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Biology of Sex Differences

Kimia Sobhani, Diana K Nieves Castro, Qin Fu, Roberta A Gottlieb, Jennifer E Van Eyk, C Noel Bairey Merz
Since 1984, each year, more women than men die of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF), yet more men are diagnosed. Because biomarker assessment is often the first diagnostic employed in such patients, understanding biomarker differences in men vs. women may improve female morbidity and mortality rates.Some key examples of cardiac biomarker utility based on sex include contemporary use of "unisex" troponin reference intervals under-diagnosing myocardial necrosis in women; greater use of hsCRP in the setting of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) could lead to better stratification in women; and greater use of BNP with sex-specific thresholds in ACS could also lead to more timely risk stratification in women...
September 17, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Abdulaziz Awali, Ali M Alsouhibani, Marie Hoeger Bement
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that women experience greater temporal summation (TS) of pain than men using a repetitive thermal stimulus. These studies, however, did not individualize the thermal stimulus to each subject's thermal pain sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences in TS using an individualized protocol and potential mediators that have been shown to influence TS including physical activity and body composition. METHODS: Fifty young healthy men and women (21 men) participated in the study...
September 15, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Scott Fuller, Yongmei Yu, Tamra Mendoza, David M Ribnicky, William T Cefalu, Z Elizabeth Floyd
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance underlies metabolic syndrome and is associated with excess adiposity and visceral fat accumulation, which is more frequently observed in males than females. However, in young females, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising, mainly driven by accumulation of abdominal visceral fat. The degree to which sex-related differences could influence the development of insulin resistance remains unclear, and studies of potential therapeutic strategies to combat metabolic syndrome using rodent models have focused predominantly on males...
September 12, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Qingming Dong, Michael S Kuefner, Xiong Deng, Dave Bridges, Edwards A Park, Marshall B Elam, Rajendra Raghow
BACKGROUND: Patients with metabolic syndrome, who are characterized by co-existence of insulin resistance, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, are also prone to develop non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the prevalence and severity of NAFLD is significantly greater in men than women, the mechanisms by which gender modulates the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis are poorly defined. The obese spontaneously hypertensive (SHROB) rats represent an attractive model of metabolic syndrome without overt type 2 diabetes...
September 10, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Cara Tannenbaum, Krystle van Hoof
BACKGROUND: To describe the effectiveness of online learning to augment academic capacity to consider sex and gender in the conduct of basic science, clinical research, and population health studies. METHOD: The analysis compares pre- and post-test scores from 1441 individuals who completed the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Institute of Gender and Health's interactive e-learning modules between February 2016 and May 2017. The tests measured knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-reported intent to change behavior for three competencies: (1) the ability to appropriately define and distinguish between sex-related versus gender-related variables, (2) the application of methods for integrating sex and gender, and (3) the critical appraisal of sex and gender integration in the design, methods, and analysis plan of research proposals and publications...
August 29, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Becky Meiners, Chetan Shenoy, Beshay N Zordoky
Anthracyclines are very effective chemotherapeutic agents that are widely used to treat pediatric and adult cancer patients. Unfortunately, the clinical utility of anthracyclines is limited by cardiotoxicity. There are several established risk factors for anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC), including total cumulative dose, very young and very old age, concomitant use of other cardiotoxic agents, and concurrent mediastinal radiation. However, the role of sex as a risk factor for AIC is not well defined...
August 29, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Yang Xin Zi Xu, Sudharsana Rao Ande, Suresh Mishra
BACKGROUND: Recently, we have developed a novel transgenic mouse model by overexpressing prohibitin (PHB) in adipocytes, which developed obesity due to upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in adipocytes, hence named "Mito-Ob." Interestingly, only male Mito-Ob mice developed obesity-related impaired glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, whereas female Mito-Ob mice did not. The observed sex differences in metabolic dysregulation suggest a potential involvement of sex steroids...
August 29, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Adrian C Eddy, Gene L Bidwell, Eric M George
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorder resulting from abnormal placentation, which causes factors such as sFlt-1 to be released into the maternal circulation. Though anti-hypertensive drugs and magnesium sulfate can be given in an effort to moderate symptoms, the syndrome is not well controlled. A hallmark characteristic of preeclampsia, especially early-onset preeclampsia, is angiogenic imbalance resulting from an inappropriately upregulated sFlt-1 acting as a decoy receptor binding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF), reducing their bioavailability...
August 25, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Qing Qiao, Yan Hong, Wenjuan Zhao, Guanen Zhou, Qian Liu, Xianjia Ning, Jinghua Wang, Zhongping An
BACKGROUND: Sex differences in outcomes after small artery occlusion (SAO) stroke have not been well described, particularly in a Chinese population. We aimed to assess sex differences in outcomes and related risk factors among patients with SAO. METHODS: All consecutive patients with SAO were recruited between May 2005 and September 2014. Clinical features and risk factors were recorded. The mortality, recurrence, and dependency rates at 3 months after stroke were assessed...
August 2, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
C Silaidos, U Pilatus, R Grewal, S Matura, B Lienerth, J Pantel, G P Eckert
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, and it affects more women than men. Mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) plays a key role in AD, and it is detectable at an early stage of the degenerative process in peripheral tissues, such as peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs). However, whether these changes are also reflected in cerebral energy metabolism and whether sex-specific differences in mitochondrial function occur are not clear. Therefore, we estimated the correlation between mitochondrial function in PBMCs and brain energy metabolites and examined sex-specific differences in healthy participants to elucidate these issues...
July 25, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Gabriel A B Marais, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Cristina Vieira, Ingrid Plotton, Damien Sanlaville, François Gueyffier, Jean-Francois Lemaitre
It is well known that women live longer than men. This gap is observed in most human populations and can even reach 10-15 years. In addition, most of the known super centenarians (i.e., humans who lived for > 110 years) are women. The differences in life expectancy between men and women are often attributed to cultural differences in common thinking. However, sex hormones seem to influence differences in the prevalence of diseases, in the magnitude of aging, and in the longevity between men and women...
July 17, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Meghan S Vermillion, Rebecca L Ursin, Denise I T Kuok, Landon G Vom Steeg, Nicholas Wohlgemuth, Olivia J Hall, Ashley L Fink, Eric Sasse, Andrew Nelson, Roland Ndeh, Sharon McGrath-Morrow, Wayne Mitzner, Michael C W Chan, Andrew Pekosz, Sabra L Klein
BACKGROUND: Amphiregulin (AREG) is an epidermal growth factor that is a significant mediator of tissue repair at mucosal sites, including in the lungs during influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Previous research illustrates that males of reproductive ages experience less severe disease and recover faster than females following infection with IAV. METHODS: Whether males and females differentially produce and utilize AREG for pulmonary repair after IAV infection was investigated using murine models on a C57BL/6 background and primary mouse and human epithelial cell culture systems...
July 17, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Apryl E Pooley, Rebecca C Benjamin, Susheela Sreedhar, Andrew L Eagle, Alfred J Robison, Michelle S Mazei-Robison, S Marc Breedlove, Cynthia L Jordan
BACKGROUND: Our previous study revealed that adult female rats respond differently to trauma than adult males, recapitulating sex differences in symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibited by women and men. Here, we asked two questions: does the female phenotype depend on (1) social housing condition and/or (2) circulating gonadal hormones? METHODS: For the first study, the effects of single prolonged stress (SPS) were compared for females singly or pair-housed...
July 13, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Apryl E Pooley, Rebecca C Benjamin, Susheela Sreedhar, Andrew L Eagle, Alfred J Robison, Michelle S Mazei-Robison, S Marc Breedlove, Cynthia L Jordan
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects men and women differently. Not only are women twice as likely as men to develop PTSD, they experience different symptoms and comorbidities associated with PTSD. Yet the dearth of preclinical research on females leaves a notable gap in understanding the underlying neuropathology of this sex difference. METHODS: Using two standard measures of PTSD-like responses in rats, the acoustic startle response (ASR) and dexamethasone suppression test (DST), we tested the effects of traumatic stress in adult male and female rats using two rodent models of PTSD, single prolonged stress and predator exposure...
July 5, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Michael B Berger, David J Cohen, Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Joseph K Williams, David L Cochran, Barbara D Boyan, Zvi Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Osseointegration is dependent on the implant surface, surrounding bone quality, and the systemic host environment, which can differ in male and female patients. Titanium (Ti) implants with microstructured surfaces exhibit greater pullout strength when compared to smooth-surfaced implants and exhibit enhanced osteogenic cellular responses in vitro. Previous studies showed that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2 D3 ] has a greater effect on rat osteoblast differentiation on microstructured Ti compared to smooth Ti surfaces and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS)...
July 3, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Aude-Clémence M Doix, Felix Wachholz, Natalie Marterer, Lorenz Immler, Kathrin Insam, Peter A Federolf
BACKGROUND: While performing a unilateral muscle contraction, electrical muscle activity also arises in the contralateral homologous muscle, muscle group, or limb. When the muscle contraction induces muscle fatigue, females show not only a greater resistance than males but also a reduced contralateral muscle activation. The study aimed at investigating whether, during a high-intensity 30-s unilateral maximal effort isometric leg extension exercise, the contralateral non-exercising limb (NEL) knee extensor muscle activation would differ between females and males...
June 28, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Melanie Schorr, Laura E Dichtel, Anu V Gerweck, Ruben D Valera, Martin Torriani, Karen K Miller, Miriam A Bredella
BACKGROUND: Body composition differs between men and women, with women having proportionally more fat mass and men more muscle mass. Although men and women are both susceptible to obesity, health consequences differ between the sexes. The purpose of our study was to assess sex differences in body composition using anatomic and functional imaging techniques, and its relationship to cardiometabolic risk markers in subjects with overweight/obesity. METHODS: After written informed consent, we prospectively recruited 208 subjects with overweight/obesity who were otherwise healthy (94 men, 114 women, age 37 ± 10 years, BMI 35 ± 6 kg/m2 )...
June 27, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Edgar Ricardo Vázquez-Martínez, Elizabeth García-Gómez, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, Bertha González-Pedrajo
BACKGROUND: Sex differences are important epidemiological factors that impact in the frequency and severity of infectious diseases. A clear sexual dimorphism in bacterial infections has been reported in both humans and animal models. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms involved in this gender bias are just starting to be elucidated. In the present article, we aim to review the available data in the literature that report bacterial infections presenting a clear sexual dimorphism, without considering behavioral and social factors...
June 20, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Marlies Elderman, Floor Hugenholtz, Clara Belzer, Mark Boekschoten, Adriaan van Beek, Bart de Haan, Huub Savelkoul, Paul de Vos, Marijke Faas
BACKGROUND: A dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiome plays a role in the pathogenesis of several immunological diseases. These diseases often show a sex bias, suggesting sex differences in immune responses and in the intestinal microbiome. We hypothesized that sex differences in immune responses are associated with sex differences in microbiota composition. METHODS: Fecal microbiota composition (MITchip), mRNA expression in intestinal tissue (microarray), and immune cell populations in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were studied in male and female mice of two mouse strains (C57B1/6OlaHsd and Balb/cOlaHsd)...
June 18, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Kaytee L Pokrzywinski, Thomas G Biel, Elliot T Rosen, Julia L Bonanno, Baikuntha Aryal, Francesca Mascia, Delaram Moshkelani, Steven Mog, V Ashutosh Rao
BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline therapeutic, is widely used to treat a variety of cancer types and known to induce cardiomyopathy in a time and dose-dependent manner. Postmenopausal and hypertensive females are two high-risk groups for developing adverse effects following DOX treatment. This may suggest that endogenous reproductive hormones can in part suppress DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Here, we investigated if the endogenous fluctuations in 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) can in part suppress DOX-induced cardiomyopathy in SST-2 tumor-bearing spontaneously hypersensitive rats (SHRs) and evaluate if exogenous administration of E2 and P4 can suppress DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in tumor-bearing ovariectomized SHRs (ovaSHRs)...
June 15, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
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