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Frontiers of Medicine

Seo Yeon Baik, Hyunah Kim, So Jung Yang, Tong Min Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jae Hyoung Cho, Hyunyong Lee, Hyeon Woo Yim, Kun-Ho Yoon, Hun-Sung Kim
Few long-term follow-up studies have compared the changes in renal function according to the type of statin used in Korea. We compared the long-term effects of statin intensity and type on the changes in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We extracted data of patients who took statin for the first time. We analyzed whether or not different statins affect the changes in GFR at 3 months after baseline and 4 years after. We included 3678 patients and analyzed the changes in GFR. The GFR decreased by 3.2%±0...
November 27, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Xiaojiao Zheng, Shouli Wang, Wei Jia
Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients. It has long been recognized as a natural strategy for promoting health, extending longevity, and prevents the development of metabolic and age-related diseases. In the present review, we focus on the general effect of CR on gut microbiota composition and global metabolism. We also propose mechanisms for its beneficial effect. Results showed that probiotic and butyrate-producing microbes increased their relative abundance, whereas proinflammatory strains exhibited suppressed relative abundance following CR...
November 16, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Liping Xuan, Zhiyun Zhao, Xu Jia, Yanan Hou, Tiange Wang, Mian Li, Jieli Lu, Yu Xu, Yuhong Chen, Lu Qi, Weiqing Wang, Yufang Bi, Min Xu
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been associated with a high prevalence of depression.We aimed to determine the causal relation by performing a Mendelian randomization (MR) study using 34 T2D risk genetic variants validated in East Asians as the instrumental variable (IV). An MR analysis was performed involving 11 506 participants from a large longitudinal study. The T2D genetic risk score (GRS) was built using the 34 typical T2D common variants. We used T2D_GRS as the IV estimator and performed inverse-variance weighted (IVW) and Egger MR analysis...
November 16, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Jun Song, Yeping Huang, Wenjian Zheng, Jing Yan, Min Cheng, Ruxing Zhao, Li Chen, Cheng Hu, Weiping Jia
Oxidative stress induced by free fatty acid aggravates endothelial injury, which leads to diabetic cardiovascular complications. Reduction of intracellular oxidative stress may attenuate these pathogenic processes. The dietary polyphenol resveratrol reportedly exerts potential protective effects against endothelial injury. This study determined whether resveratrol can reduce the palmitic acid (PA)-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and further explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that resveratrol significantly reduced the PA-induced endothelial ROS levels in human aortic endothelial cells...
November 13, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Xiaoqing Li, Xinxin Li, Genbei Wang, Yan Xu, Yuanyuan Wang, Ruijia Hao, Xiaohui Ma
Xiao Ke Qing (XKQ) granule has been clinically used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for 10 years in Chinese traditional medication. However, its mechanisms against hyperglycemia remain poorly understood. This study aims to investigate XKQ mechanisms on diabetes and diabetic liver disease by using the KKAy mice model. Our results indicate that XKQ can significantly reduce food and water intake. XKQ treatment also remarkably decreases both the fasting blood glucose and blood glucose in the oral glucose tolerance test...
November 13, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Tiange Wang, Min Xu, Yufang Bi, Guang Ning
The incidence of obesity has been rapidly increasing, and this condition has become a major public health threat. A substantial shift in environmental factors and lifestyle, such as unhealthy diet, is among the major driving forces of the global obesity pandemic. Longitudinal studies and randomized intervention trials have shown that genetic susceptibility to obesity may interact with dietary factors in relation to the body mass index and risk of obesity. This review summarized data from recent longitudinal studies and intervention studies on variations and diets and discussed the challenges and future prospects related to this area and public health implications...
November 9, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
So Jung Yang, Hun-Sung Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon
Understanding obesity in children is crucial because it can lead to adulthood obesity and result in fatal chronic diseases. Distinctive factors associated with obesity in adults have been described, but distinctive factors related to children remain unclear. We analyzed the correlation between the percentage of body mass index and lifestyle habits by conducting surveys on physical, nutritional, and psychological factors, and we used annual physical examination data to compare different traits among elementary school students (n = 197) and middle school students (n = 461)...
November 9, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Jiemin Pan, Weiping Jia
Although type 2 diabetes is a disease often associated with aging, the global prevalence of early-onset diabetes has been increasing due to man's sedentary lifestyle, low-physical activity, obesity, and some non-modifiable risk factors. Many studies have found that individuals with early-onset type 2 diabetes were at higher risk of developing vascular complications than those with late-onset diabetes. Individuals with early-onset diabetes are usually unwilling to visit hospital and have more confidence in their health, which results in poor glycemic control and the delayed detection of diabetes-related complications...
November 5, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Bo Lei, Baolin Guo, Kunal J Rambhia, Peter X Ma
Native tissues possess unparalleled physiochemical and biological functions, which can be attributed to their hybrid polymer composition and intrinsic bioactivity. However, there are also various concerns or limitations over the use of natural materials derived from animals or cadavers, including the potential immunogenicity, pathogen transmission, batch to batch consistence and mismatch in properties for various applications. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in developing degradable hybrid polymer biomaterials with controlled properties for highly efficient biomedical applications...
October 30, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Cynthia Rajani, Wei Jia
Diabetes is a widespread, rapidly increasing metabolic disease that is driven by hyperglycemia. Early glycemic control is of primary importance to avoid vascular complications including development of retinal disorders leading to blindness, end-stage renal disease, and accelerated atherosclerosis with a higher risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and limb amputations. Even after hyperglycemia has been brought under control, "metabolic memory," a cluster of irreversible metabolic changes that allow diabetes to progress, may persist depending on the duration of hyperglycemia...
October 10, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Eun Young Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon
The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents (aged 2-18 years) has increased rapidly, with more than 100 million affected in 2015. Moreover, the epidemic of obesity in this population has been an important public health problem in developed and developing countries for the following reasons. Childhood and adolescent obesity tracks adulthood obesity and has been implicated in many chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, childhood and adolescent obesity is linked to adulthood mortality and premature death...
October 2, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Tao Wang, Florent Chuffart, Ekaterina Bourova-Flin, Jin Wang, Jianqing Mi, Sophie Rousseaux, Saadi Khochbin
Malignant cell transformation could be considered as a series of cell reprogramming events driven by oncogenic transcription factors and upstream signalling pathways. Chromatin plasticity and dynamics are critical determinants in the control of cell reprograming. An increase in chromatin dynamics could therefore constitute an essential step in driving oncogenesis and in generating tumour cell heterogeneity, which is indispensable for the selection of aggressive properties, including the ability of cells to disseminate and acquire resistance to treatments...
October 2, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Weina Zhang, Ying Lu, Tao Zhen, Xinjie Chen, Ming Zhang, Ping Liu, Xiangqin Weng, Bing Chen, Yueying Wang
Collaboration of c-KIT mutations with AML1-ETO (AE) has been demonstrated to induce t(8; 21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Targeted therapies designed to eliminate AE and c-KIT oncoproteins may facilitate effective treatment of t(8; 21) AML. Homoharringtonine (HHT) features activity against tumor cells harboring c-KIT mutations, whereas oridonin can induce t(8; 21) AML cell apoptosis and AE cleavage. Therefore, studies should explore the efficacy of combination therapy with oridonin and HHT in t(8; 21) AML...
September 11, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Dahai Zhao, Zhiruo Zhang
Studies examining the trends in public trust in physicians have provided a considerable amount of valuable policy implications for policymakers compared with cross-sectional studies on this topic in many countries. This study investigated changes in public trust in physicians in China based on two cross-sectional national surveys conducted in 2011 and 2016 and identified the determinants of these changes. The results indicated 83.4% of respondents in 2011 reported trust or strong trust in physicians in China, which decreased to 64...
September 7, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Ruiting Han, Junli Ma, Houkai Li
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common metabolic diseases currently in the context of obesity worldwide, which contains a spectrum of chronic liver diseases, including hepatic steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatic carcinoma. In addition to the classical "Two-hit" theory, NAFLD has been recognized as a typical gut microbiota-related disease because of the intricate role of gut microbiota in maintaining human health and disease formation. Moreover, gut microbiota is even regarded as a "metabolic organ" that play complementary roles to that of liver in many aspects...
September 4, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Bin Yu, Xiaosong Gu
The inhibitory environment that surrounds the lesion site and the lack of intrinsic regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) impede the regrowth of injured axons and thereby the reestablishment of neural circuits required for functional recovery after spinal cord injuries (SCI). To circumvent these barriers, biomaterial scaffolds are applied to bridge the lesion gaps for the regrowing axons to follow, and, often by combining stem cell transplantation, to enable the local environment in the growth-supportive direction...
August 30, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Xiaojun Huang, Qian Jiang, Jianda Hu, Jianyong Li, Jie Jin, Fanyi Meng, Zhixiang Shen, Ting Liu, Depei Wu, Jianmin Wang, Jianxiang Wang
Dasatinib is a highly effective second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In 2007, a pivotal phase-2 study of dasatinib as second-line treatment was initiated in 140 Chinese CML patients. This report from the 4-year follow-up revealed that 73% of 59 patients in chronic phase (CML-CP) and 32% of 25 patients in accelerated phase (CML-AP) remained under treatment. The initial dosage of dasatinib for CML-CP and CML-AP patients were 100 mg once daily and 70 mg twice daily (total = 140 mg/ day), respectively...
August 30, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Yuqin Men, Xiujuan Li, Hailong Tu, Aizhen Zhang, Xiaolong Fu, Zhishuo Wang, Yecheng Jin, Congzhe Hou, Tingting Zhang, Sen Zhang, Yichen Zhou, Boqin Li, Jianfeng Li, Xiaoyang Sun, Haibo Wang, Jiangang Gao
Tprn encodes the taperin protein, which is concentrated in the tapered region of hair cell stereocilia in the inner ear. In humans, TPRN mutations cause autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB79) by an unknown mechanism. To determine the role of Tprn in hearing, we generated Tprn-null mice by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 genome-editing technology from a CBA/CaJ background. We observed significant hearing loss and progressive degeneration of stereocilia in the outer hair cells of Tprn-null mice starting from postnatal day 30...
August 30, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Tianyuan Li, Renbing Jia, Xianqun Fan
Orbital venous malformation (OVM) is a congenital vascular disease. As a common type of vascular malformation in the orbit, OVM may result in vision deterioration and cosmetic defect. Classification of orbital vascular malformations, especially OVMs, is carried out on the basis of different categories, such as angiogenesis, hemodynamics, and locations. Management of OVM is complicated and challenging. Treatment approaches include sclerotherapy, laser therapy, embolization, surgical resection, and radiotherapy...
August 10, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Hanyu Zhu, Bo Fu, Yong Wang, Jing Gao, Qiuxia Han, Wenjia Geng, Xiaoli Yang, Guangyan Cai, Xiangmei Chen, Dong Zhang
This study aimed to compare clinical features between membranous nephropathy (MN) and nonmembranous nephropathy (non-MN), to explore the clinically differential diagnosis of these two types, and to establish a diagnostic model of MN. After renal biopsy was obtained, 798 patients were divided into two groups based on their examination results: primary MN group (n = 248) and non-MN group (n = 550). Their data were statistically analyzed. Logistic regression analysis indicated that anti-PLA2R antibodies, IgG, and Cr were independently correlated with MN, and these three parameters were then used to establish the MN diagnostic model...
August 10, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
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