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Frontiers in Physiology

Christopher Newell, Timothy E Shutt, Younghee Ahn, Dustin S Hittel, Aneal Khan, Jong M Rho, Jane Shearer
The ketogenic diet (KD) has been utilized as a dietary therapeutic for nearly a century. One experimental model particularly responsive to the KD is the BTBR(T+tf/j) (BTBR) mouse, which displays phenotypic characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and insulin resistance. Recently, the study of impaired mitochondrial function has become a focal point of research investigating the pathophysiology of ASD. As highly dynamic organelles, mitochondria undergo constant fluctuations in morphology, biogenesis, and quality control in order to maintain cellular homeostasis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
M Anette E Haukilahti, Antti Eranti, Tuomas Kenttä, Heikki V Huikuri
The presence of a fragmented QRS complex (fQRS) in two contiguous leads of a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) has been shown to be an indicator of myocardial scar in multiple different populations of cardiac patients. QRS fragmentation is also a predictor of adverse prognosis in acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, and ischemic cardiomyopathy and a prognostic tool in structural heart diseases. An increased risk of sudden cardiac death associated with fQRS has been documented in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Riccardo Monterubbianesi, Giovanna Orsini, Giorgio Tosi, Carla Conti, Vito Librando, Maurizio Procaccini, Angelo Putignano
Objectives: The aims of this study were to in vitro evaluate the degree of conversion and the microhardness properties of five bulk fill resin composites; in addition, the performance of two curing lamps, used for composites polymerization, was also analyzed. Materials and Methods: The following five resin-based bulk fill composites were tested: SureFil SDR®, Fill Up!™, Filtek™, SonicFill™, and SonicFill2™. Samples of 4 mm in thickness were prepared using Teflon molds filled in one increment and light-polymerized using two LED power units...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Heikki Yli-Ollila, Mika P Tarvainen, Tomi P Laitinen, Tiina M Laitinen
The longitudinal motion of the carotid wall is a potential new measure of arterial stiffness. Despite the over decade long research on the subject, the driving force and the specific longitudinal kinetics of the carotid wall has remained unclear. In this study, a transfer function analysis with 20 healthy subjects is presented to derive how the energy from the blood pressure moves the innermost arterial wall longitudinally and how the kinetic energy is then transferred to the outermost arterial layer. The power spectrums display that the main kinetic energy of the longitudinal motion is on band 0-3 Hz with a peak on the 1...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Li Liu, Jinwen Tian, Caiyi Lu, Xi Chen, Yicheng Fu, Bin Xu, Chao Zhu, Yanmei Sun, Yu Zhang, Ying Zhao, Yang Li
Mutations in hERG cause long QT syndrome type 2 which is characterized by a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiogram and predisposition to life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmia, syncope, and sudden death. hERG-G572S induces trafficking defects of hERG channel protein from Golgi to the plasma membrane and results in a dominant negative suppression of hERG current density. As an accessory β subunit, KCNE2 promotes hERG migration from Golgi to cellular membrane. In this study, we investigated the rescue effect of KCNE2 in a G572S mutation of hERG...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Karin Maldonado, Pablo Sabat, Gabriela Piriz, José M Bogdanovich, Roberto F Nespolo, Francisco Bozinovic
Food availability varies substantially throughout animals' lifespans, thus the ability to profit from high food levels may directly influence animal fitness. Studies exploring the link between basal metabolic rate (BMR), growth, reproduction, and other fitness traits have shown varying relationships in terms of both magnitude and direction. The diversity of results has led to the hypothesis that these relationships are modulated by environmental conditions (e.g., food availability), suggesting that the fitness consequences of a given BMR may be context-dependent...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Iransé Oliveira-Silva, Anthony S Leicht, Milton R Moraes, Herbert G Simões, Sebastián Del Rosso, Cláudio Córdova, Daniel A Boullosa
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of physical fitness on cardiac autonomic control in passengers prior to, during and following commercial flights. Twenty-two, physically active men (36.4 ± 6.4 years) undertook assessments of physical fitness followed by recordings of 24-h heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and blood pressure (BP) on a Control (no flight) and Experimental (flight) day. Recordings were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with relationships between variables examined via Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Cong Guo, Wei-Dong Chen, Yan-Dong Wang
G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor, Gpbar1 (TGR5), is a member of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. High levels of TGR5 mRNA were detected in several tissues such as small intestine, stomach, liver, lung, especially in placenta and spleen. TGR5 is not only the receptor for bile acids, but also the receptor for multiple selective synthetic agonists such as 6α-ethyl-23(S)-methyl-cholic acid (6-EMCA, INT-777) and a series of 4-benzofuranyloxynicotinamde derivatives to regulate different signaling pathways such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), AKT, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Harald Tichy, Maria Hellwig, Lydia M Zopf
The response characteristics of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and their corollary, the differential sensitivity and the resolving power, are fundamental to understand olfactory coding and the information extracted from a fluctuating olfactory signal. Previous work has focused on the temporal resolution of odor pulses presented for very brief periods at varying concentrations. The time course of the odor pulses as a stimulus parameter has not been considered. The present study investigated the precision of the ON and OFF ORNs on the antennae of the cockroach to discriminate increments and decrements of continuously rising and falling odor concentrations...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Christian Diener, Osbaldo Resendis-Antonio
Cancer is a heterogeneous disease and its genetic and metabolic mechanism may manifest differently in each patient. This creates a demand for studies that can characterize phenotypic traits of cancer on a per-sample basis. Combining two large data sets, the NCI60 cancer cell line panel, and The Cancer Genome Atlas, we used a linear interaction model to predict proliferation rates for more than 12,000 cancer samples across 33 different cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The predicted proliferation rates are associated with patient survival and cancer stage and show a strong heterogeneity in proliferative capacity within and across different cancer panels...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Patrick Wahl, Udo F Wehmeier, Felix J Jansen, Yvonne Kilian, Wilhelm Bloch, Nikos Werner, Joachim Mester, Thomas Hilberg
Aim: mircoRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression, are stably secreted into the blood and circulating miRNAs (c-miRNAs) may play an important role in cell-cell communication. Furthermore, c-miRNAs might serve as novel biomarkers of the current vascular cell status. Here, we examined how the levels of three vascular c-miRNAs (c-miR-16, c-miR-21, c-miR-126) are acutely affected by different exercise intensities and volumes. Methods: 12 subjects performed 3 different endurance exercise protocols: 1...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Christian Manunzio, Joachim Mester, Walter Kaiser, Patrick Wahl
Aim: To monitor the training intensity distribution (TID) and the development of physiological and performance parameters. Methods: During their preparation period for the RAAM, 4 athletes (plus 1 additional backup racer) performed 3 testing sessions; one before, one after 3, and one after 6 months of training. VO2max, maximal rate of lactate accumulation (dLa/dtmax), critical power, power output at lactate minimum (MLSSP), peak and mean power output during a sprint test, heart rate recovery, isometric strength, jumping height, and body composition were determined...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Caroline V Robertson, Maarten A Immink, Frank E Marino
Rationale: Exogenous cortisol is a modulator of behavior related to increased motivated decision making (Putman et al., 2010), where risky choices yield potentially big reward. Making risk based judgments has been shown to be important to athletes in optimizing pacing during endurance events (Renfree et al., 2014; Micklewright et al., 2015). Objectives: Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine the effect of 50 mg exogenous cortisol on neurophysiological responses and risk taking behavior in nine healthy men...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Brendan R Scott, Paul S R Goods, Katie M Slattery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Kyle C A Wedgwood, Sarah J Richardson, Noel G Morgan, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an auto-immune disease characterized by the selective destruction of the insulin secreting beta cells in the pancreas during an inflammatory phase known as insulitis. Patients with T1D are typically dependent on the administration of externally provided insulin in order to manage blood glucose levels. Whilst technological developments have significantly improved both the life expectancy and quality of life of these patients, an understanding of the mechanisms of the disease remains elusive...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Thomas G Mason, Jeffrey A Kraut
We hypothesize that reduced osmolarity mixed-base (ROMB) solutions can potentially serve as customizable treatments for acidoses, going beyond standard solutions in clinical use, such as 1.0 M sodium bicarbonate. Through in silico quantitative modeling, by treating acidified canine blood using ROMB solutions, and by performing blood-gas and optical microscopy measurements in vitro, we demonstrate that ROMB solutions having a high proportion of a strong base, such as disodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide, can be effective in reducing carbon dioxide pressure PCO2 while raising pH and bicarbonate ion concentration without causing significant osmotic damage to red blood cells, which can occur during rapid administration of hypertonic solutions of weak bases...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Chiara Pugliese, Rosa Mazza, Paul L R Andrews, Maria C Cerra, Graziano Fiorito, Alfonsina Gattuso
Magnesium chloride (MgCl2) is commonly used as a general anesthetic in cephalopods, but its physiological effects including those at cardiac level are not well-characterized. We used an in vitro isolated perfused systemic heart preparation from the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, to investigate: (a) if in vivo exposure to MgCl2 formulations had an effect on cardiac function in vitro and, if so, could this impact recovery and (b) direct effects of MgCl2 formulations on cardiac function. In vitro hearts removed from animals exposed in vivo to 3...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Andreas Fahlman, Johnny Madigan
[This corrects the article on p. 528 in vol. 7, PMID: 27899896.].
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Birgit Goversen, Teun P de Boer, Marcel A G van der Heyden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Miguel J S Bortolini, Murilo V Silva, Fábio M Alonso, Luciana A Medeiros, Fernando R Carvalho, Lourenço F Costa, Neide M Silva, Nilson Penha-Silva, Tiago W P Mineo, José R Mineo
Physical exercise has been implicated in several immunophysiological improvements, particularly during the aging process, when an immunocompromised status could be established. Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that causes a widespread opportunistic infection, which may present severe consequences, mainly to the fetus and immunocompromised patients. It is estimated that one-third of the human population worldwide has been infected by this parasite, being the reactivation during immunesenescence an unexplored public health issue...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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