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Biology of Sex Differences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810930/sex-differences-in-microrna-mrna-networks-examination-of-novel-epigenetic-programming-mechanisms-in-the-sexually-dimorphic-neonatal-hypothalamus
#1
Christopher P Morgan, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Sexual differentiation of the male brain, and specifically the stress circuitry in the hypothalamus, is primarily driven by estrogen exposure during the perinatal period. Surprisingly, this single hormone promotes diverse programs of sex-specific development that vary widely between different cell types and across the developing male brain. The complexity of this phenomenon suggests that additional layers of gene regulation, including microRNAs (miRNAs), must act downstream of estrogen to mediate this specificity...
August 15, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807015/genomic-upregulation-of-cardiac-cav1-2%C3%AE-and-ncx1-by-estrogen-in-women
#2
Rita Papp, Glenna C L Bett, Agnieszka Lis, Randall L Rasmusson, István Baczkó, András Varró, Guy Salama
BACKGROUND: Women have a higher risk of lethal arrhythmias than men in long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), but the mechanisms remain uncertain due to the limited availability of healthy control human tissue. We have previously reported that in female rabbits, estrogen increases arrhythmia risk in drug-induced LQTS2 by upregulating L-type Ca(2+) (ICa,L) and sodium-calcium exchange (INCX) currents at the base of the epicardium by a genomic mechanism. This study investigates if the effects of estrogen on rabbit ICa,L and INCX apply to human hearts...
August 14, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789696/long-term-follow-up-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-reveals-differences-in-clinical-presentation-between-female-and-male-patients
#3
Jorge I Ramírez Sepúlveda, Marika Kvarnström, Per Eriksson, Thomas Mandl, Katrine Brække Norheim, Svein Joar Johnsen, Daniel Hammenfors, Malin V Jonsson, Kathrine Skarstein, Johan G Brun, Lars Rönnblom, Helena Forsblad-d'Elia, Sara Magnusson Bucher, Eva Baecklund, Elke Theander, Roald Omdal, Roland Jonsson, Gunnel Nordmark, Marie Wahren-Herlenius
BACKGROUND: Despite men being less prone to develop autoimmune diseases, male sex has been associated with a more severe disease course in several systemic autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we aimed to investigate differences in the clinical presentation of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) between the sexes and establish whether male sex is associated with a more severe form of long-term pSS. METHODS: Our study population included 967 patients with pSS (899 females and 68 males) from Scandinavian clinical centers...
August 8, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693572/sex-difference-in-thermal-preference-of-adult-mice-does-not-depend-on-presence-of-the-gonads
#4
Kasiphak Kaikaew, Jacobie Steenbergen, Axel P N Themmen, Jenny A Visser, Aldo Grefhorst
BACKGROUND: The thermoneutral zone (TNZ) is a species-specific range of ambient temperature (T a), at which mammals can maintain a constant body temperature with the lowest metabolic rate. The TNZ for an adult mouse is between 26 and 34 °C. Interestingly, female mice prefer a higher T a than male mice although the underlying mechanism for this sex difference is unknown. Here, we tested whether gonadal hormones are dominant factors controlling temperature preference in male and female mice...
July 11, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693541/is-hpa-axis-reactivity-in-childhood-gender-specific-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Jonneke J Hollanders, Bibian van der Voorn, Joost Rotteveel, Martijn J J Finken
BACKGROUND: In adults, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity shows sexual dimorphism, and this is thought to be a mechanism underlying sex-specific disease incidence. Evidence is scarce on whether these sex differences are also present in childhood. In a meta-analysis, we recently found that basal (non-stimulated) cortisol in saliva and free cortisol in 24-h urine follow sex-specific patterns. We explored whether these findings could be extended with sex differences in HPA axis reactivity...
July 11, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649317/inclusion-of-sex-and-gender-in-biomedical-research-survey-of-clinical-research-proposed-at-the-university-of-pennsylvania
#6
Anne Freeman, Patrick Stanko, Lily N Berkowitz, Neanta Parnell, Anastasia Zuppe, Tracy L Bale, Tracy Ziolek, C Neill Epperson
BACKGROUND: The 2015 National Institutes of Health (NIH) policy that sex be considered as a biological variable (SABV) is now a critical part of the peer-review process for NIH funding as well as publication in several high-impact scientific journals. We sought to determine the degree to which biomedical researchers at the University of Pennsylvania already consider SABV or gender in their research. METHODS: We reviewed 240 research protocols approved by the University of Pennsylvania Investigational Review Board (IRB) consecutively submitted between January and July 2016...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630662/sex-differences-in-endogenous-cortical-network-activity-spontaneously-recurring-up-down-states
#7
Charalambos Sigalas, Eleni Konsolaki, Irini Skaliora
BACKGROUND: Several molecular and cellular processes in the vertebrate brain exhibit differences between males and females, leading to sexual dimorphism in the formation of neural circuits and brain organization. While studies on large-scale brain networks provide ample evidence for both structural and functional sex differences, smaller-scale local networks have remained largely unexplored. In the current study, we investigate sexual dimorphism in cortical dynamics by means of spontaneous Up/Down states, a type of network activity that is exhibited during slow-wave sleep, quiet wakefulness, and anesthesia and is thought to represent the default activity of the cortex...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580124/sex-dependent-effects-of-maternal-corticosterone-and-ssri-treatment-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis-across-development
#8
Aarthi R Gobinath, Joanna L Workman, Carmen Chow, Stephanie E Lieblich, Liisa A M Galea
BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression affects approximately 15% of mothers and represents a form of early life adversity for developing offspring. Postpartum depression can be treated with prescription antidepressants like fluoxetine (FLX). However, FLX can remain active in breast milk, raising concerns about the consequences of neonatal FLX exposure. The hippocampus is highly sensitive to developmental stress, and males and females respond differently to stress at many endpoints, including hippocampal plasticity...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572914/sex-differences-in-the-development-of-vascular-and-renal-lesions-in-mice-with-a-simultaneous-deficiency-of-apoe-and-the-integrin-chain-itga8
#9
Ines Marek, Maurizio Canu, Nada Cordasic, Manfred Rauh, Gudrun Volkert, Fabian B Fahlbusch, Wolfgang Rascher, Karl F Hilgers, Andrea Hartner, Carlos Menendez-Castro
BACKGROUND: Apoe-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice develop progressive atherosclerotic lesions with age but no severe renal pathology in the absence of additional challenges. We recently described accelerated atherosclerosis as well as marked renal injury in Apoe(-/-) mice deficient in the mesenchymal integrin chain Itga8 (Itga8(-/-)). Here, we used this Apoe(-/-), Itga8(-/-) mouse model to investigate the sex differences in the development of atherosclerosis and concomitant renal injury. We hypothesized that aging female mice are protected from vascular and renal damage in this mouse model...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572913/hdac9-is-an-epigenetic-repressor-of-kidney-angiotensinogen-establishing-a-sex-difference
#10
Camille T Bourgeois, Ryousuke Satou, Minolfa C Prieto
BACKGROUND: Sexual difference has been shown in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease induced by hypertension. Females are protected from hypertension and related end-organ damage. Augmentation of renal proximal tubular angiotensinogen (AGT) expression can promote intrarenal angiotensin formation and the development of associated hypertension and kidney injury. Female rodents exhibit lower intrarenal AGT levels than males under normal conditions, suggesting that the suppressed intrarenal AGT production by programmed mechanisms in females may provide protection from these diseases...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523122/sex-differences-in-rat-placental-development-from-pre-implantation-to-late-gestation
#11
J I Kalisch-Smith, D G Simmons, M Pantaleon, K M Moritz
BACKGROUND: A male fetus is suggested to be more susceptible to in utero and birth complications. This may be due in part to altered morphology or function of the XY placenta. We hypothesised that sexual dimorphism begins at the blastocyst stage with sex differences in the progenitor trophectoderm (TE) and its derived trophoblast lineages, as these cells populate the majority of cell types within the placenta. We investigated sex-specific differences in cell allocation in the pre-implantation embryo and further characterised growth and gene expression of the placental compartments from the early stages of the definitive placenta through to late gestation...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507729/difference-in-clinical-presentation-between-women-and-men-in-incident-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#12
Jorge I Ramírez Sepúlveda, Marika Kvarnström, Susanna Brauner, Chiara Baldini, Marie Wahren-Herlenius
BACKGROUND: A more severe disease phenotype has been reported in men compared to women in several rheumatic diseases. However, studies have not conclusively established sex-related clinical features in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). In this study, we therefore investigated the clinical presentation of pSS in women and men at diagnosis. METHODS: Incident, treatment naïve patients (n = 199) during a 5-year period in a specified area were prospectively included and examined for items of classification criteria for pSS as well as extraglandular manifestations (EGM)...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473910/from-sexless-to-sexy-why-it-is-time-for-human-genetics-to-consider-and-report-analyses-of-sex
#13
EDITORIAL
Matthew S Powers, Phillip H Smith, Sherry A McKee, Marissa A Ehringer
Science has come a long way with regard to the consideration of sex differences in clinical and preclinical research, but one field remains behind the curve: human statistical genetics. The goal of this commentary is to raise awareness and discussion about how to best consider and evaluate possible sex effects in the context of large-scale human genetic studies. Over the course of this commentary, we reinforce the importance of interpreting genetic results in the context of biological sex, establish evidence that sex differences are not being considered in human statistical genetics, and discuss how best to conduct and report such analyses...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465822/does-the-sex-of-one-s-co-twin-affect-height-and-bmi-in-adulthood-a-study-of-dizygotic-adult-twins-from-31-cohorts
#14
Leonie H Bogl, Aline Jelenkovic, Eero Vuoksimaa, Linda Ahrenfeldt, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Maria A Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Cristina D'Ippolito, Yoon-Mi Hur, Hoe-Uk Jeong, Judy L Silberg, Lindon J Eaves, Hermine H Maes, Gombojav Bayasgalan, Danshiitsoodol Narandalai, Tessa L Cutler, Christian Kandler, Kerry L Jang, Kaare Christensen, Axel Skytthe, Kirsten O Kyvik, Wendy Cozen, Amie E Hwang, Thomas M Mack, Catherine A Derom, Robert F Vlietinck, Tracy L Nelson, Keith E Whitfield, Robin P Corley, Brooke M Huibregtse, Tom A McAdams, Thalia C Eley, Alice M Gregory, Robert F Krueger, Matt McGue, Shandell Pahlen, Gonneke Willemsen, Meike Bartels, Toos C E M van Beijsterveldt, Zengchang Pang, Qihua Tan, Dongfeng Zhang, Nicholas G Martin, Sarah E Medland, Grant W Montgomery, Jacob V B Hjelmborg, Esther Rebato, Gary E Swan, Ruth Krasnow, Andreas Busjahn, Paul Lichtenstein, Sevgi Y Öncel, Fazil Aliev, Laura A Baker, Catherine Tuvblad, Sisira H Siribaddana, Matthew Hotopf, Athula Sumathipala, Fruhling Rijsdijk, Patrik K E Magnusson, Nancy L Pedersen, Anna K Dahl Aslan, Juan R Ordoñana, Juan F Sánchez-Romera, Lucia Colodro-Conde, Glen E Duncan, Dedra Buchwald, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Yoshie Yokoyama, John L Hopper, Ruth J F Loos, Dorret I Boomsma, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Karri Silventoinen, Jaakko Kaprio
BACKGROUND: The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on anthropometric traits, we compared mean height, body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of being overweight or obese between men and women from OS and SS dizygotic twin pairs. METHODS: The data were derived from the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) database, and included 68,494 SS and 53,808 OS dizygotic twin individuals above the age of 20 years from 31 twin cohorts representing 19 countries...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435658/sex-differences-in-insular-cortex-gyri-responses-to-a-brief-static-handgrip-challenge
#15
Paul M Macey, Nicholas S Rieken, Jennifer A Ogren, Katherine E Macey, Rajesh Kumar, Ronald M Harper
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease varies between sexes, suggesting male-female autonomic control differences. Insular gyri help coordinate autonomic regulation and show a sex-dependent response to a sympathetic challenge. METHODS: We examined sex-related insular gyral responses to a short static handgrip exercise challenge eliciting parasympathetic withdrawal with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during four 16-s challenges (80% maximum strength) in 23 healthy females (age; mean ± std 50 ± 8 years) and 40 males (46 ± 9 years)...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428836/muscle-function-and-fatigability-of-trunk-flexors-in-males-and-females
#16
Rita E Deering, Jonathon W Senefeld, Tatyana Pashibin, Donald A Neumann, Sandra K Hunter
BACKGROUND: Optimal function of the abdominal muscles is necessary for several life functions including lifting and carrying tasks. Sex differences in strength and fatigability are established for many limb muscles and back extensor muscles, but it is unknown if sex differences exist for the abdominal muscles despite their functional importance. METHODS: Eighteen females (24.3 ± 4.8 years) and 15 males (24.1 ± 6.6 years) performed (1) isometric trunk flexion maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in a range of trunk positions to establish a torque-angle curve and (2) submaximal (50% MVC), intermittent isometric contraction (6 s on, 4 s off) until task failure to determine fatigability of the trunk flexor muscles...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413602/do-sex-differences-in-ceoaes-and-2d-4d-ratios-reflect-androgen-exposure-a-study-in-women-with-complete-androgen-insensitivity-syndrome
#17
Judy van Hemmen, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Thomas D Steensma, Dick J Veltman, Julie Bakker
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the influence of perinatal hormone exposure on sexually differentiated traits would greatly benefit from biomarkers of these early hormone actions. Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions show sex differences that are thought to reflect differences in early androgen exposure. Women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who lack androgen action in the presence of XY-chromosomes, enabled us to study the effect of complete androgen inaction. The main goal was to investigate a possible link between click-evoked otoacoustic emissions and effective androgen exposure and, thus, whether this can be used as a biomarker...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367308/association-between-cannabis-use-and-methadone-maintenance-treatment-outcomes-an-investigation-into-sex-differences
#18
Laura Zielinski, Meha Bhatt, Nitika Sanger, Carolyn Plater, Andrew Worster, Michael Varenbut, Jeff Daiter, Guillaume Pare, David C Marsh, Dipika Desai, James MacKillop, Meir Steiner, Stephanie McDermid Vaz, Lehana Thabane, Zainab Samaan
BACKGROUND: Cannabis will soon become legalized in Canada, and it is currently unclear how this will impact public health. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the most common pharmacological treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD), and despite its documented effectiveness, a large number of patients respond poorly and experience relapse to illicit opioids. Some studies implicate cannabis use as a risk factor for poor MMT response. Although it is well established that substance-use behaviors differ by sex, few of these studies have considered sex as a potential moderator...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360990/sex-differences-in-the-association-of-phospholipids-with-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-young-adults
#19
Sebastian Rauschert, Olaf Uhl, Berthold Koletzko, Trevor A Mori, Lawrence J Beilin, Wendy H Oddy, Christian Hellmuth
BACKGROUND: There are differences in the prevalence and severity of diseases between males, females not taking hormonal contraceptives (non-HC females) and females taking hormonal contraceptives (HC females). The aim of this study was to identify sex-specific differences in the metabolome and its relation to components of the metabolic syndrome in a young adult population. METHODS: The subjects analysed are from the 20-year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344760/severe-pulmonary-hypertension-in-aging-female-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice-is-rescued-by-estrogen-replacement-therapy
#20
Soban Umar, Rod Partow-Navid, Gregoire Ruffenach, Andrea Iorga, Shayan Moazeni, Mansoureh Eghbali
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a multifunctional protein, and its deficiency leads to the development of atherosclerosis in mice. Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) have reduced expression of ApoE in lung tissue. ApoE is known to inhibit endothelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation and has anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet aggregation properties. Young ApoE-deficient mice have been shown to develop PH on high fat diet. The combined role of female sex and aging in the development of PH has not been investigated before...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
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