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Biology of Sex Differences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016998/sex-gap-in-aging-and-longevity-can-sex-chromosomes-play-a-role
#1
REVIEW
Gabriel A B Marais, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Cristina Vieira, Ingrid Plotton, Damien Sanlaville, François Gueyffier, Jean-Francois Lemaitre
It is well known that women live longer than men. This gap is observed in most human populations and can even reach 10-15 years. In addition, most of the known super centenarians (i.e., humans who lived for > 110 years) are women. The differences in life expectancy between men and women are often attributed to cultural differences in common thinking. However, sex hormones seem to influence differences in the prevalence of diseases, in the magnitude of aging, and in the longevity between men and women...
July 17, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012205/production-of-amphiregulin-and-recovery-from-influenza-is-greater-in-males-than-females
#2
Meghan S Vermillion, Rebecca L Ursin, Denise I T Kuok, Landon G Vom Steeg, Nicholas Wohlgemuth, Olivia J Hall, Ashley L Fink, Eric Sasse, Andrew Nelson, Roland Ndeh, Sharon McGrath-Morrow, Wayne Mitzner, Michael C W Chan, Andrew Pekosz, Sabra L Klein
BACKGROUND: Amphiregulin (AREG) is an epidermal growth factor that is a significant mediator of tissue repair at mucosal sites, including in the lungs during influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Previous research illustrates that males of reproductive ages experience less severe disease and recover faster than females following infection with IAV. METHODS: Whether males and females differentially produce and utilize AREG for pulmonary repair after IAV infection was investigated using murine models on a C57BL/6 background and primary mouse and human epithelial cell culture systems...
July 17, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001741/sex-differences-in-the-traumatic-stress-response-the-role-of-adult-gonadal-hormones
#3
Apryl E Pooley, Rebecca C Benjamin, Susheela Sreedhar, Andrew L Eagle, Alfred J Robison, Michelle S Mazei-Robison, S Marc Breedlove, Cynthia L Jordan
BACKGROUND: Our previous study revealed that adult female rats respond differently to trauma than adult males, recapitulating sex differences in symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibited by women and men. Here, we asked two questions: does the female phenotype depend on (1) social housing condition and/or (2) circulating gonadal hormones? METHODS: For the first study, the effects of single prolonged stress (SPS) were compared for females singly or pair-housed...
July 13, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976248/sex-differences-in-the-traumatic-stress-response-ptsd-symptoms-in-women-recapitulated-in-female-rats
#4
Apryl E Pooley, Rebecca C Benjamin, Susheela Sreedhar, Andrew L Eagle, Alfred J Robison, Michelle S Mazei-Robison, S Marc Breedlove, Cynthia L Jordan
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects men and women differently. Not only are women twice as likely as men to develop PTSD, they experience different symptoms and comorbidities associated with PTSD. Yet the dearth of preclinical research on females leaves a notable gap in understanding the underlying neuropathology of this sex difference. METHODS: Using two standard measures of PTSD-like responses in rats, the acoustic startle response (ASR) and dexamethasone suppression test (DST), we tested the effects of traumatic stress in adult male and female rats using two rodent models of PTSD, single prolonged stress and predator exposure...
July 5, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970177/human-osteoblasts-exhibit-sexual-dimorphism-in-their-response-to-estrogen-on-microstructured-titanium-surfaces
#5
Michael B Berger, David J Cohen, Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Joseph K Williams, David L Cochran, Barbara D Boyan, Zvi Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Osseointegration is dependent on the implant surface, surrounding bone quality, and the systemic host environment, which can differ in male and female patients. Titanium (Ti) implants with microstructured surfaces exhibit greater pullout strength when compared to smooth-surfaced implants and exhibit enhanced osteogenic cellular responses in vitro. Previous studies showed that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2 D3 ] has a greater effect on rat osteoblast differentiation on microstructured Ti compared to smooth Ti surfaces and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS)...
July 3, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29954447/is-the-cross-over-effect-of-a-unilateral-high-intensity-leg-extension-influenced-by-the-sex-of-the-participants
#6
Aude-Clémence M Doix, Felix Wachholz, Natalie Marterer, Lorenz Immler, Kathrin Insam, Peter A Federolf
BACKGROUND: While performing a unilateral muscle contraction, electrical muscle activity also arises in the contralateral homologous muscle, muscle group, or limb. When the muscle contraction induces muscle fatigue, females show not only a greater resistance than males but also a reduced contralateral muscle activation. The study aimed at investigating whether, during a high-intensity 30-s unilateral maximal effort isometric leg extension exercise, the contralateral non-exercising limb (NEL) knee extensor muscle activation would differ between females and males...
June 28, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950175/sex-differences-in-body-composition-and-association-with-cardiometabolic-risk
#7
Melanie Schorr, Laura E Dichtel, Anu V Gerweck, Ruben D Valera, Martin Torriani, Karen K Miller, Miriam A Bredella
BACKGROUND: Body composition differs between men and women, with women having proportionally more fat mass and men more muscle mass. Although men and women are both susceptible to obesity, health consequences differ between the sexes. The purpose of our study was to assess sex differences in body composition using anatomic and functional imaging techniques, and its relationship to cardiometabolic risk markers in subjects with overweight/obesity. METHODS: After written informed consent, we prospectively recruited 208 subjects with overweight/obesity who were otherwise healthy (94 men, 114 women, age 37 ± 10 years, BMI 35 ± 6 kg/m2 )...
June 27, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925409/sexual-dimorphism-in-bacterial-infections
#8
REVIEW
Edgar Ricardo Vázquez-Martínez, Elizabeth García-Gómez, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, Bertha González-Pedrajo
BACKGROUND: Sex differences are important epidemiological factors that impact in the frequency and severity of infectious diseases. A clear sexual dimorphism in bacterial infections has been reported in both humans and animal models. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms involved in this gender bias are just starting to be elucidated. In the present article, we aim to review the available data in the literature that report bacterial infections presenting a clear sexual dimorphism, without considering behavioral and social factors...
June 20, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914546/sex-and-strain-dependent-differences-in-mucosal-immunology-and-microbiota-composition-in-mice
#9
Marlies Elderman, Floor Hugenholtz, Clara Belzer, Mark Boekschoten, Adriaan van Beek, Bart de Haan, Huub Savelkoul, Paul de Vos, Marijke Faas
BACKGROUND: A dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiome plays a role in the pathogenesis of several immunological diseases. These diseases often show a sex bias, suggesting sex differences in immune responses and in the intestinal microbiome. We hypothesized that sex differences in immune responses are associated with sex differences in microbiota composition. METHODS: Fecal microbiota composition (MITchip), mRNA expression in intestinal tissue (microarray), and immune cell populations in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were studied in male and female mice of two mouse strains (C57B1/6OlaHsd and Balb/cOlaHsd)...
June 18, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907135/doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-is-suppressed-by-estrous-staged-treatment-and-exogenous-17%C3%AE-estradiol-in-female-tumor-bearing-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#10
Kaytee L Pokrzywinski, Thomas G Biel, Elliot T Rosen, Julia L Bonanno, Baikuntha Aryal, Francesca Mascia, Delaram Moshkelani, Steven Mog, V Ashutosh Rao
BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline therapeutic, is widely used to treat a variety of cancer types and known to induce cardiomyopathy in a time and dose-dependent manner. Postmenopausal and hypertensive females are two high-risk groups for developing adverse effects following DOX treatment. This may suggest that endogenous reproductive hormones can in part suppress DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Here, we investigated if the endogenous fluctuations in 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) can in part suppress DOX-induced cardiomyopathy in SST-2 tumor-bearing spontaneously hypersensitive rats (SHRs) and evaluate if exogenous administration of E2 and P4 can suppress DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in tumor-bearing ovariectomized SHRs (ovaSHRs)...
June 15, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898787/sex-bias-in-basic-and-preclinical-age-related-hearing-loss-research
#11
REVIEW
Dillan F Villavisanis, Katrina M Schrode, Amanda M Lauer
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine if there is sex bias in basic and preclinical research on age-related hearing loss for the 10-year period of 2006-2015, prior to the NIH mandate of including sex as a biological variable in 2016. DESIGN: Manuscripts were identified in PubMed for the query "age-related hearing loss" for the 10-year period of 2006 to 2015. Manuscripts were included if they were original research (not reviews or meta-analyses), written in English, contained an abstract, used animals, and were primarily on age-related hearing loss...
June 13, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891008/the-association-between-cannabis-use-and-suicidal-behavior-in-patients-with-psychiatric-disorders-an-analysis-of-sex-differences
#12
Leen Naji, Tea Rosic, Brittany Dennis, Meha Bhatt, Nitika Sanger, Jackie Hudson, Natalia Mouravska, Lehana Thabane, Zainab Samaan
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug. In the general population, its use has been linked to a heightened propensity for suicidal behavior (SB). We hypothesize that this association varies in patients with psychiatric disorders. SB is known to vary by sex and therefore an investigation of cannabis' association with SB must consider sex differences. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between cannabis use and suicide attempts in men and women with psychiatric disorders...
June 11, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866174/risk-of-epilepsy-in-opposite-sex-and-same-sex-twins-a-twin-cohort-study
#13
Yanyan Mao, Linda Juel Ahrenfeldt, Kaare Christensen, Chunsen Wu, Jakob Christensen, Jørn Olsen, Yuelian Sun
BACKGROUND: There is a complex interaction between female and male sex hormones and the risk of epilepsy. Whether prenatal exposure to higher levels of sex hormones affects the development of epilepsy in childhood or later in life is not well known. The sex hormone environment of fetuses may be affected by the sex of the co-twin. We estimated the risk of epilepsy for twins with an opposite-sex (OS) co-twin compared with twins with a same-sex (SS) co-twin. METHODS: From the Danish Twin Registry, we identified OS female twins (n = 11,078), SS female twins (n = 19,186), OS male twins (n = 11,080), and SS male twins (n = 20,207) born between 1977 and 2009...
June 4, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843787/sex-differences-in-basal-hypothalamic-anorectic-and-orexigenic-gene-expression-and-the-effect-of-quantitative-and-qualitative-food-restriction
#14
S D Caughey, P W Wilson, N Mukhtar, S Brocklehurst, A Reid, R B D'Eath, T Boswell, I C Dunn
BACKGROUND: Research into energy balance and growth has infrequently considered genetic sex, yet there is sexual dimorphism for growth across the animal kingdom. We test the hypothesis that in the chicken, there is a sex difference in arcuate nucleus neuropeptide gene expression, since previous research indicates hypothalamic AGRP expression is correlated with growth potential and that males grow faster than females. Because growth has been heavily selected in some chicken lines, food restriction is necessary to improve reproductive performance and welfare, but this increases hunger...
May 29, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792221/sex-differences-in-cardiovascular-epigenetics-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Robin J G Hartman, Sarah E Huisman, Hester M den Ruijter
BACKGROUND: Differences in cardiovascular diseases are evident in men and women throughout life and are mainly attributed to the presence of sex hormones and chromosomes. Epigenetic mechanisms drive the regulation of the biological processes that may lead to CVD and are possibly influenced by sex. In order to gain an overview of the status quo on sex differences in cardiovascular epigenetics, we performed a systematic review. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search was performed on PubMed and Embase for studies mentioning cardiovascular disease, epigenetics, and anything related to sex differences...
May 23, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739446/sex-specific-microrna-expression-networks-in-an-acute-mouse-model-of-ozone-induced-lung-inflammation
#16
Nathalie Fuentes, Arpan Roy, Vikas Mishra, Noe Cabello, Patricia Silveyra
BACKGROUND: Sex differences in the incidence and prognosis of respiratory diseases have been reported. Studies have shown that women are at increased risk of adverse health outcomes from air pollution than men, but sex-specific immune gene expression patterns and regulatory networks have not been well studied in the lung. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are environmentally sensitive posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that may mediate the damaging effects of inhaled pollutants in the lung, by altering the expression of innate immunity molecules...
May 8, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673397/sex-differences-in-kinematic-adaptations-to-muscle-fatigue-induced-by-repetitive-upper-limb-movements
#17
Jason Bouffard, Chen Yang, Mickael Begon, Julie Côté
BACKGROUND: Muscle fatigue induced by repetitive movements contributes to the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Men and women respond differently to muscle fatigue during isometric single-joint efforts, but sex differences during dynamic multi-joint tasks have not been clearly identified. Moreover, most studies comparing men and women during fatigue development assessed endurance time. However, none evaluated sex differences in kinematic adaptations to fatigue during multi-joint dynamic tasks...
April 19, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669590/sex-differences-in-umbilical-artery-doppler-indices-a-longitudinal-study
#18
Christian Widnes, Kari Flo, Tom Wilsgaard, Torvid Kiserud, Ganesh Acharya
BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism in placental size and function has been described. Whether this influences the clinically important umbilical artery (UA) waveform remains controversial, although a few cross-sectional studies have shown sex differences in UA pulsatility index (PI). Therefore, we tested whether fetal sex influences the UA Doppler indices during the entire second half of pregnancy and aimed to establish sex-specific reference ranges for UA Doppler indices if needed. METHODS: Our main objective was to investigate gestational age-associated changes in UA Doppler indices during the second half of pregnancy and compare the values between male and female fetuses...
April 18, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669571/sex-differences-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-role-of-infection-and-autoimmunity-in-the-pathogenesis-of-disease
#19
REVIEW
Kyle A Batton, Christopher O Austin, Katelyn A Bruno, Charles D Burger, Brian P Shapiro, DeLisa Fairweather
Registry data worldwide indicate an overall female predominance for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) of 2-4 over men. Genetic predisposition accounts for only 1-5% of PAH cases, while autoimmune diseases and infections are closely linked to PAH. Idiopathic PAH may include patients with undiagnosed autoimmune diseases based on the relatively high presence of autoantibodies in this group. The two largest PAH registries to date report a sex ratio for autoimmune connective tissue disease-associated PAH of 9:1 female to male, highlighting the need for future studies to analyze subgroup data according to sex...
April 18, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625592/orphan-receptor-gpr37l1-contributes-to-the-sexual-dimorphism-of-central-cardiovascular-control
#20
James L J Coleman, Margaret A Mouat, Jianxin Wu, Nikola Jancovski, Jaspreet K Bassi, Andrea Y Chan, David T Humphreys, Nadine Mrad, Ze-Yan Yu, Tony Ngo, Siiri Iismaa, Cristobal G Dos Remedios, Michael P Feneley, Andrew M Allen, Robert M Graham, Nicola J Smith
BACKGROUND: Over 100 mammalian G protein-coupled receptors are yet to be matched with endogenous ligands; these so-called orphans are prospective drug targets for the treatment of disease. GPR37L1 is one such orphan, abundant in the brain and detectable as mRNA in the heart and kidney. GPR37L1 ablation was reported to cause hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, and thus, we sought to further define the role of GPR37L1 in blood pressure homeostasis. METHODS: We investigated the cardiovascular effects of GPR37L1 using wild-type (GPR37L1wt/wt ) and null (GPR37L1KO/KO ) mice established on a C57BL/6J background, both under baseline conditions and during AngII infusion...
April 6, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
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