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Frontiers in Physiology

Gonzalo R Ríos-Muñoz, Ángel Árenal, Antonio Artés-Rodríguez
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00208.].
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Richard T Waldron, Aurelia Lugea, Aiste Gulla, Stephen J Pandol
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a painful and potentially life-threatening disorder with the potential for therapeutic interventions. Biomarkers that characterize cases by severity and pathogenic mechanisms involved are not yet available but needed for the implementation of rational therapies. Here, we used shotgun proteomics to obtain information from plasma samples about local and systemic pathologies taking place during cases of alcoholic AP. Plasma was obtained at Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital (Lithuania) from 12 AP patients of alcohol related etiology (median age of 40) within 24 h of presentation, and 12 age-matched, healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Carina Levin, Ariel Koren, Annie Rebibo-Sabbah, Naama Koifman, Benjamin Brenner, Anat Aharon
β-thalassemia major (β-TM) is a therapeutically challenging chronic disease in which ineffective erythropoiesis is a main pathophysiological factor. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed vesicles released by cells into biological fluids; they are involved in intercellular communication and in multiple physiological and pathological processes. The chaperone heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70), which is released from cells via EVs, aggravates ineffective erythropoiesis in β-TM. We propose that β-TM EVs may show specific signatures, reflecting disease mechanisms, stages and severity...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Runnan He, Kuanquan Wang, Na Zhao, Yang Liu, Yongfeng Yuan, Qince Li, Henggui Zhang
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmias causing morbidity and mortality. AF may appear as episodes of very short (i.e., proximal AF) or sustained duration (i.e., persistent AF), either form of which causes irregular ventricular excitations that affect the global function of the heart. It is an unmet challenge for early and automatic detection of AF, limiting efficient treatment strategies for AF. In this study, we developed a new method based on continuous wavelet transform and 2D convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to detect AF episodes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Benedikt Fasel, Matthias Gilgien, Jörg Spörri, Kamiar Aminian
In this study we present and validate a method to correct velocity and position drift for inertial sensor-based measurements in the context of alpine ski racing. Magnets were placed at each gate and their position determined using a land surveying method. The time point of gate crossings of the athlete were detected with a magnetometer attached to the athlete's lower back. A full body inertial sensor setup allowed to track the athlete's posture, and the magnet positions were used as anchor points to correct position and velocity drift from the integration of the acceleration...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Eric A Engleman, Kevin B Steagall, Kristin E Bredhold, Michaela Breach, Hannah L Kline, Richard L Bell, Simon N Katner, Bethany S Neal-Beliveau
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) is a popular invertebrate model organism to study neurobiological disease states. This is due in part to the intricate mapping of all neurons and synapses of the entire animal, the wide availability of mutant strains, and the genetic and molecular tools that can be used to manipulate the genome and gene expression. We have shown that, C. elegans develops a conditioned preference for cues that had previously been paired with either cocaine or methamphetamine exposure that is dependent on dopamine neurotransmission, similar to findings using place conditioning with rats and mice...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Bing Wang, Yang Liu, Gui-Rong Wang
Three closely related species, Helicoverpa armigera , H. assulta , and Heliothis virescens from Lepidoptera Noctuidae, are used as a model system for exploring sexual communication and species isolation. Pheromone receptors (PRs) previously discovered in model moth species include seven in H. armigera , six in H. assulta , and six in H. virescens . PRs named OR6, OR13, and OR16 among these species were found to be functional, characterized by an in vitro Xenopus oocytes system. Using an in vivo transgenic fly system, functional assays of OR6, OR13, and OR16 clades from three closely related Noctuidae species showed that OR13 function was highly conserved, whereas OR6 and OR16 exhibited functional divergence...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Sara Comesaña, Cristina Velasco, Marta Conde-Sieira, Jesús M Míguez, José L Soengas, Sofía Morais
To continue gathering knowledge on the central regulation of food intake in response to amino acids in teleost fish, using as a model rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ), we evaluated in a first experiment the feeding attractiveness of L-leucine, L-valine, and L-proline offered as an agar gel matrix. In a second experiment, we assessed the effect of intraperitoneal (IP) treatment with the same amino acids on food intake. In a third experiment, we carried out a similar IP administration of amino acids to evaluate the response of amino acid sensing mechanisms in the hypothalamus and telencephalon...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Maisie M Barbosa, Aurigena A de Araújo, Raimundo F de Araújo Júnior, Gerlane C B Guerra, Gerly A de Castro Brito, Renata C Leitão, Susana B Ribeiro, Emanuella de Aragão Tavares, Roseane C Vasconcelos, Vinícius B Garcia, Caroline A C X de Medeiros
Oral mucositis (OM) is a common adverse effect resulting from cancer therapy. The OM it has implications that may compromise oncologic treatment and decrease the patient's quality of life. The therapeutic options to prevent or treat the symptoms of OM are scarce; there is no effective therapy that improves the symptoms. Based on the need for further research for the treatment of OM, the present study objective was to evaluate the effect of telmisartan (TELM) on the OM induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), using as animal model Golden Syrian hamsters...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ying Wang, Hao Cui, Fei Niu, Shuo-Lin Liu, Yao Li, Li-Min Zhang, Hui-Bo Du, Zi-Gang Zhao, Chun-Yu Niu
Objectives: Abnormal rheological properties induce adverse effects during sepsis. This study sought to investigate the hypothesis that resveratrol (Res) improves blood rheological properties in rats following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, and provide a novel approach for treatment of sepsis. Methods: The rats were intraperitoneally or intramuscularly injected with vehicle, LPS (8 mg/kg), Res (30 mg/kg), or both to yield four groups: control, Res, LPS, and LPS + Res. After 6 h of LPS and/or Res injection, the mean arterial pressure (MAP), regional blood flow, erythrocyte and leukocyte parameters, and blood viscosity were observed...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yoon La Yang, Hyeon Seok Seok, Gyu-Jeong Noh, Byung-Moon Choi, Hangsik Shin
The purpose of this study was to derive parameters that might reflect postoperative pain from photoplethysmography (PPG) and verify the derived parameters in postoperative pain assessment. We obtained preoperative and postoperative PPG and 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) from 65 surgical patients and extracted a total of 51 PPG morphology-based parameters and their normalized parameters from these PPGs obtained. Pain discrimination performances of these derived parameters were assessed by statistical analyses, including Wilcoxon signed rank test with Bonferroni correction, classification accuracy based on logistic regression, and 4-fold cross validation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Astrid L Basse, Emilie Dalbram, Louise Larsson, Zach Gerhart-Hines, Juleen R Zierath, Jonas T Treebak
Circadian rhythms can be perturbed by shift work, travel across time zones, many occupational tasks, or genetic mutations. Perturbed circadian rhythms are associated with the increasing problem of obesity, metabolic dysfunction, and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle follows a circadian pattern and that this pattern is important for overall metabolic function. This hypothesis was verified using mice as a model system. We observed circadian rhythmicity in whole body insulin tolerance, as well as in signaling pathways regulating insulin- and exercise-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, including AKT, 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and TBC1 domain family member 4 (TBC1D4) phosphorylation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Leah T Sigle, Julián F Hillyer
A powerful immune system protects mosquitoes from pathogens and influences their ability to transmit disease. The mosquito's immune and circulatory systems are functionally integrated, whereby intense immune processes occur in areas of high hemolymph flow. The primary circulatory organ of mosquitoes is the dorsal vessel, which consists of a thoracic aorta and an abdominal heart. In adults of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae , the heart periodically alternates contraction direction, resulting in intracardiac hemolymph flowing toward the head (anterograde) and toward the posterior of the abdomen (retrograde)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Iveta Bernatova, Angelika Puzserova, Peter Balis, Natalia Sestakova, Martina Horvathova, Zuzana Kralovicova, Ingrid Zitnanova
This study was designed to investigate whether oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO) deficiency and/or endothelial dysfunction (ED) are present in young borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) and whether these pathologies can be causally involved in the initiation of blood pressure (BP) increases. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that crowding stress, experienced during the peripubertal period, may produce persistent or delayed disorders in corticosterone release, NO synthesis, oxidative status and/or endothelial function that could accelerate BP increases...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Daniele S Oliveira, Nathália F Brito, Thiago A Franco, Monica F Moreira, Walter S Leal, Ana C A Melo
Olfactory proteins mediate a wide range of essential behaviors for insect survival. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are small soluble olfactory proteins involved in the transport of odor molecules (=odorants) through the sensillum lymph to odorant receptors, which are housed on the dendritic membrane of olfactory sensory neurons also known as olfactory receptor neurons. Thus, a better understanding of the role(s) of OBPs from Rhodnius prolixus , one of the main vectors of Chagas disease, may ultimately lead to new strategies for vector management...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Irene Pradas, Kevin Huynh, Rosanna Cabré, Victòria Ayala, Peter J Meikle, Mariona Jové, Reinald Pamplona
In biological systems lipids generate membranes and have a key role in cell signaling and energy storage. Therefore, there is a wide diversity of molecular lipid expressed at the compositional level in cell membranes and organelles, as well as in tissues, whose lipid distribution remains unclear. Here, we report a mass spectrometry study of lipid abundance across 7 rat tissues, detecting and quantifying 652 lipid molecular species from the glycerolipid, glycerophospholipid, fatty acyl, sphingolipid, sterol lipid and prenol lipid categories...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Steven J Brookes, Ariane Berdal, Alexandre R Vieira, Sylvie Babajko, Jennifer Kirkham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Patrick M Boyle, Joe B Hakim, Sohail Zahid, William H Franceschi, Michael J Murphy, Adityo Prakosa, Konstantinos N Aronis, Tarek Zghaib, Muhammed Balouch, Esra G Ipek, Jonathan Chrispin, Ronald D Berger, Hiroshi Ashikaga, Joseph E Marine, Hugh Calkins, Saman Nazarian, David D Spragg, Natalia A Trayanova
Focal impulse and rotor mapping (FIRM) involves intracardiac detection and catheter ablation of re-entrant drivers (RDs), some of which may contribute to arrhythmia perpetuation in persistent atrial fibrillation (PsAF). Patient-specific computational models derived from late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI) has the potential to non-invasively identify all areas of the fibrotic substrate where RDs could potentially be sustained, including locations where RDs may not manifest during mapped AF episodes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Brodie A Lawson, Kevin Burrage, Pamela Burrage, Christopher C Drovandi, Alfonso Bueno-Orovio
Purpose: Rotor stability and meandering are key mechanisms determining and sustaining cardiac fibrillation, with important implications for anti-arrhythmic drug development. However, little is yet known on how rotor dynamics are modulated by variability in cellular electrophysiology, particularly on kinetic properties of ion channel recovery. Methods: We propose a novel emulation approach, based on Gaussian process regression augmented with machine learning, for data enrichment, automatic detection, classification, and analysis of re-entrant biomarkers in cardiac tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Tao Zhou, Zihao Yuan, Suxu Tan, Yulin Jin, Yujia Yang, Huitong Shi, Wenwen Wang, Donghong Niu, Lei Gao, Wansheng Jiang, Dongya Gao, Zhanjiang Liu
Catfish is one of the major aquaculture species in the United States. However, the catfish industry is threatened by several bacterial diseases such as enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), columnaris disease and Aeromonas disease, as well as by abiotic stresses such as high temperature and low oxygen. Research has been conducted for several decades to understand the host responses to these diseases and abiotic stresses. With the development of sequencing technologies, and the application of genome-wide association studies in aquaculture species, significant progress has been made...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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