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World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868184/multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-2b-differential-increase-in-enteric-nerve-subgroups-in-muscle-and-mucosa
#1
John M Hutson, Pam J Farmer, Cristal J Peck, Chung W Chow, Bridget R Southwell
Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (MEN2B) is a rare syndrome caused by an activating mutation of the RET gene, leading to enteric gangliomatosis. This child presented with constipation at 1-mo old, was diagnosed with MEN2B by rectal biopsy at 4 mo, had thyroidectomy at 9 mo and a colectomy at 4 years. We studied the extent of neuronal and nerve fibre proliferation and which classes of enteric nerves are affected by examining the colon with multiple neuronal antibodies. Resected transverse colon was fixed, frozen, sectioned and processed for fluorescence immunohistochemistry labelling with antibodies against TUJ1, Hu, ChAT, NOS, VIP, SP and CGRP and cKit...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868183/effect-of-replenishment-of-vitamin-d-on-survival-in-patients-with-decompensated-liver-cirrhosis-a-prospective-study
#2
Ashish Kumar Jha, Sharad Kumar Jha, Amarendra Kumar, Vishwa Mohan Dayal, Sanjeev Kumar Jha
AIM: To assess the vitamin D (VD) deficiency as a prognostic factor and effect of replenishment of VD on mortality in decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: Patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis were screened for serum VD levels. A total of 101 VD deficient patients (< 20 ng/mL) were randomly enrolled in two groups: Treatment group (n = 51) and control group (n = 50). Treatment group received VD treatment in the form of intramuscular cholecalciferol 300000 IU as loading dose and 800 IU/d oral as maintenance dose along with 1000 mg oral calcium supplementation...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868182/assessment-of-serum-angiogenic-factors-as-a-diagnostic-aid-for-small-bowel-angiodysplasia-in-patients-with-obscure-gastrointestinal-bleeding-and-anaemia
#3
Grainne Holleran, Mary Hussey, Sinead Smith, Deirdre McNamara
AIM: To assess the use of serum levels of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), Ang2 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) as predictive factors for small bowel angiodysplasia (SBA). METHODS: Serum samples were collected from patients undergoing capsule endoscopy for any cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) or anaemia. Based on small bowel findings patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) SBA; (2) other bleeding causes; and (3) normal, according to diagnosis. Using ELISA technique we measured serum levels of Ang1, Ang2 and TNFα and compared mean and median levels between the groups based on small bowel diagnosis...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868181/oral-spore-based-probiotic-supplementation-was-associated-with-reduced-incidence-of-post-prandial-dietary-endotoxin-triglycerides-and-disease-risk-biomarkers
#4
Brian K McFarlin, Andrea L Henning, Erin M Bowman, Melody A Gary, Kimberly M Carbajal
AIM: To determine if 30-d of oral spore-based probiotic supplementation could reduce dietary endotoxemia. METHODS: Apparently healthy men and women (n = 75) were screened for post-prandial dietary endotoxemia. Subjects whose serum endotoxin concentration increased by at least 5-fold from pre-meal levels at 5-h post-prandial were considered "responders" and were randomized to receive either placebo (rice flour) or a commercial spore-based probiotic supplement [Bacillus indicus (HU36), Bacillus subtilis (HU58), Bacillus coagulans, and Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus clausii] for 30-d...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868180/acute-and-chronic-hepatobiliary-manifestations-of-sickle-cell-disease-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Rushikesh Shah, Cesar Taborda, Saurabh Chawla
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a common hemoglobinopathy which can affect multiple organ systems in the body. Within the digestive tract, the hepatobiliary system is most commonly affected in SCD. The manifestations range from benign hyperbilirubinemia to overt liver failure, with the spectrum of acute clinical presentations often referred to as "sickle cell hepatopathy". This is an umbrella term referring to liver dysfunction and hyperbilirubinemia due to intrahepatic sickling process during SCD crisis leading to ischemia, sequestration and cholestasis...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868179/fatty-liver-without-a-large-belly-magnified-review-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-non-obese-patients
#6
REVIEW
Mohamad H Yousef, Alhareth Al Juboori, Abdulmajeed A Albarrak, Jamal A Ibdah, Veysel Tahan
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is well described as a common cause of chronic liver disease, mostly in the obese population. It refers to a spectrum of chronic liver disease that starts with simple steatosis than progresses to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis in patients without significant alcohol consumption. NAFLD in the non-obese population has been increasingly reported and studied recently. The pathogenesis of nonobese NAFLD is poorly understood and is related to genetic predisposition, most notably patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 33 G allele polymorphism that leads to intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573073/late-onset-pulmonary-metastasis-more-than-10-years-after-primary-sigmoid-carcinoma
#7
Anne M Daniels, Jeroen F J Vogelaar
According to current guidelines, follow-up of patients with colorectal cancer is ended after five years. Also, chest X-ray is not part of standard investigation during follow-up. We describe a case of a 74-year-old patient, more than ten years after a sigmoid resection because of carcinoma of the sigmoid. No recurrence was detected during intensive follow-up. However, ten years after resection of the sigmoid adenocarcinoma, complaints of coughing induced further examination with as result the detection of a solitary metastasis in the left lung of the patient...
May 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573072/duodenal-localization-of-plasmablastic-myeloma
#8
Stefano Licci
Gastrointestinal involvement in plasma cell neoplasms, either as primary localizations (extramedullary plasmacytomas) or as secondary involvement in systemic multiple myeloma, is a well-known event. Accurate histological examination is crucial in defining the diagnosis. In this report, an uncommon case of duodenal localization of myeloma with plasmablastic features is described, with emphasis on the role of clinical data and findings from ancillary immunostaining techniques to avoid misdiagnosis.
May 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573071/differential-diagnosis-in-ulcerative-colitis-in-an-adolescent-chronic-granulomatous-disease-needs-extra-attention
#9
Daniel Kotlarz, Odul Egritas Gurkan, Zehra Sule Haskologlu, Ozgur Ekinci, Aysel Aksu Unlusoy, Neslihan Gürcan Kaya, Jacek Puchalka, Cristoph Klein, Buket Dalgic
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immune deficiency that is commonly diagnosed under the age of 5 years (95%) and is rarely seen in adulthood. CGD may manifest as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in childhood. Without proper diagnosis, these patients may be monitored for years as IBD; some may even be regarded as steroid-resistant ulcerative colitis (UC) and end up having a colectomy. In this case report, we described a patient who had been followed-up for years as UC and subsequently underwent colectomy, but was finally diagnosed in adulthood as primary immune deficiency...
May 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573070/endoscopic-therapy-for-biliary-strictures-complicating-living-donor-liver-transplantation-factors-predicting-better-outcome
#10
Harshavardhan B Rao, Hasim Ahamed, Suprabha Panicker, Surendran Sudhindran, Rama P Venu
AIM: To identify factors predicting outcome of endoscopic therapy in bile duct strictures (BDS) post living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: Patients referred with BDS post LDLT, were retrospectively studied. Patient demographics, symptoms (Pruritus, Jaundice, cholangitis), intra-op variables (cold ischemia time, blood transfusions, number of ducts used, etc.), peri-op complications [hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT), bile leak, infections], stricture morphology (length, donor and recipient duct diameters) and relevant laboratory data both pre- and post-endotherapy were studied...
May 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573069/combination-curcumin-and-vitamin-e-treatment-attenuates-diet-induced-steatosis-in-hfe-mice
#11
Mandy Heritage, Lesley Jaskowski, Kim Bridle, Catherine Campbell, David Briskey, Laurence Britton, Linda Fletcher, Luis Vitetta, V Nathan Subramaniam, Darrell Crawford
AIM: To investigate the synergistic hepato-protective properties of curcumin and vitamin E in an Hfe(-/-) high calorie diet model of steatohepatitis. METHODS: Hfe(-/-) C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high calorie diet or a high calorie diet with 1 mg/g curcumin; 1.5 mg/g vitamin E; or combination of 1 mg/g curcumin + 1.5 mg/g vitamin E for 20 wk. Serum and liver tissue were collected at the completion of the experiment. Liver histology was graded by a pathologist for steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis...
May 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573068/rectification-of-oxygen-transfer-through-the-rat-colonic-epithelium
#12
Fernando D Saraví, Graciela E Carra, Daniel A Matus, Jorge E Ibáñez
AIM: To assess whether higher sensitivity of colonic epithelium to hypoxia at the serosal side is associated with oxygen transfer asymmetry. METHODS: Rats were fed either with normal chow or a low-sodium diet. Tissues were mounted as flat sheets in a modified, airtight Ussing chamber with oxygen meters in each hemichamber. Mucosal samples from normal diet animals were studied under control conditions, in low-chloride solution and after adding chloride secretion inhibitors and chloride secretagogues...
May 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573067/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-cardiovascular-risk
#13
REVIEW
Rashmee Patil, Gagan K Sood
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The spectrum of disease ranges from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis and progression to cirrhosis. Compelling evidence over the past several years has substantiated a significant link between NAFLD and cardiovascular disease ranging from coronary artery disease to subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. Close follow up, treatment of risk factors for NAFLD, and cardiovascular risk stratification are necessary to predict morbidity and mortality in this subset of patients...
May 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573066/embrionary-way-to-create-a-fatty-liver-in-portal-hypertension
#14
REVIEW
Maria-Angeles Aller, Natalia Arias, Isabel Peral, Sara García-Higarza, Jorge-Luis Arias, Jaime Arias
Portal hypertension in the rat by triple partial portal vein ligation produces an array of splanchnic and systemic disorders, including hepatic steatosis. In the current review these alterations are considered components of a systemic inflammatory response that would develop through three overlapping phenotypes: The neurogenic, the immune and the endocrine. These three inflammatory phenotypes could resemble the functions expressed during embryonic development of mammals. In turn, the inflammatory phenotypes would be represented in the embryo by two functional axes, that is, a coelomic-amniotic axis and a trophoblastic yolk-sac or vitelline axis...
May 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573065/celiac-disease-from-pathophysiology-to-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Ilaria Parzanese, Dorina Qehajaj, Federica Patrinicola, Merica Aralica, Maurizio Chiriva-Internati, Sanja Stifter, Luca Elli, Fabio Grizzi
Celiac disease, also known as "celiac sprue", is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine, produced by the ingestion of dietary gluten products in susceptible people. It is a multifactorial disease, including genetic and environmental factors. Environmental trigger is represented by gluten while the genetic predisposition has been identified in the major histocompatibility complex region. Celiac disease is not a rare disorder like previously thought, with a global prevalence around 1%. The reason of its under-recognition is mainly referable to the fact that about half of affected people do not have the classic gastrointestinal symptoms, but they present nonspecific manifestations of nutritional deficiency or have no symptoms at all...
May 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573064/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-diagnostic-biomarkers
#16
REVIEW
Fatemeh Hadizadeh, Elham Faghihimani, Peyman Adibi
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a common medical condition worldwide and its prevalence has increased notably in the past few years due to the increases in prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, diagnosis of this disease is still a matter of debate because of disease variations and pathophysiologic alterations. Specific single markers have gained considerable attention recently, among them markers related to hepatic pathophysiology, inflammation, adipocytokines and so forth. But, it seems that no single marker is sufficient for diagnosis and staging of the disease, and applying a panel including different types of tests may be more useful...
May 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251034/polyp-detection-rate-and-pathological-features-in-patients-undergoing-a-comprehensive-colonoscopy-screening
#17
Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Sara Ashtari, Mohmad Amin Pourhoseingholi, Vahid Chaleshi, Fakhrosadat Anaraki, Mehrdad Haghazali, Mohammad Reza Zali
AIM: To identify the prevalence, and clinical and pathologic characteristic of colonic polyps among Iranian patients undergoing a comprehensive colonoscopy, and determine the polyp detection rate (PDR) and adenoma detection rate (ADR). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, demographics and epidemiologic characteristics of 531 persons who underwent colonoscopies between 2014 and 2015 at Mehrad gastrointestinal clinic were determined. Demographics, indication for colonoscopy, colonoscopy findings, number of polyps, and histopathological characteristics of the polyps were examined for each person...
February 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251033/impaired-inactivation-of-digestive-proteases-the-possible-key-factor-for-the-high-susceptibility-of-germ-free-and-antibiotic-treated-animals-to-gut-epithelial-injury
#18
REVIEW
Xiaofa Qin
Recent study shows that germ-free and antibiotic-treated animals are highly susceptible to gut epithelial injury. This paper addresses that impaired inactivation of digestive proteases may be the key factor for the increased susceptibility.
February 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895977/hepatitis-c-infection-and-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Karn Wijarnpreecha, Pitchaphon Nissaisorakarn, Suthanya Sornprom, Charat Thongprayoon, Natanong Thamcharoen, Kunlatida Maneenil, Alexander J Podboy, Wisit Cheungpasitporn
AIM: To investigate the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: A literature search was performed from inception until February 2016. Studies that reported relative risks, odd ratios, hazard ratios or standardized incidence ratio comparing the risk of RCC among HCV-infected participants vs those without HCV infection were included. Participants without HCV infection were used as comparators. Pooled odds ratios and 95%CI were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895976/microscopic-colitis-in-patients-with-mild-duodenal-damage-a-new-clinical-and-pathological-entity-lymphocytic-enterocolitis
#20
Gabriele Antonio Bonagura, Davide Giuseppe Ribaldone, Sharmila Fagoonee, Nicoletta Sapone, Gian Paolo Caviglia, Giorgio Maria Saracco, Marco Astegiano, Rinaldo Pellicano
AIM: To evaluate the potential association between mild duodenal damage and microscopic colitis (MC). METHODS: We retrospectively included 105 consecutive patients with type I Marsh-Oberhuber duodenal damage and negativity for immunoglobulin A anti-endomysium and anti-tissue transglutaminase. The following parameters were analyzed: Sex, age at execution of esophagogastroduodenoscopy, duodenal damage, and number of intraepithelial lymphocytes at biopsies, prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, age at execution of colonoscopy, macroscopic and microscopic features of colonoscopy, family history of gastrointestinal and autoimmune diseases, smoking habits, biochemical parameters of inflammation and autoimmunity, use of proton pump inhibitors or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, adverse reactions to drugs or foods, pathologies known to be associated with celiac disease or MC, living on a gluten-free diet or on a gluten-low diet for at least 1 mo...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
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