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Frontiers in Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326039/estrone-sulfate-transport-and-steroid-sulfatase-activity-in-colorectal-cancer-implications-for-hormone-replacement-therapy
#1
Lorna C Gilligan, Ali Gondal, Vivien Tang, Maryam T Hussain, Anastasia Arvaniti, Anne-Marie Hewitt, Paul A Foster
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) affects the incidence and potential progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). As HRT primarily consists of estrone sulfate (E1S), understanding whether this conjugated estrogen is transported and metabolized in CRC will define its potential effect in this malignancy. Here, we show that a panel of CRC cell lines (Colo205, Caco2, HCT116, HT-29) have steroid sulfatase (STS) activity, and thus can hydrolyze E1S. STS activity is significantly higher in CRC cell lysate, suggesting the importance of E1S transport in intracellular STS substrate availability...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326038/ganoderic-acid-a-metabolites-and-their-metabolic-kinetics
#2
Fang-Rui Cao, Li Feng, Lin-Hu Ye, Li-Sha Wang, Bing-Xin Xiao, Xue Tao, Qi Chang
Ganoderic acid A (GAA), a representative active triterpenoid from Ganoderma lucidum, has been reported to exhibit antinociceptive, antioxidative, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective and anticancer activities. The present study aims (1) to identify GAA metabolites, in vivo by analyzing the bile, plasma and urine after intravenous administration to rats (20 mg/kg), and in vitro by incubating with rat liver microsomes (RLMs) and human liver microsomes (HLMs); (2) to investigate the metabolic kinetics of main GAA metabolites...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321191/palmitoylethanolamide-reduces-neuropsychiatric-behaviors-by-restoring-cortical-electrophysiological-activity-in-a-mouse-model-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Francesca Guida, Serena Boccella, Monica Iannotta, Danilo De Gregorio, Catia Giordano, Carmela Belardo, Rosaria Romano, Enza Palazzo, Maria A Scafuro, Nicola Serra, Vito de Novellis, Francesco Rossi, Sabatino Maione, Livio Luongo
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a major public health problem, which is associated with neurological dysfunction. In severe or moderate cases of TBI, in addition to its high mortality rate, subjects may encounter diverse behavioral dysfunctions. Previous reports suggest that an association between TBI and chronic pain syndromes tends to be more common in patients with mild forms of brain injury. Despite causing minimal brain damage, mild TBI (mTBI) often leads to persistent psychologically debilitating symptoms, which can include anxiety, various forms of memory and learning deficits, and depression...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321190/skeletal-dysplasias-growing-therapy-for-growing-bones
#4
REVIEW
Angie C Jelin, Elizabeth O'Hare, Karin Blakemore, Eric B Jelin, David Valle, Julie Hoover-Fong
Skeletal dysplasias represent a large and diverse group of rare conditions affecting collagen and bone. They can be clinically classified based on radiographic and physical features, and many can be further defined at a molecular level (Bonafe et al., 2015). Early diagnosis is critical to proper medical management including pharmacologic treatment when available. Patients with severe skeletal dysplasias often have small chests with respiratory insufficiency or airway obstruction and require immediate intubation after birth...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316571/anti-cancerous-potential-of-polysaccharide-fractions-extracted-from-peony-seed-dreg-on-various-human-cancer-cell-lines-via-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis
#5
Fang Zhang, Jun-Jun Shi, Kiran Thakur, Fei Hu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Zhao-Jun Wei
In this study, four homo/heterogenous polysaccharides (HBSS, CHSS, DASS, and CASS) extracted from peony seed dreg with respective molecular weights of 3467, 4677, 229, and 56 kDa were evaluated for anti-cancerous attributes in prostate cancer cells (Pc-3), colon cancer cells (HCT-116), human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), cervical cancer (Hela cells) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells as control. Among them, CASS and DASS extracted by alkali, consisted of 34.43% Gal, 26.39% Ara, 21.80% Glc and 35...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303103/multipronged-therapeutic-effects-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-qishenyiqi-in-the-treatment-of-acute-myocardial-infarction
#6
Yong Wang, Weili Lin, Chun Li, Sarita Singhal, Gaurav Jain, Lixin Zhu, Linghui Lu, Ruixin Zhu, Wei Wang
Background: Based on global gene expression profile, therapeutic effects of Qishenyiqi (QSYQ) on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were investigated by integrated analysis at multiple levels including gene expression, pathways involved and functional group. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: Sham-operated, AMI model (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation) and QSYQ-treated group. Cardiac tissues were obtained for analysing digital gene expression. Sequencing and transcriptome analyses were performed collaboratively, including analyses of differential gene expression, gene co-expression network, targeted attack on network and functional grouping...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298894/current-situation-of-medication-adherence-in-hypertension
#7
REVIEW
Bernard Vrijens, Sotiris Antoniou, Michel Burnier, Alejandro de la Sierra, Massimo Volpe
Despite increased awareness, poor adherence to treatments for chronic diseases remains a global problem. Adherence issues are common in patients taking antihypertensive therapy and associated with increased risks of coronary and cerebrovascular events. Whilst there has been a gradual trend toward improved control of hypertension, the number of patients with blood pressure values above goal has remained constant. This has both personal and economic consequences. Medication adherence is a multifaceted issue and consists of three components: initiation, implementation, and persistence...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293193/isobaric-tags-for-relative-and-absolute-quantitation-itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-of-hugan-qingzhi-and-its-protective-properties-against-free-fatty-acid-induced-l02-hepatocyte-injury
#8
Fan Xia, Xiaorui Yao, Waijiao Tang, Chunxin Xiao, Miaoting Yang, Benjie Zhou
In previous research, Hugan Qingzhi, a traditional Chinese medicine, was shown to have protective effects against hepatic steatosis. However, its activity against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the mechanisms by which it exerts its effects remain unknown. In the present study, the effects of Hugan Qingzhi on free fatty acid (FFA)-induced L02 cells were examined. The techniques of iTRAQ labeling, together with strong cation exchange-non-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SCX-non-LC-MS/MS) analysis and serum pharmacology, were used to evaluate the effects of Hugan Qingzhi-medicated serum on FFA-induced L02 hepatocyte injury...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293192/indole-alkaloids-from-plants-as-potential-leads-for-antidepressant-drugs-a-mini-review
#9
Hazrulrizawati A Hamid, Aizi N M Ramli, Mashitah M Yusoff
Depression is the most common illness observed in the elderly, adults, and children. Antidepressants prescribed are usually synthetic drugs and these can sometimes cause a wide range of unpleasant side effects. Current research is focussed on natural products from plants as they are a rich source of potent new drug leads. Besides Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort), the plants studied include Passiflora incarnata L. (passion flower), Mitragyna speciosa (kratom), Piper methysticum G. Forst (kava) and Valeriana officinalis L...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293191/an-exploration-of-charge-compensating-ion-channels-across-the-phagocytic-vacuole-of-neutrophils
#10
Juliet R Foote, Philippe Behe, Mathew Frampton, Adam P Levine, Anthony W Segal
Neutrophils phagocytosing bacteria and fungi exhibit a burst of non-mitochondrial respiration that is required to kill and digest the engulfed microbes. This respiration is accomplished by the movement of electrons across the wall of the phagocytic vacuole by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase, NOX2. In this study, we have attempted to identify the non-proton ion channels or transporters involved in charge compensation by examining the effect of inhibitors on vacuolar pH and cross-sectional area, and on oxygen consumption...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293190/gaba-selank-and-olanzapine-affect-the-expression-of-genes-involved-in-gabaergic-neurotransmission-in-imr-32-cells
#11
Elena Filatova, Anastasiya Kasian, Timur Kolomin, Ekaterina Rybalkina, Anelya Alieva, Lyudmila Andreeva, Svetlana Limborska, Nikolay Myasoedov, Galina Pavlova, Petr Slominsky, Maria Shadrina
Clinical studies have shown that Selank had an anxiolytic effect comparable to that of classical benzodiazepine drugs, which can enhance the inhibitory effect of GABA by allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. These data suggest that the molecular mechanism of the effect of Selank may also be related to its ability to affect the performance of the GABAergic system. To test this hypothesis, we studied the changes in expression of 84 genes involved in the functioning of the GABAergic system and in the processes of neurotransmission in the culture of neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells using qPCR method...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293189/investigation-into-the-role-of-pi3k-and-jak3-kinase-inhibitors-in-murine-models-of-asthma
#12
Akshaya D Wagh, Manoranjan Sharma, Jogeshwar Mahapatra, Abhijeet Chatterjee, Mukul Jain, Veeranjaneyulu Addepalli
Asthma is a clinical disorder commonly characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation, remodeling and hyper responsiveness of the airways. However, the kinases like Phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) are involved in mast cell proliferation, activation, recruitment, migration, and prolonged survival of inflammatory cells. The present study was designed to evaluate the in-vivo comparative effects of two kinase inhibitors on airway inflammation and airway remodeling in acute and chronic models of asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289391/cannabidiol-affects-mk-801-induced-changes-in-the-ppi-learned-response-of-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-spp
#13
Patricia G Saletti, Rafael S Maior, Marilia Barros, Hisao Nishijo, Carlos Tomaz
There are several lines of evidence indicating a possible therapeutic action of cannabidiol (CBD) in schizophrenia treatment. Studies with rodents have demonstrated that CBD reverses MK-801 effects in prepulse inhibition (PPI) disruption, which may indicate that CBD acts by improving sensorimotor gating deficits. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CBD on a PPI learned response of capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.). A total of seven monkeys were employed in this study. In Experiment 1, we evaluated the CBD (doses of 15, 30, 60 mg/kg, i...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289390/hexane-extracts-of-calophyllum-brasiliense-inhibit-the-development-of-gastric-preneoplasia-in-helicobacter-felis-infected-ins-gas-mice
#14
Larissa M S Lemos, Fabio Miyajima, Geovane R C Castilho, Domingos Tabajara O Martins, D Mark Pritchard, Michael D Burkitt
Objectives: Indigenous Latin American populations have used extracts from Calophyllum brasiliense, a native hardwood, to treat gastrointestinal symptoms for generations. The hexane extract of Calophyllum brasiliense stem bark (HECb) protects against ethanol-mediated gastric ulceration in Swiss-Webster mice. We investigated whether HECb inhibits the development of gastric epithelial pathology following Helicobacter felis infection of INS-Gas mice. Materials and Methods: Groups of five male, 6-week-old INS-Gas mice were colonized with H...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289389/understanding-physiology-in-the-continuum-integration-of-information-from-multiple-omics-levels
#15
Kubra Kamisoglu, Alison Acevedo, Richard R Almon, Susette Coyle, Siobhan Corbett, Debra C Dubois, Tung T Nguyen, William J Jusko, Ioannis P Androulakis
In this paper, we discuss approaches for integrating biological information reflecting diverse physiologic levels. In particular, we explore statistical and model-based methods for integrating transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomics data. Our case studies reflect responses to a systemic inflammatory stimulus and in response to an anti-inflammatory treatment. Our paper serves partly as a review of existing methods and partly as a means to demonstrate, using case studies related to human endotoxemia and response to methylprednisolone (MPL) treatment, how specific questions may require specific methods, thus emphasizing the non-uniqueness of the approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289388/hla-b-57-allele-is-associated-with-concomitant-anti-tuberculosis-and-antiretroviral-drugs-induced-liver-toxicity-in-ethiopians
#16
Zelalem Petros, Junko Kishikawa, Eyasu Makonnen, Getnet Yimer, Abiy Habtewold, Eleni Aklillu
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a known adverse effect of both anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) and antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Recent studies highlight the implications of genetic predispositions to DILI. We performed a case-control study to identify Human Leukocyte Antigen-B (HLA-B) variant alleles associated with anti-TB and ARV co-treatment induced liver toxicity in Ethiopian TB and HIV co-infected patients. A total of 495 newly diagnosed TB and HIV co-infected patients were enrolled and received rifampicin based anti-TB and efavirenz based ARV therapy...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289387/analyses-of-mrna-profiling-through-rna-sequencing-on-a-samp8-mouse-model-in-response-to-ginsenoside-rg1-and-rb1-treatment
#17
Shuai Zhang, Dina Zhu, Hong Li, Haijing Zhang, Chengqiang Feng, Wensheng Zhang
Ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 are the major ingredients in two medicines called QiShengLi (Z20027165) and QiShengJing (Z20027164) approved by China. These ingredients are believed to mitigate forgetfulness. Numerous studies have confirmed that GRg1 and GRb1 offer protection against Alzheimer's disease (AD), and our morris water maze (MWM) experiment also indicated that GRg1 and GRb1 may attenuate memory deficits in the 7-month-old SAMP8 mice; however, comprehensive understanding of their roles in AD remains limited...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289386/traditionally-used-lathyrus-species-phytochemical-composition-antioxidant-activity-enzyme-inhibitory-properties-cytotoxic-effects-and-in-silico-studies-of-l-czeczottianus-and-l-nissolia
#18
Eulogio J Llorent-Martínez, Gokhan Zengin, María L Fernández-de Córdova, Onur Bender, Arzu Atalay, Ramazan Ceylan, Adriano Mollica, Andrei Mocan, Sengul Uysal, Gokalp O Guler, Abdurrahman Aktumsek
Members of the genus Lathyrus are used as food and as traditional medicines. In order to find new sources of biologically-active compounds, chemical and biological profiles of two Lathyrus species (L. czeczottianus and L. nissolia) were investigated. Chemical profiles were evaluated by HPLC-ESI-MS(n), as well as by their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In addition, antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects were also investigated. Antioxidant properties were tested by using different assays (DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelation)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289385/plant-derived-phytocompound-embelin-in-cns-disorders-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Uday P Kundap, Saatheeyavaane Bhuvanendran, Yatinesh Kumari, Iekhsan Othman, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
A Central nervous system (CNS) disease is the one which affects either the spinal cord or brain and causing neurological or psychiatric complications. During the nineteenth century, modern medicines have occupied the therapy for many ailments and are widely used these days. Herbal medicines have often maintained popularity for historical and cultural reasons and also considered safer as they originate from natural sources. Embelin is a plant-based benzoquinone which is the major active constituent of the fruits of Embelia ribes Burm...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289384/theabrownin-inhibits-cell-cycle-progression-and-tumor-growth-of-lung-carcinoma-through-c-myc-related-mechanism
#20
Li Zhou, Feifei Wu, Wangdong Jin, Bo Yan, Xin Chen, Yingfei He, Weiji Yang, Wenlin Du, Qiang Zhang, Yonghua Guo, Qiang Yuan, Xiaoqiao Dong, Wenhua Yu, Jin Zhang, Luwei Xiao, Peijian Tong, Letian Shan, Thomas Efferth
Green tea, the fresh leaves of Camellia sinensis, is not only a health-promoting beverage but also a traditional Chinese medicine used for prevention or treatment of cancer, such as lung cancer. Theabrownin (TB) is the main fraction responsible for the medicinal effects of green tea, but whether it possesses anti-cancer effect is unknown yet. This study aimed to determine the in vitro and in vivo anti-lung cancer effect of TB and explore the underlying molecular mechanism, by using A549 cell line and Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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