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Frontiers in Neurology

Haggai Schermann, Mikhail Sherman, Ran Rutenberg
Only a few authors have reported about a new-onset headache among patients who sustained an episode of an exertional heat illness (EHI). This report presents a healthy and physically fit 20-year-old male who developed a completely new headache after an EHI event. The new headache could be aggravated or called by exertion or exposure to sun and environmental heat. It was severe enough to interfere with even moderate physical activity, but reacted well to a few hours' rest and OTC pain medications. An extensive work-up including laboratory blood tests, lumbar puncture, head CT, and CT angiogram was negative...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Hassan A Khayat, Fawaz Alshareef, Abdulrahman Alshamy, Abdulrahman Algain, Essam Alhejaili, Omar Alnabihi, Saeed Alzahrani, Ruediger Stendel
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: The tendency of posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations (pfAVM) to develop associated aneurysms (AA) is a well-known phenomenon with an increased total risk of rupture. Most pfAVM and AA develop in the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery while the involvement of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is extremely rare. We describe an unusual case of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) supplied by the AICA with a "proximal" AA. This unique combination of vascular lesions has been reported in only four cases so far, limiting the available experience that can safely guide the therapeutic intervention...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Pervinder Bhogal, Victoria Hellstern, Hansjörg Bäzner, Oliver Ganslandt, Hans Henkes, Marta Aguilar Pérez
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Few publications have dealt exclusively with the use of flow diverter stents for the treatment of para-ophthalmic aneurysms. We sought to determine the efficacy of flow diverting stents (FDSs) to treat aneurysms in this specific location. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our database of prospectively collected information for all patients treated with flow diversion for an unruptured saccular para-ophthalmic aneurysm between September 2009 and January 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Hunter J Fassett, Claudia V Turco, Jenin El-Sayes, Tea Lulic, Steve Baker, Brian Richardson, Aimee J Nelson
Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is intended primarily to alter corticospinal excitability, creating an attractive opportunity to alter neural output following incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). This study is the first to assess the effects of iTBS in SCI. Eight individuals with chronic incomplete SCI were studied. Sham or real iTBS was delivered (to each participant) over primary motor and somatosensory cortices in separate sessions. Motor-evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves were obtained from the flexor carpi radialis muscle before and after iTBS...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Georgios Naros, Joey Sandritter, Marina Liebsch, Alex Ofori, Ahmed R Rizk, Giulia Del Moro, Florian Ebner, Marcos Tatagiba
OBJECTIVE: Nearly two-thirds of patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) are reporting a significantly impaired quality of life due to tinnitus. VS-associated tinnitus is attributed to an anatomical and physiological damage of the hearing nerve by displacing growth of the tumor. In contrast, the current pathophysiological concept of non-VS tinnitus hypothesizes a maladaptive neuroplasticity of the central nervous system to a (hidden) hearing impairment resulting in a subjective misperception...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Ivanna M Pavisic, Nicholas C Firth, Samuel Parsons, David Martinez Rego, Timothy J Shakespeare, Keir X X Yong, Catherine F Slattery, Ross W Paterson, Alexander J M Foulkes, Kirsty Macpherson, Amelia M Carton, Daniel C Alexander, John Shawe-Taylor, Nick C Fox, Jonathan M Schott, Sebastian J Crutch, Silvia Primativo
Young onset Alzheimer's disease (YOAD) is defined as symptom onset before the age of 65 years and is particularly associated with phenotypic heterogeneity. Atypical presentations, such as the clinic-radiological visual syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), often lead to delays in accurate diagnosis. Eyetracking has been used to demonstrate basic oculomotor impairments in individuals with dementia. In the present study, we aim to explore the relationship between eyetracking metrics and standard tests of visual cognition in individuals with YOAD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Chenguang Zhou, Yuanhong He, Zhiwen Chao, Yinghui Zhu, Peng Wang, Xingping Wang, Shanshan Liu, Wei Han, Jianping Wang
Wernekink commissure syndrome secondary to caudal paramedian midbrain infarction (CPMI) is a rare midbrain syndrome involving the decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncle in the caudal paramedian midbrain tegmentum. The central characteristics are constant bilateral cerebellar dysfunction, variable eye movement disorders, and rare delayed palatal myoclonus. Following is a description of the case of a 60-year-old man who presented with dizziness, slurred speech, and difficulty walking. Neurological examination revealed bilateral cerebellar dysfunction and bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (bilateral INO)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Luiza Chwiszczuk, Monica Haraldseid Breitve, Kolbjørn Brønnick, Michaela D Gjerstad, Minna Hynninen, Dag Aarsland, Arvid Rongve
OBJECTIVES: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is associated with cognitive dysfunctions and is a risk factor for development of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. However, it is unknown whether RBD is associated with faster cognitive decline in already established dementia. The main goal of this study was to determine if patients with mild dementia with and without RBD differ in progression rate and in specific neuropsychological measures over 4-year follow-up. METHODS: This longitudinal, prospective study based on data from the DemVest study compares neuropsychological measures in a mild dementia cohort...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Yongxin Li, Zhen Tan, Jianping Wang, Ya Wang, Yungen Gan, Feiqiu Wen, Qian Chen, Derek Abbott, Kelvin K L Wong, Wenhua Huang
For some patients with medically refractory epilepsy (MRE), surgery is a safe and effective treatment for controlling epilepsy. However, the functional consequences of such surgery on brain activity and connectivity in children remain unknown. In the present study, we carried out a longitudinal study using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in 10 children with MRE before and again at a mean of 79 days after surgery, as well as in a group of 28 healthy controls. Compared with the controls, children with epilepsy exhibited abnormalities in intrinsic activity in the thalamus, putamen, pallidum, insula, hippocampus, cerebellum, and cingulate gyrus both before and after surgery...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Andrew Q Tan, Yasin Y Dhaher
BACKGROUND: The neural constraints underlying hemiparetic gait dysfunction are associated with abnormal kinetic outflow and altered muscle synergy structure. Recent evidence from our lab implicates the lesioned hemisphere in mediating the expression of abnormally coupled hip adduction and knee extension synergy, suggesting a role of cortical networks in the regulation of lower limb motor outflow poststroke. The potential contribution of contralesional hemisphere (CON-H) in regulating paretic leg kinetics is unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Lance M Optican, Elena Pretegiani
Eye and body oscillations are shared features of several neurological diseases, yet their pathophysiology remains unclear. Recently, we published a report on two tennis players with a novel presentation of eye and body oscillations following self-administration of performance-enhancing substances. Opsoclonus/flutter and limb tremor were diagnosed in both patients. Common causes of opsoclonus/flutter were excluded. High-resolution eye movement recordings from one patient showed novel spindle-shaped, asymmetric saccadic oscillations (at ~3...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Yuqian Li, Ruixin Yang, Zhihong Li, Bo Tian, Xingye Zhang, Jiancai Wang, Longlong Zheng, Boliang Wang, Lihong Li
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke, which leads to a high rate of mortality and poor neurological outcomes worldwide. Thrombolytic evacuation with urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) or tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) has been showed to be a hopeful treatment for ICH. However, to the best of our knowledge, no clinical trials were reported to compare the efficacy and safety of these two fibrinolytics administrated following minimally invasive stereotactic puncture (MISP) in patients with spontaneous basal ganglia ICH...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Elham Rostami, Henrik Engquist, Timothy Howells, Elisabeth Ronne-Engström, Pelle Nilsson, Lars Tomas Hillered, Anders Lewén, Per Enblad
Cerebral microdialysis (MD) may be used in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) to detect focal cerebral ischemia. The cerebral MD catheter is usually placed in the right frontal lobe and monitors the area surrounding the catheter. This generates the concern that a fall in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and ischemic events distant to the catheter may not be detected. We aimed to investigate if there is a difference in the association between the MD parameters and CBF measured around the MD catheter compared to global cortical CBF and to CBF in the vascular territories following SAH in the early acute phase...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Roman V Deev, Sergei N Bardakov, Mikhail O Mavlikeev, Ivan A Yakovlev, Zoya R Umakhanova, Patimat G Akhmedova, Raisat M Magomedova, Irina A Chekmaryeva, Gimat D Dalgatov, Artur A Isaev
Plectinopathies are orphan diseases caused by PLEC gene mutations. PLEC is encoding the protein plectin, playing a role in linking cytoskeleton components in various tissues. In this study, we describe the clinical case of a 26-year-old patient with an early onset plectinopathy variant "limb-girdle muscle dystrophy type 2Q," report histopathological and ultrastructural findings in m. vastus lateralis biopsy and a novel homozygous likely pathogenic variant (NM_201378.3:c.58G>T, NP_958780.1:p.Glu20Ter) in isoform 1f of the gene PLEC...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Paradee Auvichayapat, Benchaporn Aree-Uea, Narong Auvichayapat, Warinthorn Phuttharak, Taweesak Janyacharoen, Orathai Tunkamnerdthai, Wuttisak Boonphongsathian, Niran Ngernyam, Keattichai Keeratitanont
BACKGROUND: Muscle spasticity is a disability caused by damage to the pyramidal system. Standard treatments for spasticity include muscle stretching, antispastic medications, and tendon release surgeries, but treatment outcomes remain unsatisfactory. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with muscle spasticity is known to result in significant improvement in spastic tone (p < 0.001). However, the mechanism of action by which tDCS treatment affects spasticity remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Randall S Scheibel
Novel and non-routine tasks often require information processing and behavior to adapt from moment to moment depending on task requirements and current performance. This ability to adapt is an executive function that is referred to as cognitive control. Patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been reported to exhibit impairments in cognitive control and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has provided evidence for TBI-related alterations in brain activation using various fMRI cognitive control paradigms...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Hyun Mi Ju, Sun Hee Lee, Tae Hoon Kong, Seung-Hae Kwon, Jin Sil Choi, Young Joon Seo
Conventional microscopy has limitations in viewing the cochlear microstructures due to three-dimensional spiral structure and the overlying bone. But these issues can be overcome by imaging the cochlea in vitro with intravital multiphoton microscopy (MPM). By using near-infrared lasers for multiphoton excitation, intravital MPM can detect endogenous fluorescence and second harmonic generation of tissues. In this study, we used intravital MPM to visualize various cochlear microstructures without any staining and non-invasively analyze the volume changes of the scala media (SM) without removing the overlying cochlear bone...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Allison J Bigbee, Mahnaz Akhavan, Leif A Havton
Injuries to the conus medullaris and cauda equina portions of the spinal cord result in neurological impairments, including paralysis, autonomic dysfunction, and pain. In experimental studies, earlier investigations have shown that a lumbosacral ventral root avulsion (VRA) injury results in allodynia, which may be ameliorated by surgical replantation of the avulsed ventral roots. Here, we investigated the long-term effects of an L6 + S1 VRA injury on the plasticity of three populations of afferent projections to the dorsal horn in rats...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Shan Geng, Na Liu, Pin Meng, Niu Ji, Yong'an Sun, Yingda Xu, Guanghui Zhang, Xiaobing He, Zenglin Cai, Bei Wang, Bei Xu, Zaipo Li, Xiaoqin Niu, Yongjin Zhang, Bingchao Xu, Xinyu Zhou, Mingli He
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between blood pressure variability (BPV) and poststroke cognitive impairment (PSCI). METHODS: Seven-hundred ninety-six patients with acute ischemic stroke were included in this study. Midterm BPV was evaluated by calculating the SD and coefficient of variation (CV, 100 × SD/mean) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure during the 7 days after stroke onset. Cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) at admission and at all follow-up visits...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Negin Hesam-Shariati, Terry Trinh, Angelica G Thompson-Butel, Christine T Shiner, Penelope A McNulty
Poststroke weakness on the more-affected side may arise from reduced corticospinal drive, disuse muscle atrophy, spasticity, and abnormal coordination. This study investigated changes in muscle activation patterns to understand therapy-induced improvements in motor-function in chronic stroke compared to clinical assessments and to identify the effect of motor-function level on muscle activation changes. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from five upper limb muscles on the more-affected side of 24 patients during early and late therapy sessions of an intensive 14-day program of Wii-based Movement Therapy (WMT) and for a subset of 13 patients at 6-month follow-up...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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