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Frontiers in Neurology

Katharina Linse, Elisa Aust, Markus Joos, Andreas Hermann
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease, leading to progressive paralysis, dysarthria, dysphagia, and respiratory disabilities. Therapy is mostly focused on palliative interventions. During the course of the disease, verbal as well as nonverbal communicative abilities become more and more impaired. In this light, communication has been argued to be "the essence of human life" and crucial for patients' quality of life. High-tech augmentative and alternative communication (HT-AAC) technologies such as eyetracking based computer devices and brain-computer-interfaces provide the possibility to maintain caregiver-independent communication and environmental control even in the advanced disease state of ALS...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Qi Feng, Yuanjun Chen, Zhengluan Liao, Hongyang Jiang, Dewang Mao, Mei Wang, Enyan Yu, Zhongxiang Ding
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes the decline of some cognitive impairments. The present study aimed to identify the corpus callosum (CC) radiomic features related to the diagnosis of AD and build and evaluate a classification model. Methods: Radiomics analysis was applied to the three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) images of 78 patients with AD and 44 healthy controls (HC). The CC, in each subject, was segmented manually and 385 features were obtained after calculation...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jun Maruta, Lisa A Spielman, Umesh Rajashekar, Jamshid Ghajar
Attention impairment may provide a cohesive neurobiological explanation for clusters of clinical symptoms that occur after a concussion; therefore, objective quantification of attention is needed. Visually tracking a moving target is an attention-dependent sensorimotor function, and eye movement can be recorded easily and objectively to quantify performance. Our previous work suggested the utility of gaze-target synchronization metrics of a predictive visual tracking task in concussion screening and recovery monitoring...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Lubin Gou, Wei Zhang, Chuanming Li, Xinlin Shi, Zhiming Zhou, Weijia Zhong, Ting Chen, Xiajia Wu, Chun Yang, Dajing Guo
Purpose: Depression is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is correlated with the severity of motor deficits and quality of life. The present study aimed to investigate alterations in the structural brain network related to depression in Parkinson's disease (d-PD) and their correlations with structural impairments of white matter (WM). Materials and Methods: Data were acquired from the Parkinson Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database. A total of 84 de novo and drug-naïve PD patients were screened and classified into two groups according to the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15): d-PD ( n = 28) and nondepression in PD (nd-PD, n = 56)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Andrea Wagner, Karl-Michael Schebesch, Florian Zeman, Stefan Isenmann, Andreas Steinbrecher, Thomas Kapapa, Dobri Baldaranov, Roland Backhaus, Felix Schlachetzki
Background and Purpose: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) requires rapid decision making to decrease morbidity and mortality although time frame and optimal therapy are still ill defined. Ideally, specialized neurologists, neurosurgeons, and (neuro-) radiologists who know the patient's clinical status and their cerebral computed tomography imaging (cCT) make a joint decision on the clinical management. However, in telestroke networks, a shift toward cCT imaging criteria used for decision making can be observed for practical reasons...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Maryam Haghshomar, Mahsa Dolatshahi, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Hossein Sanjari Moghaddam, Mehdi Shirin Shandiz, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by a series of pathological mechanisms which contribute to a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in structural diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in PD which has shed light on our understanding of structural abnormalities underlying PD symptoms or its associations with pathological mechanisms. One of the white matter tracts shown to be disrupted in PD with a possible contribution to some PD symptoms is the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Fan Jiang, Tiansong Yang, Hongna Yin, Yuhuai Guo, Hiroki Namba, Zhongren Sun, Tetsuya Asakawa
Acupuncture is an alternative therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD), but its efficacy and safety are controversial. Our previous study, which reviewed the literature from 1974 to 2012, could not find enough evidence from rigorously designed randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) to make a conclusion about the efficacy of acupuncture. Recently, more RCTs and meta-analyses have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture. The aim of our current study is to provide updated information in brief on this topic...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Kassondra L Collins, Katherine E Robinson-Freeman, Ellen O'Conor, Hannah G Russell, Jack W Tsao
There are over two million individuals living with amputations in the United States. Almost all will experience the feeling of the amputated limb as still present, termed phantom limb sensation (PLS). Over 85% will also experience excruciatingly painful sensations known as phantom limb pain (PLP). Additionally some amputees also experience a sensation of the phantom limb in which the limb is immobile or stuck in a normal or abnormal anatomical position, termed frozen phantom sensations. When an amputee experiences a frozen limb they report that they are unable to move the limb, and sometimes report sensations of cramping and pain along with this immobility, fortunately not all frozen limbs are painful...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Robert J Zhou, Hossein M Hondori, Maryam Khademi, Jessica M Cassidy, Katherine M Wu, Derek Z Yang, Nikhita Kathuria, Fareshte R Erani, Lucy Dodakian, Alison McKenzie, Cristina V Lopes, Walt Scacchi, Ramesh Srinivasan, Steven C Cramer
The heterogeneity of stroke prompts the need for predictors of individual treatment response to rehabilitation therapies. We previously studied healthy subjects with EEG and identified a frontoparietal circuit in which activity predicted training-related gains in visuomotor tracking. Here we asked whether activity in this same frontoparietal circuit also predicts training-related gains in visuomotor tracking in patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke. Subjects ( n = 12) underwent dense-array EEG recording at rest, then received 8 sessions of visuomotor tracking training delivered via home-based telehealth methods...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Oh Young Bang, Jong-Won Chung, Jeong Pyo Son, Wi-Sun Ryu, Dong-Eog Kim, Woo-Keun Seo, Gyeong-Moon Kim, Yoon-Chul Kim
Revascularization therapies have been established as the treatment mainstay for acute ischemic stroke. However, a substantial number of patients are either ineligible for revascularization therapy, or the treatment fails or is futile. At present, non-contrast computed tomography is the first-line neuroimaging modality for patients with acute stroke. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict the response to early revascularization therapy and to identify patients for delayed treatment is desirable...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Josef Dolejs, Helena Homolkova, Petra Maresova
Background: In humans, the mortality rate dramatically decreases with age after birth, and the causes of death change significantly during childhood. In the present study, we attempted to explain age-associated decreases in mortality for congenital anomalies of the central nervous system (CACNS), as well as decreases in total mortality with age. We further investigated the age trajectory of mortality in the biologically related category "diseases of the nervous system" (DNS). Methods: The numbers of deaths were extracted from the mortality database of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the following nine countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Diana Van Lancker Sidtis, John J Sidtis
Formulaic expressions naturally convey affective content. The unique formal and functional characteristics of idioms, slang, expletives, proverbs, conversational speech formulas, and the many other conventional expressions in this repertory have been well-described: these include unitary form, conventionalized and non-literal meanings, and reliance on social context. Less highlighted, but potent, is the intrinsic presence of affective meaning. Expletives, for example, signal strong emotion. Idioms, too, inherently communicate emotional connotations, and conversational speech formulas allow for empathetic bonding and humor...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Soumia Benbrika, Franck Doidy, Laurence Carluer, Audrey Mondou, Marie-Sonia Buhour, Francis Eustache, Fausto Viader, Béatrice Desgranges
Introduction: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive and extensive motor deficits. Patients may also have cognitive impairments or alteration of emotional processing. Very few studies, however, have looked at deficits in how they experience their own feelings (alexithymia). Methods: We assessed alexithymia in 28 patients with ALS using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), comparing them with a control group matched for sex, age, and education level...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Wenhui Wang, Jia Liu, Shaojie Shi, Taiyuan Liu, Lun Ma, Xiaoyue Ma, Jie Tian, Qiyong Gong, Meiyun Wang
Background: There is accumulating evidence showing that patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have obvious changes in resting-state functional brain activity. So far, there have been no meta-analyses of the resting-state brain activity alterations in patients with ASD. We attempted to explore the resting-state functional activity changes in patients with ASD, possibly providing a new perspective for investigating the pathophysiology of patients with ASD. Methods: We screened relevant studies published before August 2017 in PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and the Wan-fang database...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Giulia Carli, Francesca Casoni, Andrea Galbiati
Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease (RLS/WED) is a common sleep related movement disorder that can be idiopathic or occurs in comorbidity with other medical conditions such as polyneuropathy, iron deficiency anemia, multiple sclerosis, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, a growing body of literature investigated the association between RLS/WED and Parkinson's Disease (PD). Several questions regarding the comorbidity between these two disorders are still unanswered. If the insurgence of RLS/WED may precede the onset of PD, or if RLS/WED could represent a secondary condition of PD and if impaired dopaminergic pathway may represent a bridge between these two conditions are still debatable issues...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Valentina Lorenzetti, Bruno Melo, Rodrigo Basílio, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel, Carlos J Tierra-Criollo, Jorge Moll
Neurofeedback (NFB) enables the voluntary regulation of brain activity, with promising applications to enhance and recover emotion and cognitive processes, and their underlying neurobiology. It remains unclear whether NFB can be used to aid and sustain complex emotions, with ecological validity implications. We provide a technical proof of concept of a novel real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) NFB procedure. Using rtfMRI-NFB, we enabled participants to voluntarily enhance their own neural activity while they experienced complex emotions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Roy A Poblete, Steven Yong Cen, Ling Zheng, Benjamin A Emanuel
Background: Following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, peripherally-drawn lactic acid has been associated with poor outcomes; however, its clinical significance is unknown. We investigated admission factors and patient outcomes associated with serum lactic acid in this population. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study of 105 consecutive patients with serum lactate collected within 24 h of admission. Primary objectives were to determine the incidence of admission lactic acidemia, and factors positively and negatively associated with lactate levels...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Hongjie Wu, Jing Li, Dongxiao Xu, Qiansheng Zhang, Tao Cui
The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF-5) on traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice. We utilized a controlled cortical impact to establish a mouse TBI model, and then stereotaxically administered 25 or 100 ng GDF-5 into the bilateral hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of each of the animals. Seven days after the injury, some of the animals were sacrificed for immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence examination of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), Sox-2, doublecortin (DCX) and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Xueying Yu, Bin Chen, Hefei Tang, Wei Li, Ying Fu, Zaiqiang Zhang, Yaping Yan
Glycyl-tRNA synthetase ( GARS) gene mutations have been reported to be associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2D and distal hereditary motor neuropathy type V (dHMN-V). In this study, we report a novel GARS mutation in a Chinese family with dHMN-V. Clinical, electromyogram, genetic, and functional data were explored. The proband was an 11-year-old girl presented with progressive distal limb muscle weakness and atrophy due to peripheral motor neuropathy for 1 year. Another five members from three successive generations of the family showed similar symptoms during their first to second decades and demonstrated an autosomal dominant inheritance...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Laurent M Willems, Astrid Bertsche, Frank Bösebeck, Frauke Hornemann, Ilka Immisch, Karl M Klein, Susanne Knake, Rhina Kunz, Gerhard Kurlemann, Lisa Langenbruch, Gabriel Möddel, Karen Müller-Schlüter, Felix von Podewils, Philipp S Reif, Bernhard J Steinhoff, Isabel Steinig, Felix Rosenow, Susanne Schubert-Bast, Adam Strzelczyk
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of brivaracetam (BRV) in a severely drug refractory cohort of patients with epileptic encephalopathies (EE). Method: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study recruiting all patients treated with EE who began treatment with BRV in an enrolling epilepsy center between 2016 and 2017. Results: Forty-four patients (27 male [61%], mean age 29 years, range 6 to 62) were treated with BRV. The retention rate was 65% at 3 months, 52% at 6 months and 41% at 12 months...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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