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World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology

Anjana Sathyamurthy, Jessica N Winn, Jamal A Ibdah, Veysel Tahan
A Dieulafoy's lesion is a dilated, aberrant, submucosal vessel that erodes the overlying epithelium without evidence of a primary ulcer or erosion. It can be located anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of massive gastrointestinal bleeding from Dieulafoy's lesions in the duodenum. Etiology and precipitating events of a Dieulafoy's lesion are not well known. Bleeding can range from being self-limited to massive life- threatening. Endoscopic hemostasis can be achieved with a combination of therapeutic modalities...
August 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Hyun Ah Chung, Sun-Young Lee, Hee Won Moon, Jeong Hwan Kim, In-Kyung Sung, Hyung Seok Park, Chan Sup Shim, Hye Seung Han
AIM: To investigate the relationship between serum titers of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and hepatitis B virus surface antibody (HBsAb). METHODS: Korean adults were included whose samples had positive Giemsa staining on endoscopic biopsy and were studied in the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)/HBsAb serologic assay, pepsinogen (PG) assay, and H. pylori serologic test on the same day. Subjects were excluded if they were positive for HBsAg, had a recent history of medication, or had other medical condition(s)...
August 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Carlos León-Espinoza, Fernando López-Mozos, Roberto Marti-Obiol, Marina Garces-Albir, Joaquin Ortega-Serrano
AIM: To determine reproducibility of perioperative chemotherapy for gastric cancer (GC) on our settings by identifying patient's overall survival and comparing them to larger studies. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of our series, where we present our eleven-year's experience on GC managed according to perioperative approach of three preoperative chemotherapy cycles followed by surgery and finally three postoperative chemotherapy cycles. Chemotherapic scheme used was Xelox (Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine)...
August 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Filippo Antonini, Raffaele Pezzilli, Lucia Angelelli, Giampiero Macarri
An increased incidence of pancreatic disorders either acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis has been recorded in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to the general population. Although most of the pancreatitis in patients with IBD seem to be related to biliary lithiasis or drug induced, in some cases pancreatitis were defined as idiopathic, suggesting a direct pancreatic damage in IBD. Pancreatitis and IBD may have similar presentation therefore a pancreatic disease could not be recognized in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis...
August 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Gianluca Pellino, Pierlorenzo Pallante, Francesco Selvaggi
Fibrosis represents a major challenge in Crohn's disease (CD), and many CD patients will develop fibrotic strictures requiring treatment throughout their lifetime. There is no drug that can reverse intestinal fibrosis, and so endoscopic balloon dilatation and surgery are the only effective treatments. Since patients may need repeated treatments, it is important to obtain the diagnosis at an early stage before strictures become symptomatic with extensive fibrosis. Several markers of fibrosis have been proposed, but most need further validation...
August 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Imran Siddiqui, Sibtain Ahmed, Shahab Abid
In the field of gastroenterology, breath tests (BTs) are used intermittently as diagnostic tools that allow indirect, non-invasive and relatively less cumbersome evaluation of several disorders by simply quantifying the appearance in exhaled breath of a metabolite of a specific substrate administered. The aim of this review is to have an insight into the principles, methods of analysis and performance parameters of various hydrogen, methane and carbon BTs which are available for diagnosing gastrointestinal disorders such as Helicobacter pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and carbohydrate malabsorption...
August 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Pavan Patel, Steven E Schutzer, Nikolaos Pyrsopoulos
Hepatocellular carcinoma is on the rise and occurs in the setting of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Though treatment modalities are available, mortality from this cancer remains high. Medical therapy with the utilization of biologic compounds such as the Food and Drug Administration approved sorafenib might be the only option that can increase survival. Immunotherapy, with modern pharmacologic developments, is a new frontier in cancer therapy and therefore the immunobiology of hepatocarcinogenesis is under investigation...
August 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Nobuya Kurabe, Hisaki Igarashi, Ippei Ohnishi, Shogo Tajima, Yusuke Inoue, Yoshihiko Takahashi, Mitsutoshi Setou, Haruhiko Sugimura
AIM: To analyze the lipid distribution in gastric mucosae. METHODS: Imaging mass spectrometry (MS) is a useful tool to survey the distribution of biomolecules in surgical specimens. Here we used the imaging MS apparatus named iMScope to identify the dominant molecules present in the human gastric mucosa near the fundic glands. Five gastric specimens were subjected to iMScope analysis. These specimens were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry using MUC5AC, H(+)-K(+)-ATPaseβ Claudin18 antibodies...
May 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Katherine M DiGuilio, Christina M Mercogliano, Jillian Born, Brendan Ferraro, Julie To, Brittany Mixson, Allison Smith, Mary Carmen Valenzano, James M Mullin
AIM: To study whether the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) colon which exhibits varying severity and cytokine levels across its mucosa create varying types of transepithelial leak. METHODS: We examined the effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1-β (IL1β) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) - singly and in combinations - on barrier function of CACO-2 cell layers. Our focus was on the type (not simply the magnitude) of transepithelial leak generated by these agents as measured by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and transepithelial flux of (14)C-D-mannitol, (3)H-Lactulose and (14)C-Polyethylene glycol as radiolabeled probe molecules...
May 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Takahiro Einama, Futoshi Kawamata, Hirofumi Kamachi, Hiroshi Nishihara, Shigenori Homma, Fumihiko Matsuzawa, Tatsuzo Mizukami, Yuji Konishi, Munenori Tahara, Toshiya Kamiyama, Okio Hino, Akinobu Taketomi, Satoru Todo
Mesothelin, C-ERC/mesothelin is a 40-kDa cell surface glycoprotein that is normally present on normal mesothelial cells lining the pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium. Moreover, mesothelin has been shown to be overexpressed in several human cancers, including virtually all mesothelioma and pancreatic cancer, approximately 70% of ovarian cancer and extra bile duct cancer, and 50% of lung adenocarcinomas and gastric cancer. The full-length human mesothelin gene encodes the primary product, a 71-kDa precursor protein...
May 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Shahinul Alam, Golam Mustafa, Mahabubul Alam, Nooruddin Ahmad
Although insulin resistance (IR) is strongly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the association of IR and NAFLD is not universal and correlation between IR and severity of NAFLD is still controversial. In this review, we summarize recent evidence that partially dissociates insulin resistance from NAFLD. It has also been reported that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene, rather than IR, account for the variability in liver fat content. Polymorphisms of the patatin-like phospholipase 3 gene have also been reported to be associated with NAFLD without metabolic syndrome, which suggests that genetic conditions that promote the development of fatty changes in the liver may occur independently of IR...
May 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Eckhard Klieser, Stefan Swierczynski, Christian Mayr, Tarkan Jäger, Johanna Schmidt, Daniel Neureiter, Tobias Kiesslich, Romana Illig
Since the discovery of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in drosophila melanogaster, our knowledge of the role of Hh in embryonic development, inflammation, and cancerogenesis in humans has dramatically increased over the last decades. This is the case especially concerning the pancreas, however, real therapeutic breakthroughs are missing until now. In general, Hh signaling is essential for pancreatic organogenesis, development, and tissue maturation. In the case of acute pancreatitis, Hh has a protective role, whereas in chronic pancreatitis, Hh interacts with pancreatic stellate cells, leading to destructive parenchym fibrosis and atrophy, as well as to irregular tissue remodeling with potency of initiating cancerogenesis...
May 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Jiten Jaipuria, Vimal Bhandari, Avneet Singh Chawla, Mohit Singh
AIM: To systematically review evidence on pathophysiology of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in acute pancreatitis (AP) with its clinical correlates. METHODS: Systematic review of available evidence in English literature with relevant medical subject heading terms on PubMed, Medline and Scopus with further search from open access sources on internet as suggested by articles retrieved. RESULTS: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is increasingly gaining recognition as a point of specific intervention with potential to alter disease outcome and improve mortality in AP...
February 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Laimas Jonaitis, Gediminas Kiudelis, Paulius Slepavicius, Limas Kupcinskas
AIM: To evaluate the frequency of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) reinfection in peptic ulcer patients during 9 years after H. pylori eradication. METHODS: We invited 117 peptic ulcer patients in whom eradication of H. pylori was confirmed 1 year after eradication treatment both by histology and by rapid urease test. In total, 57 patients were available for the study procedures: 34 (59.6%) male, 23 (40.4%) female; mean age 52.3 ± 13.0 years. There were 45 (78.9%) patients with duodenal ulcer and 12 (21...
February 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
André-Michael Beer, Ralf Uebelhack, Ute Pohl
AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of mineral water with a high content of hydrogen carbonate in patients with heartburn. METHODS: This open, single-center, single-arm clinical pilot study enrolled 50 patients, 18-64 years old, who had been suffering from heartburn at least twice a week for at least 3 mo before entering the study. Pharmacological treatment of heartburn was not permitted, and patients with severe organic diseases were excluded. After a run-in period of one week, the participants received 1...
February 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Nicole Y Fatheree, Yuying Liu, Michael Ferris, Melissa Van Arsdall, Valarie McMurtry, Marcela Zozaya, Chunyan Cai, Mohammad H Rahbar, Manouchehr Hessabi, Ta Vu, Christine Wong, Juleen Min, Dat Q Tran, Fernando Navarro, Wallace Gleason, Sara Gonzalez, J Marc Rhoads
AIM: To investigate recruitment, retention, and estimates for effects of formula supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on inflammatory biomarkers and fecal microbial community in infants with colic. METHODS: A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in otherwise healthy infants with colic. We screened 74 infants and randomized and analyzed results in 20 infants [9 receiving LGG (LGG+) and 11 not receiving LGG (LGG-)]. LGG was incorporated in the formula (Nutramigen(®)) (minimum of 3 × 10(7) CFU/d) in the LGG+ group...
February 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Mei-Hua Qu, Wan-Sheng Ji, Ting-Kun Zhao, Chun-Yan Fang, Shu-Mei Mao, Zhi-Qin Gao
AIM: To investigate the mechanism for bradykinin (BK) to stimulate intestinal secretomotor neurons and intestinal chloride secretion. METHODS: Muscle-stripped guinea pig ileal preparations were mounted in Ussing flux chambers for the recording of short-circuit current (Isc). Basal Isc and Isc stimulated by BK when preincubated with the BK receptors antagonist and other chemicals were recorded using the Ussing chamber system. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in the intestine was determined by enzyme immunologic assay (EIA)...
February 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Emily M Bradford, Kanimozhi Vairamani, Gary E Shull
AIM: To investigate the intestinal functions of the NKCC1 Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl cotransporter (SLC12a2 gene), differential mRNA expression changes in NKCC1-null intestine were analyzed. METHODS: Microarray analysis of mRNA from intestines of adult wild-type mice and gene-targeted NKCC1-null mice (n = 6 of each genotype) was performed to identify patterns of differential gene expression changes. Differential expression patterns were further examined by Gene Ontology analysis using the online Gorilla program, and expression changes of selected genes were verified using northern blot analysis and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction...
February 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Gen Kusaka, Kaname Uno, Katsunori Iijima, Tooru Shimosegawa
Barrett's esophagus (BE), a premalignant condition to Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BAC), is closely associated with chronic inflammation due to gastro-esophageal reflux. Caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), a representative marker of BE, is increased during the metaplastic and neoplastic transformation of BE. Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed to be a crucial mediator of Barrett's carcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated that CDX2 might be induced directly under stimulation of large amounts of NO generated around the gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) by activating epithelial growth factor receptor in a ligand-independent manner...
February 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Aikaterini Mastoraki, Sotiria Mastoraki, Evgenia Tziava, Stavroula Touloumi, Nikolaos Krinos, Nikolaos Danias, Andreas Lazaris, Nikolaos Arkadopoulos
Mesenteric ischemia (MI) is an uncommon medical condition with high mortality rates. ΜΙ includes inadequate blood supply, inflammatory injury and eventually necrosis of the bowel wall. The disease can be divided into acute and chronic MI (CMI), with the first being subdivided into four categories. Therefore, acute MI (AMI) can occur as a result of arterial embolism, arterial thrombosis, mesenteric venous thrombosis and non-occlusive causes. Bowel damage is in proportion to the mesenteric blood flow decrease and may vary from minimum lesions, due to reversible ischemia, to transmural injury, with subsequent necrosis and perforation...
February 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
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