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Frontiers in Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123484/zolpidem-administration-and-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-case-control-study-in-taiwan
#1
Shih-Wei Lai, Cheng-Li Lin, Kuan-Fu Liao
Background/Objectives: Previous studies showed that zolpidem use could be associated with increased cancer risk, but the role of zolpidem on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk remains undetermined. The study purpose was to examine the association between HCC risk and zolpidem use in Taiwan. Methods: Using the database from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, we designed a case-control study which consisted of 77986 subjects aged 20 years or older with newly diagnosed HCC as the case group, and 77986 subjects without HCC as the control group, from 2000 to 2011...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123483/impact-of-vortioxetine-on-synaptic-integration-in-prefrontal-subcortical-circuits-comparisons-with-escitalopram
#2
Shreaya Chakroborty, Thomas R Geisbush, Elena Dale, Alan L Pehrson, Connie Sánchez, Anthony R West
Prefrontal-subcortical circuits support executive functions which often become dysfunctional in psychiatric disorders. Vortioxetine is a multimodal antidepressant that is currently used in the clinic to treat major depressive disorder. Mechanisms of action of vortioxetine include serotonin (5-HT) transporter blockade, 5-HT1A receptor agonism, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonism, and 5-HT1D, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptor antagonism. Vortioxetine facilitates 5-HT transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), however, the impact of this compound on related prefrontal-subcortical circuits is less clear...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123482/anticancer-activities-of-surfactin-and-potential-application-of-nanotechnology-assisted-surfactin-delivery
#3
REVIEW
Yuan-Seng Wu, Siew-Ching Ngai, Bey-Hing Goh, Kok-Gan Chan, Learn-Han Lee, Lay-Hong Chuah
Surfactin, a cyclic lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by various strains of Bacillus genus, has been shown to induce cytotoxicity against many cancer types, such as Ehrlich ascites, breast and colon cancers, leukemia and hepatoma. Surfactin treatment can inhibit cancer progression by growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and metastasis arrest. Owing to the potent effect of surfactin on cancer cells, numerous studies have recently investigated the mechanisms that underlie its anticancer activity...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123481/development-in-assay-methods-for-in-vitro-antimalarial-drug-efficacy-testing-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Shweta Sinha, Phulen Sarma, Rakesh Sehgal, Bikash Medhi
The emergence and spread of drug resistance are the major challenges in malaria eradication mission. Besides various strategies laid down by World Health Organization, such as vector management, source reduction, early case detection, prompt treatment, and development of new diagnostics and vaccines, nevertheless the need for new and efficacious drugs against malaria has become a critical priority on the global malaria research agenda. At several screening stages, millions of compounds are screened (1,000-2,000,000 compounds per screening campaign), before pre-clinical trials to select optimum lead...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123480/impairment-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-dynamics-involved-in-isoniazid-induced-apoptosis-of-hepg2-cells-was-alleviated-by-p38-mapk-pathway
#5
Tianguang Zhang, Takashi Ikejima, Lizhong Li, Ruiqin Wu, Xiaoyan Yuan, Jun Zhao, Yimei Wang, Shuangqing Peng
Isoniazid (INH), a widely used first-line antitubercular drug, has been noted to be associated with hepatotoxicity. In spite of extensive researches over many decades, the mechanism of INH-induced hepatotoxicity still remains poorly understood. Recently, mitochondrial toxicity has been emerging as a new paradigm for INH-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we showed that INH impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. INH reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and induced mitochondria swelling...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123479/knowledge-on-alzheimer-s-disease-among-public-hospitals-and-health-clinics-pharmacists-in-the-state-of-selangor-malaysia
#6
Thimarul Huda Mat Nuri, Yet Hoi Hong, Long Chiau Ming, Suhaidah Mohd Joffry, Muhamad Faiz Othman, Chin Fen Neoh
The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has increased with the fast growing of aging population, thereby posing great challenges to provision of care for AD patients. Pharmacists play a vital role in the management of AD; this includes recognizing early symptoms of AD, providing medication counseling to AD patients and their caretakers, and identifying potential adverse drug reactions. A comprehensive understanding of the disease progression, as well as the pharmacological therapy, is essential to provide effective care to AD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118714/advances-in-roles-of-mir-132-in-the-nervous-system
#7
REVIEW
Yun Qian, Jialin Song, Yuanming Ouyang, Qixin Han, Wei Chen, Xiaotian Zhao, Yangmei Xie, Yinghui Chen, Weien Yuan, Cunyi Fan
miR-132 is an endogenous small RNA and controls post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression via controlled degradation of mRNA or transcription inhibition. In the nervous system, miR-132 is significant for regulating neuronal differentiation, maturation and functioning, and widely participates in axon growth, neural migration, and plasticity. The miR-132 is affected by factors like mRNA expression, functional redundancy, and signaling cascades. It targets multiple downstream molecules to influence physiological and pathological neuronal activities...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118713/corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-in-socially-defeated-and-non-stressed-mice-with-a-history-of-chronic-alcohol-intake
#8
Lucas Albrechet-Souza, Thiago W Viola, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Klaus A Miczek, Rosa M M de Almeida
Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated use to the development of alcohol dependence. Preclinical studies have shown that dysregulation of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) neurotransmission has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, and may affect alcohol consumption. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) contains CRF-producing neurons which seem to be sensitive to stress...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118712/comparative-long-term-effect-of-three-anti-p2y12-drugs-after-percutaneous-angioplasty-an-observational-study-based-on-electronic-drug-adherence-monitoring
#9
Valentina Forni Ogna, Isabelle Bassi, Isabelle Menetrey, Olivier Muller, Eric Tousset, Pierre Fontana, Eric Eeckhout, Chin B Eap, Bernard Vrijens, Michel Burnier, Grégoire Wuerzner
Aims: Dual platelet inhibition using anti-P2Y12 drugs and aspirin is the standard of care in patients after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Prasugrel and ticagrelor have been shown to be more potent than clopidogrel with less high on-treatment platelet reactivity. Whether differences in long-term adherence to these drugs can partly explain different antiplatelet efficacy has not been studied so far. The objective was to compare the long-term P2Y12 receptor inhibition and drug adherence to different anti-P2Y12 drugs, and to assess the impact of adherence on the pharmacodynamic effect...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114226/metformin-use-correlates-with-reduced-risk-of-gallstones-in-diabetic-patients-a-12-year-follow-up-study
#10
Kuan-Fu Liao, Hsun-Yang Chuang, Shih-Wei Lai
Objective: Few studies are available on the association between gallstones and metformin use. The objective of the study was to determine whether metformin use is associated with gallstones. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. Subjects of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were included from 2002 to 2013. The metformin-exposure group was defined as ≥29 cumulative defined daily dose (DDD) of metformin use. The un-exposure group was defined as <29 cumulative DDD of metformin use...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114225/application-of-activated-carbon-derived-from-seed-shells-of-jatropha-curcas-for-decontamination-of-zearalenone-mycotoxin
#11
Naveen K Kalagatur, Kumarvel Karthick, Joseph A Allen, Oriparambil Sivaraman Nirmal Ghosh, Siddaiah Chandranayaka, Vijai K Gupta, Kadirvelu Krishna, Venkataramana Mudili
In the present study, activated carbon (AC) was derived from seed shells of Jatropha curcas and applied to decontaminate the zearalenone (ZEA) mycotoxin. The AC of J. curcas (ACJC) was prepared by ZnCl2 chemical activation method and its crystalline structure was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline graphitic nature of ACJC was confirmed from the Raman spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscope showed the porous surface morphology of the ACJC surface with high pore density and presence of elemental carbon was identified from the energy dispersive X-ray analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114224/chlorpheniramine-potentiates-the-analgesic-effect-in-migraine-of-usual-caffeine-acetaminophen-and-acetylsalicylic-acid-combination
#12
Victor A Voicu, Ion Mircioiu, Roxana Sandulovici, Constantin Mircioiu, Cristina Plesa, Bruno S Velescu, Valentina Anuta
Previous studies indicated that addition of the antihistaminic chlorpheniramine to the usual combination of acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen, and caffeine further increases their synergism both in terms of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. The present non-interventional study tested the superiority of two Algopirin® tablets, containing a total of 250 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 150 mg acetaminophen (paracetamol, PAR), 30 mg caffeine (CAF) and 4 mg chlorpheniramine (CLF) vs. a combination containing 250 mg ASA, 250 mg PAR, and 65 mg CAF recognized as "safe and effective" by FDA in treating migraine...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114223/the-human-amnion-epithelial-cell-secretome-decreases-hepatic-fibrosis-in-mice-with-chronic-liver-fibrosis
#13
Majid Alhomrani, Jeanne Correia, Marcus Zavou, Bryan Leaw, Nathan Kuk, Rong Xu, Mohamed I Saad, Alexander Hodge, David W Greening, Rebecca Lim, William Sievert
Background: Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary collagen-secreting cells in the liver. While HSCs are the major cell type involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, hepatic macrophages also play an important role in mediating fibrogenesis and fibrosis resolution. Previously, we observed a reduction in HSC activation, proliferation, and collagen synthesis following exposure to human amnion epithelial cells (hAEC) and hAEC-conditioned media (hAEC-CM). This suggested that specific factors secreted by hAEC might be effective in ameliorating liver fibrosis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114222/ginsenoside-rb1-enhances-atherosclerotic-plaque-stability-by-improving-autophagy-and-lipid-metabolism-in-macrophage-foam-cells
#14
Lei Qiao, Xue Zhang, Minghao Liu, Xiaoling Liu, Mei Dong, Jing Cheng, Xinyu Zhang, Chungang Zhai, Yu Song, Huixia Lu, Wenqiang Chen
Atherosclerosis (AS) is a lipid-driven disease in which macrophage foam cells play a critical role by increasing vascular lipid accumulation and contributing to plaque instability. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), the most abundant active component of ginseng, has been found potently to promote lipid metabolism and attenuate lipid accumulation. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the effects of Rb1 on lipid accumulation and plaque stability were investigated both in vitro and in vivo by using primary peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice and an AS model in ApoE(-/-) mice...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114221/phenotypic-screen-identifies-a-small-molecule-modulating-erk2-and-promoting-stem-cell-proliferation
#15
Chang Yin, Temesgen Fufa, Gayathri Chandrasekar, Madhu Aeluri, Verina Zaky, Shaimaa Abdelhady, Antonio B Rodríguez, Johan Jakobsson, Farzaneh Shahin Varnoosfaderani, Jayashri Mahalingam, Jianping Liu, Olle Larsson, Outi Hovatta, Frank Gaunitz, Anita Göndör, Michael Andäng, Satish S Kitambi
Stem cells display a fundamentally different mechanism of proliferation control when compared to somatic cells. Uncovering these mechanisms would maximize the impact in drug discovery with a higher translational applicability. The unbiased approach used in phenotype-based drug discovery (PDD) programs can offer a unique opportunity to identify such novel biological phenomenon. Here, we describe an integrated phenotypic screening approach, employing a combination of in vitro and in vivo PDD models to identify a small molecule increasing stem cell proliferation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114220/endothelin-1-regulation-of-exercise-induced-changes-in-flow-dynamic-regulation-of-vascular-tone
#16
Robert M Rapoport, Daphne Merkus
Although endothelin (ET)-1 is a highly potent vasoconstrictor with considerable efficacy in numerous vascular beds, the role of endogenous ET-1 in the regulation of vascular tone remains unclear. The perspective that ET-1 plays little role in the on-going regulation of vascular tone at least under physiologic conditions is supported by findings that potential ET-1 constriction is minimized by the release of the vasodilator and ET-1 synthesis inhibitor, nitric oxide (NO). Indeed, ET-1 release and constriction is self-limited by ET-1-induced, endothelial ETB receptor-mediated release of NO...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109685/binding-and-signaling-studies-disclose-a-potential-allosteric-site-for-cannabidiol-in-cannabinoid-cb2-receptors
#17
Eva Martínez-Pinilla, Katia Varani, Irene Reyes-Resina, Edgar Angelats, Fabrizio Vincenzi, Carlos Ferreiro-Vera, Julen Oyarzabal, Enric I Canela, José L Lanciego, Xavier Nadal, Gemma Navarro, Pier Andrea Borea, Rafael Franco
The mechanism of action of cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa L., is not completely understood. First assumed that the compound was acting via cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2Rs) it is now suggested that it interacts with non-cannabinoid G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs); however, CBD does not bind with high affinity to the orthosteric site of any GPCR. To search for alternative explanations, we tested CBD as a potential allosteric ligand of CB2R. Radioligand and non-radioactive homogeneous binding, intracellular cAMP determination and ERK1/2 phosphorylation assays were undertaken in heterologous systems expressing the human version of CB2R...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109684/antimicrobial-anthelmintic-and-antiviral-activity-of-plants-traditionally-used-for-treating-infectious-disease-in-the-similipal-biosphere-reserve-odisha-india
#18
Sujogya K Panda, Laxmipriya Padhi, Pieter Leyssen, Maoxuan Liu, Johan Neyts, Walter Luyten
In the present study, we tested in vitro different parts of 35 plants used by tribals of the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR, Mayurbhanj district, India) for the management of infections. From each plant, three extracts were prepared with different solvents (water, ethanol, and acetone) and tested for antimicrobial (E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans); anthelmintic (C. elegans); and antiviral (enterovirus 71) bioactivity. In total, 35 plant species belonging to 21 families were recorded from tribes of the SBR and periphery...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104539/annonaceae-breaking-the-wall-of-inflammation
#19
REVIEW
Ali Attiq, Juriyati Jalil, Khairana Husain
Inventories of tropical forests have listed Annonaceae as one of the most diverse plant families. For centuries, it is employed in traditional medicines to cure various pathological conditions including snakebite, analgesic, astringent, diarrhea, dysentery, arthritis pain, rheumatism, neuralgia, and weight loss etc. Phytochemical analysis of Annonaceae family have reported the occurrence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, diterpenes and diterpene flavone glycosides, sterols, lignans, and annonaceous acetogenin characteristically affiliated with Annonaceae sp...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104538/chronic-treatment-with-fluoxetine-induces-sex-dependent-analgesic-effects-and-modulates-hdac2-and-mglu2-expression-in-female-mice
#20
Magda Zammataro, Sara Merlo, Massimo Barresi, Carmela Parenti, Huijuan Hu, Maria A Sortino, Santina Chiechio
Gender and sex differences in pain recognition and drug responses have been reported in clinical trials and experimental models of pain. Among antidepressants, contradictory results have been observed in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This study evaluated sex differences in response to the SSRI fluoxetine after chronic administration in the mouse formalin test. Adult male and female CD1 mice were intraperitoneally injected with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) for 21 days and subjected to pain assessment...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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