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Biology of Sex Differences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078076/sex-dependent-alteration-of-cardiac-cytochrome-p450-gene-expression-by-doxorubicin-in-c57bl-6-mice
#1
Marianne K O Grant, Davis M Seelig, Leslie C Sharkey, Beshay N Zordoky
BACKGROUND: There is inconclusive evidence about the role of sex as a risk factor for doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. Recent experimental studies have shown that adult female rats are protected against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. However, the mechanisms of this sexual dimorphism are not fully elucidated. We have previously demonstrated that DOX alters the expression of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the hearts of male rats. Nevertheless, the sex-dependent effect of DOX on the expression of CYP enzymes is still not known...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999654/a-primer-on-the-use-of-mouse-models-for-identifying-direct-sex-chromosome-effects-that-cause-sex-differences-in-non-gonadal-tissues
#2
REVIEW
Paul S Burgoyne, Arthur P Arnold
In animals with heteromorphic sex chromosomes, all sex differences originate from the sex chromosomes, which are the only factors that are consistently different in male and female zygotes. In mammals, the imbalance in Y gene expression, specifically the presence vs. absence of Sry, initiates the differentiation of testes in males, setting up lifelong sex differences in the level of gonadal hormones, which in turn cause many sex differences in the phenotype of non-gonadal tissues. The inherent imbalance in the expression of X and Y genes, or in the epigenetic impact of X and Y chromosomes, also has the potential to contribute directly to the sexual differentiation of non-gonadal cells...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990249/sex-differences-in-sympathetic-innervation-and-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-of-mice
#3
Sang-Nam Kim, Young-Suk Jung, Hyun-Jung Kwon, Je Kyung Seong, James G Granneman, Yun-Hee Lee
BACKGROUND: The higher prevalence of obesity-related metabolic disease in males suggests that female sex hormones provide protective mechanisms against the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Because browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) is protective against obesity-related metabolic disease, we examined sex differences in β3-adrenergic remodeling of WAT in mice. METHODS: Effects of the β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 (CL) on browning of white adipose tissue were investigated in male and female C57BL mice...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980714/pancreatic-cancer-risk-in-relation-to-sex-lifestyle-factors-and-pre-diagnostic-anthropometry-in-the-malm%C3%A3-diet-and-cancer-study
#4
Gustav Andersson, Christoffer Wennersten, Signe Borgquist, Karin Jirström
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors may influence the risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Whereas cigarette smoking is an established risk factor, the effects of high alcohol intake and obesity are more uncertain. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of pre-diagnostic anthropometry, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits with pancreatic cancer risk in a Swedish prospective, population-based cohort, with particular reference to potential sex differences. METHODS: The studied cohort consists of 28,098 participants, including all incident cases of pancreatic cancer, in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study up until December 31, 2013 (n = 163)...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980713/sex-specific-differences-in-fetal-and-infant-growth-patterns-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#5
Zoe A Broere-Brown, Esme Baan, Sarah Schalekamp-Timmermans, Bero O Verburg, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Eric A P Steegers
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess whether sex-specific differences in fetal and infant growth exist. METHODS: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective birth cohort. In total, 8556 live singleton births were included. Fetal growth was assessed by ultrasound. During the first trimester, crown-rump-length (CRL) was measured. In the second and third trimester of pregnancy head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) were assessed...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980712/impact-of-gonadectomy-on-blood-pressure-regulation-in-ageing-male-and-female-rats
#6
Wioletta Pijacka, Bethan Clifford, Dawid Walas, Chantal Tilburgs, Jaap A Joles, Sarah McMullen, Simon C Langley-Evans
BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism in blood pressure has been associated with differential expression of the angiotensin II (AII) receptors and with activity of the nervous system. It is generally accepted that ageing affects kidney function as well as autonomic nervous system and hormonal balance. Given that hypertension is more prevalent in men than women until women reach their seventh decade, we hypothesised that females would be relatively protected from adverse effects of ageing compared to males and that this would be mediated by the protective effect of ovarian steroids...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980711/comparisons-of-chromosome-y-substituted-mouse-strains-reveal-that-the-male-specific-chromosome-modulates-the-effects-of-androgens-on-cardiac-functions
#7
Samantha D Praktiknjo, Sylvie Picard, Christian F Deschepper
BACKGROUND: The C57BL/6J.Y(A/J) mouse strain is a chromosome-substituted line where the original male-specific portion of chromosome Y (MSY) from C57BL/6J mice was substituted for that from A/J mice. In hearts from male C57BL/6J.Y(A/J) and C57BL/6J mice, orchidectomy (ORX) affected in a strictly strain-specific fashion the expression a subset of genes showing enrichment for functional categories, including that of circadian rhythms and cardiac contractility. We further tested whether: (1) there were strain-specific differences in cardiac circadian rhythms; (2) strain-dependent differences in the effects of ORX on contractility genes translated into differences in cardiac functions; and (3) differential contractility responses occurred preferentially at times when circadian rhythms also showed strain-specific differences...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924218/sex-related-differences-in-the-associations-between-plasma-free-fatty-acid-levels-and-clinical-features-in-patients-with-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#8
Chengzhi Yang, Changlin Zhang, Jiansong Yuan, Jingang Cui, Shengwen Liu, Fenghuan Hu, Weixian Yang, Xuanye Bi, Shubin Qiao
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that inefficient energy utilization may play a pivotal role in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, whether plasma free fatty acid (FFA), a main energy substrate of heart, has an effect on HCM remains unclear. Besides, several studies have suggested sex-related differences in HCM features and FFA metabolism. Here, we aimed to explore the association between plasma FFA levels and HCM and potential effects of sex on this relation. METHODS: A total of 412 patients (age 47...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904745/sex-differences-in-outcomes-after-stroke-among-patients-with-low-total-cholesterol-levels-a-large-hospital-based-prospective-study
#9
Guanen Zhou, Zhongping An, Wenjuan Zhao, Yan Hong, Haolin Xin, Xianjia Ning, Jinghua Wang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that total cholesterol (TC) levels are associated with stroke outcomes, but sex differences in the association between TC levels, especially a low TC level, and ischemic stroke outcomes are unknown. We aimed to assess the sex differences in stroke outcomes among patients with atherothrombotic infarctions and low TC levels in China. METHODS: This study recruited patients with atherothrombotic infarctions from Tianjin, China, between May 2005 and September 2014...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895892/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-mast-cell-transcriptome-and-the-pathophysiological-responses-to-immunological-and-psychological-stress
#10
Emily Mackey, Saravanan Ayyadurai, Calvin S Pohl, Susan D' Costa, Yihang Li, Adam J Moeser
BACKGROUND: Biological sex plays a prominent role in the prevalence and severity of a number of important stress-related gastrointestinal and immune-related diseases including IBS and allergy/anaphylaxis. Despite the establishment of sex differences in these diseases, the underlying mechanisms contributing to sex differences remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to define the role of biological sex on mast cells (MCs), an innate immune cell central to the pathophysiology of many GI and allergic disorders...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895891/gene-specific-sex-effects-on-eosinophil-infiltration-in-leishmaniasis
#11
Martina Slapničková, Valeriya Volkova, Marie Čepičková, Tatyana Kobets, Matyáš Šíma, Milena Svobodová, Peter Demant, Marie Lipoldová
BACKGROUND: Sex influences susceptibility to many infectious diseases, including some manifestations of leishmaniasis. The disease is caused by parasites that enter to the skin and can spread to the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and sometimes lungs. Parasites induce host defenses including cell infiltration, leading to protective or ineffective inflammation. These responses are often influenced by host genotype and sex. We analyzed the role of sex in the impact of specific gene loci on eosinophil infiltration and its functional relevance...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895890/sex-and-age-related-differences-in-arterial-pressure-and-albuminuria-in-mice
#12
Giannie Barsha, Kate M Denton, Katrina M Mirabito Colafella
BACKGROUND: Animal models have become valuable experimental tools for understanding the pathophysiology and therapeutic interventions in cardiovascular disease. Yet to date, few studies document the age- and sex-related differences in arterial pressure, circadian rhythm, and renal function in normotensive mice under basal conditions, across the life span. We hypothesized that mice display similar sex- and age-related differences in arterial pressure and renal function to humans. METHODS: Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and circadian rhythm of arterial pressure were measured over 3 days via radiotelemetry, in 3- and 5-month-old (adult) and 14- and 18-month-old (aged) FVB/N and in 5-month-old (adult) C57BL/6 male and female normotensive mice...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891212/the-role-of-sex-differential-biology-in-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Donna M Werling
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental condition that affects approximately four times as many males as females, a strong sex bias that has not yet been fully explained. Understanding the causes of this biased prevalence may highlight novel avenues for treatment development that could benefit patients with diverse genetic backgrounds, and the expertise of sex differences researchers will be invaluable in this endeavor. In this review, I aim to assess current evidence pertaining to the sex difference in ASD prevalence and to identify outstanding questions and remaining gaps in our understanding of how males come to be more frequently affected and/or diagnosed with ASD...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833742/the-p-r92w-variant-of-nr5a1-nr5a1-induces-testicular-development-of-46-xx-gonads-in-humans-but-not-in-mice-phenotypic-comparison-of-human-patients-and-mutation-induced-mice
#14
Mami Miyado, Masafumi Inui, Maki Igarashi, Yuko Katoh-Fukui, Kei Takasawa, Akiko Hakoda, Junko Kanno, Kenichi Kashimada, Kenji Miyado, Moe Tamano, Tsutomu Ogata, Shuji Takada, Maki Fukami
NR5A1 is the key regulator of adrenal and gonadal development in both humans and mice. Recently, a missense substitution in human NR5A1, p.R92W, was shown to underlie gonadal dysgenesis in genetic males and testicular formation in genetic females. Here, we investigated the phenotypic effects of the p.R92W mutation on murine development. Mice carrying the p.R92W mutation manifested a similar but milder phenotype than that of the previously described Nr5a1 knockout mice. Importantly, mutation-positive XX mice showed no signs of masculinization...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790364/sex-and-gender-medical-education-summit-a-roadmap-for-curricular-innovation
#15
EDITORIAL
Eliza L Chin, Marley Hoggatt, Alyson J McGregor, Mary K Rojek, Kimberly Templeton, Robert Casanova, Wendy S Klein, Virginia M Miller, Marjorie Jenkins
The Sex and Gender Medical Education Summit: a roadmap for curricular innovation was a collaborative initiative of the American Medical Women's Association, Laura W. Bush Institute for Women's Health, Mayo Clinic, and Society for Women's Health Research (www.sgbmeducationsummit.com). It was held on October 18-19, 2015 to provide a unique venue for collaboration among nationally and internationally renowned experts in developing a roadmap for the incorporation of sex and gender based concepts into medical education curricula...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790363/instructional-design-framework-for-the-sex-and-gender-specific-health-multimedia-case-based-learning-modules
#16
EDITORIAL
Steven M Crooks, Jongpil Cheon, Robert Casanova, Marjorie Jenkins
The goal of the Sex and Gender Specific Health (SGSH) curriculum at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC) is to advance the understanding of sex/gender differences, increase the awareness of gender-specific health issues, and improve the knowledge of sex and gender evidence-based medicine. The purpose of this paper is to explain the development and theoretical rationale for an important aspect of the curriculum: the SGSH Multimedia Case-Based Learning Modules (MCBLMs). The MCBLMs are designed to be used throughout the TTUHSC curriculum as a stand-alone or a supplementary instructional resource...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790362/evaluation-of-sex-and-gender-based-medicine-training-in-post-graduate-medical-education-a-cross-sectional-survey-study
#17
Juliana M Kling, Steven H Rose, Lisa N Kransdorf, Thomas R Viggiano, Virginia M Miller
BACKGROUND: Addressing healthcare disparities is a national priority for initiatives in precision and individualized medicine. An essential component of precision medicine is the understanding that sex and gender influence health and disease. Whether these issues are addressed in post-graduate medical education curricula is unknown. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed and administered to residents across the Mayo Clinic enterprise to assess current knowledge of sex and gender medicine in a large program of post-graduate medical education and to identify barriers and preferred teaching methods for addressing sex and gender issues in health and disease...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785350/training-emergency-physicians-in-sex-and-gender-based-medicine-assessing-attitudes-of-program-directors-and-residency-graduates
#18
Tracy E Madsen, Alyson J McGregor
BACKGROUND: Sex and gender influence disease presentation, treatment, healthcare access, and long-term outcomes. It is uncertain to what extent sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) content has been integrated into emergency medicine (EM) residency curricula. We aimed to determine if SGBM is being taught in EM residency training, if EM residency program directors (PDs) declare SGBM a curriculum priority, and if recent graduates (RGs) of EM residency programs declare SGBM as relevant to their practice...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785349/the-science-of-sex-and-gender-in-human-health-online-courses-to-create-a-foundation-for-sex-and-gender-accountability-in-biomedical-research-and-treatment
#19
Jennifer L Plank-Bazinet, Annie Sampson, Leah R Miller, Emmanuel O Fadiran, Deborah Kallgren, Rajeev K Agarwal, Whitney Barfield, Claudette E Brooks, Lisa Begg, Amy C Mistretta, Pamela E Scott, Janine Austin Clayton, Terri L Cornelison
BACKGROUND: Sex and gender differences play a significant role in the course and outcome of conditions that affect specific organ systems in the human body. Research on differences in the effects of medical intervention has helped scientists develop a number of sex- and gender-specific guidelines on the treatment and management of these conditions. An online series of courses, "The Science of Sex and Gender in Human Health," developed by the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health and the U...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785348/how-to-study-the-impact-of-sex-and-gender-in-medical-research-a-review-of-resources
#20
REVIEW
Alyson J McGregor, Memoona Hasnain, Kathryn Sandberg, Mary F Morrison, Michelle Berlin, Justina Trott
There is a growing appreciation by the biomedical community that studying the impact of sex and gender on health, aging, and disease will lead to improvements in human health. Sex- and gender-based comparisons can inform research on disease mechanisms and the development of new therapeutics as well as enhance scientific rigor and reproducibility. This review will assist basic researchers, clinical investigators, as well as epidemiologists, population, and social scientists by providing an annotated bibliography of currently available resource tools on how to consider sex and gender as independent variables in research design and methodology...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
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