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Frontiers in Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018572/comparative-phospho-and-acetyl-proteomics-analysis-of-posttranslational-modifications-regulating-intestine-regeneration-in-sea-cucumbers
#1
Lina Sun, Chenggang Lin, Xiaoni Li, Lili Xing, Da Huo, Jingchun Sun, Libin Zhang, Hongsheng Yang
Sea cucumbers exposed to stressful circumstances eviscerate most internal organs, and then regenerate them rapidly under favorable environments. Reversible protein phosphorylation and acetylation are major modifications regulating protein function. Herein, for the first time, we perform quantitative phospho- and acetyl proteomics analyses of intestine regeneration in a sea cucumber species Apostichopus japonicus . We identified 1,862 phosphorylation sites in 1,169 proteins, and 712 acetylation sites in 470 proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018571/a-machine-learning-aided-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-relative-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Zhaohan Xiong, Tong Liu, Gary Tse, Mengqi Gong, Patrick A Gladding, Bruce H Smaill, Martin K Stiles, Anne M Gillis, Jichao Zhao
Background: Meta-analysis is a widely used tool in which weighted information from multiple similar studies is aggregated to increase statistical power. However, the exponential growth of publications in key areas of medical science has rendered manual identification of relevant studies increasingly time-consuming. The aim of this work was to develop a machine learning technique capable of robust automatic study selection for meta-analysis. We have validated this approach with an up-to-date meta-analysis to investigate the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018570/significant-acute-response-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-following-a-session-of-extreme-conditioning-program-is-correlated-with-volume-of-specific-exercise-training-in-trained-men
#3
Emy S Pereira, Walter Krause Neto, Atilio S Calefi, Mariana Georgetti, Larissa Guerreiro, Cesar A S Zocoler, Eliane F Gama
Several studies have demonstrated an acute and chronic increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in relation to different types of physical exercise. Currently, many individuals seek physical training strategies that present different types of stimulation and volume/intensity. Thus, the extreme conditioning methodology has gained great notoriety in the scientific and non-scientific environment. Knowing that BDNF values increase in an effort-dependent manner, it is necessary to study the effects of this strategy on BDNF levels...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018569/every-breath-you-take-non-invasive-real-time-oxygen-biosensing-in-two-and-three-dimensional-microfluidic-cell-models
#4
Helene Zirath, Mario Rothbauer, Sarah Spitz, Barbara Bachmann, Christian Jordan, Bernhard Müller, Josef Ehgartner, Eleni Priglinger, Severin Mühleder, Heinz Redl, Wolfgang Holnthoner, Michael Harasek, Torsten Mayr, Peter Ertl
Knowledge on the availability of dissolved oxygen inside microfluidic cell culture systems is vital for recreating physiological-relevant microenvironments and for providing reliable and reproducible measurement conditions. It is important to highlight that in vivo cells experience a diverse range of oxygen tensions depending on the resident tissue type, which can also be recreated in vitro using specialized cell culture instruments that regulate external oxygen concentrations. While cell-culture conditions can be readily adjusted using state-of-the-art incubators, the control of physiological-relevant microenvironments within the microfluidic chip, however, requires the integration of oxygen sensors...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018568/urocortin-2-prevents-dysregulation-of-ca-2-homeostasis-and-improves-early-cardiac-remodeling-after-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#5
Alejandro Domínguez-Rodríguez, Isabel Mayoral-Gonzalez, Javier Avila-Medina, Eva S de Rojas-de Pedro, Eva Calderón-Sánchez, Ignacio Díaz, Abdelkrim Hmadcha, Antonio Castellano, Juan A Rosado, Jean-Pierre Benitah, Ana M Gomez, Antonio Ordoñez, Tarik Smani
Aims: Urocortin-2 (Ucn-2) is a potent cardioprotector against Ischemia and Reperfusion (I/R) injuries. However, little is known about its role in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) under I/R. Here, we examined whether the addition of Ucn-2 in reperfusion promotes cardioprotection focusing on ([Ca2+ ]i handling. Methods and Results: Cardiac Wistar rat model of I/R was induced by transient ligation of the left coronary artery and experiments were conducted 1 week after surgery in tissue and adult cardiomyocytes isolated from risk and remote zones...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018567/bed-rest-exercise-countermeasure-and-reconditioning-effects-on-the-human-resting-muscle-tone-system
#6
Britt Schoenrock, Vanja Zander, Sebastian Dern, Ulrich Limper, Edwin Mulder, Alar Veraksitš, Ragnar Viir, Andreas Kramer, Maria J Stokes, Michele Salanova, Aleko Peipsi, Dieter Blottner
The human resting muscle tone (HRMT) system provides structural and functional support to skeletal muscle and associated myofascial structures (tendons, fascia) in normal life. Little information is available on changes to the HRMT in bed rest. A set of dynamic oscillation mechanosignals ([Hz], [N/m], log decrement, [ms]) collected and computed by a hand-held digital palpation device (MyotonPRO) were used to study changes in tone and in key biomechanical and viscoelastic properties in global and postural skeletal muscle tendons and fascia from a non-exercise control (CTR) and an exercise (JUMP) group performing reactive jumps on a customized sledge system during a 60 days head-down tilt bed rest (RSL Study 2015-2016)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018566/potential-mechanisms-of-action-for-vitamin-c-in-cancer-reviewing-the-evidence
#7
REVIEW
Margreet C M Vissers, Andrew B Das
Whether vitamin C (ascorbate) has a role to play as an anti-cancer agent has been debated for decades. Ascorbate has been used by cancer patients in an unregulated environment, either as a dietary supplement or in pharmacological doses administered by infusion, with numerous reports of clinical benefit, but in the absence of rigorous clinical trial data. The design of appropriate clinical trials has been hindered by a lack of understanding of the mechanism(s) of action that would inform the choice of effective dose, timing of administration and likely responsive cancer models...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018565/oxidative-stress-a-major-player-in-cerebrovascular-alterations-associated-to-neurodegenerative-events
#8
REVIEW
Cristina Carvalho, Paula I Moreira
The brain is one of the most exquisite organs in the body with high metabolic demands, and requires a tight regulation of the surrounding environment. This tight control is exerted by the neurovascular unit (NVU) comprising different cell types, where endothelial cells play the commander-in-chief role. Thus, it is assumable that even slight perturbations in NVU might affect, in some cases irreversibly, brain homeostasis and health. In this line, recent findings support the two-hit vascular hypothesis for neurodegenerative conditions, where vascular dysfunction underlies the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018564/engineered-flock-house-virus-for-targeted-gene-suppression-through-rnai-in-fruit-flies-drosophila-melanogaster-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Clauvis N T Taning, Olivier Christiaens, XiuXia Li, Luc Swevers, Hans Casteels, Martine Maes, Guy Smagghe
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to study functional genomics in insects and the potential of using RNAi to suppress crop pests has made outstanding progress. However, the delivery of dsRNA is a challenging step in the development of RNAi bioassays. In this study, we investigated the ability of engineered Flock House virus (FHV) to induce targeted gene suppression through RNAi under in vitro and in vivo condition. As proxy for fruit flies of agricultural importance, we worked with S2 cells as derived from Drosophila melanogaster embryos, and with adult stages of D...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018563/neuromuscular-control-and-performance-differences-associated-with-gender-and-obesity-in-fatiguing-tasks-performed-by-older-adults
#10
Xu Duan, Joohyun Rhee, Ranjana K Mehta, Divya Srinivasan
Obesity rates in the geriatric population have emerged as a serious health concern in recent decades. Yet, obesity-related differences in neuromuscular performance and motor control during fatiguing tasks, and how they are modified by gender, specifically among older adults, are still largely unexplored. The first aim of this study was to understand obesity and gender-related differences in endurance time among older adults. Motor variability has been linked with inter-individual differences in the rate of fatigue development, and as potentially revealing underlying mechanisms of neuromuscular control...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018562/a-preclinical-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-astragaloside-iv-for-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Qun Zheng, Jia-Zhen Zhu, Xiao-Yi Bao, Peng-Chong Zhu, Qiang Tong, Yue-Yue Huang, Qi-Hao Zhang, Ke-Jian Zhang, Guo-Qing Zheng, Yan Wang
Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), the major pharmacological extract from Astragalus membranaceus Bunge , possesses a variety of biological activities in the cardiovascular systems. Here, we aimed to evaluate preclinical evidence and possible mechanism of AS-IV for animal models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Studies of AS-IV in animal models with myocardial I/R injury were identified from 6 databases from inception to May, 2018. The methodological quality was assessed by using CAMARADES 10-item checklist...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018561/dexamethasone-administration-during-late-gestation-has-no-major-impact-on-lipid-metabolism-but-reduces-newborn-survival-rate-in-wistar-rats
#12
Katia Motta, Patricia R L Gomes, Paola M Sulis, Silvana Bordin, Alex Rafacho
A rise in plasma triacylglycerol levels is a common physiological occurrence during late gestation and excess of glucocorticoids (GCs) has been shown to impair lipid metabolism. Based on those observations, we investigated whether the administration of dexamethasone during the late gestational period could exacerbate this pregnancy associated hypertriacylglycerolemia in rats. For this, female Wistar rats were treated with dexamethasone (0.2 mg/kg of body mass in the drinking water on days 14-19 of pregnancy; DP group) or equivalent days in the virgin rats (DV group)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018560/osmoregulation-in-the-plotosidae-catfish-role-of-the-salt-secreting-dendritic-organ
#13
Salman Malakpour Kolbadinezhad, João Coimbra, Jonathan M Wilson
Unlike other marine teleosts, the Plotosidae catfishes reportedly have an extra-branchial salt secreting dendritic organ (DO). Salinity acclimation [brackishwater (BW) 3aaa, seawater (SWcontrol) 34aaa, and hypersaline water (HSW) 60aaa] for 14 days was used to investigate the osmoregulatory abilities of Plotosus lineatus through measurements of blood chemistry, muscle water content (MWC), Na+ /K+ -ATPase (NKA) specific activity and ion transporter expression in gills, DO, kidney and intestine. Ion transporter expression was determined using immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013489/a-bout-of-high-intensity-interval-training-lengthened-nerve-conduction-latency-to-the-non-exercised-affected-limb-in-chronic-stroke
#14
Beraki Abraha, Arthur R Chaves, Liam P Kelly, Elizabeth M Wallack, Katie P Wadden, Jason McCarthy, Michelle Ploughman
Objective: Evaluate intensity-dependent effects of a single bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT) compared to moderate intensity constant-load exercise (MICE) on corticospinal excitability (CSE) and effects on upper limb performance in chronic stroke. Design: Randomized cross-over trial. Setting: Research laboratory in a tertiary rehabilitation hospital. Participants: Convenience sample of 12 chronic stroke survivors. Outcome measures: Bilateral CSE measures of intracortical inhibition and facilitation, motor thresholds, and motor evoked potential (MEP) latency using transcranial magnetic stimulation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013488/transcriptional-and-translational-relationship-in-environmental-stress-rnaseq-and-itraq-proteomic-analysis-between-sexually-reproducing-and-parthenogenetic-females-in-moina-micrura
#15
Jingyi Jia, Xiangjiang Liu, Lu Li, Chengqiang Lei, Ying Dong, Guoqiang Wu, Guangfu Hu
Moina micrura is a kind of small-bodied water flea within the family Moinidae. Similar to Daphnia , M. micrura could also switch its reproduction mode from parthenogenetic female (PF) to sexual female (SF) to adapt to the external environment. To uncover the mechanisms of reproductive switching in M. micrura , we used both RNA-Seq and iTRAQ analyses to investigate the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their protein products between SF and PF in M. micrura . A total of 1665 DEGs (702 up-regulated, 963 down-regulated) and 600 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) (102 up-regulated, 498 down-regulated) were detected in SF...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013487/evidence-that-calcium-entry-into-calcium-transporting-dental-enamel-cells-is-regulated-by-cholecystokinin-acetylcholine-and-atp
#16
Meerim K Nurbaeva, Miriam Eckstein, Arun Devotta, Jean-Pierre Saint-Jeannet, David I Yule, Michael J Hubbard, Rodrigo S Lacruz
Dental enamel is formed by specialized epithelial cells which handle large quantities of Ca2+ while producing the most highly mineralized tissue. However, the mechanisms used by enamel cells to handle bulk Ca2+ safely remain unclear. Our previous work contradicted the dogma that Ca2+ is ferried through the cytosol of Ca2+ -transporting cells and instead suggested an organelle-based route across enamel cells. This new paradigm involves endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated Ca2+ stores and their concomitant refilling by store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) mediated by Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013486/the-olympic-biathlon-recent-advances-and-perspectives-after-pyeongchang
#17
Marko S Laaksonen, Malin Jonsson, Hans-Christer Holmberg
The biathlon, combining cross-country ski skating with rifle marksmanship, has been an Olympic event since the Winter Games in Squaw Valley, United States, in 1960. As a consequence of replacing the classical with the skating technique in the 1980s, as well as considerable improvements in equipment and preparation of ski tracks and more effective training, the average biathlon skiing speed has increased substantially. Moreover, the mass-start, pursuit, and sprint races have been introduced. Indeed, two of the four current individual Olympic biathlon competitions involve mass-starts, where tactics play a major role and the outcome is often decided during the last round of shooting or final sprint...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013485/mir-21-protects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-kidney-injury-by-preventing-epithelial-cell-apoptosis-and-inhibiting-dendritic-cell-maturation
#18
Nana Song, Ting Zhang, XiaLian Xu, Zhihui Lu, Xiaofang Yu, Yi Fang, Jiachang Hu, Ping Jia, Jie Teng, Xiaoqiang Ding
Renal tubular injury and innate immune responses induced by hypoxia contribute to acute kidney injury. Accumulating evidence suggests that miR-21 overexpression protects against kidney ischemia injury. Additionally, miR-21 emerges as a key inhibitor in dendritic cell maturation. Thus, we hypothesized that miR-21 protects the kidney from IR injury by suppressing epithelial cell damage and inflammatory reaction. In this study, we investigated effects of miR-21 and its signaling pathways (PTEN/AKT/mTOR/HIF, PDCD4/NFκ-B) on kidney ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in vitro and in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013484/central-respiration-and-mechanical-ventilation-in-the-gating-of-swallow-with-breathing
#19
Kofi-Kermit Horton, Lauren S Segers, Sarah C Nuding, Russell O'Connor, Pierina A Alencar, Paul W Davenport, Donald C Bolser, Teresa Pitts, Bruce G Lindsey, Kendall F Morris, Christian Gestreau
Swallow-breathing coordination safeguards the lower airways from tracheal aspiration of bolus material as it moves through the pharynx into the esophagus. Impaired movements of the shared muscles or structures of the aerodigestive tract, or disruptions in the interaction of brainstem swallow and respiratory central pattern generators (CPGs) result in dysphagia. To maximize lower airway protection these CPGs integrate respiratory rhythm generation signals and vagal afferent feedback to synchronize swallow with breathing...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013483/a-mouse-model-of-creatine-transporter-deficiency-reveals-impaired-motor-function-and-muscle-energy-metabolism
#20
Malte Stockebrand, Ali Sasani, Devashish Das, Sönke Hornig, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Hannah A Lake, Dirk Isbrandt, Craig A Lygate, Arend Heerschap, Axel Neu, Chi-Un Choe
Creatine serves as fast energy buffer in organs of high-energy demand such as brain and skeletal muscle. L-Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate N -methyltransferase are responsible for endogenous creatine synthesis. Subsequent uptake into target organs like skeletal muscle, heart and brain is mediated by the creatine transporter (CT1, SLC6A8). Creatine deficiency syndromes are caused by defects of endogenous creatine synthesis or transport and are mainly characterized by intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, poorly developed muscle mass, and in some cases also muscle weakness...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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