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Biology of Sex Differences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924218/sex-related-differences-in-the-associations-between-plasma-free-fatty-acid-levels-and-clinical-features-in-patients-with-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#1
Chengzhi Yang, Changlin Zhang, Jiansong Yuan, Jingang Cui, Shengwen Liu, Fenghuan Hu, Weixian Yang, Xuanye Bi, Shubin Qiao
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that inefficient energy utilization may play a pivotal role in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, whether plasma free fatty acid (FFA), a main energy substrate of heart, has an effect on HCM remains unclear. Besides, several studies have suggested sex-related differences in HCM features and FFA metabolism. Here, we aimed to explore the association between plasma FFA levels and HCM and potential effects of sex on this relation. METHODS: A total of 412 patients (age 47...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904745/sex-differences-in-outcomes-after-stroke-among-patients-with-low-total-cholesterol-levels-a-large-hospital-based-prospective-study
#2
Guanen Zhou, Zhongping An, Wenjuan Zhao, Yan Hong, Haolin Xin, Xianjia Ning, Jinghua Wang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that total cholesterol (TC) levels are associated with stroke outcomes, but sex differences in the association between TC levels, especially a low TC level, and ischemic stroke outcomes are unknown. We aimed to assess the sex differences in stroke outcomes among patients with atherothrombotic infarctions and low TC levels in China. METHODS: This study recruited patients with atherothrombotic infarctions from Tianjin, China, between May 2005 and September 2014...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895892/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-mast-cell-transcriptome-and-the-pathophysiological-responses-to-immunological-and-psychological-stress
#3
Emily Mackey, Saravanan Ayyadurai, Calvin S Pohl, Susan D' Costa, Yihang Li, Adam J Moeser
BACKGROUND: Biological sex plays a prominent role in the prevalence and severity of a number of important stress-related gastrointestinal and immune-related diseases including IBS and allergy/anaphylaxis. Despite the establishment of sex differences in these diseases, the underlying mechanisms contributing to sex differences remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to define the role of biological sex on mast cells (MCs), an innate immune cell central to the pathophysiology of many GI and allergic disorders...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895891/gene-specific-sex-effects-on-eosinophil-infiltration-in-leishmaniasis
#4
Martina Slapničková, Valeriya Volkova, Marie Čepičková, Tatyana Kobets, Matyáš Šíma, Milena Svobodová, Peter Demant, Marie Lipoldová
BACKGROUND: Sex influences susceptibility to many infectious diseases, including some manifestations of leishmaniasis. The disease is caused by parasites that enter to the skin and can spread to the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and sometimes lungs. Parasites induce host defenses including cell infiltration, leading to protective or ineffective inflammation. These responses are often influenced by host genotype and sex. We analyzed the role of sex in the impact of specific gene loci on eosinophil infiltration and its functional relevance...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895890/sex-and-age-related-differences-in-arterial-pressure-and-albuminuria-in-mice
#5
Giannie Barsha, Kate M Denton, Katrina M Mirabito Colafella
BACKGROUND: Animal models have become valuable experimental tools for understanding the pathophysiology and therapeutic interventions in cardiovascular disease. Yet to date, few studies document the age- and sex-related differences in arterial pressure, circadian rhythm, and renal function in normotensive mice under basal conditions, across the life span. We hypothesized that mice display similar sex- and age-related differences in arterial pressure and renal function to humans. METHODS: Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and circadian rhythm of arterial pressure were measured over 3 days via radiotelemetry, in 3- and 5-month-old (adult) and 14- and 18-month-old (aged) FVB/N and in 5-month-old (adult) C57BL/6 male and female normotensive mice...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891212/the-role-of-sex-differential-biology-in-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Donna M Werling
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental condition that affects approximately four times as many males as females, a strong sex bias that has not yet been fully explained. Understanding the causes of this biased prevalence may highlight novel avenues for treatment development that could benefit patients with diverse genetic backgrounds, and the expertise of sex differences researchers will be invaluable in this endeavor. In this review, I aim to assess current evidence pertaining to the sex difference in ASD prevalence and to identify outstanding questions and remaining gaps in our understanding of how males come to be more frequently affected and/or diagnosed with ASD...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833742/the-p-r92w-variant-of-nr5a1-nr5a1-induces-testicular-development-of-46-xx-gonads-in-humans-but-not-in-mice-phenotypic-comparison-of-human-patients-and-mutation-induced-mice
#7
Mami Miyado, Masafumi Inui, Maki Igarashi, Yuko Katoh-Fukui, Kei Takasawa, Akiko Hakoda, Junko Kanno, Kenichi Kashimada, Kenji Miyado, Moe Tamano, Tsutomu Ogata, Shuji Takada, Maki Fukami
NR5A1 is the key regulator of adrenal and gonadal development in both humans and mice. Recently, a missense substitution in human NR5A1, p.R92W, was shown to underlie gonadal dysgenesis in genetic males and testicular formation in genetic females. Here, we investigated the phenotypic effects of the p.R92W mutation on murine development. Mice carrying the p.R92W mutation manifested a similar but milder phenotype than that of the previously described Nr5a1 knockout mice. Importantly, mutation-positive XX mice showed no signs of masculinization...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790364/sex-and-gender-medical-education-summit-a-roadmap-for-curricular-innovation
#8
EDITORIAL
Eliza L Chin, Marley Hoggatt, Alyson J McGregor, Mary K Rojek, Kimberly Templeton, Robert Casanova, Wendy S Klein, Virginia M Miller, Marjorie Jenkins
The Sex and Gender Medical Education Summit: a roadmap for curricular innovation was a collaborative initiative of the American Medical Women's Association, Laura W. Bush Institute for Women's Health, Mayo Clinic, and Society for Women's Health Research (www.sgbmeducationsummit.com). It was held on October 18-19, 2015 to provide a unique venue for collaboration among nationally and internationally renowned experts in developing a roadmap for the incorporation of sex and gender based concepts into medical education curricula...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790363/instructional-design-framework-for-the-sex-and-gender-specific-health-multimedia-case-based-learning-modules
#9
EDITORIAL
Steven M Crooks, Jongpil Cheon, Robert Casanova, Marjorie Jenkins
The goal of the Sex and Gender Specific Health (SGSH) curriculum at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC) is to advance the understanding of sex/gender differences, increase the awareness of gender-specific health issues, and improve the knowledge of sex and gender evidence-based medicine. The purpose of this paper is to explain the development and theoretical rationale for an important aspect of the curriculum: the SGSH Multimedia Case-Based Learning Modules (MCBLMs). The MCBLMs are designed to be used throughout the TTUHSC curriculum as a stand-alone or a supplementary instructional resource...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790362/evaluation-of-sex-and-gender-based-medicine-training-in-post-graduate-medical-education-a-cross-sectional-survey-study
#10
Juliana M Kling, Steven H Rose, Lisa N Kransdorf, Thomas R Viggiano, Virginia M Miller
BACKGROUND: Addressing healthcare disparities is a national priority for initiatives in precision and individualized medicine. An essential component of precision medicine is the understanding that sex and gender influence health and disease. Whether these issues are addressed in post-graduate medical education curricula is unknown. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed and administered to residents across the Mayo Clinic enterprise to assess current knowledge of sex and gender medicine in a large program of post-graduate medical education and to identify barriers and preferred teaching methods for addressing sex and gender issues in health and disease...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785350/training-emergency-physicians-in-sex-and-gender-based-medicine-assessing-attitudes-of-program-directors-and-residency-graduates
#11
Tracy E Madsen, Alyson J McGregor
BACKGROUND: Sex and gender influence disease presentation, treatment, healthcare access, and long-term outcomes. It is uncertain to what extent sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) content has been integrated into emergency medicine (EM) residency curricula. We aimed to determine if SGBM is being taught in EM residency training, if EM residency program directors (PDs) declare SGBM a curriculum priority, and if recent graduates (RGs) of EM residency programs declare SGBM as relevant to their practice...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785349/the-science-of-sex-and-gender-in-human-health-online-courses-to-create-a-foundation-for-sex-and-gender-accountability-in-biomedical-research-and-treatment
#12
Jennifer L Plank-Bazinet, Annie Sampson, Leah R Miller, Emmanuel O Fadiran, Deborah Kallgren, Rajeev K Agarwal, Whitney Barfield, Claudette E Brooks, Lisa Begg, Amy C Mistretta, Pamela E Scott, Janine Austin Clayton, Terri L Cornelison
BACKGROUND: Sex and gender differences play a significant role in the course and outcome of conditions that affect specific organ systems in the human body. Research on differences in the effects of medical intervention has helped scientists develop a number of sex- and gender-specific guidelines on the treatment and management of these conditions. An online series of courses, "The Science of Sex and Gender in Human Health," developed by the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health and the U...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785348/how-to-study-the-impact-of-sex-and-gender-in-medical-research-a-review-of-resources
#13
REVIEW
Alyson J McGregor, Memoona Hasnain, Kathryn Sandberg, Mary F Morrison, Michelle Berlin, Justina Trott
There is a growing appreciation by the biomedical community that studying the impact of sex and gender on health, aging, and disease will lead to improvements in human health. Sex- and gender-based comparisons can inform research on disease mechanisms and the development of new therapeutics as well as enhance scientific rigor and reproducibility. This review will assist basic researchers, clinical investigators, as well as epidemiologists, population, and social scientists by providing an annotated bibliography of currently available resource tools on how to consider sex and gender as independent variables in research design and methodology...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785347/sex-and-gender-in-medical-education-a-national-student-survey
#14
Marjorie R Jenkins, Alyssa Herrmann, Amanda Tashjian, Tina Ramineni, Rithika Ramakrishnan, Donna Raef, Tracy Rokas, John Shatzer
BACKGROUND: Gender- and sex-specific medicine is defined as the practice of medicine based on the understanding that biology (dictated by sex chromosomes) and social roles (gender) are important in and have implications for prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment in men and women. In light of the many ways that sex and gender influence disease presentation and patient management, there have been various initiatives to improve the integration of these topics into medical education curriculum...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785346/integrating-topics-of-sex-and-gender-into-medical-curricula-lessons-from-the-international-community
#15
EDITORIAL
Virginia M Miller, Georgios Kararigas, Ute Seeland, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek, Karolina Kublickiene, Gillian Einstein, Robert Casanova, Marianne J Legato
In the era of individualized medicine, training future scientists and health-care providers in the principles of sex- and gender-based differences in health and disease is critical in order to optimize patient care. International successes to incorporate these concepts into medical curricula can provide a template for others to follow. Methodologies and resources are provided that can be adopted and adapted to specific needs of other institutions and learning situations.
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785345/workshop-summaries-from-the-2015-sex-and-gender-medical-education-summit-utilization-of-sex-and-gender-based-medical-education-resources-and-creating-student-competencies
#16
EDITORIAL
Alyson J McGregor, Ana Núñez, Rebecca Barron, Robert Casanova, Eliza Lo Chin
BACKGROUND: Despite overwhelming evidence that sex and gender are critical factors in the delivery and practice of medicine, there is no unified sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) undergraduate medical education curriculum. Two Workshops within the 2015 Sex and Gender Medical Education Summit: a Roadmap to Curricular Innovation sought to lay the framework for such a curriculum. METHODS: Attendees to the Sex and Gender Educational Summit self-selected attendance for one of two Workshops: (A) Utilization of SGBM Resources in U...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785344/innovative-levers-for-sustainable-integration-of-gender-medicine-into-medical-school-curricula
#17
EDITORIAL
Cara Tannenbaum, Geneviève Moineau
Efforts to integrate gender medicine into medical school curricula have focused largely on the work of individual champions. Online sex and gender materials for undergraduate courses have also been developed and disseminated. Success has been sporadic, with varying uptake across schools within and between countries. International trends in medical school accreditation processes and the growing force of the millennial student voice offer untapped opportunities to promote more systematic integration of gender medicine on a national and international level...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785343/auditing-sex-and-gender-based-medicine-sgbm-content-in-medical-school-curriculum-a-student-scholar-model
#18
EDITORIAL
Michael M Song, Betsy G Jones, Robert A Casanova
BACKGROUND: Sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) aims to (1) delineate and investigate sex- and gender-based differences in health, disease, and response to treatment and (2) apply that knowledge to clinical care to improve the health of both women and men. However, the integration of SGBM into medical school curricula is often haphazard and poorly defined; schools often do not know the current status of SGBM content in their curricula, even if they are committed to addressing gaps and improving SGBM delivery...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785342/egender-from-e-learning-to-e-research-a-web-based-interactive-knowledge-sharing-platform-for-sex-and-gender-specific-medical-education
#19
EDITORIAL
Ute Seeland, Ahmad T Nauman, Alissa Cornelis, Sabine Ludwig, Mathias Dunkel, Georgios Kararigas, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
BACKGROUND: Sex and Gender Medicine is a novel discipline that provides equitable medical care for society and improves outcomes for both male and female patients. The integration of sex- and gender-specific knowledge into medical curricula is limited due to adequate learning material, systematic teacher training and an innovative communication strategy. We aimed at initiating an e-learning and knowledge-sharing platform for Sex and Gender Medicine, the eGender platform (http://egender...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785341/sex-and-gender-medicine-in-physician-clinical-training-results-of-a-large-single-center-survey
#20
Shivani Dhawan, May Bakir, Erika Jones, Sarah Kilpatrick, C Noel Bairey Merz
BACKGROUND: "Sex and Gender Medicine" is a novel medical discipline that takes into account the effects of sex and gender on the health of women and men. The Institute of Medicine in the USA declared in its 2001 and 2010 statements that being a woman or a man significantly impacts the course of diseases, and therefore, this fact must be considered in diagnosis and therapy. We evaluated the representation of Sex and Gender Medicine in clinical training at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, a large, tertiary, non-profit, academic medical training center in the Western United States...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
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