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Frontiers in Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919861/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-an-overview-to-explore-the-rationale-of-its-use-in-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Giuseppe L Banna, Francesco Torino, Francesco Marletta, Maria Santagati, Rossella Salemi, Elisa Cannarozzo, Luca Falzone, Francesco Ferraù, Massimo Libra
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the western world. In the era of precision medicine, a significant number of cancer patients can be cured with several anti-cancer therapeutic regimens. However, therapy failure may be caused by treatment side effects, such as diarrhea, especially occurring in patients with gastrointestinal or pelvic malignancies. In particular, diarrhea is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal toxicity during cancer treatment and it can result from nearly bot chemo- and radio-therapeutic strategies currently used...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919860/a-multidirectional-perspective-for-novel-functional-products-in-vitro-pharmacological-activities-and-in-silico-studies-on-ononis-natrix-subsp-hispanica
#2
Serife Yerlikaya, Gokhan Zengin, Adriano Mollica, Mehmet C Baloglu, Yasemin Celik Altunoglu, Abdurrahman Aktumsek
The genus Ononis has important value as traditional drugs and foods. In the present work, we aimed to assess the chemical profiles and biological effects of Ononis natrix subsp. hispanica extracts (ethyl acetate, methanol, and water). For chemical profile, total and individual phenolic components were detected. For biological effects, antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelating assays), enzyme inhibitory (against cholinesterase, tyrosinase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase), antimicrobial, DNA protection and cytotoxic abilities were tested...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919859/the-dietary-constituent-falcarindiol-promotes-cholesterol-efflux-from-thp-1-macrophages-by-increasing-abca1-gene-transcription-and-protein-stability
#3
Limei Wang, Veronika Palme, Nicole Schilcher, Angela Ladurner, Elke H Heiss, Herbert Stangl, Rudolf Bauer, Verena M Dirsch, Atanas G Atanasov
We report increased cholesterol efflux from macrophages in the presence of falcarindiol, an important dietary constituent present in commonly used vegetables and medicinal plants. Falcarindiol (3-20 μM) increased cholesterol efflux from THP-1-derived macrophages. Western blot analysis showed an increased protein level of ABCA1 upon falcarindiol exposure. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that also ABCA1 mRNA level rise with falcarindiol (10 μM) treatment. The effect of falcarindiol on ABCA1 protein as well as mRNA level were counteracted by co-treatment with BADGE, an antagonist of PPARγ...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919858/safety-evaluation-of-sclerotium-from-a-medicinal-mushroom-lignosus-cameronensis-cultivar-preclinical-toxicology-studies
#4
Sook-Shien Lee, Nget-Hong Tan, Jayalakshmi Pailoor, Shin-Yee Fung
Twenty-eight days subacute toxicity studies performed in rats using sclerotial powder of Lignosus cameronensis cultivar was conducted to assess its safety for consumption prior to other scientific investigations on its medicinal benefits, nutraceutical or pharmaceutical application of the mushroom. The study was conducted at 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg sclerotial powder of L. cameronensis cultivar (n = 5 for each respective dose, on both male and female groups) while control groups received only distilled water...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912719/population-based-case-control-study-assessing-the-association-between-statins-use-and-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-taiwan
#5
Kuan-Fu Liao, Cheng-Li Lin, Shih-Wei Lai
Background and Objectives: Little evidence is available about the relationship between statins use and pulmonary tuberculosis in Taiwan. The aim of the study was to explore this issue. Methods: Using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, we conducted a population-based case-control study to identify 8,236 subjects aged 20 years and older with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis from 2000 to 2013 as the cases. We randomly selected 8,236 sex-matched and age-matched subjects without pulmonary tuberculosis as the controls...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912718/technical-improvement-and-application-of-hydrodynamic-gene-delivery-in-study-of-liver-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Mei Huang, Rui Sun, Qiang Huang, Zhigang Tian
Development of an safe and efficient in vivo gene delivery method is indispensable for molecular biology research and the progress in the following gene therapy. Over the past few years, hydrodynamic gene delivery (HGD) with naked DNA has drawn increasing interest in both research and potential clinic applications due to its high efficiency and low risk in triggering immune responses and carcinogenesis in comparison to viral vectors. This method, involving intravenous injection (i.v.) of massive DNA in a short duration, gives a transient but high in vivo gene expression especially in the liver of small animals...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912717/global-metabolomics-reveals-the-metabolic-dysfunction-in-ox-ldl-induced-macrophage-derived-foam-cells
#7
Wenjuan Xu, Ziyi Wei, Jiaojiao Dong, Feipeng Duan, Kuikui Chen, Chang Chen, Jie Liu, Xiaowei Yang, Lianming Chen, Hongbin Xiao, An Liu
Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic disorder of large arteries that is a major risk factors of high morbidity and mortality. Oxidative modification LDL is one of the important contributors to atherogenesis. Macrophages take up ox-LDL and convert into foam cells, which is the hallmark of AS. To advance the understanding of the metabolic perturbation involved in ox-LDL induced macrophage-derived foam cells and discover the potential biomarkers of early AS, a global metabolomics approach was applied based on UHPLC-QTOF/MS...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912716/a-meta-analysis-of-folic-acid-in-combination-with-anti-hypertension-drugs-in-patients-with-hypertension-and-hyperhomocysteinemia
#8
REVIEW
Wen-Wen Wang, Xin-Shi Wang, Zeng-Rui Zhang, Jin-Cai He, Cheng-Long Xie
Folic acid is generally used to lower homocysteine concentrations and prevent stroke and cardiovascular disease (CVD) at present. However, the efficacy of therapies that lower homocysteine concentrations in reducing the risk of CVD and stroke remains controversial. Our objective was to do a meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy of folic acid supplementation among patients with hypertension and Hyperhomocysteinemia (HT/HHcy). We included RCTs examining the effects of folic acid plus antihypertensive therapy compared to antihypertensive alone...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912715/anti-fibrotic-potential-of-at2-receptor-agonists
#9
REVIEW
Yan Wang, Mark Del Borgo, Huey W Lee, Dhaniel Baraldi, Baydaa Hirmiz, Tracey A Gaspari, Kate M Denton, Marie-Isabel Aguilar, Chrishan S Samuel, Robert E Widdop
There are a number of therapeutic targets to treat organ fibrosis that are under investigation in preclinical models. There is increasing evidence that stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) is a novel anti-fibrotic strategy and we have reviewed the published in vivo preclinical data relating to the effects of compound 21 (C21), which is the only nonpeptide AT2R agonist that is currently available for use in chronic preclinical studies. In particular, the differential influence of AT2R on extracellular matrix status in various preclinical fibrotic models is discussed...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912714/anti-inflammatory-and-analgesic-effects-of-polygonum-orientale-l-extracts
#10
Kai-Jun Gou, Rui Zeng, Yan Dong, Qi-Qi Hu, Huang-Wan-Yin Hu, Katherine G Maffucci, Qi-Ling Dou, Qing-Bo Yang, Xu-Hua Qin, Yan Qu
Background and Purpose:Polygonum orientale L. (family: Polygonaceae), named Hongcao in China, is a Traditional Chinese Medicinal and has long been used for rheumatic arthralgia and rheumatoid arthritis. However, no pharmacological and mechanism study to confirm these clinic effects have been published. In this investigation, the anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects and representative active ingredient compounds of P. orientale have been studied. Methods: Dried small pieces of the stems and leaves of P. orientale were decocted with water and partitioned successively to obtain ethyl acetate and ethyl ether extract of P...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912713/meta-analysis-for-clinical-evaluation-of-xingnaojing-injection-for-the-treatment-of-cerebral-infarction
#11
REVIEW
Xiao Ma, Yu X Yang, Nian Chen, Qian Xie, Tao Wang, Xuan He, Jian Wang
Objective: Xingnaojing injection (XNJ) is derived from An-Gong-Niu-Huang pill, a well-known traditional Chinese patent medicine, which is widely used for stroke. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of XNJ on cerebral infarction, an extensive meta-analysis was used. Methods: Six major electronic databases including the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), Wanfang, the VIP medicine information system (VMIS) and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were examined to retrieve randomized controlled trials designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of XNJ in treating CI before November 26, 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900399/acacetin-from-traditionally-used-saussurea-involucrata-kar-et-kir-suppressed-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-and-attenuated-lipid-accumulation-in-obese-mice
#12
Chian-Jiun Liou, Shu-Ju Wu, Li-Chen Chen, Kuo-Wei Yeh, Chih-Ying Chen, Wen-Chung Huang
Acacetin, a flavone that can be isolated from the Saussurea involucrata plant, has anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties that ameliorate airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic mice. This study investigated whether acacetin has anti-adipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and whether it regulates the inflammatory response in adipocytes and macrophages. It also investigated whether acacetin ameliorates lipid accumulation in high-fat diet- (HFD) induced obese mice. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with acacetin...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900398/role-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-retinal-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Jiantong Du, Hongfang Jin, Liu Yang
As the third gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a crucial role in the physiology and pathophysiology of many systems in the body, such as the nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems. The mechanisms for its effects, including inhibiting ischemic injury, reducing oxidative stress damage, regulating apoptosis, and reducing the inflammation reaction in different systems, have not been fully understood. Recently, H2S and its endogenous synthesis pathway were found in the mammalian retina...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900397/the-comparative-efficiency-of-intraperitoneal-and-intravitreous-injection-of-hydrogen-rich-saline-against-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-induced-retinal-degeneration-a-topographic-study
#14
Ye Tao, Tao Chen, Wei Fang, Zhongjun Yan, Qinghua Yang, Yifei Huang, Linjun Yu, Lingling Fan
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) comprises a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal diseases leading to blindness. The present study explored the protective effects of hydrogen rich saline (HRS) against the photoreceptor degeneration in the N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) administrated rat, a pharmacologically induced RP model. The therapeutic effects of intraperitoneal (IP) and intravitreous (IV) injections of HRS on regional retina was quantified via topographic measurements. The MNU administrated rats received IV or IP injections of HRS, and then they were subjected to electroretinography, multi electrode array, histological and immunohistochemistry examinations...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894420/exosomes-as-potential-biomarkers-and-targeted-therapy-in-colorectal-cancer-a-mini-review
#15
REVIEW
Kha Wai Hon, Nadiah Abu, Nurul-Syakima Ab Mutalib, Rahman Jamal
The number of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases have increased gradually year by year. In fact, CRC is one of the most widely diagnosed cancer in men and women today. This disease is usually diagnosed at a later stage of the development, and by then, the chance of survival has declined significantly. Even though substantial progress has been made in understanding the basic molecular mechanism of CRC, there is still a lack of understanding in using the available information for diagnosing CRC effectively. Liquid biopsies are minimally invasive and have become the epitome of a good screening source for stage-specific diagnosis, measuring drug response and severity of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894419/molecular-connectivity-predefines-polypharmacology-aliphatic-rings-chirality-and-sp-3-centers-enhance-target-selectivity
#16
Stefania Monteleone, Julian E Fuchs, Klaus R Liedl
Dark chemical matter compounds are small molecules that have been recently identified as highly potent and selective hits. For this reason, they constitute a promising class of possible candidates in the process of drug discovery and raise the interest of the scientific community. To this purpose, Wassermann et al. (2015) have described the application of 2D descriptors to characterize dark chemical matter. However, their definition was based on the number of reported positive assays rather than the number of known targets...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890699/sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-as-a-target-in-hepatic-fibrosis-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Bárbara González-Fernández, Diana I Sánchez, Javier González-Gallego, María J Tuñón
Liver fibrosis is an excess production of extracellular matrix proteins as a result of chronic liver disease which leads to cell death and organ dysfunction. The key cells involved in fibrogenesis are resident hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) which are termed myofibroblasts after activation, acquiring contractile, proliferative, migratory and secretory capability. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid with well-established effects on angiogenesis, carcinogenesis and immunity. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that this metabolite is involved in the profibrotic inflammatory process through the regulation of pleiotropic cell responses, such as vascular permeability, leukocyte infiltration, cell survival, migration, proliferation and HSCs differentiation to myofibroblasts...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890698/multi-target-screening-and-experimental-validation-of-natural-products-from-selaginella-plants-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Yin-Hua Deng, Ning-Ning Wang, Zhen-Xing Zou, Lin Zhang, Kang-Ping Xu, Alex F Chen, Dong-Sheng Cao, Gui-Shan Tan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder which is considered to be the most common cause of dementia. It has a greater impact not only on the learning and memory disturbances but also on social and economy. Currently, there are mainly single-target drugs for AD treatment but the complexity and multiple etiologies of AD make them difficult to obtain desirable therapeutic effects. Therefore, the choice of multi-target drugs will be a potential effective strategy inAD treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890697/effect-of-the-natural-product-triptolide-on-pancreatic-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-studies
#19
Chi Zhang, Xiao-Juan He, Li Li, Cheng Lu, Ai-Ping Lu
Objective: Triptolide (TL), a natural product isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF), shows potent anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to summary the biochemical mechanisms through which TL has been shown to induce apoptosis, autophagy and inhibit angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer (PC). Methods: We undertook a systematic review of preclinical evidence. We searched electronic databases. The potential mechanisms and the underlying signaling pathways have been accumulated as well. Results: We screened 116 abstracts for eligibility and included 17 preclinical studies in the analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883793/a-multilevel-analysis-of-real-world-variations-in-oral-anticoagulation-initiation-for-atrial-fibrillation-in-valencia-a-european-region
#20
Aníbal García-Sempere, Daniel Bejarano-Quisoboni, Julián Librero, Clara L Rodríguez-Bernal, Salvador Peiró, Gabriel Sanfélix-Gimeno
Introduction: Beyond clinical trials, clinical practice guidelines, and administrative regulation, treatment decision-making can be influenced by individual and contextual factors. Our goal was to describe variations in the patterns of initiation of anticoagulation therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation by Health Areas (HA) in the region of Valencia in Spain and to quantify the influence of the HAs on variations in treatment choice. Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of all atrial fibrillation patients who started treatment with oral anticoagulants between November 2011 and February 2014 in each of the region's 24 HAs...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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