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Frontiers in Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344561/fetal-growth-restriction-induces-heterogeneous-effects-on-vascular-biomechanical-and-functional-properties-in-guinea-pigs-cavia-porcellus
#1
Daniel Cañas, Emilio A Herrera, Claudio García-Herrera, Diego Celentano, Bernardo J Krause
Aim: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with a variety of cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood which could involve remodeling processes of the vascular walls that could start in the fetal period. However, there is no consensus whether this remodeling affects in a similar way the whole vascular system. We aimed to determine the effects of FGR on the vasoactive and biomechanical properties of umbilical and systemic vessels in fetal guinea pigs. Methods: FGR was induced by implanting ameroid occluders at mid-gestation in uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs, whilst the control group was exposed to simulated surgery...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344560/nitric-oxide-has-a-concentration-dependent-effect-on-the-cell-cycle-acting-via-ein2-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-cultured-cells
#2
Galina V Novikova, Luis A J Mur, Alexander V Nosov, Artem A Fomenkov, Kirill S Mironov, Anna S Mamaeva, Evgeny S Shilov, Victor Y Rakitin, Michael A Hall
Ethylene is known to influence the cell cycle (CC) via poorly characterized roles whilst nitric oxide (NO) has well-established roles in the animal CC but analogous role(s) have not been reported for plants. As NO and ethylene signaling events often interact we examined their role in CC in cultured cells derived from Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (Col-0) plants and from ethylene-insensitive mutant ein2-1 plants. Both NO and ethylene were produced mainly during the first 5 days of the sub-cultivation period corresponding to the period of active cell division...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344559/cyclooxygenase-2-inhibition-limits-angiotensin-ii-induced-dna-oxidation-and-protein-nitration-in-humans
#3
Vincent Pialoux, Marc J Poulin, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Daniel A Muruve, Erica N Chirico, Camille Faes, Darlene Y Sola, Sofia B Ahmed
Compared to other cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, celecoxib is associated with a lower cardiovascular risk, though the mechanism remains unclear. Angiotensin II is an important mediator of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of vascular disease. Cyclooxygenase-2 may modify the effects of angiotensin II though this has never been studied in humans. The purpose of the study was to test the effects of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition on plasma measures of oxidative stress, the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1, and nitric oxide metabolites, both at baseline and in respose to Angiotensin II challenge in healthy humans...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344558/role-of-autonomic-nervous-system-and-orexinergic-system-on-adipose-tissue
#4
REVIEW
Giovanni Messina, Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Monica Salerno, Antonio Lonigro, Teresa Esposito, Vincenzo Monda, Gaetano Corso, Antonietta Messina, Andrea Viggiano, Antonio I Triggiani, Sergio Chieffi, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Marcellino Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli
Adipose tissue, defined as white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), is a biological caloric reservoir; in response to over-nutrition it expands and, in response to energy deficit, it releases lipids. The WAT primarily stores energy as triglycerides, whereas BAT dissipates chemical energy as heat. In mammals, the BAT is a key site for heat production and an attractive target to promote weight loss. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) exerts a direct control at the cellular and molecular levels in adiposity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337153/defense-responses-to-short-term-hypoxia-and-seawater-acidification-in-the-thick-shell-mussel-mytilus-coruscus
#5
Yanming Sui, Yimeng Liu, Xin Zhao, Sam Dupont, Menghong Hu, Fangli Wu, Xizhi Huang, Jiale Li, Weiqun Lu, Youji Wang
The rising anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 results in the reduction of seawater pH, namely ocean acidification (OA). In East China Sea, the largest coastal hypoxic zone was observed in the world. This region is also strongly impacted by ocean acidification as receiving much nutrient from Changjiang and Qiantangjiang, and organisms can experience great short-term natural variability of DO and pH in this area. In order to evaluate the defense responses of marine mussels under this scenario, the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus were exposed to three pH/pCO2 levels (7...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337152/maintaining-the-phenotype-stability-of-chondrocytes-derived-from-mscs-by-c-type-natriuretic-peptide
#6
Quan Shi, Zhiyong Qian, Donghua Liu, Jie Sun, Juan Xu, Ximin Guo
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a critical role in cartilage tissue engineering. However, MSCs-derived chondrocytes or cartilage tissues are not stable and easily lose the cellular and cartilage phenotype during long-term culture in vitro or implantation in vivo. As a result, chondrocytes phenotypic instability can contribute to accelerated ossification. Thus, it is a big challenge to maintain their correct phenotype for engineering hyaline cartilage. As one member of the natriuretic peptide family, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is found to correlate with the development of the cartilage, affect the chondrocytes proliferation and differentiation...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337151/a-reduction-in-maximal-incremental-exercise-test-duration-48-h-post-downhill-run-is-associated-with-muscle-damage-derived-exercise-induced-pain
#7
Bryna C R Chrismas, Lee Taylor, Jason C Siegler, Adrian W Midgley
Purpose: To examine whether exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) and muscle soreness reduce treadmill maximal incremental exercise (MIE) test duration, and true maximal physiological performance as a consequence of exercise induced pain (EIP) and perceived effort. Methods: Fifty (14 female), apparently healthy participants randomly allocated into a control group (CON, n = 10), or experimental group (EXP, n = 40) visited the laboratory a total of six times: visit 1 (familiarization), visit 2 (pre 1), visit 3 (pre 2), visit 4 (intervention), visit 5 (24 h post) and visit 6 (48 h post)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337150/alteration-in-taste-perception-in-cancer-causes-and-strategies-of-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Babar Murtaza, Aziz Hichami, Amira S Khan, François Ghiringhelli, Naim A Khan
The sense of taste is responsible for the detection and ingestion of food to cover energetic requirements in health and disease. The change in taste perception might lead to malnutrition that is usually one of the frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of taste perception and how they are altered in cancer. We also address the question of the implication of inflammation, responsible for the alterations in taste modalities. We highlight the role of radio- and chemotherapy in the modulation of taste physiology...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337149/influence-of-inspiratory-muscle-training-on-ventilatory-efficiency-and-cycling-performance-in-normoxia-and-hypoxia
#9
Eduardo Salazar-Martínez, Hannes Gatterer, Martin Burtscher, José Naranjo Orellana, Alfredo Santalla
The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on ventilatory efficiency, in normoxia and hypoxia, and to investigate the relationship between ventilatory efficiency and cycling performance. Sixteen sport students (23.05 ± 4.7 years; 175.11 ± 7.1 cm; 67.0 ± 19.4 kg; 46.4 ± 8.7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were randomly assigned to an inspiratory muscle training group (IMTG) and a control group (CG). The IMTG performed two training sessions/day [30 inspiratory breaths, 50% peak inspiratory pressure (Pimax), 5 days/week, 6-weeks]...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337148/on-the-estimation-accuracy-of-the-3d-body-center-of-mass-trajectory-during-human-locomotion-inverse-vs-forward-dynamics
#10
Gaspare Pavei, Elena Seminati, Dario Cazzola, Alberto E Minetti
The dynamics of body center of mass (BCoM) 3D trajectory during locomotion is crucial to the mechanical understanding of the different gaits. Forward Dynamics (FD) obtains BCoM motion from ground reaction forces while Inverse Dynamics (ID) estimates BCoM position and speed from motion capture of body segments. These two techniques are widely used by the literature on the estimation of BCoM. Despite the specific pros and cons of both methods, FD is less biased and considered as the golden standard, while ID estimates strongly depend on the segmental model adopted to schematically represent the moving body...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337147/3d-proximal-tubule-tissues-recapitulate-key-aspects-of-renal-physiology-to-enable-nephrotoxicity-testing
#11
Shelby M King, J William Higgins, Celina R Nino, Timothy R Smith, Elizabeth H Paffenroth, Casey E Fairbairn, Abigail Docuyanan, Vishal D Shah, Alice E Chen, Sharon C Presnell, Deborah G Nguyen
Due to its exposure to high concentrations of xenobiotics, the kidney proximal tubule is a primary site of nephrotoxicity and resulting attrition in the drug development pipeline. Current pre-clinical methods using 2D cell cultures and animal models are unable to fully recapitulate clinical drug responses due to limited in vitro functional lifespan, or species-specific differences. Using Organovo's proprietary 3D bioprinting platform, we have developed a fully cellular human in vitro model of the proximal tubule interstitial interface comprising renal fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and primary human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells to enable more accurate prediction of tissue-level clinical outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326041/influence-of-estimated-training-status-on-anti-and-pro-oxidant-activity-nitrite-concentration-and-blood-pressure-in-middle-aged-and-older-women
#12
André M Jacomini, Danielle da Silva Dias, Janaina de Oliveira Brito, Roberta F da Silva, Henrique L Monteiro, Susana Llesuy, Kátia De Angelis, Sandra L Amaral, Anderson S Zago
The purpose of this study was to compare the association between anti and pro-oxidant activity, nitrite concentration, and blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged and older women with different levels of estimated training status (TS). The sample consisted of 155 females (50-84 years) who were submitted to a physical examination to evaluate estimated TS through the "Functional Fitness Battery Test," BP measurements, and plasma blood samples to evaluate pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite concentrations...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326040/effects-of-topical-icing-on-inflammation-angiogenesis-revascularization-and-myofiber-regeneration-in-skeletal-muscle-following-contusion-injury
#13
Daniel P Singh, Zohreh Barani Lonbani, Maria A Woodruff, Tony J Parker, Roland Steck, Jonathan M Peake
Contusion injuries in skeletal muscle commonly occur in contact sport and vehicular and industrial workplace accidents. Icing has traditionally been used to treat such injuries under the premise that it alleviates pain, reduces tissue metabolism, and modifies vascular responses to decrease swelling. Previous research has examined the effects of icing on inflammation and microcirculatory dynamics following muscle injury. However, whether icing influences angiogenesis, collateral vessel growth, or myofiber regeneration remains unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321192/quantifying-the-frictional-forces-between-skin-and-nonwoven-fabrics
#14
Kavinda Jayawardana, Nicholas C Ovenden, Alan Cottenden
When a compliant sheet of material is dragged over a curved surface of a body, the frictional forces generated can be many times greater than they would be for a planar interface. This phenomenon is known to contribute to the abrasion damage to skin often suffered by wearers of incontinence pads and bed/chairbound people susceptible to pressure sores. Experiments that attempt to quantify these forces often use a simple capstan-type equation to obtain a characteristic coefficient of friction. In general, the capstan approach assumes the ratio of applied tensions depends only on the arc of contact and the coefficient of friction, and ignores other geometric and physical considerations; this approach makes it straightforward to obtain explicitly a coefficient of friction from the tensions measured...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316574/alterations-of-urinary-microbiota-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-with-hypertension-and-or-hyperlipidemia
#15
Fengping Liu, Zongxin Ling, Yonghong Xiao, Qing Yang, Baohong Wang, Li Zheng, Ping Jiang, Lanjuan Li, Wei Wang
Evidence shows urine specimens from different women have different populations of bacteria. The co-occurrence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia in those with diabetes may alter the composition of urine and the microenviroment of the bladder in which bacteria live. The aim of this study was to characterize the urinary microbiota in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus only and those with diabetes plus hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia, and to explore whether the composition of the urinary microbiota is affected by fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipids...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316573/a-production-calendar-based-on-water-temperature-spat-size-and-husbandry-practices-reduce-oshv-1-%C3%AE-var-impact-on-cultured-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-in-the-ebro-delta-catalonia-mediterranean-coast-of-spain
#16
Noèlia Carrasco, Ignasi Gairin, Josu Pérez, Karl B Andree, Ana Roque, Margarita Fernández-Tejedor, Chris J Rodgers, Cristobal Aguilera, M Dolors Furones
Since 2006, the production of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Ebro Delta area has dramatically declined from around 800 metric tons (MT) per year to 138 MT in 2011. This decline in production has had a significant socio-economic impact in a region where the shellfish sector is a traditional economic activity for many families. The identified agent responsible for this reduction in C. gigas production was Ostreid Herpesvirus microvar (OsHV-1 μvar), which has been associated with C. gigas spat mortalities in France, and in many other countries...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316572/eccentric-ergometer-training-promotes-locomotor-muscle-strength-but-not-mitochondrial-adaptation-in-patients-with-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
Norah J MacMillan, Sophia Kapchinsky, Yana Konokhova, Gilles Gouspillou, Riany de Sousa Sena, R Thomas Jagoe, Jacinthe Baril, Tamara E Carver, Ross E Andersen, Ruddy Richard, Hélène Perrault, Jean Bourbeau, Russell T Hepple, Tanja Taivassalo
Eccentric ergometer training (EET) is increasingly being proposed as a therapeutic strategy to improve skeletal muscle strength in various cardiorespiratory diseases, due to the principle that lengthening muscle actions lead to high force-generating capacity at low cardiopulmonary load. One clinical population that may particularly benefit from this strategy is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as ventilatory constraints and locomotor muscle dysfunction often limit efficacy of conventional exercise rehabilitation in patients with severe disease...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303108/transcriptional-signature-of-an-altered-purine-metabolism-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-a-huntington-s-disease-mouse-model
#18
Michal Mielcarek, Ryszard T Smolenski, Mark Isalan
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein (HTT). HD has a peripheral component to its pathology: skeletal muscles are severely affected, leading to atrophy, and malfunction in both pre-clinical and clinical settings. We previously used two symptomatic HD mouse models to demonstrate the impairment of the contractile characteristics of the hind limb muscles, which was accompanied by a significant loss of function of motor units...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303107/localization-and-ordering-of-lipids-around-aquaporin-0-protein-and-lipid-mobility-effects
#19
Rodolfo Briones, Camilo Aponte-Santamaría, Bert L de Groot
Hydrophobic matching, lipid sorting, and protein oligomerization are key principles by which lipids and proteins organize in biological membranes. The Aquaporin-0 channel (AQP0), solved by electron crystallography (EC) at cryogenic temperatures, is one of the few protein-lipid complexes of which the structure is available in atomic detail. EC and room-temperature molecular dynamics (MD) of dimyristoylglycerophosphocholine (DMPC) annular lipids around AQP0 show similarities, however, crystal-packing and temperature might affect the protein surface or the lipids distribution...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303106/commentary-acute-myocardial-response-to-stretch-what-we-don-t-know
#20
COMMENT
Reza Vahidi, Siyavash Joukar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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