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Frontiers in Pharmacology

Essam Abdel-Sattar, Eman T Mehanna, Sabah H El-Ghaiesh, Hala M F Mohammad, Hanan A Elgendy, Sawsan A Zaitone
Background and purpose: Russelioside B (RB) is a pregnane glycoside obtained from Caralluma quadrangula ; a herb with antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperlipidemic activities. The present experiment tested the possible role of RB in controlling weight gain in rats fed on high fat (HF) diet. Methods: RB was separated from the n-butanol fraction of the crude methanolic extract by chromatographic separation on a Si gel column according to the procedures described previously. The experiment of the biological assessment of RB used 32 male Wistar rats (4 groups, n = 8)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Gui-Lin Jin, Rong-Cai Yue, Sai-di He, Li-Mian Hong, Ying Xu, Chang-Xi Yu
Koumine, an indole alkaloid, is a major bioactive component of Gelsemium elegans . Previous studies have demonstrated that koumine has noticeable anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in inflammatory and neuropathic pain (NP) models, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. This study was designed to explore the analgesic effect of koumine on chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced NP in rats and the underlying mechanisms, including astrocyte autophagy and apoptosis in the spinal cord. Rats with CCI-induced NP were used to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of koumine...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Shuai Guo, Kangfeng Jiang, Haichong Wu, Chao Yang, Yaping Yang, Jing Yang, Gan Zhao, Ganzhen Deng
Acute lung injury (ALI) which is featured by a strong pulmonary inflammation, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Magnoflorine, a quaternary alkaloid isolated from Chinese herb Magnolia or Aristolochia, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of magnoflorine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in mice has not been reported. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of magnoflorine on LPS-induced ALI and elucidate its possible molecular mechanisms in RAW264...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Shuang Chen, Meng-Bei Xu, Xiao-Li Zhou, Pei-Qing Rong, Ting-Yu Jin, Guo-Qing Zheng
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an acquired autoimmune disease with the disorder of the neuromuscular junction transmission caused by autoantibodies. Currently, various Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are widely used for MG. This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness and safety of CHMs for MG and its possible mechanisms. Fourteen studies with 1039 individuals were identified by searching seven databases from inception to March 2017. The methodological quality was assessed by using 7-item criteria from the Cochrane's Collaboration tool, and which assessed ≥4 "yes" in the domains were selected for detailed assessment and meta-analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Petrus J de Vries, David N Franz, Paolo Curatolo, Rima Nabbout, Maureen Neary, Fabian Herbst, Kate Sully, Elaine Brohan, Bryan Bennett, John A Lawson
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare genetic disease associated with significant disease burden and considerable impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently no disease-specific clinical outcome assessments evaluate HRQL in individuals with TSC. A multi-center phase III study EXIST-3 (NCT01713946) assessed the efficacy and safety of two trough exposure ranges (Low exposure, LE: 3-7 ng/mL and high exposure, HE: 9-15 ng/mL) of adjunctive everolimus in patients aged 2-65 years with TSC and refractory partial-onset seizures ( N = 366)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, David Rodriguez, Wilber Romero-Fernandez, Jon Kapla, Mariama Jaiteh, Anirudh Ranganathan, Tzvetana Lazarova, Kjell Fuxe, Jens Carlsson
The A2A adenosine (A2A R) and D2 dopamine (D2 R) receptors form oligomers in the cell membrane and allosteric interactions across the A2A R-D2 R heteromer represent a target for development of drugs against central nervous system disorders. However, understanding of the molecular determinants of A2A R-D2 R heteromerization and the allosteric antagonistic interactions between the receptor protomers is still limited. In this work, a structural model of the A2A R-D2 R heterodimer was generated using a combined experimental and computational approach...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yi-Qi Yang, Xiao-Teng Yan, Kai Wang, Rui-Min Tian, Zhao-Yu Lu, Li-Lan Wu, Hong-Tao Xu, Yun-Shan Wu, Xu-Sheng Liu, Wei Mao, Peng Xu, Bo Liu
Nrf2 (Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2 Related Factor 2) transcription factor not only regulates oxidative stress response, but also represses inflammation by regulating cytokines production and cross-talking with NF-κB signaling pathways. Nrf2 plays an essential role in liver injury induced by oxidative stress and inflammation. Triptriolide (T11) is a minor component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. (TwHF), which can be obtained by hydrolysis reaction of triptolide (T9). The major purpose of this study is to clarify the regulating effects of T11 on oxidative stress and inflammation in vivo and in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Fen Yang, Min Jiang, Ming Lu, Pei Hu, Hongyun Wang, Ji Jiang
Objective: This phase Ia study was designed to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) characters of free vincristine (F-VCR, refer to as non-liposomal VCR and VCR released from liposome) and total vincristine (T-VCR, the sum of both liposomal VCR and F-VCR), urinary excretion and safety of intravenous administration of vincristine sulfate liposomes injection (VSLI) in Chinese patients with malignant lymphoma and compare the results with those for conventional vincristine sulfate injection (VSI). Methods: In the phase Ia, randomized, open-label, two sequence cross-over study, patients from one group were exposed to treatment 1 including cytoxan (cyclophosphamide power injection), hydroxyrubicin (adriamycin power injection), oncovin (VSI), and prednisone tablets (standard CHOP scheme) before crossed over to treatment 2 (modified CHOP scheme in which VSI was replaced with VSLI)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ji-Ye Kee, Yo-Han Han, Jeong-Geon Mun, Seong-Hwan Park, Hee D Jeon, Seung-Heon Hong
Gomisin A (G.A) is a dietary lignan compound from Schisandra chinensis . In this study, the effect of G.A on the proliferation and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells was investigated using several CRC cell lines and a lung metastasis mouse model. Both oral and intraperitoneal administration of G.A (50 mg/kg) inhibited lung metastasis of CT26 cells. Various concentrations of G.A were incubated with CRC cell lines and their viability was determined using a cell counting kit-8 assay. G.A significantly decreased the viability of various CRC cell lines, whereas it did not change the proliferation of normal colon cells...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Somanjana Khatua, Krishnendu Acharya
Russula senecis has recently been reported as a new addition to macrofungal flora of West Bengal. Besides, it also emerged as a seasonal health promoting nutrient to local ethnic people and enlisted for the first time as tribal food in our previous publication. In this context, the present work was designed to establish such usefulness scientifically and to meet the aim, crude polysaccharide, Rusenan, was prepared using conventional heated water reflux. Initially, the polymers were characterized to determine chemical composition and for that spectrophotometry along with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were performed...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Tsang-Shan Chen, Ming-Chi Lai, Te-Yu Hung, Kao-Min Lin, Chin-Wei Huang, Sheng-Nan Wu
Pioglitazone (PIO), a thiazolidinedone, was reported to stimulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) with anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-diabetic, and antidepressive activities. However, whether this compound exerts any perturbations on Ca2+ -activated K+ and M-type K+ currents in central neurons remains largely unresolved. In this study, we investigated the effects of PIO on these potassium currents in hippocampal neurons (mHippoE-14). In whole-cell current recordings, the presence of PIO (10 μM) increased the amplitude of Ca2+ -activated K+ current [ I K(Ca) ] in mHippoE-14 cells...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Lixiang Zhai, Zi-Wan Ning, Tao Huang, Bo Wen, Cheng-Hui Liao, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Ling Zhao, Hai-Tao Xiao, Zhao-Xiang Bian
Hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis afflict over 75% of patients with type 2 diabetes, causing diabetic dyslipidemia. Cyclocarya paliurus (CP) leaf is a herbal tea which has long been consumed by the Chinese population, particularly people suffering from obesity and diabetes. CP appears to exhibit a hypolipidemic effect in lipid loaded mice (Kurihara et al., 2003), although the detailed mechanisms and active ingredients for this hypolipidemic effect have not yet been answered. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of CP and predicted the mechanisms by utilizing lipidomics, serum-pharmacochemistry and network pharmacology approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Xin Feng, Ming-Hui Li, Jing Xia, Da J Deng Ba, Ling-Yu Ruan, Yue-Xiao Xing, Cheng Chen, Jun-Song Wang, Ge-Jia Zhong
Liver fibrosis is a severe health problem, threatening the life quality and causing death, raising great concerns worldwide. Shi-Wei-Gan-Ning-Pill (SWGNP) is a traditional Tibetan recipe used to treat hepatic injuries; however, its hepatoprotective mechanism has not yet fully clarified. In this study, histological staining, biochemical assays, and elements determination were applied to evaluate the anti-fibrotic efficacy of SWGNP on a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) induced hepato-fibrosis rat model. NMR-based metabolomics combined with orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), canonical regression analysis, and correlation networks analysis was used to characterize the potential biomarkers as well as metabolic pathways associated with the hepatoprotective activity of SWGNP...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Hayley R Price, Abby C Collier, Tricia E Wright
North America is currently suffering from one of the worst epidemics of illicit drug use in recent history: the opioid crisis. Pregnant women are not immune to the ravages of substance misuse which affects themselves, their pregnancies, and the wider community. The prevalence of drug misuse in pregnancy is not well quantified due to the lack of good validated tests, cooperation between clinicians and scientists developing tests, and consensus as to who should be tested and how results should be used. A wide range of tissues can be tested for drug use, including maternal blood, urine, and hair; neonatal meconium, urine, and hair; and placenta and umbilical cord tissues...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Xiaoyan Wei, Jinhua Tao, Yumeng Shen, Suwei Xiao, Shu Jiang, Erxin Shang, Zhenhua Zhu, Dawei Qian, Jinao Duan
Sanhuang Xiexin Tang (SXT), a classic prescription, has been clinically used to cure diabetes for thousands of years, but its mechanism remains unclear. Here, a systematic in-depth research was performed to unravel how it worked by the signaling pathway and metabonomics analysis. Our studies were conducted using high-fat diets (HFD) and streptozocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. The blood glucose was measured by a glucose-meter. Protein contents were determined by western blotting or ELISA and mRNA expression was identified by RT-PCR analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Salman Sadullah Usmani, Sherry Bhalla, Gajendra P S Raghava
Tuberculosis is one of the leading cause of death worldwide, particularly due to evolution of drug resistant strains. Antitubercular peptides may provide an alternate approach to combat antibiotic tolerance. Sequence analysis reveals that certain residues (e.g., Lysine, Arginine, Leucine, Tryptophan) are more prevalent in antitubercular peptides. This study describes the models developed for predicting antitubercular peptides by using sequence features of the peptides. We have developed support vector machine based models using different sequence features like amino acid composition, binary profile of terminus residues, dipeptide composition...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Alexander S Sobolev
This review describes artificial modular nanotransporters (MNTs) delivering their cargos into target cells and then into the nuclei - the most vulnerable cell compartment for most anticancer agents and especially for radionuclides emitting short-range particles. The MNT strategy uses natural subcellular transport processes inherent in practically all cells including cancer cells. The MNTs use these processes just as a passenger who purchased tickets for a multiple-transfer trip making use of different kinds of public transport to reach the desired destination...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Li Liang, Jun Xu, Wen-Wen Zhou, Eric Brand, Hu-Biao Chen, Zhong-Zhen Zhao
Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR, Heshouwu in Chinese), derived from the tuberous roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., is a widely-used Chinese medicinal material. For traditional clinical use, raw PMR (RPMR) is processed by nine cycles of steaming and drying to generate processed PMR (PPMR); RPMR and PPMR have distinct medicinal purposes based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. While PMR has been processed for hundreds of years, including the present, the chemistry of that processing has not been well studied...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Dong-Mei Wu, Shan Wang, Xin Wen, Xin-Rui Han, Yong-Jian Wang, Min Shen, Shao-Hua Fan, Zi-Feng Zhang, Juan Zhuang, Qun Shan, Meng-Qiu Li, Bin Hu, Chun-Hui Sun, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
Purpose: Gastric cancer is mainly treated by gastrectomy, the results of which were unsatisfactory without any adjuvant treatments. This study aimed to examine the performance of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and chemoradiotherapy after surgery in order to acquire the optimal adjuvant treatment. Method: Embase and PubMed were retrieved to conduct a systematic research. Hazard ratios (HR) of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) as outcomes were calculated by synthesizing direct and indirect evidence to evaluate the efficacy of three treatments against surgery alone...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Sarah S Stith, Jacob M Vigil, Franco Brockelman, Keenan Keeling, Branden Hall
Background: The Releaf AppTM mobile software application (app) data was used to measure self-reported effectiveness and side effects of medical cannabis used under naturalistic conditions. Methods: Between 5/03/2016 and 12/16/2017, 2,830 Releaf AppTM users completed 13,638 individual sessions self-administering medical cannabis and indicated their primary health symptom severity rating on an 11-point (0-10) visual analog scale in real-time prior to and following cannabis consumption, along with experienced side effects...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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