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Frontiers in Physiology

Antonio Layoun, Macha Samba-Mondonga, Gabriela Fragoso, Annie Calvé, Manuela M Santos
Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated to provide virtually all cells in the body, particularly red blood cells, with this essential element while defending against its toxicity. The peptide hormone hepcidin is central to the control of the amount of iron absorbed from the diet and iron recycling from macrophages. Previously, we have shown that hepcidin induction in macrophages following Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation depends on the presence of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). In this study, we analyzed the regulation of iron metabolism in MyD88 -/- mice to further investigate MyD88 involvement in iron sensing and hepcidin induction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Qi Wang, Qian Wang, Yan-Le Zhou, Shuang Shan, Huan-Huan Cui, Yong Xiao, Kun Dong, Adel Khashaveh, Liang Sun, Yong-Jun Zhang
The phytophagous mirid bugs of Apolygus lucorum, Lygus pratensis as well as three Adelphocoris spp., including Adelphocoris lineolatus, A. suturalis , and A. fasciaticollis are major pests of multiple agricultural crops in China, which have distinct geographical distribution and occurrence ranges. Like many insect species, these bugs heavily rely on olfactory cues to search preferred host plants, thereby investigation on functional co-evolution and divergence of olfactory genes seems to be necessary and is of great interest...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Morten Kristoffersen, Øyvind Sandbakk, Espen Tønnessen, Ida Svendsen, Gøran Paulsen, Elisabeth Ersvær, Irene Nygård, Kari Rostad, Anita Ryningen, Vegard V Iversen, Knut Skovereng, Bent R Rønnestad, Hilde Gundersen
Purpose: Although strength and sprint training are widely used methods in competitive cycling, no previous studies have compared the acute responses and recovery rates following such sessions among highly trained cyclists. The primary aim of the current study was to compare power production and biochemical markers of metabolic stress and muscle damage following a session of heavy strength (HS) and short-sprint training (SS). Methods: Eleven well-trained male cyclists (18 ± 2 years with maximal oxygen uptake of 67...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ying Huang, Keke Han, Qian Ren
Toll receptors are involved in innate immunity of invertebrates. In this study, we identify and characterize two Toll genes (named HcToll4 and HcToll5 ) from triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii. HcToll4 has complete cDNA sequence of 3,162 bp and encodes a protein of 909 amino acids. HcToll5 cDNA is 4,501 bp in length and encodes a protein of 924 amino acids. Both deduced HcToll4 and HcToll5 protein contain signal peptide, extracellular leucine rich repeats (LRRs), and intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor domains...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Olaf Prieske, Tom Krüger, Markus Aehle, Erik Bauer, Urs Granacher
Power training programs have proved to be effective in improving components of physical fitness such as speed. According to the concept of training specificity, it was postulated that exercises must attempt to closely mimic the demands of the respective activity. When transferring this idea to speed development, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of resisted sprint (RST) vs. traditional power training (TPT) on physical fitness in healthy young adults. Thirty-five healthy, physically active adults were randomly assigned to a RST ( n = 10, 23 ± 3 years), a TPT ( n = 9, 23 ± 3 years), or a passive control group ( n = 16, 23 ± 2 years)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Srikanth Ravichandran, Alessandro Michelucci, Antonio Del Sol
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major neurodegenerative disease and is one of the most common cause of dementia in older adults. Among several factors, neuroinflammation is known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, studies of brains affected by AD show a clear involvement of several inflammatory pathways. Furthermore, depending on the brain regions affected by the disease, the nature and the effect of inflammation can vary. Here, in order to shed more light on distinct and common features of inflammation in different brain regions affected by AD, we employed a computational approach to analyze gene expression data of six site-specific neuronal populations from AD patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Soroush Safaei, Pablo J Blanco, Lucas O Müller, Leif R Hellevik, Peter J Hunter
We propose a detailed CellML model of the human cerebral circulation that runs faster than real time on a desktop computer and is designed for use in clinical settings when the speed of response is important. A lumped parameter mathematical model, which is based on a one-dimensional formulation of the flow of an incompressible fluid in distensible vessels, is constructed using a bond graph formulation to ensure mass conservation and energy conservation. The model includes arterial vessels with geometric and anatomical data based on the ADAN circulation model...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Peter Düking, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Billy Sperlich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Sheikh Mohammad Shavik, Zhenxiang Jiang, Seungik Baek, Lik Chuan Lee
While it has long been recognized that bi-directional interaction between the heart and the vasculature plays a critical role in the proper functioning of the cardiovascular system, a comprehensive study of this interaction has largely been hampered by a lack of modeling framework capable of simultaneously accommodating high-resolution models of the heart and vasculature. Here, we address this issue and present a computational modeling framework that couples finite element (FE) models of the left ventricle (LV) and aorta to elucidate ventricular-arterial coupling in the systemic circulation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Guillermo de Anda-Jáuregui, Kai Guo, Brett A McGregor, Junguk Hur
The quintessential biological response to disease is inflammation. It is a driver and an important element in a wide range of pathological states. Pharmacological management of inflammation is therefore central in the clinical setting. Anti-inflammatory drugs modulate specific molecules involved in the inflammatory response; these drugs are traditionally classified as steroidal and non-steroidal drugs. However, the effects of these drugs are rarely limited to their canonical targets, affecting other molecules and altering biological functions with system-wide effects that can lead to the emergence of secondary therapeutic applications or adverse drug reactions (ADRs)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Aleksandra Mazur, Anthony Guernec, Jacky Lautridou, Julie Dupas, Emmanuel Dugrenot, Marc Belhomme, Michael Theron, François Guerrero
Introduction: Commercial divers, high altitude pilots, and astronauts are exposed to some inherent risk of decompression sickness (DCS), though the mechanisms that trigger are still unclear. It has been previously showed that diving may induce increased levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme. The renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is one of the most important regulators of blood pressure and fluid volume. The purpose of the present study was to control the influence of angiotensin II on the appearance of DCS...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Cristian V Francavilla, Francesco Sessa, Monica Salerno, Giuseppe D Albano, Ines Villano, Giovanni Messina, Fabio Triolo, Lorenzo Todaro, Maria Ruberto, Gabriella Marsala, Orazio Cascio, Maria P Mollica, Vincenzo Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli, Anna Valenzano, Christian Zammit, Marcellino Monda, Antonietta Messina
Background: After long-term intensive training, considerable morphological and functional heart changes occur in professional athletes. Such changes arise progressively and regress upon interruption of the physical activity. Morphological and functional alterations on heart are known as "Athlete's heart" condition. Objective: This study aims to compare echocardiographic parameters in two different groups of professional athletes. Furthermore, a prospective study is performed analyzing the echocardiographic changes occurring in 12 professional players in 3 years of follow-up...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Christopher McCrum, Pamela Leow, Gaspar Epro, Matthias König, Kenneth Meijer, Kiros Karamanidis
Tendons transfer forces produced by muscle to the skeletal system and can therefore have a large influence on movement effectiveness and safety. Tendons are mechanosensitive, meaning that they adapt their material, morphological and hence their mechanical properties in response to mechanical loading. Therefore, unloading due to immobilization or inactivity could lead to changes in tendon mechanical properties. Additionally, ageing may influence tendon biomechanical properties directly, as a result of biological changes in the tendon, and indirectly, due to reduced muscle strength and physical activity...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yan-Dong Jiang, Xin Yuan, Wen-Wu Zhou, Yue-Liang Bai, Gui-Yao Wang, Zeng-Rong Zhu
Most living organisms have developed internal circadian clocks to anticipate the daily environmental changes. The circadian clocks are composed of several transcriptional-translational feedback loops, in which cryptochromes (CRYs) serve as critical elements. In insects, some CRYs act as photopigments to control circadian photoentrainment, while the others act as transcriptional regulators. We cloned and characterized two cryptochrome genes, the Drosophila -like ( lscry1 ) and vertebrate-like ( lscry2 ) genes, in a rice pest Laodelphax striatellus ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Min Yang, Li Su, Qin Tao, Chenxi Zhang, Yueyue Wu, Jun Liu
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (HT) is a common organ-specific autoimmune disorder associated with a high incidence, and insulin resistance is highly related to autoimmune. Here, we examined the insulin sensitivity in HT patients and found decreased insulin sensitivity occurred in HT patients. To explore the relationship between impaired insulin sensitivity and immune status, we established HT model mice which showed similar pathological features and immune features to HT patients. In HT model mice, reinfusion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) from peripheral blood of normal mice could improve insulin sensitivity and decrease the inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ryan L Sheppard, Joshua M Swift, Aaron Hall, Richard T Mahon
Introduction: Individuals with a known susceptibility to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) demonstrate a reduced ventilation response and increased pulmonary vasoconstriction when exposed to hypoxia. It is unknown whether reduced sensitivity to hypercapnia is correlated with increased incidence and/or severity of HAPE, and while acute exercise at altitude is known to exacerbate symptoms the effect of exercise training on HAPE susceptibility is unclear. Purpose: To determine if chronic intermittent hypercapnia and exercise increases the incidence of HAPE in rats...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Laurent Schwartz, Olivier Lafitte, Jorgelindo da Veiga Moreira
Background: Diseases and health conditions have been classified according to anatomical site, etiological, and clinical criteria. Physico-chemical mechanisms underlying the biology of diseases, such as the flow of energy through cells and tissues, have been often overlooked in classification systems. Objective: We propose a conceptual framework toward the development of an energy-oriented classification of diseases, based on the principles of physical chemistry. Methods: A review of literature on the physical chemistry of biological interactions in a number of diseases is traced from the point of view of the fluid and solid mechanics, electricity, and chemistry...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ifigeneia Kalampouka, Angel van Bekhoven, Bradley T Elliott
Ageing is associated with a general reduction of physiological function and a reduction of muscle mass and strength. Endocrine factors such as myostatin, activin A, growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF-11) and their inhibitory peptides influence muscle mass in health and disease. We hypothesised that myocytes cultured in plasma from older and younger individuals would show an ageing effect, with reduced proliferation and differentiation in older environments. C2C12 myoblasts were grown as standard and stimulated with media conditioned with 5% plasma from healthy male participants that were either younger ( n = 6, 18-35 years of age) or older ( n = 6, >57 years of age)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Alireza Esmaeili, Andrew M Stewart, William G Hopkins, George P Elias, Brendan H Lazarus, Amber E Rowell, Robert J Aughey
Aim: The sit and reach test (S&R), dorsiflexion lunge test (DLT), and adductor squeeze test (AST) are commonly used in weekly musculoskeletal screening for athlete monitoring and injury prevention purposes. The aim of this study was to determine the normal week to week variability of the test scores, individual differences in variability, and the effects of training load on the scores. Methods: Forty-four elite Australian rules footballers from one club completed the weekly screening tests on day 2 or 3 post-main training (pre-season) or post-match (in-season) over a 10 month season...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Juan M Murias, Silvia Pogliaghi, Donald H Paterson
The accuracy of an exhaustive ramp incremental (RI) test to determine maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max ) was recently questioned and the utilization of a verification phase proposed as a gold standard. This study compared the oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2 ) during a RI test to that obtained during a verification phase aimed to confirm attainment of [Formula: see text]O2max . Sixty-one healthy males [31 older (O) 65 ± 5 yrs; 30 younger (Y) 25 ± 4 yrs] performed a RI test (15-20 W/min for O and 25 W/min for Y)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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