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Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352224/coexistence-of-multiple-types-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-individual-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-neurons
#1
Elke Edelmann, Efrain Cepeda-Prado, Volkmar Leßmann
Understanding learning and memory mechanisms is an important goal in neuroscience. To gain insights into the underlying cellular mechanisms for memory formation, synaptic plasticity processes are studied with various techniques in different brain regions. A valid model to scrutinize different ways to enhance or decrease synaptic transmission is recording of long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD). At the single cell level, spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) protocols have emerged as a powerful tool to investigate synaptic plasticity with stimulation paradigms that also likely occur during memory formation in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280464/endogenous-leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-2-slows-synaptic-vesicle-recycling-in-striatal-neurons
#2
James W Jr Maas, Jing Yang, Robert H Edwards
Dominant mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) produce the most common inherited form of Parkinson's disease (PD) but the function of LRRK2 remains poorly understood. The presynaptic role of multiple genes linked to PD including α-synuclein (α-syn) has suggested that LRRK2 may also influence neurotransmitter release, a possibility supported by recent work. However, the use of disease-associated mutants that cause toxicity complicates the analysis. To determine whether LRRK2 normally influences the synaptic vesicle, we have now used a combination of imaging and electrophysiology to study LRRK2 knockout (KO) mice...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210219/mice-lacking-m1-and-m3-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-have-impaired-odor-discrimination-and-learning
#3
Wilson Chan, Sanmeet Singh, Taj Keshav, Ramita Dewan, Christian Eberly, Robert Maurer, Alexia Nunez-Parra, Ricardo C Araneda
The cholinergic system has extensive projections to the olfactory bulb (OB) where it produces a state-dependent regulation of sensory gating. Previous work has shown a prominent role of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs) in regulating the excitability of OB neurons, in particular the M1 receptor. Here, we examined the contribution of M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes to olfactory processing using mice with a genetic deletion of these receptors, the M1(-/-) and the M1/M3(-/-) knockout (KO) mice. Genetic ablation of the M1 and M3 mAChRs resulted in a significant deficit in odor discrimination of closely related molecules, including stereoisomers...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#4
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197093/ultrastructural-and-functional-properties-of-a-giant-synapse-driving-the-piriform-cortex-to-mediodorsal-thalamus-projection
#5
Patric Pelzer, Heinz Horstmann, Thomas Kuner
Neocortico-thalamo-cortical loops represent a common, yet poorly understood, circuit employing giant synapses also referred to as "class I", giant, or driver synapses. Here, we characterize a giant synapse formed by projection neurons of the paleocortical piriform cortex (PIR) onto neurons of the mediodorsal thalamus (MD). Three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructure of labeled PIR-MD terminals, obtained by using serial-section scanning electron microscopy (EM) combined with photooxidation-based detection of labeled terminals, revealed a large terminal engulfing multiple postsynaptic dendritic excrescences...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163681/app-deletion-accounts-for-age-dependent-changes-in-the-bioenergetic-metabolism-and-in-hyperphosphorylated-camkii-at-stimulated-hippocampal-presynaptic-active-zones
#6
Melanie Laßek, Jens Weingarten, Martin Wegner, Moritz Neupärtl, Tabiwang N Array, Eva Harde, Benedikt Beckert, Vahid Golghalyani, Jörg Ackermann, Ina Koch, Ulrike C Müller, Michael Karas, Amparo Acker-Palmer, Walter Volknandt
Synaptic release sites are characterized by exocytosis-competent synaptic vesicles tightly anchored to the presynaptic active zone (PAZ) whose proteome orchestrates the fast signaling events involved in synaptic vesicle cycle and plasticity. Allocation of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to the PAZ proteome implicated a functional impact of APP in neuronal communication. In this study, we combined state-of-the-art proteomics, electrophysiology and bioinformatics to address protein abundance and functional changes at the native hippocampal PAZ in young and old APP-KO mice...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119596/the-role-of-neuromodulators-in-cortical-plasticity-a-computational-perspective
#7
Victor Pedrosa, Claudia Clopath
Neuromodulators play a ubiquitous role across the brain in regulating plasticity. With recent advances in experimental techniques, it is possible to study the effects of diverse neuromodulatory states in specific brain regions. Neuromodulators are thought to impact plasticity predominantly through two mechanisms: the gating of plasticity and the upregulation of neuronal activity. However, the consequences of these mechanisms are poorly understood and there is a need for both experimental and theoretical exploration...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018206/the-role-of-multiple-neuromodulators-in-reinforcement-learning-that-is-based-on-competition-between-eligibility-traces
#8
Marco A Huertas, Sarah E Schwettmann, Harel Z Shouval
The ability to maximize reward and avoid punishment is essential for animal survival. Reinforcement learning (RL) refers to the algorithms used by biological or artificial systems to learn how to maximize reward or avoid negative outcomes based on past experiences. While RL is also important in machine learning, the types of mechanistic constraints encountered by biological machinery might be different than those for artificial systems. Two major problems encountered by RL are how to relate a stimulus with a reinforcing signal that is delayed in time (temporal credit assignment), and how to stop learning once the target behaviors are attained (stopping rule)...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018205/editorial-imaging-synapse-structure-and-function
#9
EDITORIAL
George J Augustine, Marc Fivaz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857688/modulation-plasticity-and-pathophysiology-of-the-parallel-fiber-purkinje-cell-synapse
#10
REVIEW
Eriola Hoxha, Filippo Tempia, Pellegrino Lippiello, Maria Concetta Miniaci
The parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapse represents the point of maximal signal divergence in the cerebellar cortex with an estimated number of about 60 billion synaptic contacts in the rat and 100,000 billions in humans. At the same time, the Purkinje cell dendritic tree is a site of remarkable convergence of more than 100,000 parallel fiber synapses. Parallel fiber activity generates fast postsynaptic currents via α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, and slower signals, mediated by mGlu1 receptors, resulting in Purkinje cell depolarization accompanied by sharp calcium elevation within dendritic regions...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822183/can-the-lateral-habenula-crack-the-serotonin-code
#11
REVIEW
Anna Tchenio, Kristina Valentinova, Manuel Mameli
The lateral habenula (LHb) and the serotonergic system both contribute to motivational states by encoding rewarding and aversive signals. Converging evidence suggests that perturbation of these systems is critical for the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Anatomical and functional studies indicate that the serotonergic system and the LHb are interconnected in a forward-feedback loop. However, how serotonin release modifies the synaptic and cellular properties of LHb neurons and whether this has any behavioral repercussions remain poorly investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818632/afferent-input-selects-nmda-receptor-subtype-to-determine-the-persistency-of-hippocampal-ltp-in-freely-behaving-mice
#12
Jesús J Ballesteros, Arne Buschler, Georg Köhr, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
The glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is critically involved in many forms of hippocampus-dependent memory that may be enabled by synaptic plasticity. Behavioral studies with NMDAR antagonists and NMDAR subunit (GluN2) mutants revealed distinct contributions from GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing NMDARs to rapidly and slowly acquired memory performance. Furthermore, studies of synaptic plasticity, in genetically modified mice in vitro, suggest that GluN2A and GluN2B may contribute in different ways to the induction and longevity of synaptic plasticity...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799909/neuromodulation-of-the-feedforward-dentate-gyrus-ca3-microcircuit
#13
REVIEW
Luke Y Prince, Travis J Bacon, Cezar M Tigaret, Jack R Mellor
The feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit in the hippocampus is thought to activate ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons to encode and retrieve episodic memories. The creation of these CA3 ensembles depends on neuromodulatory input and synaptic plasticity within this microcircuit. Here we review the mechanisms by which the neuromodulators aceylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin reconfigure this microcircuit and thereby infer the net effect of these modulators on the processes of episodic memory encoding and retrieval...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725799/loss-of-catecholaminergic-neuromodulation-of-persistent-forms-of-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-with-increasing-age
#14
Hannah Twarkowski, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
Neuromodulation by means of the catecholaminergic system is a key component of motivation-driven learning and behaviorally modulated hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In particular, dopamine acting on D1/D5 receptors and noradrenaline acting on beta-adrenergic receptors exert a very potent regulation of forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity that last for very long-periods of time (>24 h), and occur in conjunction with novel spatial learning. Antagonism of these receptors not only prevents long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), but prevents the memory of the spatial event that, under normal circumstances, leads to the perpetuation of these plasticity forms...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721791/dopamine-d1-d5-but-not-d2-d3-receptor-dependency-of-synaptic-plasticity-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-that-is-enabled-by-patterned-afferent-stimulation-or-spatial-learning
#15
Hardy Hagena, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
Although the mossy fiber (MF) synapses of the hippocampal CA3 region display quite distinct properties in terms of the molecular mechanisms that underlie synaptic plasticity, they nonetheless exhibit persistent (>24 h) synaptic plasticity that is akin to that observed at the Schaffer collateral (SCH)-CA1 and perforant path (PP)-dentate gyrus (DG) synapses of freely behaving rats. In addition, they also respond to novel spatial learning with very enduring forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD)...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695411/organelle-specific-sensors-for-monitoring-ca-2-dynamics-in-neurons
#16
REVIEW
Seok-Kyu Kwon, Yusuke Hirabayashi, Franck Polleux
Calcium (Ca(2+)) plays innumerable critical functions in neurons ranging from regulation of neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity to activity-dependent transcription. Therefore, more than any other cell types, neurons are critically dependent on spatially and temporally controlled Ca(2+) dynamics. This is achieved through an exquisite level of compartmentalization of Ca(2+) storage and release from various organelles. The function of these organelles in the regulation of Ca(2+) dynamics has been studied for decades using electrophysiological and optical methods combined with pharmacological and genetic alterations...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616990/locus-ceruleus-norepinephrine-release-a-central-regulator-of-cns-spatio-temporal-activation
#17
Marco Atzori, Roberto Cuevas-Olguin, Eric Esquivel-Rendon, Francisco Garcia-Oscos, Roberto C Salgado-Delgado, Nadia Saderi, Marcela Miranda-Morales, Mario Treviño, Juan C Pineda, Humberto Salgado
Norepinephrine (NE) is synthesized in the Locus Coeruleus (LC) of the brainstem, from where it is released by axonal varicosities throughout the brain via volume transmission. A wealth of data from clinics and from animal models indicates that this catecholamine coordinates the activity of the central nervous system (CNS) and of the whole organism by modulating cell function in a vast number of brain areas in a coordinated manner. The ubiquity of NE receptors, the daunting number of cerebral areas regulated by the catecholamine, as well as the variety of cellular effects and of their timescales have contributed so far to defeat the attempts to integrate central adrenergic function into a unitary and coherent framework...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610081/editorial-molecular-nanomachines-of-the-presynaptic-terminal
#18
EDITORIAL
Silvio O Rizzoli, Lucia Tabares
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601992/correlative-light-electron-microscopy-connecting-synaptic-structure-and-function
#19
REVIEW
Isabell Begemann, Milos Galic
Many core paradigms of contemporary neuroscience are based on information obtained by electron or light microscopy. Intriguingly, these two imaging techniques are often viewed as complementary, yet separate entities. Recent technological advancements in microscopy techniques, labeling tools, and fixation or preparation procedures have fueled the development of a series of hybrid approaches that allow correlating functional fluorescence microscopy data and ultrastructural information from electron micrographs from a singular biological event...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601991/how-invariant-feature-selectivity-is-achieved-in-cortex
#20
Tatyana O Sharpee
Parsing the visual scene into objects is paramount to survival. Yet, how this is accomplished by the nervous system remains largely unknown, even in the comparatively well understood visual system. It is especially unclear how detailed peripheral signal representations are transformed into the object-oriented representations that are independent of object position and are provided by the final stages of visual processing. This perspective discusses advances in computational algorithms for fitting large-scale models that make it possible to reconstruct the intermediate steps of visual processing based on neural responses to natural stimuli...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
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