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Journal of Advanced Research

Somoshree Sengupta, Vamsi K Balla
Current popular cancer treatment options, include tumor surgery, chemotherapy, and hormonal treatment. These treatments are often associated with some inherent limitations. For instances, tumor surgery is not effective in mitigating metastases; the anticancer drugs used for chemotherapy can quickly spread throughout the body and is ineffective in killing metastatic cancer cells. Therefore, several drug delivery systems (DDS) have been developed to target tumor cells, and release active biomolecule at specific site to eliminate the side effects of anticancer drugs...
November 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Samir M Elhanbly, Mamdouh M Abdel-Gawad, Ayman A Elkholy, Ahmed F State
Sildenafil enhances the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway of erection, which is claimed to have a role in nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR). This study aimed to find whether RigiScan can predict the response to sildenafil among erectile dysfunction (ED) patients and to find which RigiScan parameter produces the best prediction. Medical records of 172 ED patients were revised regarding their full sexual history, standard andrology examination, NPTR monitoring by the RigiScan device, and the degree of response to sildenafil...
November 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Ahmed Nugud, Divyasree Sandeep, Ahmed T El-Serafi
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as by-products of several intracellular metabolic pathways and are reduced to more stable molecules by several protective pathways. The presence of high levels of ROS can be associated with disturbance of cell function and could lead to apoptosis. The presence of ROS within the physiological range has many effects on several signalling pathways. In stem cells, this role can range between keeping the potency of the naive stem cells to differentiation towards a certain lineage...
November 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Manuel Palencia
Herein a simple algorithm for the mathematical transformation of FTIR spectrum was developed, evaluated, and applied for description of different systems. Water, ethanol, n -butanol, n -hexanol, formic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, and water-acetic acid mixtures at different concentrations were used as model systems. We found that functional transformation of FTIR spectrum can be performed by functionally-enhanced derivative spectroscopy approach using the Function P, which is defined as P = (1 +  aj )( s )-0...
November 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Aparna Mukherjee, Soumya Banerjee, Gopinath Halder
The present investigation deals with process optimisation of delignification of rice straw towards its micro-porous structural enhancement for its utilization in polymer grafting. The individual effect of influential parameters viz . sodium hydroxide concentration (1-12%, w/v ), reaction time (30-126 min), and temperature (20-150 °C) on delignification were studied in a single mode batch process. The process parameters were further optimized with Central composite design (CCD) approach of response surface methodology in Design expert software...
November 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Ana María Garzón Porras, Bruna Silva Terra, Taniris Cafiero Braga, Thais Furtado Ferreira Magalhães, Cleide Viviane Buzanello Martins, Danielle Letícia da Silva, Ludmila Matos Baltazar, Ludmila Ferreira Gouveia, Gustavo José Cota de Freitas, Daniel Assis Santos, Maria Aparecida Resende-Stoianoff, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Rossimiriam Pereira de Freitas, Ângelo de Fátima
The incidence of fungal infections is considered a serious public health problem worldwide. The limited number of antimycotic drugs available to treat human and animal mycosis, the undesirable side effects and toxicities of the currently available drugs, and the emergence of fungal resistance emphasizes the urgent need for more effective antimycotic medicines. In this paper, we describe a rapid, simple, and efficient synthetic route for preparation of the antifungal agent butenafine on a multigram scale. This novel synthetic route also facilitated the preparation of 17 butenafine analogues using Schiff bases as precursors in three steps or less...
November 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Shital M Kalikate, Satyajit R Patil, Suresh M Sawant
Magnetorheological (MR) brakes, owing to their quick response, are being investigated as a possible candidate for substitution for the conventional hydraulic brakes of road vehicles. The MR brake system for a two-wheeler application was envisaged in this article. Based on analytical equations, the system was modelled in the MATLAB Simulink environment. The braking performance of the system in terms of the stopping distance was estimated with the help of the model. The output from the model was compared with the Indian Standard (IS) automotive brake standard requirement for two-wheelers...
November 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Ahmed Dekak, Rabah Chabi, Taha Menasria, Yacine Benhizia
A phenotypic characterization of thirteen root nodule bacteria recovered from wild legumes ( Genista microcephala and Argyrolobium uniflorum ) growing in arid eco-climate zones (Northeastern Algeria) was conducted using analysis of sixty-six phenotypic traits (carbohydrate and nitrogen assimilation, vitamin requirements, growth temperature, salinity/pH tolerance and enzyme production). Furthermore, SDS-PAGE profiles of total cell protein, antibiotic susceptibility and heavy metal resistance were performed. The results showed that the isolates can grow at pH 4 to 10, salt concentration (0-5%) and temperature up to 45 °C...
November 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Sathiyaseelan Anbazhagan, Kalaichelvan Puthupalayam Thangavelu
Chitosan composite material has been used as an efficient drug carrier for potential drug delivery systems in specific cases of wound dressing management. In the present study, 0.5 g/L of the antibiotic tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) was loaded into 1% fungal chitosan (FCS) incorporated with 0.2% of Aloe vera extract (AVE). Two types of sponges were prepared, with and without AVE, such as FCS-AVE-TCH and FCS-TCH, respectively. They were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
November 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Ângelo de Fátima, Camila de Paula Pereira, Carolina Raquel Said Dau Gonçalves Olímpio, Breno Germano de Freitas Oliveira, Lucas Lopardi Franco, Pedro Henrique Corrêa da Silva
Schiff bases, an aldehyde- or ketone-like compounds in which the carbonyl group is replaced by an imine or azomethine, are some of the most widely used organic compounds. Indeed, they are widely used for industrial purposes and also exhibit a broad range of biological activities, including anti-urease activity. Ureases, enzymes that catalyze urea hydrolysis, have received considerable attention for their impact on living organisms' health, since the persistence of urease activity in human and animal cells can be the cause of some diseases and pathogen infections...
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Paweł Kafarski, Michał Talma
Urease is a nickel-dependent metalloenzyme found in plants, some bacteria, and fungi. Bacterial enzyme is of special importance since it has been demonstrated as a potent virulence factor for some species. Especially it is central to Helicobacter pylori metabolism and virulence being necessary for its colonization of the gastric mucosa, and is a potent immunogen that elicits a vigorous immune response. Therefore, it is not surprising that efforts to design, synthesize and evaluate of new inhibitors of urease are and active field of medicinal chemistry...
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Yuri F Rego, Marcelo P Queiroz, Tiago O Brito, Priscila G Carvalho, Vagner T de Queiroz, Ângelo de Fátima, Fernando Macedo
Ureases are enzymes that hydrolyze urea into ammonium and carbon dioxide. They have received considerable attention due to their impacts on living organism health, since the urease activity in microorganisms, particularly in bacteria, are potential causes and/or factors contributing to the persistence of some pathogen infections. This review compiles examples of the most potent antiurease organic substances. Emphasis was given to systematic screening studies on the inhibitory activity of rationally designed series of compounds with the corresponding SAR considerations...
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Barbara Krajewska
Inducing calcium carbonate precipitation is another important function of urease in nature. The process takes advantage of the supply of carbonate ions derived from urea hydrolysis and of an increase in pH generated by the reaction, effects that in the presence of Ca2+ ions lead to the precipitation of CaCO3 . Further to its importance in nature, if performed in a biomimetic manner, the urease-aided CaCO3 mineralization offers enormous potential in innovative engineering applications as an eco-friendly technique operative under mild conditions, to be used for remediation and cementation/deposition in field applications in situ ...
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
David Y Graham, Muhammad Miftahussurur
The stomach contents contain of both acid and proteolytic enzymes. How the stomach digests food without damaging itself remained a topic of investigation for decades. One candidate was gastric urease, which neutralized acid by producing ammonia from urea diffusing from the blood and potentially could protect the stomach. Discovery that gastric urease was not mammalian resulted in a research hiatus until discovery that gastric urease was produce by Helicobacter pylori which caused gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer...
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Amlan Kumar Patra, Jörg Rudolf Aschenbach
Urea in diets of ruminants has been investigated to substitute expensive animal and vegetable protein sources for more than a century, and has been widely incorporated in diets of ruminants for many years. Urea is also recycled to the fermentative parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts through saliva or direct secretory flux from blood depending upon the dietary situations. Within the GI tracts, urea is hydrolyzed to ammonia by urease enzymes produced by GI microorganisms and subsequent ammonia utilization serves the synthesis of microbial protein...
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Luzia V Modolo, Cristiane J da-Silva, Débora S Brandão, Izabel S Chaves
World population is expected to reach 9.7 billion by 2050, which makes a great challenge the achievement of food security. The use of urease inhibitors in agricultural practices has long been explored as one of the strategies to guarantee food supply in enough amounts. This is due to the fact that urea, one of the most used nitrogen (N) fertilizers worldwide, rapidly undergoes urease-driven hydrolysis on soil surface yielding up to 70% N losses to environment. This review provides with a compilation of what has been done since 2005 with respect to the search for good urease inhibitors of agricultural interests...
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Heitor Cantarella, Rafael Otto, Johnny Rodrigues Soares, Aijânio Gomes de Brito Silva
Urea is the most widely used nitrogen (N) fertilizer, with a projected increase in annual demand of 1.5% in the coming years. After its application to soil, urea undergoes hydrolysis via the urease enzyme, causing increases in the soil pH in the surrounding area of the granules and resulting in NH3 losses that average 16% of N applied worldwide and can reach 40% or more in hot and humid conditions. The use of urease inhibitors is an effective way to reduce NH3 losses. Several compounds act as urease inhibitors, but only N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) has been used worldwide, being the most successful in a market that has grown 16% per year in the past 10 years...
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Karine Kappaun, Angela Regina Piovesan, Celia Regina Carlini, Rodrigo Ligabue-Braun
Urease (urea amidohydrolase, EC is a nickel-containing enzyme produced by plants, fungi, and bacteria that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbamate. Urease is of historical importance in Biochemistry as it was the first enzyme ever to be crystallized (1926). Finding nickel in urease's active site (1975) was the first indication of a biological role for this metal. In this review, historical and structural features, kinetics aspects, activation of the metallocenter and inhibitors of the urea hydrolyzing activity of ureases are discussed...
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Ângelo de Fátima, Barbara Krajewska, Luzia Valentina Modolo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Ikechukwu Ogadimma Alisi, Adamu Uzairu, Stephen Eyije Abechi, Sulaiman Ola Idris
The prevalence of degenerative diseases in recent time has triggered extensive research on their control. This condition could be prevented if the body has an efficient antioxidant mechanism to scavenge the free radicals which are their main causes. Curcumin and its derivatives are widely employed as antioxidants. The free radical scavenging activities of curcumin and its derivatives have been explored in this research by the application of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR). The entire data set was optimized at the density functional theory (DFT) level using the Becke's three-parameter Lee-Yang-Parr hybrid functional (B3LYP) in combination with the 6-311G∗ basis set...
July 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
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