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Frontiers in Physiology

Zhenhu Liang, Jiani Li, Xiaoyu Xia, Yong Wang, Xiaoli Li, Jianghong He, Yang Bai
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to improve the consciousness levels of patients with disorder of consciousness (DOC). However, the underlying mechanisms of SCS remain poorly understood. This study recorded resting-state electroencephalograms (EEG) from 16 patients with minimally conscious state (MCS), before and after SCS, and investigated the mechanisms of SCS on the neuronal dynamics in MCS patients. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), combined with surrogate data method, was employed to measure the long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) of the EEG signals...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Alessandro Santuz, Antonis Ekizos, Lars Janshen, Falk Mersmann, Sebastian Bohm, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Adamantios Arampatzis
The human body is an outstandingly complex machine including around 1000 muscles and joints acting synergistically. Yet, the coordination of the enormous amount of degrees of freedom needed for movement is mastered by our one brain and spinal cord. The idea that some synergistic neural components of movement exist was already suggested at the beginning of the 20th century. Since then, it has been widely accepted that the central nervous system might simplify the production of movement by avoiding the control of each muscle individually...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Guilherme Lemos Shimojo, Danielle da Silva Dias, Christiane Malfitano, Iris Callado Sanches, Susana Llesuy, Luis Ulloa, Maria-Cláudia Irigoyen, Kátia De Angelis
The prevalence of hypertension sharply increases in menopausal women. Recent studies have demonstrated that aerobic or resistance training may help control hypertension. In this study, we report that combining aerobic and resistance training may provide an effective therapeutic approach for hypertension control, attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress in ovariectomized rats. Female Wistar and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) were distributed into four groups: sedentary control (C), sedentary hypertensive (HR), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (HR-O), and combined trained hypertensive ovariectomized (T-HR-O)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Raffaele Coppini, Cecilia Ferrantini, Alessandro Mugelli, Corrado Poggesi, Elisabetta Cerbai
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common mendelian heart disease, with a prevalence of 1/500. HCM is a primary cause of sudden death, due to an heightened risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias that often occur in young asymptomatic patients. HCM can slowly progress toward heart failure, either with preserved or reduced ejection fraction, due to worsening of diastolic function. Accumulation of intra-myocardial fibrosis and replacement scars underlies heart failure progression and represents a substrate for sustained arrhythmias in end-stage patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Simone Rossi, Stephen Gaeta, Boyce E Griffith, Craig S Henriquez
Electroanatomical mapping is currently used to provide clinicians with information about the electrophysiological state of the heart and to guide interventions like ablation. These maps can be used to identify ectopic triggers of an arrhythmia such as atrial fibrillation (AF) or changes in the conduction velocity (CV) that have been associated with poor cell to cell coupling or fibrosis. Unfortunately, many factors are known to affect CV, including membrane excitability, pacing rate, wavefront curvature, and bath loading, making interpretation challenging...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Pierre Gilfriche, Véronique Deschodt-Arsac, Estelle Blons, Laurent M Arsac
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00293.].
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Zeki Ilkan, Fadi G Akar
The mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) is a key outer mitochondrial membrane protein that regulates the activity of energy-dissipating mitochondrial channels in response to oxidative stress. In this article, we provide an overview of the role of TSPO in the systematic amplification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through an autocatalytic process known as ROS-induced ROS-release (RIRR). We describe how this TSPO-driven process destabilizes the mitochondrial membrane potential leading to electrical instability at the cellular and whole heart levels...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hamdi Chtourou, Florian Azad Engel, Hassen Fakhfakh, Hazem Fakhfakh, Omar Hammouda, Achraf Ammar, Khaled Trabelsi, Nizar Souissi, Billy Sperlich
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of time of day on short-term repetitive maximal performance and psychological variables in elite judo athletes. Methods: Fourteen Tunisian elite male judokas (age: 21 ± 1 years, height:172 ± 7 cm, body-mass: 70.0 ± 8.1 kg) performed a repeated shuttle sprint and jump ability (RSSJA) test (6 m × 2 m × 12.5 m every 25-s incorporating one countermovement jump (CMJ) between sprints) in the morning (7:00 a.m.) and afternoon (5:00 p.m.). Psychological variables (Profile of mood states (POMS-f) and Hooper questionnaires) were assessed before and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) immediately after the RSSJA...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Shu Xiao, Nai-Kei Wong, Jun Li, Yue Lin, Yuehuan Zhang, Haitao Ma, Riguan Mo, Yang Zhang, Ziniu Yu
Crassostrea hongkongensis , a commercially valuable aquaculture species dwelling in estuaries along the coast of the South China Sea, is remarkable for its eurysalinity traits that enable its successful colonization of diverse osmotic niches ranging from near freshwater to seawater. In order to elucidate how this oyster copes with coastal waters with immense salinity differences, we performed in situ transcriptomic analysis (RNA-seq) to characterize the global expression patterns of oysters distributed across naturally formed salinity gradients in Zhenhai Bay along the northern coast of the South China Sea...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Maria Consiglia Trotta, Rosa Maisto, Nicola Alessio, Anca Hermenean, Michele D'Amico, Clara Di Filippo
The study explored the anti-hypertrophic effect of the melanocortin MC5R stimulation in H9c2 cardiac myocytes exposed to high glucose. This has been done by using α-MSH and selective MC5R agonists and assessing the expression of GLUT4 and GLUT1 transporters, miR-133 and urotensin receptor levels as a marker of cardiac hypertrophy. The study shows for the first time an up-regulation of MC5R expression levels in H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose medium (33 mM D-glucose) for 48 h, compared to cells grown in normal glucose medium (5...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Thiago R Lopes, Jeann L Sabino-Carvalho, Thiago H N Ferreira, José E Succi, Antônio C Silva, Bruno M Silva
Repeated sprint exercise (RSE) acutely impairs post-exercise heart rate (HR) recovery (HRR) and time-domain heart rate variability (i. e., RMSSD), likely in part, due to lactic acidosis-induced reduction of cardiac vagal reactivation. In contrast, ischemic preconditioning (IPC) mediates cardiac vagal activation and augments energy metabolism efficiency during prolonged ischemia followed by reperfusion. Therefore, we investigated whether IPC could improve recovery of cardiac autonomic control from RSE partially via improved energy metabolism responses to RSE...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jinping Wang, Ran Yang, Feilong Zhang, Caixia Jia, Peipei Wang, Junjie Liu, Kuo Gao, Hua Xie, Juan Wang, Huihui Zhao, Jianxin Chen, Wei Wang
Background: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has a good effect of alleviating symptoms and improving quality of life and exercise tolerance in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), but it wasn't sufficiently valued and promoted because of the lack of evidence-based medical evidence. Aim: To systematically review the effect of CHM on quality of life and exercise tolerance in patients with HFpEF. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search for Chinese and English studies in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, Wanfang Data, and China Science and Technology Journal Database...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Alissa Piekarski-Welsher, Elizabeth Greene, Kentu Lassiter, Byungwhi Caleb Kong, Sami Dridi, Walter Bottje
Background: Feed efficiency (FE) is an important genetic trait in poultry and livestock. Autophagy (self-eating) and proteosomes are cellular processes that remove damaged cell components (e.g., proteins, organelles). As evidence of extensive protein oxidation was observed in Pedigree Male (PedM) broilers exhibiting a low FE (LFE) phenotype compared to a high FE (HFE) phenotype, the main goal of this study was to assess gene and protein expression of the autophagy and proteosome pathways in breast muscle obtained in PedM broilers exhibiting HFE and LFE phenotypes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Marco Mascitti, Giovanna Orsini, Vincenzo Tosco, Riccardo Monterubbianesi, Andrea Balercia, Angelo Putignano, Maurizio Procaccini, Andrea Santarelli
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common head and neck malignancy, and despite advances in cancer therapies, the overall 5-year survival rate has remained below 50% over the past decades. OSCC is typically preceded by potentially malignant disorders (PMD), but distinguishing high-risk from low-risk PMD is challenging. In the last years, several diagnostic methods as light-based detection systems (LBDS) have been proposed to facilitate the detection of OSCC and PMD. Furthermore, the recent evolution of nanotechnology may provide new opportunities to detect PMD and OSCC at an early stage...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Georges Jabbour, Lina Majed
The present study aims (1) to evaluate ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and corresponding intensities during a maximal graded cycling test and (2) to determine the effects of 6 weeks of supramaximal cycling exercise (SCE) intervention on RPE and associated physiological factors in young and older sedentary groups. Two healthy groups of 17 young adults [average (SD) age: 26.2 (2.4) year] and 13 older adults [average (SD) age: 54.5 (2.3) year] completed a 6-week SCE intervention on an ergocycle. Physiological values and RPE were collected across stages corresponding to ventilator thresholds 1 (VT1) and 2 (VT2) of the graded cycling test and 10 min following the end of test and during the six bouts of SCE...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Stefano Colella, Nicolas Parisot, Pierre Simonet, Karen Gaget, Gabrielle Duport, Patrice Baa-Puyoulet, Yvan Rahbé, Hubert Charles, Gérard Febvay, Patrick Callaerts, Federica Calevro
Nutritional symbioses play a central role in the ability of insects to thrive on unbalanced diets and in ensuring their evolutionary success. A genomic model for nutritional symbiosis comprises the hemipteran Acyrthosiphon pisum , and the gamma-3-proteobacterium, Buchnera aphidicola , with genomes encoding highly integrated metabolic pathways. A. pisum feeds exclusively on plant phloem sap, a nutritionally unbalanced diet highly variable in composition, thus raising the question of how this symbiotic system responds to nutritional stress...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Soulmaz Shorakae, Elisabeth A Lambert, Eveline Jona, Carolina Ika Sari, Barbora de Courten, John B Dixon, Gavin W Lambert, Helena J Teede
Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is increased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Moxonidine is a centrally acting sympatholytic drug with known beneficial effects on hypertension, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia and inflammation. In this double-blind placebo controlled randomized clinical trial we examined the effect of moxonidine on modulating sympathetic activity and downstream metabolic abnormalities in 48 pre-menopausal women with PCOS (Rotterdam diagnostic criteria), recruited from the community (January 2013-August 2015)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Anshul K Kulkarni, Ke'ale W Louie, Marilia Yatabe, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas, Yoshiyuki Mochida, Lucia H S Cevidanes, Yuji Mishina, Honghao Zhang
Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is an autosomal recessive chondrodysplastic disorder. Affected patients present a wide spectrum of symptoms including short stature, postaxial polydactyly, and dental abnormalities. We previously disrupted Evc2 , one of the causative genes for EvC syndrome, in mice using a neural crest-specific, Cre -mediated approach (i.e., P0- Cre , referred to as Evc2 P0 mutants). Despite the fact that P0-Cre predominantly targets the mid-facial region, we reported that many mid-facial defects identified in Evc2 global mutants are not present in Evc2 P0 mutants at postnatal day 8 (P8)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Marina Scardigli, Cecilia Ferrantini, Claudia Crocini, Francesco S Pavone, Leonardo Sacconi
Asynchronous Ca2+ release promotes non-homogeneous myofilament activation, leading to mechanical dysfunction, as well as initiation of propagated calcium waves and arrhythmias. Recent advances in microscopy techniques have allowed for optical recordings of local Ca2+ fluxes and action potentials from multiple sub-cellular domains within cardiac cells with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. Since then, sub-cellular local information of the spatio-temporal relationship between Ca2+ release and action potential propagation have been unlocked, providing novel mechanistic insights in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling (ECC)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Emily Farrell, Annie E Armstrong, Adrian C Grimes, Francisco J Naya, Willem J de Lange, J Carter Ralphe
Rationale: With a prevalence of 1 in 200 individuals, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is thought to be the most common genetic cardiac disease, with potential outcomes that include severe hypertrophy, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Though much research has furthered our understanding of how HCM-causing mutations in genes such as cardiac myosin-binding protein C ( MYBPC3 ) impair contractile function, it remains unclear how such dysfunction leads to hypertrophy and/or arrhythmias, which comprise the HCM phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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