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Biology of Sex Differences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310693/sex-differences-and-functional-hemispheric-asymmetries-during-number-comparison
#1
TiAnni Harris, Andrea Scheuringer, Belinda Pletzer
BACKGROUND: Global-local stimuli are hierarchical structures consisting of a larger global structure which is composed of smaller local stimuli. Numbers are also constructed hierarchically, with multi-digit numbers being made up from single digits. During two-digit number comparison, compatible items (larger number contains larger unit digit, e.g., 53 vs. 68) are processed faster and more accurately than incompatible items (smaller number contains larger unit digit, e.g., 58 vs. 63). This so-called unit-decade-compatibility effect has challenged the holistic model of number processing and suggests that the processing of number magnitudes occurs at least in part, decomposed, i...
January 8, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298725/sex-differences-in-primary-muscle-afferent-sensitization-following-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#2
Jessica L Ross, Luis F Queme, Jordan E Lamb, Kathryn J Green, Michael P Jankowski
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain conditions are more prevalent in women, but most preclinical studies into mechanisms of pain generation are performed using male animals. Furthermore, whereas group III and IV nociceptive muscle afferents provoke central sensitization more effectively than their cutaneous counterparts, less is known about this critical population of muscle nociceptors. Here, we compare the physiology of individual muscle afferents in uninjured males and females. We then characterize the molecular, physiological, and behavioral effects of transient ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/R), a model we have extensively studied in males and in females...
January 3, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291751/sex-differences-in-urea-breath-test-results-for-the-diagnosis-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-a-large-cross-sectional-study
#3
Ido Eisdorfer, Varda Shalev, Sophy Goren, Gabriel Chodick, Khitam Muhsen
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer only in a subset of infected persons. Sex differences were shown in results of urea breath test (UBT), a commonly used test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. However, factors that might explain these differences, or affect UBT values, are not fully understood. We examined differences in UBT values between H. pylori-infected men and women while adjusting for background characteristics such as age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking...
January 2, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273081/sex-specific-phenotypes-of-hyperthyroidism-and-hypothyroidism-in-aged-mice
#4
Helena Rakov, Kathrin Engels, Georg Sebastian Hönes, Klaudia Brix, Josef Köhrle, Lars Christian Moeller, Denise Zwanziger, Dagmar Führer
BACKGROUND: Sex and age play a role in the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction (TD), but their interrelationship for manifestation of hyper- and hypothyroidism is still not well understood. Using a murine model, we asked whether sex impacts the phenotypes of hyper- and hypothyroidism at two life stages. METHODS: Hyper- and hypothyroidism were induced by i.p. T4 or MMI/ClO4-/LoI treatment over 7 weeks in 12- and 20-months-old female and male C57BL/6N mice. Control animals underwent PBS treatment (n = 7-11 animals/sex/treatment)...
December 22, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202868/sp-a2-contributes-to-mirna-mediated-sex-differences-in-response-to-oxidative-stress-pro-inflammatory-anti-apoptotic-and-anti-oxidant-pathways-are-involved
#5
George T Noutsios, Nithyananda Thorenoor, Xuesheng Zhang, David S Phelps, Todd M Umstead, Faryal Durrani, Joanna Floros
BACKGROUND: Human innate host defense molecules, surfactant protein A1 (SP-A1), and SP-A2 differentially affect the function and proteome of the alveolar macrophage (AM). We hypothesized that SP-A genes differentially regulate the AM miRNome. METHODS: Humanized transgenic mice expressing SP-A1 and SP-A2 were subjected to O3-induced oxidative stress (OxS) or filtered air (FA), AMs were isolated, and miRNA levels were measured. RESULTS: In SP-A2 males, we found significant changes in miRNome in terms of sex and sex-OxS effects, with 11 miRNAs differentially expressed under OxS...
December 4, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096718/stress-amplifies-sex-differences-in-primate-prefrontal-profiles-of-gene-expression
#6
Alex G Lee, Megan Hagenauer, Devin Absher, Kathleen E Morrison, Tracy L Bale, Richard M Myers, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil, Alan F Schatzberg, David M Lyons
BACKGROUND: Stress is a recognized risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders that occur more often in women than men. Prefrontal brain regions mediate stress coping, cognitive control, and emotion. Here, we investigate sex differences and stress effects on prefrontal cortical profiles of gene expression in squirrel monkey adults. METHODS: Dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and ventromedial prefrontal cortical regions from 18 females and 12 males were collected after stress or no-stress treatment conditions...
November 2, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096703/regulatory-and-evolutionary-signatures-of-sex-biased-genes-on-both-the-x-chromosome-and-the-autosomes
#7
Jiangshan J Shen, Ting-You Wang, Wanling Yang
BACKGROUND: Sex is an important but understudied factor in the genetics of human diseases. Analyses using a combination of gene expression data, ENCODE data, and evolutionary data of sex-biased gene expression in human tissues can give insight into the regulatory and evolutionary forces acting on sex-biased genes. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the differentially expressed genes between males and females. On the X chromosome, we used a novel method and investigated the status of genes that escape X-chromosome inactivation (escape genes), taking into account the clonality of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs)...
November 2, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070082/sex-influences-eqtl-effects-of-sle-and-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-associated-genetic-polymorphisms
#8
Magdalena Lindén, Jorge I Ramírez Sepúlveda, Tojo James, Gudny Ella Thorlacius, Susanna Brauner, David Gómez-Cabrero, Tomas Olsson, Ingrid Kockum, Marie Wahren-Herlenius
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) are autoimmune disorders characterized by autoantibodies, dysregulated B cells, and notably high female-to-male incidence ratios. Genome-wide association studies have identified several susceptibility SNPs for both diseases. Many SNPs in the genome are expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), with context-dependent effects. Assuming that sex is a biological context, we investigated whether SLE/pSS SNPs act as eQTLs in B cells and used a disease-targeted approach to understand if they display sex-specific effects...
October 25, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065927/the-protective-role-of-estrogen-and-estrogen-receptors-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-the-controversial-use-of-estrogen-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Andrea Iorga, Christine M Cunningham, Shayan Moazeni, Gregoire Ruffenach, Soban Umar, Mansoureh Eghbali
Epidemiologic studies have previously suggested that premenopausal females have reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared to age-matched males, and the incidence and severity of CVD increases postmenopause. The lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in women during reproductive age is attributed at least in part to estrogen (E2). E2 binds to the traditional E2 receptors (ERs), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), as well as the more recently identified G-protein-coupled ER (GPR30), and can exert both genomic and non-genomic actions...
October 24, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065918/sex-differences-in-drugs-the-development-of-a-comprehensive-knowledge-base-to-improve-gender-awareness-prescribing
#10
Linnéa Karlsson Lind, Mia von Euler, Seher Korkmaz, Karin Schenck Gustafsson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041956/genetic-sex-determination-of-mice-by-simplex-pcr
#11
LETTER
Simon James Tunster
BACKGROUND: Investigating fetal development in mice necessitates the determination of fetal sex. However, whilst the sex of adult and juvenile mice can be readily distinguished from anogenital distance, the sex of fetal and neonatal mice cannot be identified visually. Instead, genetic sex must be determined by PCR amplification of X chromosome genes with divergent Y chromosome gametologs. Existing simplex PCR methods are confounded by small size differences between amplicons, amplification of unexpected products, and biased amplification of the shorter amplicon...
October 17, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877759/the-effects-of-17-alpha-estradiol-to-inhibit-inflammation-in-vitro
#12
Roberta S Santos, Luciana A de Fatima, Aaron P Frank, Everardo M Carneiro, Deborah J Clegg
BACKGROUND: 17 Alpha-estradiol (17 α-E2) is a natural, non-feminizing stereoisomer of 17 beta-estradiol (17 β-E2). Whereas much is known about the physiological effects of 17 β-E2, much less is known about 17 α-E2. For example, 17 β-E2 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in neurons and adipocytes through binding and activation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα); however, if 17 α-E2 has similar effects on inflammation is currently unknown. METHODS: To begin to address this, we analyzed the ability of 17 α-E2 and 17 β-E2 to suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro using embryonic fibroblast cells (MEF) from wild type and total body ERα (ERKO) male and female mice...
September 6, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859684/sex-differences-in-thermal-detection-and-thermal-pain-threshold-and-the-thermal-grill-illusion-a-psychophysical-study-in-young-volunteers
#13
Beate Averbeck, Lena Seitz, Florian P Kolb, Dieter F Kutz
BACKGROUND: Sex-related differences in human thermal and pain sensitivity are the subject of controversial discussion. The goal of this study in a large number of subjects was to investigate sex differences in thermal and thermal pain perception and the thermal grill illusion (TGI) as a phenomenon reflecting crosstalk between the thermoreceptive and nociceptive systems. The thermal grill illusion is a sensation of strong, but not necessarily painful, heat often preceded by transient cold upon skin contact with spatially interlaced innocuous warm and cool stimuli...
September 1, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818098/sex-chromosomes-drive-gene-expression-and-regulatory-dimorphisms-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#14
Rachael J Werner, Bryant M Schultz, Jacklyn M Huhn, Jaroslav Jelinek, Jozef Madzo, Nora Engel
BACKGROUND: Pre-implantation embryos exhibit sexual dimorphisms in both primates and rodents. To determine whether these differences reflected sex-biased expression patterns, we generated transcriptome profiles for six 40,XX, six 40,XY, and two 39,X mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells by RNA sequencing. RESULTS: We found hundreds of coding and non-coding RNAs that were differentially expressed between male and female cells. Surprisingly, the majority of these were autosomal and included RNA encoding transcription and epigenetic and chromatin remodeling factors...
August 17, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810930/sex-differences-in-microrna-mrna-networks-examination-of-novel-epigenetic-programming-mechanisms-in-the-sexually-dimorphic-neonatal-hypothalamus
#15
Christopher P Morgan, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Sexual differentiation of the male brain, and specifically the stress circuitry in the hypothalamus, is primarily driven by estrogen exposure during the perinatal period. Surprisingly, this single hormone promotes diverse programs of sex-specific development that vary widely between different cell types and across the developing male brain. The complexity of this phenomenon suggests that additional layers of gene regulation, including microRNAs (miRNAs), must act downstream of estrogen to mediate this specificity...
August 15, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807015/genomic-upregulation-of-cardiac-cav1-2%C3%AE-and-ncx1-by-estrogen-in-women
#16
Rita Papp, Glenna C L Bett, Agnieszka Lis, Randall L Rasmusson, István Baczkó, András Varró, Guy Salama
BACKGROUND: Women have a higher risk of lethal arrhythmias than men in long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), but the mechanisms remain uncertain due to the limited availability of healthy control human tissue. We have previously reported that in female rabbits, estrogen increases arrhythmia risk in drug-induced LQTS2 by upregulating L-type Ca(2+) (ICa,L) and sodium-calcium exchange (INCX) currents at the base of the epicardium by a genomic mechanism. This study investigates if the effects of estrogen on rabbit ICa,L and INCX apply to human hearts...
August 14, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789696/long-term-follow-up-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-reveals-differences-in-clinical-presentation-between-female-and-male-patients
#17
Jorge I Ramírez Sepúlveda, Marika Kvarnström, Per Eriksson, Thomas Mandl, Katrine Brække Norheim, Svein Joar Johnsen, Daniel Hammenfors, Malin V Jonsson, Kathrine Skarstein, Johan G Brun, Lars Rönnblom, Helena Forsblad-d'Elia, Sara Magnusson Bucher, Eva Baecklund, Elke Theander, Roald Omdal, Roland Jonsson, Gunnel Nordmark, Marie Wahren-Herlenius
BACKGROUND: Despite men being less prone to develop autoimmune diseases, male sex has been associated with a more severe disease course in several systemic autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we aimed to investigate differences in the clinical presentation of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) between the sexes and establish whether male sex is associated with a more severe form of long-term pSS. METHODS: Our study population included 967 patients with pSS (899 females and 68 males) from Scandinavian clinical centers...
August 8, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693572/sex-difference-in-thermal-preference-of-adult-mice-does-not-depend-on-presence-of-the-gonads
#18
Kasiphak Kaikaew, Jacobie Steenbergen, Axel P N Themmen, Jenny A Visser, Aldo Grefhorst
BACKGROUND: The thermoneutral zone (TNZ) is a species-specific range of ambient temperature (T a), at which mammals can maintain a constant body temperature with the lowest metabolic rate. The TNZ for an adult mouse is between 26 and 34 °C. Interestingly, female mice prefer a higher T a than male mice although the underlying mechanism for this sex difference is unknown. Here, we tested whether gonadal hormones are dominant factors controlling temperature preference in male and female mice...
July 11, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693541/is-hpa-axis-reactivity-in-childhood-gender-specific-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Jonneke J Hollanders, Bibian van der Voorn, Joost Rotteveel, Martijn J J Finken
BACKGROUND: In adults, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity shows sexual dimorphism, and this is thought to be a mechanism underlying sex-specific disease incidence. Evidence is scarce on whether these sex differences are also present in childhood. In a meta-analysis, we recently found that basal (non-stimulated) cortisol in saliva and free cortisol in 24-h urine follow sex-specific patterns. We explored whether these findings could be extended with sex differences in HPA axis reactivity...
July 11, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878875/the-effects-of-17-alpha-estradiol-to-inhibit-inflammation-in-vitro
#20
Roberta S Santos, Luciana A de Fatima, Aaron P Frank, Everardo M Carneiro, Deborah J Clegg
BACKGROUND: 17 Alpha-estradiol (17 α-E2) is a natural, non-feminizing stereoisomer of 17 beta-estradiol (17 β-E2). Whereas much is known about the physiological effects of 17 β-E2, much less is known about 17 α-E2. For example, 17 β-E2 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in neurons and adipocytes through binding and activation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα); however, if 17 α-E2 has similar effects on inflammation is currently unknown. METHODS: To begin to address this, we analyzed the ability of 17 α-E2 and 17 β-E2 to suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro using embryonic fibroblast cells (MEF) from wild type and total body ERα (ERKO) male and female mice...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
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