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Frontiers in Neurology

Rosa M Vivanco-Hidalgo, Sònia Abilleira, Mercè Salvat-Plana, Aida Ribera, Guillem Gallofré, Miquel Gallofré
Stroke, and mainly ischemic stroke, is the second cause of death and disability. To confront the huge burden of this disease, innovative stroke systems of care are mandatory. This requires the development of national stroke plans to offer the best treatment to all patients eligible for reperfusion therapies. Key elements for success include a high level of organization, close cooperation with emergency medical services for prehospital assessment, an understanding of stroke singularity, the development of preassessment tools, a high level of commitment of all stroke teams at Stroke Centres, the availability of a disease-specific registry, and local government involvement to establish stroke care as a priority...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Sang-Yeon Lee, Dong-Han Lee, Yun Jung Bae, Jae-Jin Song, Ji Soo Kim, Ja-Won Koo
Background: Superficial siderosis (SS) is a rare condition in which hemosiderin, an iron storage complex, is deposited in neural tissues because of recurrent subarachnoid bleeding. Hemosiderin deposition in the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII), brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve can cause sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and postural imbalance, but much remains unknown about the vestibular manifestations of SS. Objectives: To report the clinical course, cochleovestibular status, and patterns of vestibulopathy during follow-up of a relatively large case series, and to discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanism of vestibular deterioration...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Laura J de Schipper, Anne Hafkemeijer, Jeroen van der Grond, Johan Marinus, Johanna M L Henselmans, Jacobus J van Hilten
Background: Functional imaging methods, such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, reflect changes in neural connectivity and may help to assess the widespread consequences of disease-specific network changes in Parkinson's disease. In this study we used a relatively new graph analysis approach in functional imaging: eigenvector centrality mapping. This model-free method, applied to all voxels in the brain, identifies prominent regions in the brain network hierarchy and detects localized differences between patient populations...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Silvia Paciotti, Giovanni Bellomo, Leonardo Gatticchi, Lucilla Parnetti
The accumulation and deposition of α-synuclein aggregates in brain tissue is the main event in the pathogenesis of different neurodegenerative disorders grouped under the term of synucleinopathies. They include Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy. To date, the diagnosis of any of these disorders mainly relies on the recognition of clinical symptoms, when the neurodegeneration is already in an advanced phase. In the last years, several efforts have been carried out to develop new diagnostic tools for early diagnosis of synucleinopathies, with special interest to Parkinson's disease...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Susan M Tyree, Jeremy C Borniger, Luis de Lecea
The lateral hypothalamus is comprised of a heterogeneous mix of neurons that serve to integrate and regulate sleep, feeding, stress, energy balance, reward, and motivated behavior. Within these populations, the hypocretin/orexin neurons are among the most well studied. Here, we provide an overview on how these neurons act as a central hub integrating sensory and physiological information to tune arousal and motivated behavior accordingly. We give special attention to their role in sleep-wake states and conditions of hyper-arousal, as is the case with stress-induced anxiety...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Thomas Brandt, Eva Grill, Michael Strupp, Doreen Huppert
Aims: To determine the susceptibility to visual height intolerance (vHI) in patients with acquired bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP). The question was whether postural instability in BVP, which is partially compensated for by visual substitution of the impaired vestibular control of balance, leads to an increased susceptibility. This is of particular importance since fear of heights is dependent on body posture, and visual control of balance at heights can no longer substitute vestibular input. For comparison susceptibility to vHI was determined in patients with other vestibular or functional disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Huiqiao Tian, Mark W Parsons, Christopher R Levi, Xin Cheng, Richard I Aviv, Neil J Spratt, Timothy J Kleinig, Billy O'Brien, Kenneth S Butcher, Longting Lin, Jingfen Zhang, Qiang Dong, Chushuang Chen, Andrew Bivard
Background and Purpose: The benefit of thrombolysis in ischemic stroke patients without a visible vessel occlusion still requires investigation. This study tested the hypothesis that non-lacunar stroke patients with no visible vessel occlusion on baseline imaging would have a favorable outcome regardless of treatment with alteplase. Methods: We utilized a prospectively collected registry of ischemic stroke patients [the International Stroke Perfusion Imaging Registry (INSPIRE)] who had baseline computed tomographic perfusion and computed tomographic angiography...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Deepti Nair, Vijay Ramesh, David Gozal
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disease manifesting as intermittent hypoxia during sleep (IH) and is increasingly recognized as being independently associated with neurobehavioral deficits. These deficits may be due to increased apoptosis in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, as well as increased oxidative stress and inflammation. It has been reported that neuroglobin (Ngb) is upregulated in response to hypoxia-ischemia insults and exhibits a protective role in ischemia-reperfusion brain injury...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Zbigniew Gugala, Elizabeth A Olmsted-Davis, Yuqing Xiong, Eleanor L Davis, Alan R Davis
De novo bone formation can occur in soft tissues as a result of traumatic injury. This process, known as heterotopic ossification (HO), has recently been linked to the peripheral nervous system. Studies suggest that HO may resemble neural crest-derived bone formation and is activated through the release of key bone matrix proteins leading to opening of the blood-nerve barrier (BNB). One of the first steps in this process is the activation of a neuro-inflammatory cascade, which results in migration of chondro-osseous progenitors, and other cells from both the endoneurial and perineurial regions of the peripheral nerves...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Tillmann Ruland, Jolien Wolbert, Michael G Gottschalk, Simone König, Andreas Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Jens Minnerup, Sven G Meuth, Catharina C Groß, Heinz Wiendl, Gerd Meyer Zu Hörste
Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare autoimmune vasculitis limited to the CNS often causing substantial disability. Understanding of this disease is impaired by the lack of available biomaterial. Here, we collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with PACNS and matched controls and performed unbiased proteomics profiling using ion mobility mass spectrometry to identify novel disease mechanisms and candidate biomarkers. We identified 14 candidate proteins, including amyloid-beta A4 protein (APP), with reduced abundance in the CSF of PACNS patients and validated APP by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) in an extended cohort of patients with PACNS...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Francisco Branoner, Hans Straka
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) rely on neuronal computations that transform vestibular sensory signals into spatio-temporally appropriate extraocular motor commands. The motoneuronal discharge for contractions of the superior oblique eye muscle during linear translation derives from a utricular epithelial sector that is spatially aligned with the pulling direction of this muscle. In Xenopus laevis , the alignment is gradually achieved during larval development and requires motion-related semicircular canal afferent activity...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Zhenyu Wei, Yi Lyu, XiaoLi Yang, Xin Chen, Ping Zhong, Danhong Wu
The term "tissue kallikrein" is used to describe a group of serine proteases shared considerable sequence homology and colocalize in the same chromosomal locus 19q13. 2-q13.4. It has been widely discovered in various tissues and has been proved to be involved in kinds of pathophysiological processes, such as inhibiting oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis and promoting angiogenesis, and neurogenesis. Human Urinary Kallidinogenase (HUK) extracted from human urine is a member of tissue kallikrein which could convert kininogen to kinin and hence improve the plasma kinin level...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Michael Hamerle, Leyli Ghaeni, Alexander Kowski, Florian Weissinger, Martin Holtkamp
Purpose: This study aimed to assess alcohol consumption and the occurrence of alcohol-related seizures in patients with epilepsy within the last 12 months. Methods: In an epilepsy outpatient clinic, a standardized questionnaire was used to collect data retrospectively from consecutive adult epilepsy patients who had been suffering from the disease for at least 1 year. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors. Results: A total of 310 patients with epilepsy were included...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Cristina Rosazza, Francesco Deleo, Ludovico D'Incerti, Luigi Antelmi, Giovanni Tringali, Giuseppe Didato, Maria G Bruzzone, Flavio Villani, Francesco Ghielmetti
Objective: Mechanisms of motor plasticity are critical to maintain motor functions after cerebral damage. This study explores the mechanisms of motor reorganization occurring before and after surgery in four patients with drug-refractory epilepsy candidate to disconnective surgery. Methods: We studied four patients with early damage, who underwent tailored hemispheric surgery in adulthood, removing the cortical motor areas and disconnecting the corticospinal tract (CST) from the affected hemisphere. Motor functions were assessed clinically, with functional MRI (fMRI) tasks of arm and leg movement and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) before and after surgery with assessments of up to 3 years...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Yuko Ogawa, Masahiro Tsuji, Emi Tanaka, Mikiya Miyazato, Jun Hino
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of proteins that induce the formation of bone and the development of the nervous system. BMP-3b, also known as growth and differentiation factor 10, is a member of the BMPs that is highly expressed in the developing and adult brain. BMP-3b is therefore thought to play an important role in the brain even after physiological neurogenesis has completed. BMP-3b is induced in peri-infarct neurons in aged brains and is one of the most highly upregulated genes during the initiation of axonal sprouting...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Roberto Teggi, Bruno Colombo, Roberto Albera, Giacinto Asprella Libonati, Cristiano Balzanelli, Angel Batuecas Caletrio, Augusto P Casani, Juan Manuel Espinosa-Sanchez, Paolo Gamba, Jose A Lopez-Escamez, Sergio Lucisano, Marco Mandalà, Giampiero Neri, Daniele Nuti, Rudi Pecci, Antonio Russo, Eduardo Martin-Sanz, Ricardo Sanz, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Paola Torelli, Paolo Vannucchi, Giancarlo Comi, Mario Bussi
Migraine is a common neurological disorder characterized by episodic headaches with specific features, presenting familial aggregation. Migraine is associated with episodic vertigo, named Vestibular Migraine (VM) whose diagnosis mainly rely on clinical history showing a temporary association of symptoms. Some patient refers symptoms occurring in pediatric age, defined "episodic symptoms which may be associated with migraine." The aim of this cross sectional observational study was to assess migraine-related clinical features in VM subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Qiang Li, Hengli Zhao, Pengyu Pan, Xufang Ru, Shilun Zuo, Jie Qu, Bin Liao, Yujie Chen, Huaizhen Ruan, Hua Feng
Progressive white matter (WM) impairments caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) contribute to cognitive deficits and poor clinical prognoses; however, their pathogenetic mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the role of nexilin and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC)-mediated repair in a mouse model of experimental SAH generated via left endovascular perforation. Nexilin expression was enhanced by the elevated migration of OPCs after SAH. Knocking down nexilin by siRNA reduced OPC migration both in vitro and in vivo and abridged WM repair...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Johanna Anneser, Victoria Arenz, Gian Domenico Borasio
Background: Neurological expertise in palliative care may be required not only for patients with primary neurological disorders but also for patients with non-neurological diseases suffering from burdensome neurological symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of neurological diagnoses and symptoms in palliative care patients, as well as the related burden and impact on everyday life. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively the medical records of 255 consecutive patients from a tertiary medical center, at the time point of referral to an inpatient palliative care consultation service...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Thomas P Lillicrap, Christopher R Levi, Elizabeth Holliday, Mark William Parsons, Andrew Bivard
Background: The phase-II modafinil in debilitating fatigue after stroke trial demonstrated that modafinil improves fatigue and quality of life in severely fatigued stroke survivors. For this study, we sought to examine the interaction between fatigue and quality of life after stroke and determine whether reducing fatigue resulted in improved quality of life. In addition, we followed up a subset of patients 12-months after the trial to assess the long-term outcomes of modafinil therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Alice Y Hua, Isabel J Sible, David C Perry, Katherine P Rankin, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, Howard J Rosen, Virginia E Sturm
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by profound changes in emotions and empathy. Although most patients with bvFTD become less sensitive to negative emotional cues, some patients become more sensitive to positive emotional stimuli. We investigated whether dysregulated positive emotions in bvFTD undermine empathy by making it difficult for patients to share (emotional empathy), recognize (cognitive empathy), and respond (real-world empathy) to emotions in others...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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