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Biology of Sex Differences

Robert G Hahn
BACKGROUND: A recent review article suggests that elimination of infused crystalloid fluid might occur faster in females than in males. To study this question, a population kinetic analysis was performed to compare the turnover of buffered Ringer's solution when infused at different rates in males and females. METHODS: Data were retrieved from seven series of experiments where 44 intravenous infusions of Ringer's acetate had been given to female volunteers and 67 to male volunteers...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Sarah Schalekamp-Timmermans, Jerome Cornette, Albert Hofman, Willem A Helbing, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Eric A P Steegers, Bero O Verburg
BACKGROUND: There are sex differences in the risk of development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). According to the developmental origins of health and disease paradigm (DOHaD), CVD originates in fetal life. This study examines fetal sex differences in cardiovascular development in utero. METHODS: In 1028 pregnant women, we assessed fetal circulation using pulsed wave Doppler examinations between 28 and 34 weeks gestation. To test associations between fetal sex and fetal circulation measurements, linear regression models were used adjusting for fetal size, gestational age, and fetal heart rate...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Carola Schubert, Valeria Raparelli, Christina Westphal, Elke Dworatzek, George Petrov, Georgios Kararigas, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
BACKGROUND: Estrogen improves cardiac recovery after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) by yet incompletely understood mechanisms. Mitochondria play a crucial role in I/R injury through cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis activation. We tested the hypothesis that 17β-estradiol (E2) as well as a specific ERβ agonist improve cardiac recovery through estrogen receptor (ER)β-mediated mechanisms by reducing mitochondria-induced apoptosis and preserving mitochondrial integrity. METHODS: We randomized ovariectomized C57BL/6N mice 24h before I/R to pre-treatment with E2 or a specific ERβ agonist (ERβA)...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Matthias Nemeth, Eva Millesi, Verena Puehringer-Sturmayr, Arthur Kaplan, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Ruth Quint, Bernard Wallner
BACKGROUND: Unbalanced dietary intakes of saturated (SFAs) and polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids can profoundly influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and glucocorticoid secretions in relation to behavioral performances. The beneficial effects of higher dietary PUFA intakes and PUFA:SFA ratios may also affect social interactions and social-living per se, where adequate physiological and behavioral responses are essential to cope with unstable social environmental conditions...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Rachel Puralewski, Georgia Vasilakis, Marianne L Seney
BACKGROUND: Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) compared to men, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this sex difference are unclear. Previous studies in the human postmortem brain suggest dysfunction in basolateral amygdala (BLA) inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) function, specifically in females with MDD. METHODS: We investigated the effects of sex chromosome complement, developmental gonadal sex, and circulating testosterone on expression of 3 GABA-related and 2 BDNF-related genes in the BLA using three cohorts of four core genotypes (FCG) mice...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Charles P Madenjian, Richard R Rediske, David P Krabbenhoft, Martin A Stapanian, Sergei M Chernyak, James P O'Keefe
A comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In eight species of fish, we observed that males exceeded females in whole-fish PCB concentration by 17 to 43 %. Based on results from hypothesis testing, we concluded that these sex differences were most likely primarily driven by a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from higher resting metabolic rate (or standard metabolic rate (SMR)) and higher swimming activity, in males compared with females...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Helena Rakov, Kathrin Engels, Georg Sebastian Hönes, Karl-Heinz Strucksberg, Lars Christian Moeller, Josef Köhrle, Denise Zwanziger, Dagmar Führer
BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction is more common in the female population, however, the impact of sex on disease characteristics has rarely been addressed. Using a murine model, we asked whether sex has an influence on phenotypes, thyroid hormone status, and thyroid hormone tissue response in hyper- and hypothyroidism. METHODS: Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced in 5-month-old female and male wildtype C57BL/6N mice, by LoI/MMI/ClO4 (-) or T4 i.p. treatment over 7 weeks, and control animals underwent sham treatment (N = 8 animals/sex/treatment)...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Francesca Puoti, Andrea Ricci, Alessandro Nanni-Costa, Walter Ricciardi, Walter Malorni, Elena Ortona
Organ transplantation, e.g., of the heart, liver, or kidney, is nowadays a routine strategy to counteract several lethal human pathologies. From literature data and from data obtained in Italy, a striking scenario appears well evident: women are more often donors than recipients. On the other hand, recipients of organs are mainly males, probably reflecting a gender bias in the incidence of transplant-related pathologies. The impact of sex mismatch on transplant outcome remains debated, even though donor-recipient sex mismatch, due to biological matters, appears undesirable in female recipients...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Jill B Becker, Brian J Prendergast, Jing W Liang
BACKGROUND: Not including female rats or mice in neuroscience research has been justified due to the variable nature of female data caused by hormonal fluctuations associated with the female reproductive cycle. In this study, we investigated whether female rats are more variable than male rats in scientific reports of neuroscience-related traits. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were searched for the period from August 1, 2010, to July 31, 2014, for articles that included both male and female rats and that measured diverse aspects of brain function...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Rachel D Moloney, Jahangir Sajjad, Tara Foley, Valeria D Felice, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Siobhain M O'Mahony
BACKGROUND: Early-life stress (ELS) is a recognized risk factor for chronic pain disorders, and females appear to be more sensitive to the negative effects of stress. Moreover, estrous cycle-related fluctuations in estrogen levels have been linked with alternating pain sensitivity. Aberrant central circuitry involving both the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the lumbosacral spinal cord has also been implicated in the modulation of visceral pain in clinical and preclinical studies...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
James R Bell, Claire L Curl, Tristan W Harding, Martin Vila Petroff, Stephen B Harrap, Lea M D Delbridge
BACKGROUND: Cardiac hypertrophy is the most potent cardiovascular risk factor after age, and relative mortality risk linked with cardiac hypertrophy is greater in women. Ischemic heart disease is the most common form of cardiovascular pathology for both men and women, yet significant differences in incidence and outcomes exist between the sexes. Cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia are frequently occurring dual pathologies. Whether the cellular (cardiomyocyte) mechanisms underlying myocardial damage differ in women and men remains to be determined...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
David A Hart
Considerable research effort has been invested in attempting to understand immune dysregulation leading to autoimmunity and target organ damage. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), patients can develop a systemic disease with a number of organs involved. One of the major target organs is the kidney, but patients vary in the progression of the end-organ targeting of this organ. Some patients develop glomerulonephritis only, while others develop rapidly progressive end organ failure. In murine models of SLE, renal involvement can also occur...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
K Hoa Nguyen, Sudharsana R Ande, Suresh Mishra
Sex differences are known to exist in adipose and immune functions in the body, and sex steroid hormones are known to be involved in sexually dimorphic biological and pathological processes related to adipose-immune interaction. However, our knowledge of proteins that mediate such differences is poor. Two novel obese mice models, Mito-Ob and m-Mito-Ob, that have been reported recently have revealed an unexpected role of a pleiotropic protein, prohibitin (PHB), in sex differences in adipose and immune functions...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Dawn K Prusator, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld
BACKGROUND: Early life stress (ELS) serves as a risk factor for the development of functional pain disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults. Although rodent models have been developed to mimic different forms of ELS experience, the use of predominantly male animals across various rodent strains has led to a paucity of information regarding sex-related differences in the persistent effects of ELS on pain behaviors in adulthood. We hypothesized that the context or nature of ELS experience may interact with sex differences to influence the development of chronic pain...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Jeffrey A French, Brett Frye, Jon Cavanaugh, Dongren Ren, Aaryn C Mustoe, Lisa Rapaport, Jennifer Mickelberg
BACKGROUND: Sexual differentiation in female mammals can be altered by the proximity of male littermates in utero, a phenomenon known as the intrauterine position effect (IUP). Among simian primates, callitrichines (marmosets and tamarins) are likely candidates for IUP, since they exhibit obligate dizygotic twinning and fetuses share extensive vascularization in utero. In this paper, we determined whether female reproductive parameters are altered by gestating with a male twin and evaluated changes in genes associated with anti-Müllerian and steroid hormones in twinning callitrichine primates...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Qingfen Pan, Mary I O'Connor, Richard D Coutts, Sharon L Hyzy, Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara D Boyan
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of osteoarthritis is higher in women than in men in every age group, and overall prevalence increases with advancing age. Sex-specific differences in the properties of osteoarthritic joint tissues may permit the development of sex-specific therapies. Sex hormones regulate cartilage and bone development and homeostasis in a sex-dependent manner. Recent in vitro studies show that the vitamin D3 metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3] also has sex-specific effects on musculoskeletal cells, suggesting that vitamin D3 metabolites may play a role in osteoarthritis-related sex-specific differences...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Pilar Argente-Arizón, Purificación Ros, Francisca Díaz, Esther Fuente-Martin, David Castro-González, Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Garrido, Vicente Barrios, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Jesús Argente, Julie A Chowen
BACKGROUND: Males and females respond differently to diverse metabolic situations. Being raised in a small litter is reported to cause overnutrition that increases weight gain and predisposes an individual to metabolic disturbances in adulthood; however, existing data are inconsistent. Indeed, significant weight gain and/or metabolic disturbances, such as hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia, are sometimes not encountered. We hypothesized that these inconsistencies could be due to the animal's sex and/or age at which metabolic parameters are measured...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Sriram Devanathan, Timothy D Whitehead, Nicole Fettig, Robert J Gropler, Samuel Nemanich, Kooresh I Shoghi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among diabetic patients. Importantly, recent data highlight the apparent sexual dimorphism in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in diabetics with respect to both frequency- and age-related risk factors. The disposition to cardiovascular disease among diabetic patients has been attributed, at least in part, to excess lipid supply to the heart culminating in lipotoxicity of the heart and downstream derangements. A confounding factor in obese animal models of diabetes is that increased peripheral lipid availability to the heart can induce cardio-metabolic remodeling independent of the underlying pathophysiology of diabetes, thus masking the diabetic phenotype...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Reagan R Wetherill, Kanchana Jagannathan, Nathan Hager, Melanie Maron, Teresa R Franklin
BACKGROUND: Sex differences in tobacco-related morbidity and mortality exist, with women experiencing more severe health consequences and greater difficulty with smoking cessation than men. One factor that likely contributes to these sex differences is menstrual cycle phase and associated neural and cognitive changes associated with ovarian hormone fluctuations across the menstrual cycle. Previously, we showed that naturally cycling, cigarette-dependent women in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle showed greater reward-related neural activity and greater craving during smoking cue exposure...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Matthew J Kesterke, Zachary D Raffensperger, Carrie L Heike, Michael L Cunningham, Jacqueline T Hecht, Chung How Kau, Nichole L Nidey, Lina M Moreno, George L Wehby, Mary L Marazita, Seth M Weinberg
BACKGROUND: Although craniofacial sex differences have been extensively studied in humans, relatively little is known about when various dimorphic features manifest during postnatal life. Using cross-sectional data derived from the 3D Facial Norms data repository, we tested for sexual dimorphism of craniofacial soft-tissue morphology at different ages. METHODS: One thousand five hundred fifty-five individuals, pre-screened for craniofacial conditions, between 3 and 25 years of age were placed in to one of six age-defined categories: early childhood, late childhood, puberty, adolescence, young adult, and adult...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
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