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Frontiers in Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804459/metabolic-variability-of-a-multispecies-probiotic-preparation-impacts-on-the-anti-inflammatory-activity
#1
Michele Biagioli, Luca Laghi, Adriana Carino, Sabrina Cipriani, Eleonora Distrutti, Silvia Marchianò, Carola Parolin, Paolo Scarpelli, Beatrice Vitali, Stefano Fiorucci
Background: In addition to strain taxonomy, the ability of probiotics to confer beneficial effects on the host rely on a number of additional factors including epigenetic modulation of bacterial genes leading to metabolic variability and might impact on probiotic functionality. Aims: To investigate metabolism and functionality of two different batches of a probiotic blend commercialized under the same name in Europe in models of intestinal inflammation. Methods: Boxes of VSL#3, a probiotic mixture used in the treatment of pouchitis, were obtained from pharmacies in UK subjected to metabolomic analysis and their functionality tested in mice rendered colitis by treatment with DSS or TNBS...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804458/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-cigarette-smoke-induced-cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction
#2
Yingmin Liang, Xiang Li, Yuelin Zhang, Sze Chun Yeung, Zhe Zhen, Mary S M Ip, Hung Fat Tse, Qizhou Lian, Judith C W Mak
The strong relationship between cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been well-documented, but the mechanisms by which smoking increases CVD risk appear to be multifactorial and incompletely understood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are regarded as an important candidate for cell-based therapy in CVD. We hypothesized that MSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-MSCs) or bone marrow (BM-MSCs) might alleviate cigarette smoke (CS)-induced cardiac injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BM-MSCs or iPSC-MSCs on CS-induced changes in serum and cardiac lipid profiles, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as cardiac function in a rat model of passive smoking...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798690/risk-of-myopathy-in-patients-in-therapy-with-statins-identification-of-biological-markers-in-a-pilot-study
#3
Giulia M Camerino, Olimpia Musumeci, Elena Conte, Kejla Musaraj, Adriano Fonzino, Emanuele Barca, Marco Marino, Carmelo Rodolico, Domenico Tricarico, Claudia Camerino, Maria R Carratù, Jean-François Desaphy, Annamaria De Luca, Antonio Toscano, Sabata Pierno
Statin therapy may induce skeletal muscle damage ranging from myalgia to severe rhabdomyolysis. Our previous preclinical studies showed that statin treatment in rats involves the reduction of skeletal muscle ClC-1 chloride channel expression and related chloride conductance (gCl). An increase of the activity of protein kinase C theta (PKC theta) isoform, able to inactivate ClC-1, may contribute to destabilize sarcolemma excitability. These effects can be detrimental for muscle function leading to drug-induced myopathy...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798689/high-resolution-uhplc-ms-metabolomics-and-sedative-anxiolytic-effects-of-latua-pubiflora-a-mystic-plant-used-by-mapuche-amerindians
#4
Eliana L Sánchez-Montoya, Marco A Reyes, Joel Pardo, Juana Nuñez-Alarcón, José G Ortiz, Juan C Jorge, Jorge Bórquez, Andrei Mocan, Mario J Simirgiotis
Latua pubiflora (Griseb) Phil. Is a native shrub of the Solanaceae family that grows freely in southern Chile and is employed among Mapuche aboriginals to induce sedative effects and hallucinations in religious or medicine rituals since prehispanic times. In this work, the pentobarbital-induced sleeping test and the elevated plus maze test were employed to test the behavioral effects of extracts of this plant in mice. The psychopharmacological evaluation of L. pubiflora extracts in mice determined that both alkaloid-enriched as well as the non-alkaloid extracts produced an increase of sleeping time and alteration of motor activity in mice at 150 mg/Kg...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798688/establishment-and-characterization-of-a-novel-rat-model-of-mechanical-low-back-pain-using-behavioral-pharmacologic-and-histologic-methods
#5
Arjun Muralidharan, Thomas S W Park, John T Mackie, Luiz G S Gimenez, Andy Kuo, Janet R Nicholson, Laura Corradini, Maree T Smith
Chronic low back pain (LBP), the leading cause of disability globally, is notoriously difficult to treat. Most rodent models of LBP mimic lumbar radicular pain rather than mechanical LBP. Here, we describe establishment of a new rat model of mechanical LBP that is devoid of a neuropathic component. Groups of adult male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized and their lumbar L4/L5 and L5/L6 intervertebral disks (IVDs) were punctured (0.5 mm outer diameter, 2mm-deep) 5 (LPB-5X), or 10 (LBP-10X) times per disk...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798687/tet2-protects-against-oxldl-induced-huvec-dysfunction-by-upregulating-the-cse-h2s-system
#6
Juan Peng, Zhi-Han Tang, Zhong Ren, Bei He, Yun Zeng, Lu-Shan Liu, Zuo Wang, Dang-Heng Wei, Xi-Long Zheng, Zhi-Sheng Jiang
Ten-eleven translocation-2 (TET2) protein is a DNA demethylase that regulates gene expression through DNA demethylation and also plays important roles in various diseases including atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction represents an early key event in atherosclerotic disease. The cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE)/hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a key endogenous system with protective effects on endothelial functions. In this study, we examined how TET2 regulates oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced dysfunction of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and determined the role of the CSE/H2S system...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790920/effect-of-cognitive-style-on-learning-and-retrieval-of-navigational-environments
#7
Maddalena Boccia, Francesca Vecchione, Laura Piccardi, Cecilia Guariglia
Field independence (FI) has been found to correlate with a wide range of cognitive processes requiring cognitive restructuring. Cognitive restructuring, that is going beyond the information given by the setting, is pivotal in creating stable mental representations of the environment, the so-called "cognitive maps," and it affects visuo-spatial abilities underpinning environmental navigation. Here we evaluated whether FI, by fostering cognitive restructuring of environmental cues on the basis of an internal frame of reference, affects the learning and retrieval of a novel environment...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790919/potential-new-therapies-for-pediatric-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma
#8
REVIEW
Wenyong Long, Yang Yi, Shen Chen, Qi Cao, Wei Zhao, Qing Liu
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an extensively invasive malignancy with infiltration into other regions of the brainstem. Although large numbers of specific targeted therapies have been tested, no significant progress has been made in treating these high-grade gliomas. Therefore, the identification of new therapeutic approaches is of great importance for the development of more effective treatments. This article reviews the conventional therapies and new potential therapeutic approaches for DIPG, including epigenetic therapy, immunotherapy, and the combination of stem cells with nanoparticle delivery systems...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790918/accumulation-of-arsenic-speciation-and-in-vivo-toxicity-following-oral-administration-of-a-chinese-patent-medicine-xiao-er-zhi-bao-wan-in-rats
#9
Jiaoyang Luo, Xu Han, Xiaowen Dou, Lei Zhang, Shihai Yang, Meihua Yang
Realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicines such as Xiao-Er-Zhi-Bao-Wan (XEZBW), have been widely used for thousands of years. However, events associated with arsenic-induced ailments have increasingly become a public concern. To address the toxicity of XEZBW, we studied the histopathology and blood biochemistry of rats exposed to XEZBW using technology like high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled mass spectrometry to determine arsenic speciation. Our results demonstrated that dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) increased from 18...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790917/effect-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-on-bone-metabolism-and-the-possible-underlying-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Yinqiu Yang, Chenhe Zhao, Jing Liang, Mingxiang Yu, Xinhua Qu
Diabetes mellitus has been demonstrated to be closely associated with osteoporosis. Accordingly, hypoglycemic therapy is considered effective in treating metabolic bone disease. Recently, the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, a new type of antidiabetic drug, on bone metabolism have been widely studied. This review mainly describes the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on bone metabolism, including their effects on bone mineral density, bone quality, and fracture risk. In addition, the potential underlying mechanisms are discussed...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790916/in-vivo-sub-chronic-treatment-with-dichlorvos-in-young-rats-promotes-synaptic-plasticity-and-learning-by-a-mechanism-that-involves-acylpeptide-hydrolase-instead-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibition-correlation-with-endogenous-%C3%AE-amyloid-levels
#11
Gonzalo García-Rojo, Fernando Gámiz, Estíbaliz Ampuero, Daniel Rojas-Espina, Rodrigo Sandoval, Carlos Rozas, Bernardo Morales, Ursula Wyneken, Floria Pancetti
Acylpeptide hydrolase (APEH) is a serine hydrolase that displays two catalytic activities, acting both as an exopeptidase toward short N-acylated peptides and as an endopeptidase toward oxidized peptides or proteins. It has been demonstrated that this enzyme can degrade monomers, dimers, and trimers of the Aβ1-40 peptide in the conditioned media of neuroblastoma cells. In a previous report, we showed that the specific inhibition of this enzyme by the organophosphate molecule dichlorvos (DDVP) triggers an enhancement of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal slices...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790915/antidepressent-effect-of-two-new-benzyl-derivatives-from-wild-strawberry-fragaria-vesca-var-nubicola-lindl-ex-hook-f
#12
Sadia Naz, Umar Farooq, Ajmal Khan, Haroon Khan, Nasiara Karim, Rizwana Sarwar, Javid Hussain, Abdur Rauf
Two new benzyl derivatives were isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca var. nubicola Lindl. ex Hook.f. The structures of these compounds were elucidated to be 5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenethyl)-7-methoxy-2H-chromen-3-ol (1) and 5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenethyl)-4,7-dimethoxy-2H-chromen-3-ol (2) based on spectroscopic data through IR, UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR along with two dimensional (2D) techniques HMBC, HMQC, and COSY. Both compounds 1 and 2 were studied in tail suspension and forced swim tests for antidepressant like effects...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790914/ethnopharmacological-and-chemical-characterization-of-salvia-species-used-in-valencian-traditional-herbal-preparations
#13
Vanessa Martínez-Francés, Emeline Hahn, Segundo Ríos, Diego Rivera, Eike Reich, Roser Vila, Salvador Cañigueral
In Valencia Region (Spain), some wild and cultivated sages are used for medicinal purposes. Among them, Salvia officinalis subsp. lavandulifolia (SL) is widely employed and known for production of Spanish sage oil and herbal products. Nevertheless, it shares the market with S. blancoana subsp. mariolensis (SB) and, to a lesser extent, with their hybrid S. x hegelmaieri (SH). The knowledge on these two species is far low and confusion between them is possible. The aim of the present paper is to improve the ethnopharmacological, morphological and chemical knowledge of these sages, and to contribute to setting up quality specifications for improving identification and distinction from other Salvia species, such as, S...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785222/inhibition-of-pai-1-activity-by-toddalolactone-as-a-mechanism-for-promoting-blood-circulation-and-removing-stasis-by-chinese-herb-zanthoxylum-nitidum-var-tomentosum
#14
Bo Yu, Guangping Zhang, Lingling Jin, Bo Zhang, Dong Yan, Hong Yang, Zuguang Ye, Tonghui Ma
Traditional Chinese medicine has been used to treat a variety of human diseases for many centuries. Zanthoxylum nitidum var. tomentosum is used as an adjuvant to promote blood circulation and remove stasis. However, the mechanisms of improving circulation and other biological activities of Z. nitidum var. tomentosum are still unclear. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) regulates the plasminogen activation system through inhibition of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators (tPA and uPA)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785221/sex-divergent-clinical-outcomes-and-precision-medicine-an-important-new-role-for-institutional-review-boards-and-research-ethics-committees
#15
REVIEW
Ignacio Segarra, Pilar Modamio, Cecilia Fernández, Eduardo L Mariño
The efforts toward individualized medicine have constantly increased in an attempt to improve treatment options. These efforts have led to the development of small molecules which target specific molecular pathways involved in cancer progression. We have reviewed preclinical studies of sunitinib that incorporate sex as a covariate to explore possible sex-based differences in pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions (DDI) to attempt a relationship with published clinical outputs. We observed that covariate sex is lacking in most clinical outcome reports and suggest a series of ethic-based proposals to improve research activities and identify relevant different sex outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785220/drugs-for-autoimmune-inflammatory-diseases-from-small-molecule-compounds-to-anti-tnf-biologics
#16
REVIEW
Ping Li, Ying Zheng, Xin Chen
Although initially described as an anti-tumor mediator, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is generally considered as the master pro-inflammatory cytokine. It plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease, ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and psoriasis. Consequently, anti-TNF therapy has become mainstay treatment for autoimmune diseases. Historically, anti-inflammatory agents were developed before the identification of TNF. Salicylates, the active components of Willow spp...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769810/correlation-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-case-control-study-in-taiwan
#17
Kao-Chi Cheng, Kuan-Fu Liao, Cheng-Li Lin, Shih-Wei Lai
Background and Objectives: Although the relationship between the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Taiwan published in 2014. Due to just only one article and not enough comprehensively, we explore this issue. Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study to identify 9,422 subjects aged 20 years or older with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB in 2000-2013 as test cases. We then randomly selected 9,422 subjects aged 20 years or older without pulmonary TB as controls...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769809/apixaban-enhances-vasodilatation-mediated-by-protease-activated-receptor-2-in-isolated-rat-arteries
#18
Ambra Villari, Giovanni Giurdanella, Claudio Bucolo, Filippo Drago, Salvatore Salomone
Apixaban (APX) is a direct inhibitor of factor X (FXa) approved for prophylaxis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis and atrial fibrillation. Because FXa activates protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle, inhibition of FXa by APX may affect vasomotor function. The effect of APX was assessed in vitro, by wire myography, in rat mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs) and basilar arteries challenged with vasoconstrictors [phenylephrine (PE); 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)], vasodilators [acetylcholine (ACh); sodium nitroprusside (SNP)] or with the PAR-2 peptide agonist SLIGRL...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769808/metabolism-of-f18-a-derivative-of-calanolide-a-in-human-liver-microsomes-and-cytosol
#19
Xiangmeng Wu, Qinghao Zhang, Jiamei Guo, Yufei Jia, Ziqian Zhang, Manman Zhao, Yakun Yang, Baolian Wang, Jinping Hu, Li Sheng, Yan Li
10-Chloromethyl-11-demethyl-12-oxo-calanolide (F18), an analog of calanolide A, is a novel potent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor against HIV-1. Here, we report the metabolic profile and the results of associated biochemical studies of F18 in vitro and in vivo. The metabolites of F18 were identified based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and/or nuclear magnetic resonance. Twenty-three metabolites of F18 were observed in liver microsomes in vitro. The metabolism of F18 involved 4-propyl chain oxidation, 10-chloromethyl oxidative dechlorination and 12-carbonyl reduction...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769807/hurdles-in-basic-science-translation
#20
Christina J Perry, Andrew J Lawrence
In the past century there have been incredible advances in the field of medical research, but what hinders translation of this knowledge into effective treatment for human disease? There is an increasing focus on the failure of many research breakthroughs to be translated through the clinical trial process and into medical practice. In this mini review, we will consider some of the reasons that findings in basic medical research fail to become translated through clinical trials and into basic medical practices...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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