Read by QxMD icon Read

Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience

Feng Cao, Zikai Zhou, Sammy Cai, Wei Xie, Zhengping Jia
The GluA2 subunit of AMPA glutamate receptors (AMPARs) has been shown to be critical for the expression of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD). However, in young GluA2 knockout (KO) mice, this form of LTD can still be induced in the hippocampus, suggesting that LTD mechanisms may be modified in the presence of GluA2-lacking, Ca2+ permeable AMPARs. In this study, we examined LTD at the CA1 synapse in GluA2 KO mice by using several well-established inhibitory peptides known to block LTD in wild type (WT) rodents...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Andrew F Scheyer, Daniel T Christian, Marina E Wolf, Kuei Y Tseng
Extended-access cocaine self-administration induces a progressive intensification of cue-induced drug craving during withdrawal termed "incubation of cocaine craving". Rats evaluated after >1 month of withdrawal (when incubation of craving is robust) display alterations in excitatory synapses onto medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), including elevated levels of Ca2+ -permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPAR) and a transition from group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) mGlu5- to mGlu1-mediated synaptic depression...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Ryan D Shepard, Ludovic D Langlois, Caroline A Browne, Aylar Berenji, Irwin Lucki, Fereshteh S Nugent
Mounting evidence suggests that the long-term effects of adverse early life stressors on vulnerability to drug addiction and mood disorders are related to dysfunction of brain monoaminergic signaling in reward circuits. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the lateral habenula (LHb) as LHb dysfunction is linked to the development of mental health disorders through monoaminergic dysregulation within brain reward/motivational circuits and may represent a critical target for novel anti-depressants, such as ketamine...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Johanna Buechler, Patricia C Salinas
Synapse dysfunction and loss represent critical early events in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While extensive research has elucidated the direct synaptotoxic effects of Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, less is known about how signaling pathways at the synapse are affected by Aβ. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic vulnerability in AD is key to illuminating the determinants of AD susceptibility and will unveil novel therapeutic avenues. Canonical Wnt signaling through the Wnt co-receptor LRP6 has a critical role in maintaining the structural and functional integrity of synaptic connections in the adult brain...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Qing Cheng, Sang-Ho Song, George J Augustine
We used genetic and pharmacological approaches to identify the signaling pathways involved in augmentation and potentiation, two forms of activity dependent, short-term synaptic plasticity that enhance neurotransmitter release. Trains of presynaptic action potentials produced a robust increase in the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). Following the end of the stimulus, mEPSC frequency followed a bi-exponential decay back to basal levels. The time constants of decay identified these two exponential components as the decay of augmentation and potentiation, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Lennart Brodin, Oleg Shupliakov
The retromer complex mediates export of select transmembrane proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) or to the plasma membrane. Dysfunction of retromer has been linked with slowly progressing neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (AD and PD). As these disorders affect synapses it is of key importance to clarify the function of retromer-dependent protein trafficking pathways in pre- and postsynaptic compartments. Here we discuss recent insights into the roles of retromer in the trafficking of synaptic vesicle proteins, neurotransmitter receptors and other synaptic proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Antonella Pirone, Jonathan M Alexander, Jenny B Koenig, Denise R Cook-Snyder, Medha Palnati, Robert J Wickham, Lillian Eden, Neha Shrestha, Leon Reijmers, Thomas Biederer, Klaus A Miczek, Chris G Dulla, Michele H Jacob
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent and genetically heterogeneous brain disorder. Developing effective therapeutic interventions requires knowledge of the brain regions that malfunction and how they malfunction during ASD-relevant behaviors. Our study provides insights into brain regions activated by a novel social stimulus and how the activation pattern differs between mice that display autism-like disabilities and control littermates. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) conditional knockout (cKO) mice display reduced social interest, increased repetitive behaviors and dysfunction of the β-catenin pathway, a convergent target of numerous ASD-linked human genes...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Txomin Lalanne, Julia Oyrer, Mark Farrant, P Jesper Sjöström
Calcium-permeable (CP) AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) are known to mediate synaptic plasticity in several different interneuron (IN) types. Recent evidence suggests that CP-AMPARs are synapse-specifically expressed at excitatory connections onto a subset of IN types in hippocampus and neocortex. For example, CP-AMPARs are found at connections from pyramidal cells (PCs) to basket cells (BCs), but not to Martinotti cells (MCs). This synapse type-specific expression of CP-AMPARs suggests that synaptic dynamics as well as learning rules are differentially implemented in local circuits and has important implications not just in health but also in disease states such as epilepsy...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Ludovic D Langlois, Matthieu Dacher, Fereshteh S Nugent
One of the most influential synaptic learning rules explored in the past decades is activity dependent spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). In STDP, synapses are either potentiated or depressed based on the order of pre- and postsynaptic neuronal activation within narrow, milliseconds-long, time intervals. STDP is subject to neuromodulation by dopamine (DA), a potent neurotransmitter that significantly impacts synaptic plasticity and reward-related behavioral learning. Previously, we demonstrated that GABAergic synapses onto ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons are able to express STDP (Kodangattil et al...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Chen Zhang, Jaewon Ko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Tatiana V Lipina, Nikolay A Beregovoy, Alina A Tkachenko, Ekaterina S Petrova, Marina V Starostina, Qiang Zhou, Shupeng Li
Both Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) and dopamine receptors D2R have significant contributions to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Our previous study demonstrated that DISC1 binds to D2R and such protein-protein interaction is enhanced in patients with schizophrenia and Disc1-L100P mouse model of schizophrenia (Su et al., 2014). By uncoupling DISC1 × D2R interaction (trans-activator of transcription (TAT)-D2pep), the synthesized TAT-peptide elicited antipsychotic-like effects in pharmacological and genetic animal models, without motor side effects as tardive dyskinesia commonly seen with typical antipsychotic drugs (APDs), indicating that the potential of TAT-D2pep of becoming a new APD...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Yoshihisa Nakahata, Ryohei Yasuda
Dendritic spines are small protrusive structures on dendritic surfaces, and function as postsynaptic compartments for excitatory synapses. Plasticity of spine structure is associated with many forms of long-term neuronal plasticity, learning and memory. Inside these small dendritic compartments, biochemical states and protein-protein interactions are dynamically modulated by synaptic activity, leading to the regulation of protein synthesis and reorganization of cytoskeletal architecture. This in turn causes plasticity of structure and function of the spine...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Daniele Repetto, Johannes Brockhaus, Hong J Rhee, Chungku Lee, Manfred W Kilimann, Jeongseop Rhee, Lisa M Northoff, Wenjia Guo, Carsten Reissner, Markus Missler
Spines are small protrusions from dendrites where most excitatory synapses reside. Changes in number, shape, and size of dendritic spines often reflect changes of neural activity in entire circuits or at individual synapses, making spines key structures of synaptic plasticity. Neurobeachin is a multidomain protein with roles in spine formation, postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor targeting and actin distribution. However, the contributions of individual domains of Neurobeachin to these functions is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Yutaka Furutani, Yoshihiro Yoshihara
Dendritic filopodia are thin, long, and highly mobile protrusions functioning as spine precursors. By contrast with a wealth of knowledge on molecular profiles in spines, little is known about structural and functional proteins present in dendritic filopodia. To reveal the molecular constituents of dendritic filopodia, we developed a new method for biochemical preparation of proteins enriched in dendritic filopodia, by taking advantage of specific and strong binding between a dendritic filopodial membrane protein, telencephalin, and its extracellular matrix ligand, vitronectin...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Roman Blome, Willi Bach, Xiati Guli, Katrin Porath, Tina Sellmann, Christian G Bien, Rüdiger Köhling, Timo Kirschstein
Purpose : Autoantibodies against NMDA receptors (NMDAR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients have been suggested to be pathogenic since in previous studies using patient CSF, NMDAR-dependent processes such as long-term potentiation (LTP) were compromised. However, autoantibodies may represent a family of antibodies targeted against different epitopes, and CSF may contain further autoantibodies. Here, we tested the specificity of the autoantibody by comparing NMDAR-dependent and NMDAR-independent LTP within the same hippocampal subfield, CA3, using CSF samples from four anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients and three control patients...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Astrid Rollenhagen, Ora Ohana, Kurt Sätzler, Claus C Hilgetag, Dietmar Kuhl, Joachim H R Lübke
Cortical computations rely on functionally diverse and highly dynamic synapses. How their structural composition affects synaptic transmission and plasticity and whether they support functional diversity remains rather unclear. Here, synaptic boutons on layer 5B (L5B) pyramidal neurons in the adult rat barrel cortex were investigated. Simultaneous patch-clamp recordings from synaptically connected L5B pyramidal neurons revealed great heterogeneity in amplitudes, coefficients of variation (CVs), and failures (F%) of EPSPs...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Ahmet S Ozcan, Mehmet S Ozcan
Structural plasticity, characterized by the formation and elimination of synapses, plays a big role in learning and long-term memory formation in the brain. The majority of the synapses in the neocortex occur between the axonal boutons and dendritic spines. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of the dendritic spine growth and elimination can provide key insights to the mechanisms of structural plasticity. In addition to learning and memory formation, the connectivity of neural networks affects cognition, perception, and behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Jivan Khlghatyan, Jean-Martin Beaulieu
Dopamine receptors and related signaling pathways have long been implicated in pathophysiology and treatment of mental illnesses, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Dopamine signaling may impact neuronal activity by modulation of glutamate neurotransmission. Recent evidence indicates a direct and/or indirect involvement of fragile X-related family proteins (FXR) in the regulation and mediation of dopamine receptor functions. FXRs consists of fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (Fmr1/FMRP) and its autosomal homologs Fxr1 and Fxr2...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Claire Guerrier, David Holcman
Calcium diffusion in the thin 100 nm layer located between the plasma membrane and docked vesicles in the pre-synaptic terminal of neuronal cells mediates vesicular fusion and synaptic transmission. Accounting for the narrow-cusp geometry located underneath the vesicle is a key ingredient that defines the probability and the time scale of calcium diffusion to bind calcium sensors for the initiation of vesicular release. We review here the time scale, the calcium binding dynamics and the consequences for asynchronous versus synchronous release...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Jary Y Delgado, Paul R Selvin
Calcium dynamics in presynaptic terminals regulate the response dynamics of most central excitatory synapses. However, this dogma has been challenged by the hypothesis that mobility of the postsynaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid subtype glutamate receptors (AMPAR) plays a role in tuning fast excitatory synaptic transmission. In this review, we reevaluate the factors regulating postsynaptic AMPAR mobility, reassess the modeling parameters, analyze the experimental tools, and end by providing alternative ideas stemming from recent results...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"