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Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445338/synaptic-homeostasis-and-allostasis-in-the-dentate-gyrus-caused-by-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain-conditions
#1
Rui-Rui Wang, Yan Wang, Su-Min Guan, Zhen Li, Saurabh Kokane, Fa-Le Cao, Wei Sun, Chun-Li Li, Ting He, Yan Yang, Qing Lin, Jun Chen
It has been generally accepted that pain can cause imbalance between excitation and inhibition (homeostasis) at the synaptic level. However, it remains poorly understood how this imbalance (allostasis) develops in the CNS under different pain conditions. Here, we analyzed the changes in both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission and modulation of the dentate gyrus (DG) under two pain conditions with different etiology and duration. First, it was revealed that the functions of the input-output (I/O) curves for evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) following the perforant path (PP) stimulation were gained under both acute inflammatory and chronic neuropathic pain conditions relative to the controls...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354047/commentary-synaptic-vesicle-glycoprotein-2c-sv2c-modulates-dopamine-release-and-is-disrupted-in-parkinson-disease
#2
COMMENT
Sachchida Nand Rai, Hareram Birla, Walia Zahra, Saumitra Sen Singh, Surya Pratap Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311892/selective-inactivation-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-22-fgf22-in-ca3-pyramidal-neurons-impairs-local-synaptogenesis-and-affective-behavior-without-affecting-dentate-neurogenesis
#3
Akiko Terauchi, Elizabeth Gavin, Julia Wilson, Hisashi Umemori
Various growth factors regulate synapse development and neurogenesis, and are essential for brain function. Changes in growth factor signaling are implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, autism and epilepsy. We have previously identified that fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) is critical for excitatory synapse formation in several brain regions including the hippocampus. Mice with a genetic deletion of FGF22 (FGF22 null mice) have fewer excitatory synapses in the hippocampus. We have further found that as a behavioral consequence, FGF22 null mice show a depression-like behavior phenotype such as increased passive stress-coping behavior and anhedonia, without any changes in motor, anxiety, or social cognitive tests, suggesting that FGF22 is specifically important for affective behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302259/function-of-the-deubiquitinating-enzyme-usp46-in-the-nervous-system-and-its-regulation-by-wd40-repeat-proteins
#4
Molly Hodul, Caroline L Dahlberg, Peter Juo
Posttranslational modification of proteins by ubiquitin regulates synapse development and synaptic transmission. Much progress has been made investigating the role of ubiquitin ligases at the synapse, however very little is known about the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) which remove ubiquitin from target proteins. Although there are far fewer DUBs than ubiquitin ligases encoded by the human genome, it is becoming clear that DUBs have very specific physiological functions, suggesting that DUB activity is tightly regulated in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163124/the-search-for-an-effective-therapy-to-treat-fragile-x-syndrome-dream-or-reality
#5
REVIEW
Sara Castagnola, Barbara Bardoni, Thomas Maurin
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of intellectual disability and a primary cause of autism. It originates from the lack of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), which is an RNA-binding protein encoded by the Fragile X Mental Retardation Gene 1 (FMR1) gene. Multiple roles have been attributed to this protein, ranging from RNA transport (from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, but also along neurites) to translational control of mRNAs. Over the last 20 years many studies have found a large number of FMRP mRNA targets, but it is still not clear which are those playing a critical role in the etiology of FXS...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118709/piccolo-promotes-vesicle-replenishment-at-a-fast-central-auditory-synapse
#6
Tanvi Butola, Carolin Wichmann, Tobias Moser
Piccolo and Bassoon are the two largest cytomatrix of the active zone (CAZ) proteins involved in scaffolding and regulating neurotransmitter release at presynaptic active zones (AZs), but have long been discussed as being functionally redundant. We employed genetic manipulation to bring forth and segregate the role of Piccolo from that of Bassoon at central auditory synapses of the cochlear nucleus-the endbulbs of Held. These synapses specialize in high frequency synaptic transmission, ideally poised to reveal even subtle deficits in the regulation of neurotransmitter release upon molecular perturbation...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046633/activity-dependent-phosphorylation-by-camkii%C3%AE-alters-the-ca-2-affinity-of-the-multi-c2-domain-protein-otoferlin
#7
Sandra Meese, Andreia P Cepeda, Felix Gahlen, Christopher M Adams, Ralf Ficner, Anthony J Ricci, Stefan Heller, Ellen Reisinger, Meike Herget
Otoferlin is essential for fast Ca(2+)-triggered transmitter release from auditory inner hair cells (IHCs), playing key roles in synaptic vesicle release, replenishment and retrieval. Dysfunction of otoferlin results in profound prelingual deafness. Despite its crucial role in cochlear synaptic processes, mechanisms regulating otoferlin activity have not been studied to date. Here, we identified Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine kinase II delta (CaMKIIδ) as an otoferlin binding partner by pull-downs from chicken utricles and reassured interaction by a co-immunoprecipitation with heterologously expressed proteins in HEK cells...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676753/filopodia-a-rapid-structural-plasticity-substrate-for-fast-learning
#8
Ahmet S Ozcan
Formation of new synapses between neurons is an essential mechanism for learning and encoding memories. The vast majority of excitatory synapses occur on dendritic spines, therefore, the growth dynamics of spines is strongly related to the plasticity timescales. Especially in the early stages of the developing brain, there is an abundant number of long, thin and motile protrusions (i.e., filopodia), which develop in timescales of seconds and minutes. Because of their unique morphology and motility, it has been suggested that filopodia can have a dual role in both spinogenesis and environmental sampling of potential axonal partners...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674490/what-the-spectrum-of-microglial-functions-can-teach-us-about-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Elissa L Wong, Rianne D Stowell, Ania K Majewska
Alcohol exposure during gestation can lead to severe defects in brain development and lifelong physical, behavioral and learning deficits that are classified under the umbrella term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Sadly, FASD is diagnosed at an alarmingly high rate, affecting 2%-5% of live births in the United States, making it the most common non-heritable cause of mental disability. Currently, no standard therapies exist that are effective at battling FASD symptoms, highlighting a pressing need to better understand the underlying mechanisms by which alcohol affects the developing brain...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620294/gestational-exposure-to-air-pollution-alters-cortical-volume-microglial-morphology-and-microglia-neuron-interactions-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#10
Jessica L Bolton, Steven Marinero, Tania Hassanzadeh, Divya Natesan, Dominic Le, Christine Belliveau, S N Mason, Richard L Auten, Staci D Bilbo
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, important for normal neural development in addition to host defense in response to inflammatory stimuli. Air pollution is one of the most pervasive and harmful environmental toxicants in the modern world, and several large scale epidemiological studies have recently linked prenatal air pollution exposure with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a primary toxic component of air pollution, and markedly activate microglia in vitro and in vivo in adult rodents...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553222/dynamic-arc-sumoylation-and-selective-interaction-with-f-actin-binding-protein-drebrin-a-in-ltp-consolidation-in-vivo
#11
Rajeevkumar R Nair, Sudarshan Patil, Adrian Tiron, Tambudzai Kanhema, Debabrata Panja, Lars Schiro, Kamil Parobczak, Grzegorz Wilczynski, Clive R Bramham
Activity-regulatedcytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) protein is implicated as a master regulator of long-term forms of synaptic plasticity and memory formation, but the mechanisms controlling Arc protein function are little known. Post-translation modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins has emerged as a major mechanism for regulating protein-protein interactions and function. We first show in cell lines that ectopically expressed Arc undergoes mono-SUMOylation. The covalent addition of a single SUMO1 protein was confirmed by in vitro SUMOylation of immunoprecipitated Arc...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539882/function-and-dysfunction-of-microglia-during-brain-development-consequences-for-synapses-and-neural-circuits
#12
REVIEW
Rosa C Paolicelli, Maria T Ferretti
Many diverse factors, ranging from stress to infections, can perturb brain homeostasis and alter the physiological activity of microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system. Microglia play critical roles in the process of synaptic maturation and brain wiring during development. Any perturbation affecting microglial physiological function during critical developmental periods could result in defective maturation of synaptic circuits. In this review, we critically appraise the recent literature on the alterations of microglial activity induced by environmental and genetic factors occurring at pre- and early post-natal stages...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352224/coexistence-of-multiple-types-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-individual-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-neurons
#13
Elke Edelmann, Efrain Cepeda-Prado, Volkmar Leßmann
Understanding learning and memory mechanisms is an important goal in neuroscience. To gain insights into the underlying cellular mechanisms for memory formation, synaptic plasticity processes are studied with various techniques in different brain regions. A valid model to scrutinize different ways to enhance or decrease synaptic transmission is recording of long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD). At the single cell level, spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) protocols have emerged as a powerful tool to investigate synaptic plasticity with stimulation paradigms that also likely occur during memory formation in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280464/endogenous-leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-2-slows-synaptic-vesicle-recycling-in-striatal-neurons
#14
James W Jr Maas, Jing Yang, Robert H Edwards
Dominant mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) produce the most common inherited form of Parkinson's disease (PD) but the function of LRRK2 remains poorly understood. The presynaptic role of multiple genes linked to PD including α-synuclein (α-syn) has suggested that LRRK2 may also influence neurotransmitter release, a possibility supported by recent work. However, the use of disease-associated mutants that cause toxicity complicates the analysis. To determine whether LRRK2 normally influences the synaptic vesicle, we have now used a combination of imaging and electrophysiology to study LRRK2 knockout (KO) mice...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210219/mice-lacking-m1-and-m3-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-have-impaired-odor-discrimination-and-learning
#15
Wilson Chan, Sanmeet Singh, Taj Keshav, Ramita Dewan, Christian Eberly, Robert Maurer, Alexia Nunez-Parra, Ricardo C Araneda
The cholinergic system has extensive projections to the olfactory bulb (OB) where it produces a state-dependent regulation of sensory gating. Previous work has shown a prominent role of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs) in regulating the excitability of OB neurons, in particular the M1 receptor. Here, we examined the contribution of M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes to olfactory processing using mice with a genetic deletion of these receptors, the M1(-/-) and the M1/M3(-/-) knockout (KO) mice. Genetic ablation of the M1 and M3 mAChRs resulted in a significant deficit in odor discrimination of closely related molecules, including stereoisomers...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#16
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197093/ultrastructural-and-functional-properties-of-a-giant-synapse-driving-the-piriform-cortex-to-mediodorsal-thalamus-projection
#17
Patric Pelzer, Heinz Horstmann, Thomas Kuner
Neocortico-thalamo-cortical loops represent a common, yet poorly understood, circuit employing giant synapses also referred to as "class I", giant, or driver synapses. Here, we characterize a giant synapse formed by projection neurons of the paleocortical piriform cortex (PIR) onto neurons of the mediodorsal thalamus (MD). Three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructure of labeled PIR-MD terminals, obtained by using serial-section scanning electron microscopy (EM) combined with photooxidation-based detection of labeled terminals, revealed a large terminal engulfing multiple postsynaptic dendritic excrescences...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163681/app-deletion-accounts-for-age-dependent-changes-in-the-bioenergetic-metabolism-and-in-hyperphosphorylated-camkii-at-stimulated-hippocampal-presynaptic-active-zones
#18
Melanie Laßek, Jens Weingarten, Martin Wegner, Moritz Neupärtl, Tabiwang N Array, Eva Harde, Benedikt Beckert, Vahid Golghalyani, Jörg Ackermann, Ina Koch, Ulrike C Müller, Michael Karas, Amparo Acker-Palmer, Walter Volknandt
Synaptic release sites are characterized by exocytosis-competent synaptic vesicles tightly anchored to the presynaptic active zone (PAZ) whose proteome orchestrates the fast signaling events involved in synaptic vesicle cycle and plasticity. Allocation of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to the PAZ proteome implicated a functional impact of APP in neuronal communication. In this study, we combined state-of-the-art proteomics, electrophysiology and bioinformatics to address protein abundance and functional changes at the native hippocampal PAZ in young and old APP-KO mice...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119596/the-role-of-neuromodulators-in-cortical-plasticity-a-computational-perspective
#19
Victor Pedrosa, Claudia Clopath
Neuromodulators play a ubiquitous role across the brain in regulating plasticity. With recent advances in experimental techniques, it is possible to study the effects of diverse neuromodulatory states in specific brain regions. Neuromodulators are thought to impact plasticity predominantly through two mechanisms: the gating of plasticity and the upregulation of neuronal activity. However, the consequences of these mechanisms are poorly understood and there is a need for both experimental and theoretical exploration...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018206/the-role-of-multiple-neuromodulators-in-reinforcement-learning-that-is-based-on-competition-between-eligibility-traces
#20
Marco A Huertas, Sarah E Schwettmann, Harel Z Shouval
The ability to maximize reward and avoid punishment is essential for animal survival. Reinforcement learning (RL) refers to the algorithms used by biological or artificial systems to learn how to maximize reward or avoid negative outcomes based on past experiences. While RL is also important in machine learning, the types of mechanistic constraints encountered by biological machinery might be different than those for artificial systems. Two major problems encountered by RL are how to relate a stimulus with a reinforcing signal that is delayed in time (temporal credit assignment), and how to stop learning once the target behaviors are attained (stopping rule)...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
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