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Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience

Ludovic D Langlois, Matthieu Dacher, Fereshteh S Nugent
One of the most influential synaptic learning rules explored in the past decades is activity dependent spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). In STDP, synapses are either potentiated or depressed based on the order of pre- and postsynaptic neuronal activation within narrow, milliseconds-long, time intervals. STDP is subject to neuromodulation by dopamine (DA), a potent neurotransmitter that significantly impacts synaptic plasticity and reward-related behavioral learning. Previously, we demonstrated that GABAergic synapses onto ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons are able to express STDP (Kodangattil et al...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Chen Zhang, Jaewon Ko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Tatiana V Lipina, Nikolay A Beregovoy, Alina A Tkachenko, Ekaterina S Petrova, Marina V Starostina, Qiang Zhou, Shupeng Li
Both Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) and dopamine receptors D2R have significant contributions to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Our previous study demonstrated that DISC1 binds to D2R and such protein-protein interaction is enhanced in patients with schizophrenia and Disc1-L100P mouse model of schizophrenia (Su et al., 2014). By uncoupling DISC1 × D2R interaction (trans-activator of transcription (TAT)-D2pep), the synthesized TAT-peptide elicited antipsychotic-like effects in pharmacological and genetic animal models, without motor side effects as tardive dyskinesia commonly seen with typical antipsychotic drugs (APDs), indicating that the potential of TAT-D2pep of becoming a new APD...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Yoshihisa Nakahata, Ryohei Yasuda
Dendritic spines are small protrusive structures on dendritic surfaces, and function as postsynaptic compartments for excitatory synapses. Plasticity of spine structure is associated with many forms of long-term neuronal plasticity, learning and memory. Inside these small dendritic compartments, biochemical states and protein-protein interactions are dynamically modulated by synaptic activity, leading to the regulation of protein synthesis and reorganization of cytoskeletal architecture. This in turn causes plasticity of structure and function of the spine...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Daniele Repetto, Johannes Brockhaus, Hong J Rhee, Chungku Lee, Manfred W Kilimann, Jeongseop Rhee, Lisa M Northoff, Wenjia Guo, Carsten Reissner, Markus Missler
Spines are small protrusions from dendrites where most excitatory synapses reside. Changes in number, shape, and size of dendritic spines often reflect changes of neural activity in entire circuits or at individual synapses, making spines key structures of synaptic plasticity. Neurobeachin is a multidomain protein with roles in spine formation, postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor targeting and actin distribution. However, the contributions of individual domains of Neurobeachin to these functions is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Yutaka Furutani, Yoshihiro Yoshihara
Dendritic filopodia are thin, long, and highly mobile protrusions functioning as spine precursors. By contrast with a wealth of knowledge on molecular profiles in spines, little is known about structural and functional proteins present in dendritic filopodia. To reveal the molecular constituents of dendritic filopodia, we developed a new method for biochemical preparation of proteins enriched in dendritic filopodia, by taking advantage of specific and strong binding between a dendritic filopodial membrane protein, telencephalin, and its extracellular matrix ligand, vitronectin...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Roman Blome, Willi Bach, Xiati Guli, Katrin Porath, Tina Sellmann, Christian G Bien, Rüdiger Köhling, Timo Kirschstein
Purpose : Autoantibodies against NMDA receptors (NMDAR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients have been suggested to be pathogenic since in previous studies using patient CSF, NMDAR-dependent processes such as long-term potentiation (LTP) were compromised. However, autoantibodies may represent a family of antibodies targeted against different epitopes, and CSF may contain further autoantibodies. Here, we tested the specificity of the autoantibody by comparing NMDAR-dependent and NMDAR-independent LTP within the same hippocampal subfield, CA3, using CSF samples from four anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients and three control patients...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Astrid Rollenhagen, Ora Ohana, Kurt Sätzler, Claus C Hilgetag, Dietmar Kuhl, Joachim H R Lübke
Cortical computations rely on functionally diverse and highly dynamic synapses. How their structural composition affects synaptic transmission and plasticity and whether they support functional diversity remains rather unclear. Here, synaptic boutons on layer 5B (L5B) pyramidal neurons in the adult rat barrel cortex were investigated. Simultaneous patch-clamp recordings from synaptically connected L5B pyramidal neurons revealed great heterogeneity in amplitudes, coefficients of variation (CVs), and failures (F%) of EPSPs...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Ahmet S Ozcan, Mehmet S Ozcan
Structural plasticity, characterized by the formation and elimination of synapses, plays a big role in learning and long-term memory formation in the brain. The majority of the synapses in the neocortex occur between the axonal boutons and dendritic spines. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of the dendritic spine growth and elimination can provide key insights to the mechanisms of structural plasticity. In addition to learning and memory formation, the connectivity of neural networks affects cognition, perception, and behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Jivan Khlghatyan, Jean-Martin Beaulieu
Dopamine receptors and related signaling pathways have long been implicated in pathophysiology and treatment of mental illnesses, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Dopamine signaling may impact neuronal activity by modulation of glutamate neurotransmission. Recent evidence indicates a direct and/or indirect involvement of fragile X-related family proteins (FXR) in the regulation and mediation of dopamine receptor functions. FXRs consists of fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (Fmr1/FMRP) and its autosomal homologs Fxr1 and Fxr2...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Claire Guerrier, David Holcman
Calcium diffusion in the thin 100 nm layer located between the plasma membrane and docked vesicles in the pre-synaptic terminal of neuronal cells mediates vesicular fusion and synaptic transmission. Accounting for the narrow-cusp geometry located underneath the vesicle is a key ingredient that defines the probability and the time scale of calcium diffusion to bind calcium sensors for the initiation of vesicular release. We review here the time scale, the calcium binding dynamics and the consequences for asynchronous versus synchronous release...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Jary Y Delgado, Paul R Selvin
Calcium dynamics in presynaptic terminals regulate the response dynamics of most central excitatory synapses. However, this dogma has been challenged by the hypothesis that mobility of the postsynaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid subtype glutamate receptors (AMPAR) plays a role in tuning fast excitatory synaptic transmission. In this review, we reevaluate the factors regulating postsynaptic AMPAR mobility, reassess the modeling parameters, analyze the experimental tools, and end by providing alternative ideas stemming from recent results...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Heather McGowan, Vincent R Mirabella, Aula Hamod, Aziz Karakhanyan, Nicole Mlynaryk, Jennifer C Moore, Jay A Tischfield, Ronald P Hart, Zhiping P Pang
Non-coding RNA, including microRNA (miRNA) serves critical regulatory functions in the developing brain. The let-7 family of miRNAs has been shown to regulate neuronal differentiation, neural subtype specification, and synapse formation in animal models. However, the regulatory role of human let-7c (hsa-let-7c) in human neuronal development has yet to be examined. Let-7c is encoded on chromosome 21 in humans and therefore may be overexpressed in human brains in Trisomy 21 (T21), a complex neurodevelopmental disorder...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Miguel Perez De La Mora, Paul Manger, Manuel Narváez, Sarah Beggiato, Minerva Crespo-Ramírez, Gemma Navarro, Karolina Wydra, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Alicia Rivera, Luca Ferraro, Sergio Tanganelli, Małgorzata Filip, Rafael Franco, Kjell Fuxe
This perspective article provides observations supporting the view that nigro-striatal dopamine neurons and meso-limbic dopamine neurons mainly communicate through short distance volume transmission in the um range with dopamine diffusing into extrasynaptic and synaptic regions of glutamate and GABA synapses. Based on this communication it is discussed how volume transmission modulates synaptic glutamate transmission onto the D1R modulated direct and D2R modulated indirect GABA pathways of the dorsal striatum...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Annette Gower, Mario Tiberi
Dopamine, a major neurotransmitter, plays a role in a wide range of brain sensorimotor functions. Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia are two major human neuropsychiatric disorders typically associated with dysfunctional dopamine activity levels, which can be alleviated through the druggability of the dopaminergic systems. Meanwhile, several studies suggest that optimal brain dopamine activity levels are also significantly impacted in other serious neurological conditions, notably stroke, but this has yet to be fully appreciated at both basic and clinical research levels...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Keerthi Thirtamara Rajamani, Shlomo Wagner, Valery Grinevich, Hala Harony-Nicolas
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is a crucial mediator of parturition and milk ejection and a major modulator of various social behaviors, including social recognition, aggression and parenting. In the past decade, there has been significant excitement around the possible use of OXT to treat behavioral deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Yet, despite the fast move to clinical trials with OXT, little attention has been paid to the possibility that the OXT system in the brain is perturbed in these disorders and to what extent such perturbations may contribute to social behavior deficits...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Andrew D Bolton, Martha Constantine-Paton
Working memory is the ability to hold information "online" over a time delay in order to perform a task. This kind of memory is encoded in the brain by persistent neural activity that outlasts the presentation of a stimulus. Patients with schizophrenia perform poorly in working memory tasks that require the brief memory of a target location in space. This deficit indicates that persistent neural activity related to spatial locations may be impaired in the disease. At the circuit level, many studies have shown that NMDA receptors and the dopamine system are involved in both schizophrenia pathology and working memory-related persistent activity...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Hadi Zarif, Salma Hosseiny, Agnès Paquet, Kevin Lebrigand, Marie-Jeanne Arguel, Julie Cazareth, Anne Lazzari, Catherine Heurteaux, Nicolas Glaichenhaus, Joëlle Chabry, Alice Guyon, Agnès Petit-Paitel
Living in an enriched environment (EE) benefits health by acting synergistically on various biological systems including the immune and the central nervous systems. The dialog between the brain and the immune cells has recently gained interest and is thought to play a pivotal role in beneficial effects of EE. Recent studies show that T lymphocytes have an important role in hippocampal plasticity, learning, and memory, although the precise mechanisms by which they act on the brain remain elusive. Using a mouse model of EE, we show here that CD4+ T cells are essential for spinogenesis and glutamatergic synaptic function in the CA of the hippocampus...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Hansen Wang
The complexity and delicacy of human brain make it challenging to recapitulate its development, function and disorders. Brain organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) provide a new tool to model both normal and pathological human brain, and greatly enhance our ability to study brain biology and diseases. Currently, human brain organoids are increasingly used in modeling neurological disorders and relative therapeutic discovery. This review article focuses on recent advances in human brain organoid system and its application in disease modeling...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Elaine Del-Bel, Francisco F De-Miguel
This review article deals with the mechanisms of extrasynaptic release of transmitter substances, namely the release from the soma, axon and dendrites in the absence of postsynaptic counterparts. Extrasynaptic release occurs by exocytosis or diffusion. Spillover from the synaptic cleft also contributes to extrasynaptic neurotransmission. Here, we first describe two well-known examples of exocytosis from the neuronal soma, which may release copious amounts of transmitter for up to hundreds of seconds after electrical stimulation...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
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