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Food & Function

Mostafa Zahir, Vincenzo Fogliano, Edoardo Capuano
Soybeans represent the largest source of plant proteins on the planet but their proteins are associated with low digestibility. Although several studies addressed the limiting factors affecting the rate and extent of soy protein digestion, the net effect of the food matrix, especially of an intact cell wall, has been poorly investigated so far. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the cell matrix and protein hydrolysis during simulated in vitro digestion of soybean particles of different sizes prepared from unheated and boiled cotyledons...
November 13, 2018: Food & Function
Jing-Jen Lin, Yeuk-Chuen Liu, Chun-Ju Chang, Min-Hsiung Pan, Mong-Fong Lee, Bonnie Sun Pan
Freshwater clams (Corbicula fluminea) have long been used as a folk remedy in Chinese tradition. Their hot-water extract has been commercialized as a functional drink for liver protection. The objective of this study was to develop a product of the residual clam meat (FCR) and assess its functional compounds. The ethanol extract of FCR, designated FCRE, was identified to comprise phytosterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and carotenoids. FCRE significantly reduced lipid accumulation and cell death in HepG2 cells via decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity and increased activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), indicative of suppressed lipogenesis and increased β-oxidation of fatty acids...
November 9, 2018: Food & Function
Juanjuan Zhu, Mingyu Zhou, Xueke Zhao, Mao Mu, Mingliang Cheng
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Blueberry, combined with probiotics (BP), might be a potential candidate for NAFLD treatment, due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Here, we investigated whether the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-22, was involved in the therapeutic process of BP, using cell and rat models of NAFLD. Results indicated that BP significantly reduced lipid droplets and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in NAFLD cells. However, when IL-22 was deficient, the lipid droplets and TG content were significantly increased...
November 9, 2018: Food & Function
Adilah F Ahmad, Lisa Rich, Henrietta Koch, Kevin D Croft, Mario G Ferruzzi, Colin D Kay, Jonathan M Hodgson, Natalie C Ward
BACKGROUND: Tea consumption may improve endothelial function and blood pressure via increased bioavailability and bioactivity of nitric oxide. However, questions remain as to the impact of the common practice of adding milk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of regular consumption of black tea, with and without milk, on vascular function and blood pressure in healthy volunteers. DESIGN: A randomised, controlled, crossover study was performed in 17 healthy volunteers; 7 men and 10 women, mean age 22...
November 9, 2018: Food & Function
Nan Guo, Caina Li, Quan Liu, Shuainan Liu, Yi Huan, Xing Wang, Guoliang Bai, Miaomiao Yang, Sujuan Sun, Caimin Xu, Zhufang Shen
SCOPE: Maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methy-4-pyrone), a potent antioxidative agent, typically is used to enhance flavor and preserve food. This study evaluated its effects on preventing diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and explored its mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: We intraperitoneally injected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with STZ (65 mg kg-1, ip) and treated the rats with different doses of maltol after 4 weeks of injection...
November 9, 2018: Food & Function
Masashi Fukaya, Seikou Nakamura, Mohamed Elamir F Hegazy, Yoshikazu Sugimoto, Noriko Hayashi, Souichi Nakashima, Masayuki Yoshikawa, Thomas Efferth, Hisashi Matsuda
Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a critical problem in cancer chemotherapy. MDR causes the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and mutations in tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. To tackle this issue, in this study, we focused on Nuphar plants, which have been traditionally used as food. Sesquiterpene alkaloids (1-3) were isolated from N. japonicum and dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids (4-10) were isolated from N. pumilum. P-glycoprotein-overexpressing CEM/ADR5000 cells were cross-resistant to 6,6'-dihydroxythiobinupharidine (10)...
November 8, 2018: Food & Function
Jeehye Sung, Chi-Tang Ho, Yu Wang
Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation of adipose tissue, which leads to the development of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. Obesity and a high calorie diet are associated with altered endocrine and metabolic functions of adipose tissue, contributing to systemic inflammation as a result of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/adipokines into the circulation and metabolic endotoxemia. Furthermore, the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages within the visceral adipose tissue may also be a major cause of chronic inflammation of adipocytes...
November 7, 2018: Food & Function
Yu-Yang Pan, Feng Zeng, Wei-Ling Guo, Tian-Tian Li, Rui-Bo Jia, Zi-Rui Huang, Xu-Cong Lv, Jiachao Zhang, Bin Liu
This study aimed to investigate the effects of 95% ethanol extract of G. frondosa (GF95) on lipid metabolism and gut microbiota composition in high-fat diet (HFD) fed rats. UPLC/Q-TOF MS indicated that GF95 was enriched with flavones, fatty acids and so on. Meanwhile, we found that body weight, serum lipid or liver index (total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels were significantly decreased in GF95-treated HFD-fed rats. Furthermore, GF95 treatment regulated mRNA expression levels involved in lipid metabolism...
November 7, 2018: Food & Function
Qing Shi, Xuemei Zhu, Jue Zhou, Lianlian Chen
In the current study, the protective effects of diets with low digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) on plasma glucose, plasma fasting insulin, sweet taste receptors, glucose transporters and absorption of carbohydrates in mice that consume sucralose were evaluated. Sucralose (0.4 g L-1) was administered to mice to induce glucose metabolic disorders. The experimental groups were treated with different LDC contents but with the same energy as the normal-chow group. A pair group fed the highest digestible carbohydrate content was designed to illustrate the effect of digestible carbohydrate content on glucose metabolic disorders...
November 7, 2018: Food & Function
Jennifer E Norman, Hnin H Aung, Dennis W Wilson, John C Rutledge
Our lab previously demonstrated that triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL) lipolysis products induce lipid droplet formation and pro-inflammatory gene expression in monocytes. We hypothesized that the inhibition of perilipin 2 expression in THP-1 monocytes would reduce lipid droplet formation and suppress pro-inflammatory gene expression induced by TGRL lipolysis products. In the current study, we use microarray analysis to identify gene expression altered by TGRL lipolysis products in THP-1 monocytes. We confirmed the expression of selected genes by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and characterized lipid droplet formation in these cells after exposure to TGRL lipolysis products...
November 7, 2018: Food & Function
Ting Luo, Omar Miranda-Garcia, Geoff Sasaki, Jinling Wang, Neil F Shay
The study is designed to determine whether consumption of the soy isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, differentially influence metabolic syndrome, and to further investigate the involvement of Liver X Receptor (LXR) regulation. C57BL/6J mice were fed diets as follows: low fat diet (LF), western-style diet (WD), and WD containing 0.16% (w/w) of genistein (WD + G) or daidzein (WD + D) for 10 weeks. Intake of WD + G and WD + D produced a robust decrease in body weight gain by 40% and 19%, respectively (p < 0...
November 7, 2018: Food & Function
Bo Nan, Yan-Long Liu, Ying You, Wan-Cong Li, Jing-Jing Fan, Yu-Shan Wang, Chun-Hong Piao, Dong-Liang Hu, Gui-Jiao Lu, Yu-Hua Wang
Lactobacillus fermentum KP-3 was isolated from Korean pickle and used to ferment ginseng. The changes in the minor ginsenosides in the fermented ginseng were analyzed and the material was evaluated in high fat diet-fed mice. Total ginsenosides increased from 0.746 mg g-1 to 0.939 mg g-1 after fermentation, and the levels of minor ginsenosides (Rg2, Rg3, Rh1, Rh2, F2, and Ro) increased from 0.186 mg g-1 to 0.704 mg g-1. In an animal study, the serum TC and LDL levels in the HFD group were significantly higher than those of the control group...
November 6, 2018: Food & Function
Xunyu Song, Haitao Wang, Run Zhang, Chenxu Yu, Mingqian Tan
The potential health risks of food-borne nanoparticles are of great concern to public health. In this work, the formation and physicochemical properties of a class of fluorescent nanodots (FNDs) in roasted chicken were investigated. It was found that as the roasting temperature increased from 200 to 300 °C the size of the FNDs decreased significantly, from 17.1 to 2.1 nm. The FNDs, which mainly contain carbon (65%), are strongly fluorescent under ultraviolet light, exhibiting an excitation-dependent emission behavior...
November 5, 2018: Food & Function
Daniel Martínez-Maqueda, Belén Zapatera, Angélica Gallego-Narbón, M Pilar Vaquero, Fulgencio Saura-Calixto, Jara Pérez-Jiménez
Grape polyphenols have shown a promising role in the modulation of metabolic syndrome (MetS), mostly in animal models. However, clinical studies are scarce and they usually only consider a fraction of polyphenols, ignoring the non-extractable polyphenols (high molecular weight compounds or associated with macromolecules such as dietary fibre). This study aimed at evaluating the effect of grape pomace, rich in both extractable and non-extractable polyphenols, on markers of MetS. Fifty subjects (22 women) aged 20-65 with at least two MetS factors were randomly assigned to the product (daily dose of 8 g of dried grape pomace) or to the control group in a 6 week crossover design with a 4 week wash-out...
November 1, 2018: Food & Function
Arpita Basu, Biji T Kurien, Huyen Tran, Bre'Ana Byrd, Joey Maher, Jace Schell, Emily Masek, James R Barrett, Timothy J Lyons, Nancy M Betts, R Hal Scofield
OBJECTIVE: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is increasingly prevalent in obese people, who often have high cardio-metabolic risk factors. Among the few available non-surgical approaches, nutraceuticals have gained popularity, and dietary berries have mitigated arthritis symptoms in observational and animal studies. Clinical studies in OA are sparse, but recently we reported that strawberry supplementation can mitigate pain and reduce inflammatory markers in adults with knee OA. This study extends those observations...
November 1, 2018: Food & Function
Peng Wen, Teng-Gen Hu, Lin Li, Min-Hua Zong, Hong Wu
The antioxidant quercetin (Q) is a bioactive compound that can inhibit colon cancer. However, its poor stability in the upper gastro-intestinal tract and low bioavailability compromised its benefits. In this study, a biopolymer-based colon-specific delivery system for Q was constructed by co-axial electrospinning. Quercetin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (QCNP) were firstly prepared and characterized. Then, a Q-loaded electrospun fiber mat (Q-loaded EFM) containing prebiotics (galactooligosaccharide, GOS) was fabricated using sodium alginate as the shell layer and the abovementioned QCNP and prebiotics as the core layer...
November 1, 2018: Food & Function
Lu Bo, Yanli Liu, Siqi Jia, Yajing Liu, Meiyan Zhang, Siqi Li, Xiujuan Zhao, Changhao Sun
This research aimed at analysing the protective effect of quercetin against the nephrotoxicity of acrylamide (AA) using metabonomics technology. Rats were randomly divided into six groups, including the control group, AA-treated group (5 mg per kg bw per d), two dosages of quercetin-treated groups (10 and 50 mg per kg bw per d) and two dosages of quercetin plus AA-treated groups. Quercetin and AA were administered to rats daily via gavage and drinking water, respectively. After a 16 week treatment, the kidneys were collected for metabonomics analysis...
October 31, 2018: Food & Function
Anne Schink, Katerina Naumoska, Zoran Kitanovski, Christopher Johannes Kampf, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Eckhard Thines, Ulrich Pöschl, Detlef Schuppan, Kurt Lucas
PURPOSE: Inflammatory processes are involved in many diseases. The bark of Cinnamomum verum and its extracts are well known for anti-inflammatory effects, but the underlying active compounds and chemical mechanisms are not yet fully identified. The objective of this study was to elucidate how cinnamon extract, specifically active compounds, and their combinations influence the signaling pathways of inflammation, especially through toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4. METHODS: Bioassay-guided fractionation was performed for standard ethanolic cinnamon extract using high performance liquid chromatography followed by compound identification in the determined active fractions by high-resolution mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
October 31, 2018: Food & Function
Navnidhi Chhikara, Ravinder Kaur, Sundeep Jaglan, Paras Sharma, Yogesh Gat, Anil Panghal
The present review explores the nutritional, phytochemical and pharmacological potential as well as diverse food usages of Syzygium cumini. S. cumini is a traditional medicinal plant with various bioactive compounds distributed in all parts of the plant. The major bioactive compounds present in the edible part are myricetin, oxalic acid, gallic acid, citronellol, cyanidin diglucoside, hotrienol, phytosterols, flavonoids, carotenoids and polyphenols as well as micronutrients, accounting for numerous health benefits...
October 31, 2018: Food & Function
Jacob Ewert, Felix Schlierenkamp, Lena Nesensohn, Lutz Fischer, Timo Stressler
Enzymatic hydrolysis with endopeptidases can be used to modify the colloidal properties of food proteins. In this study, sodium caseinate was hydrolyzed with Sternzym BP 25201, containing a thermolysin-like endopeptidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus as the only peptidase, to a DH of 2.3 ± 1%. The hydrolysate (pre-hydrolysate) obtained was increased in its foam (+35%) and emulsion stability (+200%) compared to untreated sodium caseinate but showed a bitter taste. This hydrolysate was further treated with the exopeptidases PepN, PepX or PepA, acting on the N-terminus of peptides...
October 31, 2018: Food & Function
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