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Frontiers in Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773996/editorial-hypoxia-in-kidney-disease
#1
EDITORIAL
Fredrik Palm, Maarten P Koeners
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773995/hypoxia-reoxygenation-of-rat-renal-arteries-impairs-vasorelaxation-via-modulation-of-endothelium-independent-sgc-cgmp-pkg-signaling
#2
Diana Braun, Christa Zollbrecht, Stefanie Dietze, Rudolf Schubert, Stefan Golz, Holger Summer, Pontus B Persson, Mattias Carlström, Marion Ludwig, Andreas Patzak
Ischemia/reperfusion injury holds a key position in many pathological conditions such as acute kidney injury and in the transition to chronic stages of renal damage. We hypothesized that besides a reported disproportional activation of vasoconstrictor response, hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) adversely affects endothelial dilatory systems and impairs relaxation in renal arteries. Rat renal interlobar arteries were studied under isometric conditions. Hypoxia was induced by application of 95% N2 , 5% CO2 for 60 min to the bath solution, followed by a 10 min period of reoxygenation (95% O2 , 5% CO2 )...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773994/biological-roles-of-aberrantly-expressed-glycosphingolipids-and-related-enzymes-in-human-cancer-development-and-progression
#3
REVIEW
Dinghao Zhuo, Xiang Li, Feng Guan
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs), which consist of a hydrophobic ceramide backbone and a hydrophilic carbohydrate residue, are an important type of glycolipid expressed in surface membranes of all animal cells. GSLs play essential roles in maintenance of plasma membrane stability, in regulation of numerous cellular processes (including adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, and recognition), and in modulation of signal transduction pathways. GSLs have traditionally been classified as ganglio-series, lacto-series, or globo-series on the basis of their diverse types of oligosaccharide chains...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773993/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-impact-of-biological-sex-on-disease-development-and-molecular-signatures
#4
REVIEW
Ryan Toedebusch, Anthony Belenchia, Lakshmi Pulakat
Diabetic cardiomyopathy refers to a unique set of heart-specific pathological variables induced by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Given that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world, and type 2 diabetes incidence continues to rise, understanding the complex interplay between these two morbidities and developing novel therapeutic strategies is vital. Two hallmark characteristics specific to diabetic cardiomyopathy are diastolic dysfunction and cardiac structural mal-adaptations, arising from cardiac cellular responses to the complex toxicity induced by hyperglycemia with or without hyperinsulinemia...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773992/functional-analysis-of-rna-interference-related-soybean-pod-borer-lepidoptera-genes-based-on-transcriptome-sequences
#5
Fanli Meng, Mingyu Yang, Yang Li, Tianyu Li, Xinxin Liu, Guoyue Wang, Zhanchun Wang, Xianhao Jin, Wenbin Li
RNA interference (RNAi) is useful for controlling pests of agriculturally important crops. The soybean pod borer (SPB) is the most important soybean pest in Northeastern Asia. In an earlier study, we confirmed that the SPB could be controlled via transgenic plant-mediated RNAi. Here, the SPB transcriptome was sequenced to identify RNAi-related genes, and also to establish an RNAi-of-RNAi assay system for evaluating genes involved in the SPB systemic RNAi response. The core RNAi genes, as well as genes potentially involved in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) uptake were identified based on SPB transcriptome sequences...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765337/plethysmographic-loops-a-window-on-the-lung-pathophysiology-of-copd-patients
#6
Dejan Radovanovic, Matteo Pecchiari, Fabio Pirracchio, Camilla Zilianti, Edgardo D'Angelo, Pierachille Santus
Plethysmographic alveolar pressure-flow ( P alv - F ) loops contain potentially relevant information about the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but no quantitative analysis of these loops during spontaneous breathing has ever been performed. The area of the loop's inspiratory ( A ins ) and expiratory portion ( A exp ), and the difference between the end-expiratory and end-inspiratory alveolar pressure (Δ P alv ) were measured in 20 young, 20 elderly healthy subjects, and 130 stable COPD patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765336/the-red-blood-cells-on-the-move
#7
EDITORIAL
Anna Bogdanova, Lars Kaestner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765335/heart-rate-variability-during-a-joint-attention-task-in-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#8
Lucia Billeci, Alessandro Tonacci, Antonio Narzisi, Zaira Manigrasso, Maurizio Varanini, Francesca Fulceri, Caterina Lattarulo, Sara Calderoni, Filippo Muratori
Background: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders featuring early impairments in social domain, with autonomic nervous system (ANS) unbalance possibly representing a useful marker for such disturbances. Impairments in joint attention (JA) are one of the earliest markers of social deficits in ASD. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using wearable technologies for characterizing the ANS response in ASD toddlers during the presentation of JA stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765334/high-frequency-electrical-modulation-of-the-superior-ovarian-nerve-as-a-treatment-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-the-rat
#9
Victor Pikov, Arun Sridhar, Hernan E Lara
The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent ovarian pathology in women, with excessive sympathetic activity in the superior ovarian nerve (SON) playing an important role in inducing the PCOS symptoms in the rats and humans. Our previous studies have shown that surgical transection of the SON can reverse the disease progression, prompting us to explore the effect of the kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) modulation as a method of reversible non-surgical suppression of the nerve activity in the rodent model of PCOS...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765333/beneficial-effects-of-elderly-tailored-mediterranean-diet-on-the-proteasomal-proteolysis
#10
Sophia Athanasopoulou, Niki Chondrogianni, Aurelia Santoro, Konstantina Asimaki, Vasiliki Delitsikou, Konstantinos Voutetakis, Cristina Fabbri, Barbara Pietruszka, Joanna Kaluza, Claudio Franceschi, Efstathios S Gonos
Aging is a multifactorial process characterized by the accumulation of proteins undergoing oxidative modifications, either due to enhanced levels of oxidative stress or due to their decreased clearance; both facts are related to the establishment of chronic inflammatory processes. These processes are directly associated with functional and structural modifications of a key cellular component, namely the proteasome. In this study, levels of oxidized proteins, along with proteasome and immunoproteasome composition and activity on a selected group of 120 elderly volunteers were analyzed before and after the administration of a specific dietary protocol, based on an elderly tailored Mediterranean diet (the "NU-AGE diet")...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765332/galectin-9-expression-predicts-favorable-clinical-outcome-in-solid-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Xiaoxiang Zhou, Lejia Sun, Dan Jing, Gang Xu, Jinmei Zhang, Li Lin, Jingjing Zhao, Zhuoran Yao, Hongfeng Lin
Background and Objective: Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is one of the galectin family members which are known as proteins with β-galactoside-binding affinity. Accumulative evidence suggest that Gal-9 plays multifaceted roles in tumor biology. However, the prognostic significance of Gal-9 in solid cancer patients remains controversial. The objective of the study was to clarify the prognostic significance of Gal-9 in solid tumors via meta-analysis. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library for studies that report the correlation between Gal-9 expression and prognosis or clinicopathological parameters in solid cancer patients from inception to October 2017, with no language restriction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765331/high-ph-sensitive-store-operated-ca-2-entry-mediated-by-ca-2-release-activated-ca-2-channels-in-rat-odontoblasts
#12
Maki Kimura, Koichi Nishi, Asuka Higashikawa, Sadao Ohyama, Kaoru Sakurai, Masakazu Tazaki, Yoshiyuki Shibukawa
Odontoblasts play a crucial role in dentin formation and sensory transduction following the application of stimuli to the dentin surface. Various exogenous and endogenous stimuli elicit an increase in the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) in odontoblasts, which is mediated by Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores and/or Ca2+ influx from the extracellular medium. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the depletion of Ca2+ stores in odontoblasts activated store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), a Ca2+ influx pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765330/glial-cells-are-involved-in-ang-ii-induced-vasopressin-release-and-sodium-intake-in-awake-rats
#13
Atalia F L Flôr, José L de Brito Alves, Maria S França-Silva, Camille M Balarini, Lucila L K Elias, Silvia G Ruginsk, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Valdir A Braga, Josiane C Cruz
It is known that circulating angiotensin II (ANG-II) acts on the circumventricular organs (CVOs), which partially lack a normal blood-brain barrier, to stimulate pressor responses, vasopressin (AVP), and oxytocin (OT) secretion, as well as sodium and water intake. Although ANG-II type 1 receptors (AT1R ) are expressed in neurons and astrocytes, the involvement of CVOs glial cells in the neuroendocrine, cardiovascular and behavioral responses induced by central ANG II remains to be further elucidated. To address this question, we performed a set of experiments combining in vitro studies in primary hypothalamic astrocyte cells (HACc) and in vivo intracerebroventricular (icv) microinjections into the lateral ventricle of awake rats...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765329/the-role-of-macrophages-in-acute-and-chronic-wound-healing-and-interventions-to-promote-pro-wound-healing-phenotypes
#14
REVIEW
Paulina Krzyszczyk, Rene Schloss, Andre Palmer, François Berthiaume
Macrophages play key roles in all phases of adult wound healing, which are inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. As wounds heal, the local macrophage population transitions from predominantly pro-inflammatory (M1-like phenotypes) to anti-inflammatory (M2-like phenotypes). Non-healing chronic wounds, such as pressure, arterial, venous, and diabetic ulcers indefinitely remain in inflammation-the first stage of wound healing. Thus, local macrophages retain pro-inflammatory characteristics. This review discusses the physiology of monocytes and macrophages in acute wound healing and the different phenotypes described in the literature for both in vitro and in vivo models...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765328/long-term-consumption-of-cuban-policosanol-lowers-central-and-brachial-blood-pressure-and-improves-lipid-profile-with-enhancement-of-lipoprotein-properties-in-healthy-korean-participants
#15
Suk-Jeong Kim, Dhananjay Yadav, Hye-Jeong Park, Jae-Ryong Kim, Kyung-Hyun Cho
Metabolic syndrome is closely associated with higher risk of hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes and stroke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of policosanol supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and the lipid profile in healthy Korean participants with pre-hypertension (systolic 120-139 mmHg, diastolic 85-89 mmHg). This randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial included 84 healthy participants who were randomly assigned to three groups receiving 10 mg of policosanol, 20 mg of policosanol, or placebo for 24 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765327/cardiovascular-adaptive-homeostasis-in-exercise
#16
Kelvin J A Davies
Adaptive Homeostasis has been defined as, "The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events." (Davies, 2016). I propose that one of the most significant examples of adaptive homeostasis may be the adaptation of the cardiovascular system to exercise training. In particular, endurance type training involves the generation of increased levels of free radicals such as ubisemiquinone, superoxide, nitric oxide, and other (non-radical) reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), in a repetitive manner, typically several times per week...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760665/left-ventricular-trabeculations-decrease-the-wall-shear-stress-and-increase-the-intra-ventricular-pressure-drop-in-cfd-simulations
#17
Federica Sacco, Bruno Paun, Oriol Lehmkuhl, Tinen L Iles, Paul A Iaizzo, Guillaume Houzeaux, Mariano Vázquez, Constantine Butakoff, Jazmin Aguado-Sierra
The aim of the present study is to characterize the hemodynamics of left ventricular (LV) geometries to examine the impact of trabeculae and papillary muscles (PMs) on blood flow using high performance computing (HPC). Five pairs of detailed and smoothed LV endocardium models were reconstructed from high-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI) of ex-vivo human hearts. The detailed model of one LV pair is characterized only by the PMs and few big trabeculae, to represent state of art level of endocardial detail...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760664/reduced-renal-mass-salt-sensitive-hypertension-is-resistant-to-renal-denervation
#18
Ionut Tudorancea, Thomas E Lohmeier, Barbara T Alexander, Dragos Pieptu, Dragomir N Serban, Radu Iliescu
Aim: Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is common in resistant hypertension (RHT) and also in chronic kidney disease (CKD), a prevalent condition among resistant hypertensives. However, renal nerve ablation lowers blood pressure (BP) only in some patients with RHT. The influence of loss of nephrons per se on the antihypertensive response to renal denervation (RDNx) is unclear and was the focus of this study. Methods: Systemic hemodynamics and sympathetically mediated low frequency oscillations of systolic BP were determined continuously from telemetrically acquired BP recordings in rats before and after surgical excision of ∼80% of renal mass and subsequent RDNx...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760663/suppression-of-urinary-voiding-by-conditional-high-frequency-stimulation-of-the-pelvic-nerve-in-conscious-rats
#19
Charly B J Brouillard, Jonathan J Crook, Pedro P Irazoqui, Thelma A Lovick
Female Wistar rats were instrumented to record bladder pressure and to stimulate the left pelvic nerve. Repeated voids were induced by continuous infusion of saline into the bladder (11.2 ml/h) via a T-piece in the line to the bladder catheter. In each animal tested ( n = 6) high frequency pelvic nerve stimulation (1-3 kHz, 1-2 mA sinusoidal waveform for 60 s) applied within 2 s of the onset of a sharp rise in bladder pressure signaling an imminent void was able to inhibit micturition. Voiding was modulated in three ways: (1) Suppression of voiding (four rats, n = 13 trials)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755372/use-of-laser-assisted-optical-rotational-cell-analyzer-lorrca-maxsis-in-the-diagnosis-of-rbc-membrane-disorders-enzyme-defects-and-congenital-dyserythropoietic-anemias-a-monocentric-study-on-202-patients
#20
Anna Zaninoni, Elisa Fermo, Cristina Vercellati, Dario Consonni, Anna P Marcello, Alberto Zanella, Agostino Cortelezzi, Wilma Barcellini, Paola Bianchi
Chronic hemolytic anemias are a group of heterogeneous diseases mainly due to abnormalities of red cell (RBC) membrane and metabolism. The more common RBC membrane disorders, classified on the basis of blood smear morphology, are hereditary spherocytosis (HS), elliptocytosis, and hereditary stomatocytoses (HSt). Among RBC enzymopathies, the most frequent is pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency, followed by glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, pyrimidine 5' nucleotidase P5'N, and other rare enzymes defects. Because of the rarity and heterogeneity of these diseases, diagnosis may be often challenging despite the availability of a variety of laboratory tests...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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