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Frontiers in Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142533/corrigendum-rna-seq-comparison-of-larval-and-adult-malpighian-tubules-of-the-yellow-fever-mosquito-aedes-aegypti-reveals-life-stage-specific-changes-in-renal-function
#1
Yiyi Li, Peter M Piermarini, Carlos J Esquivel, David P Price, Hannah E Drumm, Faye D Schilkey, Immo A Hansen
[This corrects the article on p. 283 in vol. 8, PMID: 28536536.].
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123488/wearing-compression-tights-on-the-thigh-during-prolonged-running-attenuated-exercise-induced-increase-in-muscle-damage-marker-in-blood
#2
Sahiro Mizuno, Mari Arai, Fumihiko Todoko, Eri Yamada, Kazushige Goto
Purpose: To examine the effects of wearing a lower-body compression garment with different body coverage areas during prolonged running on exercise performance and muscle damage. Methods: Thirty male subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) wearing a compression tights with 15 mmHg to thigh [n = 10, CT group], (2) wearing a compression socks with 15 mmHg to calf [n = 10, CS group], and (3) wearing a lower-body garment with < 5 mmHg to thigh and calf [n = 10, CON group]. The exercise consisted of 120 min of uphill running at 55% of [Formula: see text]O2max...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123487/hypertrophy-stimulation-at-the-onset-of-type-i-diabetes-maintains-the-soleus-but-not-the-edl-muscle-mass-in-wistar-rats
#3
Marco A S Fortes, Maria V M Scervino, Gabriel N Marzuca-Nassr, Kaio F Vitzel, Carlos H da Justa Pinheiro, Rui Curi
Diabetes mellitus induces a reduction in skeletal muscle mass and strength. Strength training is prescribed as part of treatment since it improves glycemic control and promotes increase of skeletal muscle mass. The mechanisms involved in overload-induced muscle hypertrophy elicited at the establishment of the type I diabetic state was investigated in Wistar rats. The purpose was to examine whether the overload-induced hypertrophy can counteract the hypotrophy associated to the diabetic state. The experiments were performed in oxidative (soleus) or glycolytic (EDL) muscles...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123486/are-we-reaching-the-limits-of-homo-sapiens
#4
REVIEW
Adrien Marck, Juliana Antero, Geoffroy Berthelot, Guillaume Saulière, Jean-Marc Jancovici, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Gilles Boeuf, Michael Spedding, Éric Le Bourg, Jean-François Toussaint
Echoing scientific and industrial progress, the Twentieth century was an unprecedented period of improvement for human capabilities and performances, with a significant increase in lifespan, adult height, and maximal physiological performance. Analyses of historical data show a major slow down occurring in the most recent years. This triggered large and passionate debates in the academic scene within multiple disciplines; as such an observation could be interpreted as our upper biological limits. Such a new phase of human history may be related to structural and functional limits determined by long term evolutionary constraints, and the interaction between complex systems and their environment...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123485/intensifying-functional-task-practice-to-meet-aerobic-training-guidelines-in-stroke-survivors
#5
Liam P Kelly, Augustine J Devasahayam, Arthur R Chaves, Elizabeth M Wallack, Jason McCarthy, Fabien A Basset, Michelle Ploughman
Objective: To determine whether stroke survivors could maintain workloads during functional task practice that can reach moderate levels of cardiometabolic stress (i.e., ≥40% oxygen uptake reserve ([Formula: see text]O2R) for ≥20 min) without the use of ergometer-based exercise. Design: Cross-sectional study using convenience sampling. Setting: Research laboratory in a tertiary rehabilitation hospital. Participants: Chronic hemiparetic stroke survivors (>6-months) who could provide consent and walk with or without assistance...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118722/branched-chain-amino-acid-negatively-regulates-klf15-expression-via-pi3k-akt-pathway
#6
Yunxia Liu, Weibing Dong, Jing Shao, Yibin Wang, Meiyi Zhou, Haipeng Sun
Recent studies have linked branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) with numerous metabolic diseases. However, the molecular basis of BCAA's roles in metabolic regulation remains to be established. KLF15 (Krüppel-like factor 15) is a transcription factor and master regulator of glycemic, lipid, and amino acids metabolism. In the present study, we found high concentrations of BCAA suppressed KLF15 expression while BCAA starvation induced KLF15 expression, suggesting KLF15 expression is negatively controlled by BCAA...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118721/gut-brain-axis-in-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#7
REVIEW
Tao Yang, Jasenka Zubcevic
Hypertension (HTN) is an escalating health issue worldwide. It is estimated that 1.56 billion people will suffer from high blood pressure (BP) by 2025. Recent studies reported an association between gut dysbiosis and HTN, thus proposing interesting avenues for novel treatments of this condition. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the immune system (IS) play a recognized role in the onset and progression of HTN, while reciprocal communication between gut microbiota and the brain can regulate BP by modulating the interplay between the IS and SNS...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118720/altered-right-ventricular-mechanical-properties-are-afterload-dependent-in-a-rodent-model-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#8
Jitandrakumar R Patel, Gregory P Barton, Rudolf K Braun, Kara N Goss, Kristin Haraldsdottir, Alexandria Hopp, Gary Diffee, Timothy A Hacker, Richard L Moss, Marlowe W Eldridge
Infants born premature are at increased risk for development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), pulmonary hypertension (PH), and ultimately right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, which together carry a high risk of neonatal mortality. However, the role alveolar simplification and abnormal pulmonary microvascular development in BPD affects RV contractile properties is unknown. We used a rat model of BPD to examine the effect of hyperoxia-induced PH on RV contractile properties. We measured in vivo RV pressure as well as passive force, maximum Ca(2+) activated force, calcium sensitivity of force (pCa50) and rate of force redevelopment (ktr) in RV skinned trabeculae isolated from hearts of 21-and 35-day old rats pre-exposed to 21% oxygen (normoxia) or 85% oxygen (hyperoxia) for 14 days after birth...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118719/the-origins-and-functions-of-tissue-resident-macrophages-in-kidney-development
#9
REVIEW
David A D Munro, Jeremy Hughes
The adult kidney hosts tissue-resident macrophages that can cause, prevent, and/or repair renal damage. Most of these macrophages derive from embryonic progenitors that colonize the kidney during its development and proliferate in situ throughout adulthood. Although the precise origins of kidney macrophages remain controversial, recent studies have revealed that embryonic macrophage progenitors initially migrate from the yolk sac, and later from the fetal liver, into the developing kidney. Once in the kidney, tissue-specific transcriptional regulators specify macrophage progenitors into dedicated kidney macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118718/the-practice-of-physical-activity-in-the-setting-of-lower-extremities-sarcomas-a-first-step-toward-clinical-optimization
#10
Mohamad Assi, Mickael Ropars, Amélie Rébillard
Lower-extremities sarcoma patients, with bone tumor and soft-tissue sarcoma, are a unique population at high risk of physical dysfunction and chronic heart diseases. Thus, providing an adequate physical activity (PA) program constitutes a primary part of the adjuvant treatment, aiming to improve patients' quality of life. The main goal of this paper is to offer clear suggestions for clinicians regarding PA around the time between diagnosis and offered treatments. These preliminary recommendations reflect our interpretation of the clinical and preclinical data published on this topic, after a systematic search on the PubMed database...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118717/identification-of-intracellular-%C3%AE-barrel-residues-involved-in-ion-selectivity-in-the-mechanosensitive-channel-of-thermoanaerobacter-tengcongensis
#11
Yingcai Song, Bing Zhang, Fei Guo, Maojun Yang, Yang Li, Zhi-Qiang Liu
The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) is a bacterial membrane pore that senses membrane tension and protects cells from lysis by releasing osmolytes. MscS is a homoheptameric channel with a cytoplasmic domain with seven portals and a β-barrel opening to the cytoplasm. TtMscS, an MscS channel from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis, is an anion-selective channel. A previous study from our laboratory has defined the crucial role of β-barrel in the anion selectivity of TtMscS (Zhang et al., 2012)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118716/etiology-and-recovery-of-neuromuscular-fatigue-following-competitive-soccer-match-play
#12
Callum G Brownstein, Jack P Dent, Paul Parker, Kirsty M Hicks, Glyn Howatson, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas
Aim: Previous research into the etiology of neuromuscular fatigue following competitive soccer match-play has primarily focused on peripheral perturbations, with limited research assessing central nervous system function in the days post-match. The aim of the present study was to examine the contribution and time-course of recovery of central and peripheral factors toward neuromuscular fatigue following competitive soccer match-play. Methods: Sixteen male semi-professional soccer players completed a 90-min soccer match...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118715/differential-regulation-of-thyroid-hormone-metabolism-target-genes-during-non-thyoidal-illness-syndrome-triggered-by-fasting-or-sepsis-in-adult-mice
#13
Klaus N Fontes, Adriana Cabanelas, Flavia F Bloise, Cherley Borba Vieira de Andrade, Luana L Souza, Marianna Wilieman, Isis H Trevenzoli, Lais C Agra, Johnatas D Silva, Christianne Bandeira-Melo, Pedro L Silva, Patricia R M Rocco, Tania M Ortiga-Carvalho
Fasting and sepsis induce profound changes in thyroid hormone (TH) central and peripheral metabolism. These changes affect TH action and are called the non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). To date, it is still debated whether NTIS represents an adaptive response or a real hypothyroid state at the tissue level. Moreover, even though it has been considered the same syndrome, we hypothesized that fasting and sepsis induce a distinct set of changes in thyroid hormone metabolism. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the central and peripheral expression of genes involved in the transport (MCT8/Slc16a2 and MCT10/Slc16a10), metabolism (Dio1, Dio2, and Dio3) and action (Thra and Thrb) of TH during NTIS induced by fasting or sepsis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114233/the-jnk-signaling-pathway-in-renal-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Keren Grynberg, Frank Y Ma, David J Nikolic-Paterson
Fibrosis of the glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments is a common feature of chronic kidney disease leading to end-stage renal failure. This fibrotic process involves a number of pathologic mechanisms, including cell death and inflammation. This review focuses on the role of the c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in the development of renal fibrosis. The JNK pathway is activated in response to various cellular stresses and plays an important role in cell death and inflammation. Activation of JNK signaling is a common feature in most forms of human kidney injury, evident in both intrinsic glomerular and tubular cells as well as in infiltrating leukocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114232/re-evaluation-of-imaging-methods-of-reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species-in-plants-and-fungi-influence-of-cell-wall-composition
#15
REVIEW
Michaela Sedlářová, Lenka Luhová
Developmental transitions and stress reactions in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes are tightly linked with fast and localized modifications in concentrations of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). Fluorescent microscopic analyses are widely applied to detect localized production of ROS and RNS in vivo. In this mini-review we discuss the biological characteristics of studied material (cell wall, extracellular matrix, and tissue complexity) and its handling (concentration of probes, effect of pressure, and higher temperature) which influence results of histochemical staining with "classical" fluorochromes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114231/co-option-of-hair-follicle-keratins-into-amelogenesis-is-associated-with-the-evolution-of-prismatic-enamel-a-hypothesis
#16
Elia Beniash
Recent discovery of hair follicle keratin 75 (KRT75) in enamel raises questions about the function of this protein in enamel and the mechanisms of its secretion. It is also not clear how this protein with a very specific and narrow expression pattern, limited to the inner root sheath of the hair follicle, became associated with enamel. We propose a hypothesis that KRT75 was co-opted by ameloblasts during the evolution of Tomes' process and the prismatic enamel in synapsids.
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114230/the-effects-of-simulated-wildland-firefighting-tasks-on-core-temperature-and-cognitive-function-under-very-hot-conditions
#17
F Michael Williams-Bell, Brad Aisbett, Bernadette A Murphy, Brianna Larsen
Background: The severity of wildland fires is increasing due to continually hotter and drier summers. Firefighters are required to make life altering decisions on the fireground, which requires analytical thinking, problem solving, and situational awareness. This study aimed to determine the effects of very hot (45°C; HOT) conditions on cognitive function following periods of simulated wildfire suppression work when compared to a temperate environment (18°C; CON). Methods: Ten male volunteer firefighters intermittently performed a simulated fireground task for 3 h in both the CON and HOT environments, with cognitive function tests (paired associates learning and spatial span) assessed at baseline (cog 1) and during the final 20-min of each hour (cog 2, 3, and 4)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114229/structural-control-of-microvessel-diameters-origins-of-metabolic-signals
#18
Bettina Reglin, Timothy W Secomb, Axel R Pries
Diameters of microvessels undergo continuous structural adaptation in response to hemodynamic and metabolic stimuli. To ensure adequate flow distribution, metabolic responses are needed to increase diameters of vessels feeding poorly perfused regions. Possible modes of metabolic control include release of signaling substances from vessel walls, from the supplied tissue and from red blood cells (RBC). Here, a theoretical model was used to compare the abilities of these metabolic control modes to provide adequate tissue oxygenation, and to generate blood flow velocities in agreement with experimental observations...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114228/integrative-temporo-spatial-mineralogic-spectroscopic-and-proteomic-analysis-of-postnatal-enamel-development-in-teeth-with-limited-growth
#19
Mirali Pandya, Hui Liu, Smit J Dangaria, Weiying Zhu, Leo L Li, Shuang Pan, Moufida Abufarwa, Roderick G Davis, Stephen Guggenheim, Timothy Keiderling, Xianghong Luan, Thomas G H Diekwisch
Tooth amelogenesis is a complex process beginning with enamel organ cell differentiation and enamel matrix secretion, transitioning through changes in ameloblast polarity, cytoskeletal, and matrix organization, that affects crucial biomineralization events such as mineral nucleation, enamel crystal growth, and enamel prism organization. Here we have harvested the enamel organ including the pliable enamel matrix of postnatal first mandibular mouse molars during the first 8 days of tooth enamel development to conduct a step-wise cross-sectional analysis of the changes in the mineral and protein phase...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114227/non-linear-heart-rate-and-blood-pressure-interaction-in-response-to-lower-body-negative-pressure
#20
Ajay K Verma, Da Xu, Amanmeet Garg, Anita T Cote, Nandu Goswami, Andrew P Blaber, Kouhyar Tavakolian
Early detection of hemorrhage remains an open problem. In this regard, blood pressure has been an ineffective measure of blood loss due to numerous compensatory mechanisms sustaining arterial blood pressure homeostasis. Here, we investigate the feasibility of causality detection in the heart rate and blood pressure interaction, a closed-loop control system, for early detection of hemorrhage. The hemorrhage was simulated via graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) from 0 to -40 mmHg. The research hypothesis was that a significant elevation of causal control in the direction of blood pressure to heart rate (i...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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