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Food & Function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924978/astaxanthin-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease-mechanisms-of-action-therapeutic-merits-and-knowledge-gaps
#1
REVIEW
Francesco Visioli, Christian Artaria
Cardiovascular disease is the main contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Based on its unique chemical features, the xanthophyll carotenoid astaxanthin is being proposed as a suitable preventive and therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on recent advances in astaxanthin research relevant to cardiovascular health and disease, i.e. its direct antioxidant, indirect antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, renoprotective, lipid-lowering and anti-atherosclerotic activities in vitro and in vivo...
December 7, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924972/protective-mechanisms-of-purified-polyphenols-from-pinecones-of-pinus-koraiensis-on-spleen-tissues-in-tumor-bearing-s180-mice-in-vivo
#2
Juanjuan Yi, Cuilin Cheng, Xiaoyu Li, Haitian Zhao, Hang Qu, Zhenyu Wang, Lu Wang
The previous study evaluated the antitumor activity and the underlying mechanism of the purified polyphenols from pinecones of Pinus koraiensis (PPP-40) using a tumor-bearing S180 mice model. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of PPP-40 on spleen tissues of S180 mice in vivo. Pretreatment with PPP-40 (150 mg per kg BW per D) could significantly inhibit tumor growth, enhance spleen index and prevent the decline of haematological parameters of S180 mice induced by the tumor microenvironment...
December 7, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921109/dna-and-bsa-damage-inhibitory-activities-and-anti-acetylcholinesterase-anti-porcine-%C3%AE-amylase-and-antioxidant-properties-of-dolichos-lablab-beans
#3
Hosam M Habib, Serah W Theuri, Ehab Kheadr, Fedah E Mohamed
The underutilized Kenyan variety of Dolichos lablab bean seeds serve as a good source of natural antioxidants, which can probably be effective in reducing the risk of occurrence of several diseases. This study was undertaken for the first time to address the limited knowledge regarding the antioxidant activities of lablab beans. Moreover, their DNA damage inhibitory activity, bovine serum albumin (BSA) damage inhibitory activity, and the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and porcine α-amylase were also investigated...
December 6, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921108/a-novel-antioxidant-peptide-derived-from-wheat-germ-prevents-high-glucose-induced-oxidative-stress-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-vitro
#4
Siyuan Chen, Dingbo Lin, Yulong Gao, Xiaozhou Cao, Xinchun Shen
The ingestion of whole wheat products is responsible for the prevention of a number of chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to characterize the molecular properties of a novel wheat germ-derived antioxidant peptide (AOP) in protection against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). AOP (amino acid sequence AREGETVVPG) was isolated from wheat germ albumin using dual-enzymatic hydrolysis/separation, followed by MS/MS. The in vitro IC50 value for Fe(2+) chelation was 0...
December 6, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921103/solanesol-induces-the-expression-of-heme-oxygenase-1-via-p38-and-akt-and-suppresses-the-production-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-raw264-7-cells
#5
Xiangyang Yao, Binyu Lu, Chaotian Lü, Qin Bai, Dazhong Yan, Yanli Wu, Zibing Hong, Hui Xu
The aim of the present study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effect of solanesol and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in cytoprotection against oxidative stress and inflammation. Solanesol induced HO-1 expression both at the level of mRNA and proteins, resulting in increased HO-1 activity. Solanesol treatment enhanced the level of the phosphorylated form, nuclear translocation, ARE-binding, and transcriptional activity of Nrf2. p38 and Akt contributed to ARE-driven HO-1 expression...
December 6, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918057/functional-bioactive-biochemical-and-physicochemical-properties-of-the-dolichos-lablab-bean
#6
Hosam M Habib, Serah W Theuri, Ehab E Kheadr, Fedah E Mohamed
The underutilized Kenyan variety of Dolichos lablab bean seeds serves as a good source of nutrients. This study was undertaken for the first time to address the limited knowledge regarding the bioactive, biochemical, physicochemical, and functional properties of Dolichos lablab beans. Proximate analysis, mineral, total and free amino acid profiles, total protein, total dietary and profile of fiber, carotenoids and fat soluble vitamins, total phenolics, and total flavonoids were evaluated. The results clearly show that Dolichos lablab beans contain many health-promoting components, such as fiber, proteins, minerals, and numerous phytochemicals endowed with useful biological activities, that allow it to contribute in a relevant way to the daily intake of these nutrients...
December 5, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918043/thermoresponsive-structured-emulsions-based-on-the-fibrillar-self-assembly-of-natural-saponin-glycyrrhizic-acid
#7
Zhili Wan, Yingen Sun, Lulu Ma, Jian Guo, Jinmei Wang, Shouwei Yin, Xiaoquan Yang
We report the novel use of the naturally occurring saponin, glycyrrhizic acid (GA) as a structuring material to transform liquid oil into a soft-solid structured emulsion system. The GA nanofibrils from the anisotropic self-assembly of GA molecules were first used as stabilizers to fabricate olive oil-in-water emulsions using a facile one-step emulsification at high temperature. Then, the obtained emulsions were further self-organized into the emulsion gel by applying a subsequent cooling to trigger the gel network formation, which is mostly due to the enhanced noncovalent interactions among GA fibrils in the continuous phase as well as at the droplet surface...
December 5, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892582/lubrication-of-chocolate-during-oral-processing
#8
S A Rodrigues, N Selway, M P Morgenstern, L Motoi, J R Stokes, B J James
The structure of chocolate is drastically transformed during oral processing from a composite solid to an oil/water fluid emulsion. Using two commercial dark chocolates varying in cocoa solids content, this study develops a method to identify the factors that govern lubrication in molten chocolate and saliva's contribution to lubrication following oral processing. In addition to chocolate and its individual components, simulated boluses (molten chocolate and phosphate buffered saline), in vitro boluses (molten chocolate and whole human saliva) and ex vivo boluses (chocolate expectorated after chewing till the point of swallow) were tested...
November 28, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891544/an-in-vitro-digestion-method-adapted-for-carotenoids-and-carotenoid-esters-moving-forward-towards-standardization
#9
Daniele Bobrowski Rodrigues, Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti, Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante
In vitro digestion methods are a useful approach to predict the bioaccessibility of food components and overcome some limitations or disadvantages associated with in vivo methodologies. Recently, the INFOGEST network published a static method of in vitro digestion with a proposal for assay standardization. The INFOGEST method is not specific for any food component; therefore, we aimed to adapt this method to assess the in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids and carotenoid esters in a model fruit (Byrsonima crassifolia)...
November 28, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885367/olive-oil-and-postprandial-hyperlipidemia-implications-for-atherosclerosis-and-metabolic-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz, Beatriz Bermudez, Magdalena P Cardelo, Sergio Lopez, Rocio Abia, Francisco J G Muriana
Olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which is associated with a significant improvement in health status, as measured by reduced mortality from several chronic diseases. The current pandemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes is intimately associated with an atherogenic dyslipidemic phenotype. The core components of the dyslipidemia of the metabolic syndrome, which most likely initiate atherosclerosis, are the "lipid triad" consisting of high plasma triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoproteins, and a preponderance of small, dense low-density lipoproteins at fasting...
November 25, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883159/melatonin-and-hydroxytyrosol-rich-wines-influence-the-generation-of-dna-oxidation-catabolites-linked-to-mutagenesis-after-the-ingestion-of-three-types-of-wine-by-healthy-volunteers
#11
Javier Marhuenda, Sonia Medina, Pedro Martínez-Hernández, Simón Arina, Pilar Zafrilla, Juana Mulero, Hans-Gottfried Genieser, Federico Ferreres, Ángel Gil-Izquierdo
The Mediterranean Diet (MD) has been proved to exert benefits with respect to the maintenance of the redox balance, and wine is a representative component. Bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, melatonin and hydroxytyrosol act as radical scavengers and regulate the oxidation status of organisms. Oxidative damage to DNA yields a large range of end products. The repair of oxidized DNA entails the removal of the useless bases and/or nucleotides as well as the release of circulating nucleotides and nucleosides...
November 24, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883158/fast-or-slow-foods-describing-natural-variations-in-oral-processing-characteristics-across-a-wide-range-of-asian-foods
#12
C G Forde, C Leong, E Chia-Ming, K McCrickerd
The structural properties of foods have a functional role to play in oral processing behaviours and sensory perception, and also impact on meal size and the experience of fullness. This study adopted a new approach by using behavioural coding analysis of eating behaviours to explore how a range of food textures manifest as the microstructural properties of eating and expectations of fullness. A selection of 47 Asian foods were served in fixed quantities to a panel of participants (N = 12) and their eating behaviours were captured via web-camera recordings...
November 24, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882371/anti-hyperlipidemia-and-antioxidant-activities-of-amygdalus-pedunculata-seed-oil
#13
Ya Gao, Cong Li, Bang Chen, Ye-Hua Shen, Jing Han, Ming-Gao Zhao
This study attempts to evaluate the beneficial effects of Amygdalus pedunculata seed oil (AO) on the lipid profile and antioxidant status of high-fat fed rats and d-galactose (d-gal)-induced oxidative mice. The anti-hyperlipidemia effects of AO were evaluated. AO supplementation (2%, 4%, and 8%) for three weeks significantly decreased the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and increased the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in the high fat diet rats unlike in the model group...
November 24, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882370/anti-obesity-effects-of-arctii-fructus-arctium-lappa-in-white-brown-adipocytes-and-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#14
Yo-Han Han, Ji-Ye Kee, Dae-Seung Kim, Jinbong Park, Mi-Young Jeong, Jung-Geon Mun, Sung-Joo Park, Jong-Hyun Lee, Jae-Young Um, Seung-Heon Hong
Arctii Fructus is traditionally used in oriental pharmacies as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Although several studies have shown its anti-inflammatory effects, there have been no reports on its use in obesity related studies. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of Arctii Fructus was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and the effect was confirmed in white and primary cultured brown adipocytes. Arctii Fructus inhibited weight gain and reduced the mass of white adipose tissue in HFD-induced obese mice...
November 24, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878202/presence-of-orally-administered-rice-bran-oil-%C3%AE-oryzanol-in-its-intact-form-in-mouse-plasma
#15
Eri Kobayashi, Junya Ito, Shunji Kato, Kazue Sawada, Midori Matsuki, Hiroyuki Hashimoto, Teruo Miyazawa, Kiyotaka Nakagawa
Although the beneficial effects (e.g., lipid-lowering activity) of γ-oryzanol (OZ), a mixture of ferulic acid esters of plant sterols and triterpene alcohols, have been extensively investigated, few studies have evaluated the absorption and metabolism of OZ. Moreover, it is unclear whether OZ, once ingested, is directly absorbed by the intestine into the bloodstream at a sufficient level to exhibit activity. Here, we prepared OZ concentrate from purified rice bran oil (Rice Oil OZ), determined the concentration of OZ in the preparation (cycloartenyl ferulate equivalent concentration; 52...
November 23, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872932/phytochemical-profiles-of-marine-phytoplanktons-an-evaluation-of-their-in-vitro-antioxidant-and-anti-proliferative-activities
#16
Jim Jun-Hui Huang, Wen-Wen Xu, Shao-Ling Lin, Peter Chi-Keung Cheung
Marine microorganisms such as phytoplanktons are a rich resource of bioactive components with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities that can act as novel functional food ingredients. In this study, the pigment profiles, total mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and total phenolic contents (TPCs) in solvent extracts including 90% acetone and methanol from five marine phytoplanktons including Nitzschia closterium (Bacillariophyta), Isochrysis zhangjiangensis (Haptophyta), Platymonas subcordiformis (Chlorophyta), Porphyridium cruentum (Rhodophyta) and Synechocystis pevalekii (Cyanobacteria) were analyzed...
November 22, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872930/the-inhibition-effect-of-starch-nanoparticles-on-tyrosinase-activity-and-its-mechanism
#17
Jie Yang, Ranran Chang, Shengju Ge, Mei Zhao, Caifeng Liang, Liu Xiong, Qingjie Sun
The objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) prepared from waxy maize, potato, normal corn, and tapioca starches on the activity of tyrosinase. As a main polyphenol oxidase, tyrosinase not only induces fruit and vegetable browning but also causes skin diseases by overproducing melanin. Herein, for the first time, we evaluated the inhibitory kinetics of SNPs on tyrosinase. It turned out that SNPs inhibited tyrosinase activity reversibly. The IC50 values of hollow nanoparticles, amylopectin nanoparticles, corn starch nanoparticles, and tapioca starch nanoparticles were 0...
November 22, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869910/the-methanol-ethyl-acetate-partitioned-fraction-from-chinese-olive-fruits-inhibits-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-tumor-growth-by-promoting-apoptosis-through-the-suppression-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#18
Shu-Chen Hsieh, Wang-Ju Hsieh, An-Na Chiang, Nan-Wei Su, Yu-Te Yeh, Yi-Chun Liao
Chinese olives (Canarium album L.) have historically been used for medicinal purposes rather than commercially for oil. In this report, we reveal that the methanol-ethyl acetate partitioned fraction from Chinese olive fruits (MEO), of which ellagic acid accounted for 12%, exhibited profound anti-proliferative activities in the human colon cancer cell line, HCT116. Additionally, oral administration of MEO remarkably inhibited the tumor growth of subcutaneously implanted CT26 cells, a mouse colon carcinoma cell line, in BALB/c mice...
November 21, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868125/coumestrol-modulates-akt-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-during-the-attenuation-of-adipogenesis
#19
Young Jin Jang, Hyo Jeong Son, Jiyun Ahn, Chang Hwa Jung, Taeyoul Ha
Coumestrol is a natural phytochemical present in plants such as red clover and soy, and has been reported to stimulate the estrogen receptor as a major phytoestrogen. While the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-adipogenic effects of phytoestrogens such as genistein and daidzein have been previously investigated, the effects of coumestrol on adipogenesis remain to be elucidated. We observed that coumestrol dose-dependently attenuates MDI (mixture of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin)-induced lipid accumulation, consistent with an earlier study, while significantly inhibiting MDI-induced adipogenesis in the first 48 hours of differentiation, a critical time window for anti-adipogenic effects...
November 21, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858027/%C3%AE-galactosides-present-in-lupin-flour-affect-several-metabolic-parameters-in-wistar-rats
#20
María I Palacio, Adriana R Weisstaub, Ángela Zuleta, Analía I Etcheverría, Guillermo D Manrique
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of α-galactosides present in a lupin diet on metabolic parameters in growing Wistar rats. Lupin (Lupinus albus) is a rich source of non-digestible carbohydrates called α-galactosides whose beneficial health effects have been widely reported. For our investigation, twenty male Wistar rats were fed with two different diets: control (C) and lupin flour (L) for a 60-day period. The fermentation of these α-galactosides was monitored by measuring the following indicators: changes in the dynamic lactobacilli and enterobacteriaceae population, cecal content pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), Ca and P absorption, and serum lipid (triglycerides and cholesterol) contents...
November 18, 2016: Food & Function
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