study aimed to determine the following: (1) the direction of rat BMSC (rBMSC) migration upon exposure to a direct current electric field (DCEF), (2) the optimal DCEF intensity and duration, and (3) the possible regulatory role of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in rBMSC migration as induced by DCEF. Results showed that rBMSCs migrated to the positive electrode of the DCEF, and that the DCEF of 200 mV/mm for 4 h was found to be optimal in enhancing rBMSC migration...
September 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Yiming Ma, Ting Xiao, Quan Xu, Xinxin Shao, Hongying Wang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. We aimed to find novel molecules as potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of CRC. A serum-free conditioned medium was successfully collected from three pairs of CRC tissue and adjacent normal tissue. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis was applied to compare the differences in secretome between primary CRC mucosa and adjacent normal mucosa. A total of 145 kinds of proteins were identified. Of these proteins, 29 were significantly different between CRC and normal tissue...
September 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
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