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Frontiers in Physiology

Liang Sun, Qian Wang, Qi Wang, Yuxing Zhang, Meijun Tang, Huawei Guo, Jianyu Fu, Qiang Xiao, Yanan Zhang, Yongjun Zhang
Carboxylesterases (CXEs) belong to a family of metabolic enzymes. Some CXEs act as odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs), which are reportedly highly expressed in insect olfactory organs and participate in the rapid deactivation of ester pheromone components and plant volatiles. The tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua Prout produces sex pheromones consisting of non-ester functional compounds but relies heavily on acetic ester plant volatiles to search for host plants and locate oviposition sites. However, studies characterizing putative candidate ODEs in this important tea plant pest are still relatively scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Li-Na Wang, Fen Wang, Jie Liu, Ying-Hui Jin, Cheng Fang, Xue-Qun Ren
Objective: Previous studies have reported that Ile462Val polymorphism in the gene Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is associated with the risk of cervical cancer, but inconsistent results have emerged. Hence, we performed this updated and cumulative meta-analysis to ascertain a more accurate association between CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism and risk of cervical cancer. Methods: Studies involving the CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism associated with cervical cancer risk were searched from the databases of PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Craig Pickering, John Kiely
Over the last couple of decades, research has focused on attempting to understand the genetic influence on sports performance. This has led to the identification of a number of candidate genes which may help differentiate between elite and non-elite athletes. One of the most promising genes in that regard is ACTN3, which has commonly been referred to as "a gene for speed". Recent research has examined the influence of this gene on other performance phenotypes, including exercise adaptation, exercise recovery, and sporting injury risk...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Caio G R S Wierzchon, Gisele Padilha, Nazareth N Rocha, Robert Huhle, Mariana S Coelho, Cintia L Santos, Raquel S Santos, Cynthia S Samary, Fernanda R G Silvino, Paolo Pelosi, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Patricia R M Rocco, Pedro L Silva
In experimental elastase-induced emphysema, mechanical ventilation with variable tidal volumes (VT) set to 30% coefficient of variation (CV) may result in more homogenous ventilation distribution, but might also impair right heart function. We hypothesized that a different CV setting could improve both lung and cardiovascular function. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different levels of VT variability on cardiorespiratory function, lung histology, and gene expression of biomarkers associated with inflammation, fibrogenesis, epithelial cell damage, and mechanical cell stress in this emphysema model...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Clare Stawski, Paweł Koteja, Edyta T Sadowska
According to the "aerobic capacity model," endothermy in birds and mammals evolved as a result of natural selection favoring increased persistent locomotor activity, fuelled by aerobic metabolism. However, this also increased energy expenditure even during rest, with the lowest metabolic rates occurring in the thermoneutral zone (TNZ) and increasing at ambient temperatures (Ta) below and above this range, depicted by the thermoregulatory curve. In our experimental evolution system, four lines of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) have been selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism and four unselected lines have been maintained as a control...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Guro S Solli, Espen Tønnessen, Øyvind Sandbakk
The main aim of this study was to investigate the training characteristics of the most successful female cross-country skier ever during the best period of her career. The participant won six gold medals at the Olympic Games, 18 gold medals at the World Championship, and 110 World Cup victories. Day-to-day training diary data, interviews, and physiological tests were analyzed. Training data was systemized by training form (endurance, strength, and speed), intensity [low- (LIT), moderate- (MIT), and high-intensity training (HIT)], and mode (running, cycling, and skiing/roller skiing), followed by a division into different periodization phases...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Virginia Pinna, Sara Magnani, Gianmarco Sainas, Giovanna Ghiani, Samuele Vanni, Sergio Olla, Elisabetta Marini, Nicoletta Curreli, Stefano Cabras, Paulo Farinatti, Giorgia Antoni, Filippo Tocco, Andrea C Rinaldi, Antonio Crisafulli
Caves are an extreme environment for humans because of the high humidity, mud, darkness, and slippery conditions. Explorations can last many hours or even days, and require extensive climbing and ropework. Very little is known about the physical capacity of cavers and their energy expenditure (EE) during caving. The physical capacity of 17 (7 females) expert cavers (age 43.9 ± 7.3 years) was assessed during an incremental cycle-ergometer test (IET) with gas exchange analysis. Moreover, a wearable metabolic band (Armband Fit Core) was used to estimate their EE during caving...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Hossam Abdelhamed, Mark L Lawrence, Attila Karsi
Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes enteric septicemia in catfish (ESC). Stress factors including poor water quality, poor diet, rough handling, overcrowding, and water temperature fluctuations increase fish susceptibility to ESC. The TonB energy transducing system (TonB-ExbB-ExbD) and TonB-dependent transporters of Gram-negative bacteria support active transport of scarce resources including iron, an essential micronutrient for bacterial virulence. Deletion of the tonB gene attenuates virulence in several pathogenic bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Mireia Rovira, Gerard Arrey, Josep V Planas
Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue that undergoes cellular and metabolic adaptations under conditions of increased contractile activity such as exercise. Using adult zebrafish as an exercise model, we previously demonstrated that swimming training stimulates hypertrophy and vascularization of fast muscle fibers, consistent with the known muscle growth-promoting effects of exercise and with the resulting increased aerobic capacity of this tissue. Here we investigated the potential involvement of factors and signaling mechanisms that could be responsible for exercise-induced fast muscle remodeling in adult zebrafish...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Guang Qian, Yongbo Bao, Chenghua Li, Qingqing Xie, Meng Lu, Zhihua Lin
The blood clam Tegillarca granosa, a eukaryotic bottom-dwelling bivalve species has a strong ability to tolerate and accumulate cadmium. In our previous study, Nfu1 (iron-sulfur cluster scaffold protein), which is involved in Fe-S cluster biogenesis, was shown to be significantly up-regulated under Cd stress, as determined by proteomic analysis. To investigate the function of Nfu1 in cadmium (Cd) detoxification, the function of blood clam Nfu1 (designated as Tg-Nfu1) was investigated by integrated molecular and protein approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Nunzio Vicario, Agata Zappalà, Giovanna Calabrese, Rosario Gulino, Carmela Parenti, Massimo Gulisano, Rosalba Parenti
Cell-to-cell interaction and cell-to-extracellular environment communication are emerging as new therapeutic targets in neurodegenerative disorders. Dynamic expression of connexins leads to distinctive hemichannels and gap junctions, characterized by cell-specific conduction, exchange of stimuli or metabolites, and particular channel functions. Herein, we briefly reviewed classical physiological traits and functions of connexins, hemichannels, and gap junctions, in order to discuss the controversial role of these proteins and their mediated interactions during neuroprotection, with a particular focus on Cx43-based channels...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Bianca S Henriques, Bruno Gomes, Samara G da Costa, Caroline da Silva Moraes, Rafael D Mesquita, Viv M Dillon, Eloi de Souza Garcia, Patricia Azambuja, Roderick J Dillon, Fernando A Genta
Triatominae is a subfamily of the order Hemiptera whose species are able to feed in the vertebrate blood (i.e., hematophagy). This feeding behavior presents a great physiological challenge to insects, especially in Hemipteran species with a digestion performed by lysosomal-like cathepsins instead of the more common trypsin-like enzymes. With the aim of having a deeper understanding of protease involvement in the evolutionary adaptation for hematophagy in Hemipterans, we screened peptidases in the Rhodnius prolixus genome and characterized them using common blast (NCBI) and conserved domain analyses (HMMER/blast manager software, FAT, plus PFAM database)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Xiangyang Miao, Qingmiao Luo, Huijing Zhao, Xiaoyu Qin
In our previous study, we investigated the regulatory relationship between lncRNAs, miRNA, and mRNAs in an effort to shed light onto the regulatory mechanisms involved in sheep fecundity. As an extension of this study, here, we aimed to identify potential regulators of sheep fecundity using a genome-wide analysis of miRNAs and the methylated genes encoding mRNAs and lncRNAs in the ovaries of Dorset sheep (low fecundity) and Small Tail Han ewes (high fecundity) with the genotype BB (Han BB) and the genotype ++ (Han ++) by performing RNA-Seq and MeDIP-Seq analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Mustafa Nazıroğlu, Nady Braidy
Abnormal Ca2+ channel physiology, expression levels, and hypersensitivity to heat have been implicated in several pain states following treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. As members of the Ca2+ permeable transient receptor potential (TRP), five of the channels (TRPV1-4 and TRPM2) are activated by different heat temperatures, and two of the channels (TRPA1 and TRPM8) are activated by cold temperature. Accumulating evidences indicates that antagonists of TRPA1 and TRPM8 may protect against cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and paclitaxel-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress, inflammation, cold allodynia, and hyperalgesia...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Elena Baldascino, Giulia Di Cristina, Perla Tedesco, Carl Hobbs, Tanya J Shaw, Giovanna Ponte, Paul L R Andrews
The gastric ganglion is the largest visceral ganglion in cephalopods. It is connected to the brain and is implicated in regulation of digestive tract functions. Here we have investigated the neurochemical complexity (through in silico gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry) of the gastric ganglion in Octopus vulgaris and tested whether the expression of a selected number of genes was influenced by the magnitude of digestive tract parasitic infection by Aggregata octopiana. Novel evidence was obtained for putative peptide and non-peptide neurotransmitters in the gastric ganglion: cephalotocin, corticotrophin releasing factor, FMRFamide, gamma amino butyric acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine, molluscan insulin-related peptide 3, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin-related peptide...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Saúl Martín-Rodríguez, Damir Zubac, Francisco Piqueras-Sanchiz, Iker J Bautista, Bostjan Simunic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Donald G Buerk, Yien Liu, Kelly A Zaccheo, Kenneth A Barbee, Dov Jaron
Nitric oxide (NO) generated from nitrite through nitrite reductase activity in red blood cells has been proposed to play a major role in hypoxic vasodilation. However, we have previously predicted from mathematical modeling that much more NO can be derived from tissue nitrite reductase activity than from red blood cell nitrite reductase activity. Evidence in the literature suggests that tissue nitrite reductase activity is associated with xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and/or aldehyde oxidoreductase (AOR). We investigated the role of XOR and AOR in nitrite-mediated vasodilation from computer simulations and from in vivo exteriorized rat mesentery experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Dominic L Palazzolo, John M Nelson, Emily A Ely, Andrew P Crow, James Distin, Stan C Kunigelis
Background: While ECIGs are under scrutiny concerning safety, particularly in reference to the physiological impact that aerosolized ECIG liquid (E-liquid) may have on respiratory tissues, others believe that ECIGs are a "Harm Reduction" alternative to conventional cigarettes. Previous studies investigating ciliated respiratory epithelium indicate that smoking shortens cilia length, reduces cilia beat frequency and disrupts respiratory epithelium, which most likely contributes to the inhibition of mucocilliary clearance...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Andrea Nicolò, Carlo Massaroni, Louis Passfield
The use of wearable sensor technology for athlete training monitoring is growing exponentially, but some important measures and related wearable devices have received little attention so far. Respiratory frequency (fR), for example, is emerging as a valuable measurement for training monitoring. Despite the availability of unobtrusive wearable devices measuring fR with relatively good accuracy, fR is not commonly monitored during training. Yet fR is currently measured as a vital sign by multiparameter wearable devices in the military field, clinical settings, and occupational activities...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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