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Food & Function

Chun Chen, Qiang Huang, Xiong Fu, Rui Hai Liu
This study investigated the in vitro fermentation of polysaccharides from Morus alba L., the contribution of its carbohydrates to the fermentation, and the effect on the composition of gut microbiota. Over 48 h of fermentation, the pH value in the fecal culture decreased from 7.12 to 6.14, and the total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and acetic, propionic, and butyric acids all significantly increased. After 48 h of fermentation, 45.36 ± 1.36% of the total carbohydrates in the polysaccharide, including 35...
October 17, 2016: Food & Function
Limin Shi, Qinlu Lin, Tao Yang, Ying Nie, Xinhua Li, Bo Liu, Junjun Shen, Ying Liang, Yiping Tang, Feijun Luo
To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of β-glucans from Lentinus edodes, and its molecular mechanism, the dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) induced colitis model of mice and the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cell inflammation model were used in this study. 40 ICR male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: Control, DSS (DSS treated only), DSS + low-βGs (500 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) and DSS + high-βGs (1000 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). The body weight of the mice with Lentinus edodes β-glucan supplementation increased significantly compared to the DSS group and the disease activity index (DAI) was improved in both βG-treated groups...
October 17, 2016: Food & Function
Ana Santana, Armindo Melo, Tânia Tavares, Isabel M P L V O Ferreira
The increase of hen egg consumption demands profitable applications for eggshells, including their membranes, in order to minimize environmental and public health problems that could result from their accumulation. This work presents an innovative application for eggshell membranes to obtain an added-value food ingredient that combines maximized ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Firstly, the use of acetic acid 5% (v/v); and 3-mercaptopropionic acid 1.25 M enabled 63% recovery of eggshell membrane proteins...
October 17, 2016: Food & Function
Hui Teng, Qun Huang, Lei Chen
Data from the present study showed that agrimonolide exhibited a high anti-proliferation effect against human gastric cancer AGS cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the number of total apoptotic cells increased after the treatment with the agrimonolide in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, it was found that agrimonolide-induced cell apoptosis was associated with the increase in the (Bcl-2 Associated X Protein, BAX)/(B-cell lymphoma-2, Bcl-2) ratio and the activation of cleaved caspase-3. MAPK (p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and ERK1/2) signaling pathways were involved in agrimonolide-induced apoptosis...
October 17, 2016: Food & Function
Guang-Tong Chen, Min Yang, Bing-Bing Chen, Yan Song, Wei Zhang, Yan Zhang
2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside (TSG), an active component from the functional and medicinal herb Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, has the capacity of blocking angiotensin II (ANG II) signaling, a pathway within the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which plays a critical role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN), and blockade of the RAS is currently used for the treatment of DN. Here we investigated the beneficial effect of TSG therapy on renal damage in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model...
October 17, 2016: Food & Function
Tristan E Lipkie, Mario G Ferruzzi, Connie M Weaver
The assessment of the efficacy of dietary and supplemental vitamin D tends to be confounded by differences in the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response between vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. Serum response differences from these vitamers may be due to differences in bioavailability. To address this specifically, the bioaccessibility was assessed for vitamin D2 from breads fortified with UV-treated yeast, and a benchmark against staple vitamin D3 fortified foods including bovine milks and infant formula, as well as crystalline vitamin D2 fortified bread...
October 13, 2016: Food & Function
Wahyu Wijaya, Paul Van der Meeren, Christofora Hanny Wijaya, Ashok R Patel
In recent years, there has been significant progress in edible emulsion technology especially with respect to creating and stabilizing surfactant-free emulsion systems for food applications. In this paper, we demonstrate the fabrication of high internal phase emulsions (HIPE) (φoil = 0.82) stabilized using colloidal complexes of non-gelling biopolymers (at concentrations as low as 0.3 wt%). The colloidal complexes were pre-formed by combining whey protein isolate (WPI) and low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) at three different pH values (i...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Peichao Chen, Dan He, Ya Zhang, Shanshan Yang, Liujun Chen, Shengqin Wang, Huixi Zou, Zhiyong Liao, Xu Zhang, Mingjiang Wu
Aging is a complex issue, which results in a progressive decline process in cellular protection and physiological functions. Illustrating the causes of aging and pharmaceutical interference with the aging process has been a pivotal issue for thousands of years. Sargassum fusiforme (S. fusiforme), a kind of brown alga, is also named the "longevity vegetable" as it is not only a kind of food, but also used as an herb in traditional Chinese Medicine for maintaining health and treatment of thyroid disease, cardiovascular disease and so on...
October 10, 2016: Food & Function
Min-Hsiung Pan, Yen-Chen Tung, Guliang Yang, Shiming Li, Chi-Tang Ho
Obesity is a serious health problem in adults and children worldwide. However, the basic strategies for the management of obesity (diet, exercise, drugs and surgery) have limitations and side effects. Therefore, many researchers have sought to identify bioactive components in food. Tea and coffee are the most frequently consumed beverages in the whole world. Their health benefits have been studied for decades, especially those of green tea. The anti-obesity effect of tea and coffee has been studied for at least ten years...
October 10, 2016: Food & Function
Lie-Qiang Xu, You-Liang Xie, Shu-Hua Gui, Xie Zhang, Zhi-Zhun Mo, Chao-Yue Sun, Cai-Lan Li, Dan-Dan Luo, Zhen-Biao Zhang, Zi-Ren Su, Jian-Hui Xie
Accumulating evidence has shown that chronic injection of d-galactose (d-gal) can mimic natural aging, with accompanying liver and brain injury. Oxidative stress and apoptosis play a vital role in the aging process. In this study, the antioxidant ability of polydatin (PD) was investigated using four established in vitro systems. An in vivo study was also conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of PD on d-gal-induced liver and brain damage. The results showed that PD had remarkable in vitro free radical scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH˙), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)˙) radical ions, and hydroxyl and superoxide anions...
October 7, 2016: Food & Function
Maider Muñoz-Culla, Matías Sáenz-Cuesta, Maier J Guereca-Barandiaran, Marcelo L Ribeiro, David Otaegui
Yerba mate (YM) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in several studies. However, this effect has been found mainly in obesity-related inflammation. The aim of this work was to study the effect of YM on cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells to see whether it has anti-inflammatory properties. We stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in the presence of yerba mate and determined their activation by measuring the expression of CD25 by flow cytometry...
October 7, 2016: Food & Function
Bin-Feng Cheng, Yao-Xin Gao, Jun-Jiang Lian, Dan-Dan Guo, Lei Wang, Mian Wang, Hai-Jie Yang, Zhi-Wei Feng
Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), the main active ingredient in medical and edible dual purpose plant safflower, is reported to have multiple bioactivities. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of HSYA and the underlying mechanisms were investigated in interleukin (IL)-1β-induced SW982 human synovial cells. The cells were pretreated with HSYA at various concentrations (2.5, 10 and 40 μM) followed by IL-1β (10 ng mL(-1)) stimulation. HSYA significantly inhibited the expression of IL-6, IL-8 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 in IL-1β-stimulated SW982 cells...
October 7, 2016: Food & Function
Camilla Giuliani, Massimo Marzorati, Marzia Innocenti, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Marius Vital, Dietmar H Pieper, Tom Van de Wiele, Nadia Mulinacci
Polyphenols and intestinal microbiota can influence each other, modifying metabolism and gut wellness. Data on this mutual effect need to be improved. Several studies on the biological activities of resveratrol and derivatives have been carried out, but the effects of a continuous administration of stilbenes on gut microbiota have not yet been investigated. This study evaluated the effects of an extract from Vitis vinifera, containing a combination of t-resveratrol and ε-viniferin, on intestinal microbiota, using the advanced gastrointestinal simulator M-SHIME®...
October 7, 2016: Food & Function
Andriana C Kaliora, Alexander Kokkinos, Anastacia Diolintzi, Maria Stoupaki, Aristea Gioxari, Panagiotis T Kanellos, George V Z Dedoussis, Jiannis Vlachogiannakos, Constantinos Revenas, Spiros D Ladas, Vaios T Karathanos
Aiming at investigating the potential effect of minimal dietary changes in NAFLD patients with non-significant fibrosis, 55 patients with NAFLD were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients were assigned into two isocaloric dietary treatment groups for 24 weeks: (a) nutritional counseling (Control arm, N = 27), (b) nutritional counseling with currants included (two fruit servings, 36 g per day), substituting snacks of similar caloric content (Currant arm, N = 28). Clinical tests, anthropometrics, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were conducted pre- and post-intervention...
October 6, 2016: Food & Function
Anwesha Sarkar, Aiqian Ye, Harjinder Singh
This review discusses recent understanding of the oral destabilization of food emulsions from a colloidal perspective. The review deals mainly with the microstructural changes in emulsions and emulsion gels during oral processing at a colloidal length scale, with the key emphasis being on the role of electrostatic interactions, enzymatic modifications and surface-induced phenomena. Knowledge of these complex interactions between the emulsion droplets and the oral components, such as salivary proteins, enzymes and oral shear, might be the key to understanding the oral behaviour and sensory perception of food emulsions...
October 5, 2016: Food & Function
Laura Laguna, Grace Farrell, Michael Bryant, Ardian Morina, Anwesha Sarkar
This study aims to investigate the relationship between rheological and tribological properties of commercial full fat and fat-free/low fat versions of liquid and soft solid colloidal systems (milk, yoghurt, soft cream cheese) with their sensory properties. Oscillatory measurements (strain, frequency), flow curves and tribological measurements (lubrication behaviour using Stribeck analysis) were conducted. Oral condition was mimicked using artificial saliva at 37 (○)C. Discrimination test was conducted by 63 untrained consumers, followed by a qualitative questionnaire...
September 22, 2016: Food & Function
Marine Devezeaux de Lavergne, Fred van de Velde, Markus Stieger
This review article focuses on design of food structure, characterisation of oral processing by boli characterisation and dynamic texture perception. Knowledge of the food properties governing bolus formation and bolus properties determining temporal changes in texture perception is of major importance. Such knowledge allows academia to better understand the mechanisms underlying texture perception and food industry to improve product texture. For instance, such knowledge can be used for developing foods with desired texture perception that fit in a healthy diet or that are customized to specific consumer groups...
September 16, 2016: Food & Function
David Julian McClements, Cheryl Chung, Bi-Cheng Wu
This article focuses on hydrogel-based strategies for creating reduced calorie foods with desirable physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional properties. Initially, the role of fat droplets and starch granules in foods is discussed, and then different methods for fabricating hydrogel beads are reviewed, including phase separation, antisolvent precipitation, injection, and emulsion template methods. Finally, the potential application of hydrogel beads as fat droplet and starch granule replacements is discussed...
August 8, 2016: Food & Function
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October 12, 2016: Food & Function
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October 12, 2016: Food & Function
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