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Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899695/intravascular-ketamine-increases-theta-burst-but-not-high-frequency-tetanus-induced-ltp-at-ca3-ca1-synapses-within-three-hours-and-devoid-of-an-increase-in-spine-density
#1
Allie J Widman, Amy E Stewart, Elise M Erb, Elizabeth Gardner, Lori L McMahon
In the past 20 years, ketamine has become a promising treatment for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) due to its rapid and sustain antidepressant effects in patients. A single ketamine treatment causes improvement in depressive symptoms within hours and can last weeks, long after it is eliminated. Previous studies have demonstrated increased synaptic plasticity at CA3-CA1 synapses in hippocampus (HPC) 24 h post ketamine treatment suggesting increased activity-dependent hippocampal function may underlie the antidepressant effects of ketamine...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896097/a-focus-on-reward-prediction-and-the-lateral-habenula-functional-alterations-and-the-behavioral-outcomes-induced-by-drugs-of-abuse
#2
REVIEW
Nicholas M Graziane, Peter A Neumann, Yan Dong
The lateral habenula (LHb) regulates reward learning and controls the updating of reward-related information. Drugs of abuse have the capacity to hijack the cellular and neurocircuit mechanisms mediating reward learning, forming non-adaptable, compulsive behaviors geared toward obtaining illicit substances. Here, we discuss current findings demonstrating how drugs of abuse alter intrinsic and synaptic LHb neuronal function. Additionally, we discuss evidence for how drug-induced LHb alterations may affect the ability to predict reward, potentially facilitating an addiction-like state...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875651/prospects-of-zinc-supplementation-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-shankopathies-such-as-phelan-mcdermid-syndrome
#3
Simone Hagmeyer, Ann Katrin Sauer, Andreas M Grabrucker
The loss of one copy of SHANK3 (SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3) in humans highly contributes to Phelan McDermid syndrome (PMDS). In addition, SHANK3 was identified as a major autism candidate gene. Interestingly, the protein encoded by the SHANK3 gene is regulated by zinc. While zinc deficiency depletes synaptic pools of Shank3, increased zinc levels were shown to promote synaptic scaffold formation. Therefore, the hypothesis arises that patients with PMDS and Autism caused by Shankopathies, having one intact copy of SHANK3 left, may benefit from zinc supplementation, as elevated zinc may drive remaining Shank3 into the post-synaptic density (PSD) and may additional recruit Shank2, a second zinc-dependent member of the SHANK gene family...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875650/the-actin-spectrin-membrane-associated-periodic-skeleton-in-neurons
#4
REVIEW
Nicolas Unsain, Fernando D Stefani, Alfredo Cáceres
Neurons are the most asymmetric cell types, with their axons commonly extending over lengths that are thousand times longer than the diameter of the cell soma. Fluorescence nanoscopy has recently unveiled that actin, spectrin and accompanying proteins form a membrane-associated periodic skeleton (MPS) that is ubiquitously present in mature axons from all neuronal types evaluated so far. The MPS is a regular supramolecular protein structure consisting of actin "rings" separated by spectrin tetramer "spacers"...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872390/resveratrol-prevents-cellular-and-behavioral-sensory-alterations-in-the-animal-model-of-autism-induced-by-valproic-acid
#5
Mellanie Fontes-Dutra, Júlio Santos-Terra, Iohanna Deckmann, Gustavo Brum Schwingel, Gustavo Della-Flora Nunes, Mauro Mozael Hirsch, Guilherme Bauer-Negrini, Rudimar S Riesgo, Victorio Bambini-Júnior, Cecília Hedin-Pereira, Carmem Gottfried
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in both social communication and interaction and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. Although its etiology remains unknown, genetic and environmental risk factors have been associated with this disorder, including the exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy. Resveratrol (RSV) is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant molecule known to prevent social impairments in the VPA animal model of autism. This study aimed to analyze the effects of prenatal exposure to VPA, as well as possible preventive effects of RSV, on sensory behavior, the localization of GABAergic parvalbumin (PV+ ) neurons in sensory brain regions and the expression of proteins of excitatory and inhibitory synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867437/cell-type-specific-development-of-the-hyperpolarization-activated-current-ih-in-prefrontal-cortical-neurons
#6
Sha-Sha Yang, Yan-Chun Li, Austin A Coley, Linda A Chamberlin, Ping Yu, Wen-Jun Gao
H-current, also known as hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih), is an inward current generated by the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) cation channels. Ih plays an essential role in regulating neuronal properties, synaptic integration and plasticity, and synchronous activity in the brain. As these biological factors change across development, the brain undergoes varying levels of vulnerability to disorders like schizophrenia that disrupt prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent function...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760657/purkinje-cell-signaling-deficits-in-animal-models-of-ataxia
#7
REVIEW
Eriola Hoxha, Ilaria Balbo, Maria Concetta Miniaci, Filippo Tempia
Purkinje cell (PC) dysfunction or degeneration is the most frequent finding in animal models with ataxic symptoms. Mutations affecting intrinsic membrane properties can lead to ataxia by altering the firing rate of PCs or their firing pattern. However, the relationship between specific firing alterations and motor symptoms is not yet clear, and in some cases PC dysfunction precedes the onset of ataxic signs. Moreover, a great variety of ionic and synaptic mechanisms can affect PC signaling, resulting in different features of motor dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695960/memory-synapses-are-defined-by-distinct-molecular-complexes-a-proposal
#8
REVIEW
Wayne S Sossin
Synapses are diverse in form and function. While there are strong evidential and theoretical reasons for believing that memories are stored at synapses, the concept of a specialized "memory synapse" is rarely discussed. Here, we review the evidence that memories are stored at the synapse and consider the opposing possibilities. We argue that if memories are stored in an active fashion at synapses, then these memory synapses must have distinct molecular complexes that distinguish them from other synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674962/invaginating-structures-in-mammalian-synapses
#9
REVIEW
Ronald S Petralia, Ya-Xian Wang, Mark P Mattson, Pamela J Yao
Invaginating structures at chemical synapses in the mammalian nervous system exist in presynaptic axon terminals, postsynaptic spines or dendrites, and glial processes. These invaginating structures can be divided into three categories. The first category includes slender protrusions invaginating into axonal terminals, postsynaptic spines, or glial processes. Best known examples of this category are spinules extending from postsynaptic spines into presynaptic terminals in forebrain synapses. Another example of this category are protrusions from inhibitory presynaptic terminals invaginating into postsynaptic neuronal somas...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643800/interaction-of-norepinephrine-and-glucocorticoids-modulate-inhibition-of-principle-cells-of-layer-ii-medial-entorhinal-cortex-in-male-mice
#10
Jeremiah P Hartner, Laura A Schrader
Spatial memory processing requires functional interaction between the hippocampus and the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). The grid cells of the MEC are most abundant in layer II and rely on a complex network of local inhibitory interneurons to generate spatial firing properties. Stress can cause spatial memory deficits in males, but the specific underlying mechanisms affecting the known memory pathways remain unclear. Stress activates both the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to release norepinephrine (NE) and glucocorticoids, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515433/structure-activity-investigation-of-a-g-protein-biased-agonist-reveals-molecular-determinants-for-biased-signaling-of-the-d-2-dopamine-receptor
#11
Lani S Chun, Rakesh H Vekariya, R Benjamin Free, Yun Li, Da-Ting Lin, Ping Su, Fang Liu, Yoon Namkung, Stephane A Laporte, Amy E Moritz, Jeffrey Aubé, Kevin J Frankowski, David R Sibley
The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is known to elicit effects through activating two major signaling pathways mediated by either G proteins (Gi/o) or β-arrestins. However, the specific role of each pathway in physiological or therapeutic activities is not known with certainty. One approach to the dissection of these pathways is through the use of drugs that can selectively modulate one pathway vs. the other through a mechanism known as functional selectivity or biased signaling. Our laboratory has previously described a G protein signaling-biased agonist, MLS1547, for the D2R using a variety of in vitro functional assays...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445338/synaptic-homeostasis-and-allostasis-in-the-dentate-gyrus-caused-by-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain-conditions
#12
Rui-Rui Wang, Yan Wang, Su-Min Guan, Zhen Li, Saurabh Kokane, Fa-Le Cao, Wei Sun, Chun-Li Li, Ting He, Yan Yang, Qing Lin, Jun Chen
It has been generally accepted that pain can cause imbalance between excitation and inhibition (homeostasis) at the synaptic level. However, it remains poorly understood how this imbalance (allostasis) develops in the CNS under different pain conditions. Here, we analyzed the changes in both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission and modulation of the dentate gyrus (DG) under two pain conditions with different etiology and duration. First, it was revealed that the functions of the input-output (I/O) curves for evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) following the perforant path (PP) stimulation were gained under both acute inflammatory and chronic neuropathic pain conditions relative to the controls...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354047/commentary-synaptic-vesicle-glycoprotein-2c-sv2c-modulates-dopamine-release-and-is-disrupted-in-parkinson-disease
#13
COMMENT
Sachchida Nand Rai, Hareram Birla, Walia Zahra, Saumitra Sen Singh, Surya Pratap Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311892/selective-inactivation-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-22-fgf22-in-ca3-pyramidal-neurons-impairs-local-synaptogenesis-and-affective-behavior-without-affecting-dentate-neurogenesis
#14
Akiko Terauchi, Elizabeth Gavin, Julia Wilson, Hisashi Umemori
Various growth factors regulate synapse development and neurogenesis, and are essential for brain function. Changes in growth factor signaling are implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, autism and epilepsy. We have previously identified that fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) is critical for excitatory synapse formation in several brain regions including the hippocampus. Mice with a genetic deletion of FGF22 (FGF22 null mice) have fewer excitatory synapses in the hippocampus. We have further found that as a behavioral consequence, FGF22 null mice show a depression-like behavior phenotype such as increased passive stress-coping behavior and anhedonia, without any changes in motor, anxiety, or social cognitive tests, suggesting that FGF22 is specifically important for affective behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302259/function-of-the-deubiquitinating-enzyme-usp46-in-the-nervous-system-and-its-regulation-by-wd40-repeat-proteins
#15
Molly Hodul, Caroline L Dahlberg, Peter Juo
Posttranslational modification of proteins by ubiquitin regulates synapse development and synaptic transmission. Much progress has been made investigating the role of ubiquitin ligases at the synapse, however very little is known about the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) which remove ubiquitin from target proteins. Although there are far fewer DUBs than ubiquitin ligases encoded by the human genome, it is becoming clear that DUBs have very specific physiological functions, suggesting that DUB activity is tightly regulated in vivo ...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163124/the-search-for-an-effective-therapy-to-treat-fragile-x-syndrome-dream-or-reality
#16
REVIEW
Sara Castagnola, Barbara Bardoni, Thomas Maurin
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of intellectual disability and a primary cause of autism. It originates from the lack of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), which is an RNA-binding protein encoded by the Fragile X Mental Retardation Gene 1 ( FMR1 ) gene. Multiple roles have been attributed to this protein, ranging from RNA transport (from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, but also along neurites) to translational control of mRNAs. Over the last 20 years many studies have found a large number of FMRP mRNA targets, but it is still not clear which are those playing a critical role in the etiology of FXS...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118709/piccolo-promotes-vesicle-replenishment-at-a-fast-central-auditory-synapse
#17
Tanvi Butola, Carolin Wichmann, Tobias Moser
Piccolo and Bassoon are the two largest cytomatrix of the active zone (CAZ) proteins involved in scaffolding and regulating neurotransmitter release at presynaptic active zones (AZs), but have long been discussed as being functionally redundant. We employed genetic manipulation to bring forth and segregate the role of Piccolo from that of Bassoon at central auditory synapses of the cochlear nucleus-the endbulbs of Held. These synapses specialize in high frequency synaptic transmission, ideally poised to reveal even subtle deficits in the regulation of neurotransmitter release upon molecular perturbation...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046633/activity-dependent-phosphorylation-by-camkii%C3%AE-alters-the-ca-2-affinity-of-the-multi-c-2-domain-protein-otoferlin
#18
Sandra Meese, Andreia P Cepeda, Felix Gahlen, Christopher M Adams, Ralf Ficner, Anthony J Ricci, Stefan Heller, Ellen Reisinger, Meike Herget
Otoferlin is essential for fast Ca2+ -triggered transmitter release from auditory inner hair cells (IHCs), playing key roles in synaptic vesicle release, replenishment and retrieval. Dysfunction of otoferlin results in profound prelingual deafness. Despite its crucial role in cochlear synaptic processes, mechanisms regulating otoferlin activity have not been studied to date. Here, we identified Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine kinase II delta (CaMKIIδ) as an otoferlin binding partner by pull-downs from chicken utricles and reassured interaction by a co-immunoprecipitation with heterologously expressed proteins in HEK cells...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676753/filopodia-a-rapid-structural-plasticity-substrate-for-fast-learning
#19
Ahmet S Ozcan
Formation of new synapses between neurons is an essential mechanism for learning and encoding memories. The vast majority of excitatory synapses occur on dendritic spines, therefore, the growth dynamics of spines is strongly related to the plasticity timescales. Especially in the early stages of the developing brain, there is an abundant number of long, thin and motile protrusions (i.e., filopodia), which develop in timescales of seconds and minutes. Because of their unique morphology and motility, it has been suggested that filopodia can have a dual role in both spinogenesis and environmental sampling of potential axonal partners...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674490/what-the-spectrum-of-microglial-functions-can-teach-us-about-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Elissa L Wong, Rianne D Stowell, Ania K Majewska
Alcohol exposure during gestation can lead to severe defects in brain development and lifelong physical, behavioral and learning deficits that are classified under the umbrella term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Sadly, FASD is diagnosed at an alarmingly high rate, affecting 2%-5% of live births in the United States, making it the most common non-heritable cause of mental disability. Currently, no standard therapies exist that are effective at battling FASD symptoms, highlighting a pressing need to better understand the underlying mechanisms by which alcohol affects the developing brain...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
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