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Frontiers in Neurology

Maria-Ioanna Stefanou, Dominik Rath, Vera Stadler, Hardy Richter, Florian Hennersdorf, Henning F Lausberg, Mario Lescan, Simon Greulich, Sven Poli, Meinrad P Gawaz, Ulf Ziemann, Annerose M Mengel
Background: Cardiac myxoma (CM) is the most frequent, cardiac benign tumor and is associated with enhanced risk for cerebrovascular events (CVE). Although surgical CM excision is the only curative treatment to prevent CVE recurrence, in recent reports conservative treatment with antiplatelet or anticoagulant agents in high-risk patients with CM-related CVE has been discussed. Methods: Case records at the University Hospital of Tübingen between 2005 and 2017 were screened to identify patients with CM-related CVE...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Wen-Han Hu, Li-Na Liu, Bao-Tian Zhao, Xiu Wang, Chao Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Shao, Kai Zhang, Yan-Shan Ma, Lin Ai, Jun-Ju Li, Jian-Guo Zhang
Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 FDG) are valuable tools for evaluating hippocampal sclerosis (HS); however, bias may arise during visual analyses. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare MRI and PET post-processing techniques, automated quantitative hippocampal volume (Q-volume), and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) signal (Q-FLAIR) and glucose metabolism (Q-PET) analyses in patients with HS. Methods: We collected MRI and 18 FDG-PET images from 54 patients with HS and 22 healthy controls and independently performed conventional visual analyses (CVA) of PET (CVA-PET) and MRI (CVA-MRI) images...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Henriette Aurora Selvik, Halvor Naess, Christopher Elnan Kvistad
Introduction: It has been difficult to state specific guidelines for IV-tPA use in cancer patients. Many of the randomized tPA-trials included too few patients with cancer or excluded patients with cancer entirely. In this report, we aimed to study the use of IV-tPA in patients with active cancer and acute ischemic stroke. We also investigated if the cancer patients who received IV-tPA experienced adverse events. Methods: All patients with ischemic stroke admitted to the Stroke Unit at Haukeland University Hospital were prospectively registered in the NORSTROKE database and every patient's medical record was searched for cancer diagnoses...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Runhua Zhang, Gaifen Liu, Yong Jiang, Gang Li, Yuesong Pan, Yilong Wang, Zaihua Wei, Jing Wang, Yongjun Wang
Background and Purpose: A large body of literature reported the association of particulate matter (PM) with stroke in high-income countries. Few studies have examined the association between PM and stroke in middle- and low-income countries and considered the types of stroke. In this study, we examined the short-term effects of particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5 ) and particulate matter <10 μm in diameter (PM10 ) on ischemic stroke mortality and hemorrhagic stroke mortality in Beijing, China...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Lijuan Cheng, Daniela Cortese, Martin M Monti, Fuyan Wang, Francesco Riganello, Francesco Arcuri, Haibo Di, Caroline Schnakers
Objectives: Considering sensory stimulation programs (SSP) as a treatment for disorders of consciousness is still debated today. Previous studies investigating its efficacy were affected by various biases among which small sample size and spontaneous recovery. In this study, treatment-related changes were assessed using time-series design in patients with disorders of consciousness (i.e., vegetative state-VS and minimally conscious state-MCS). Methods: A withdrawal design (ABAB) was used. During B phases, patients underwent a SSP (3 days a week, including auditory, visual, tactile, olfactory, and gustatory stimulation)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Judit Zsuga, Csaba E More, Tamas Erdei, Csaba Papp, Szilvia Harsanyi, Rudolf Gesztelyi
Introduction: The term "diseasome of physical inactivity" was coined by Pedersen to explain clustering of chronic diseases linked to physical inactivity. Accordingly, physical inactivity per se contributes to the accumulation of visceral fat, which, generates chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, contributes to emergence of chronic, non-communicable diseases. Diversity of these disorders posits the possible involvement of a supraphysiological system. Methods: Hypothesis driven literature search and deductive reasoning was used to review relevant literature and formulate a novel theory...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Kirsten M Scott, Antonina Kouli, Su L Yeoh, Menna R Clatworthy, Caroline H Williams-Gray
Immune dysfunction has been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and its progression. Antibodies play an important role in both innate and adaptive responses, acting as powerful effector molecules that can propagate inflammation by activating innate immune cells. Alpha synuclein binding antibodies have been described in PD patients with conflicting associations. In this article, we consider the potential mechanistic basis of alpha synuclein auto-antibody development and function in PD. We present a systematic review and meta-analysis of antibody studies in PD cohorts showing that there is weak evidence for an increase in alpha synuclein auto-antibodies in PD patients particularly in early disease...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Xue Zhang, Fei Gao, Dongdong Wang, Chao Li, Yi Fu, Wei He, Jianmin Zhang
Tau protein-a member of the microtubule-associated protein family-is a key protein involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. Tau pathology in neurodegenerative diseases is characterized by pathological tau aggregation in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Diseases with this typical pathological feature are called tauopathies. Parkinson's disease (PD) was not initially considered to be a typical tauopathy. However, recent studies have demonstrated increasing evidence of tau pathology in PD. A genome-wide association (GWA) study indicated a potential association between tauopathy and sporadic PD...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jacek Szczygielski, Cosmin Glameanu, Andreas Müller, Markus Klotz, Christoph Sippl, Vanessa Hubertus, Karl-Herbert Schäfer, Angelika E Mautes, Karsten Schwerdtfeger, Joachim Oertel
Both hypothermia and decompressive craniectomy have been considered as a treatment for traumatic brain injury. In previous experiments we established a murine model of decompressive craniectomy and we presented attenuated edema formation due to focal brain cooling. Since edema development is regulated via function of water channel proteins, our hypothesis was that the effects of decompressive craniectomy and of hypothermia are associated with a change in aquaporin-4 (AQP4) concentration. Male CD-1 mice were assigned into following groups ( n = 5): sham, decompressive craniectomy, trauma, trauma followed by decompressive craniectomy and trauma + decompressive craniectomy followed by focal hypothermia...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Mark J Hamilton, John McLean, Sarah Cumming, Bob Ballantyne, Josephine McGhie, Ravi Jampana, Cheryl Longman, Jonathan J Evans, Darren G Monckton, Maria Elena Farrugia
Background: Central nervous system involvement in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is associated with cognitive deficits, impaired social performance and excessive somnolence, which greatly impact quality of life. With the advent of clinical trials in DM1, there is a pressing need to identify outcome measures for quantification of central symptoms that are feasible and valid. In this context, we sought to evaluate neuropsychological and self-reported measures currently recommended by expert consensus, with particular reference to their specificity for central nervous system involvement in a moderate-sized DM1 cohort...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ludwig Schlemm
Background: Ischaemic stroke remains a significant contributor to permanent disability world-wide. Therapeutic interventions for acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) are available, but need to be administered early after symptom onset in order to be effective. Currently, one of the main factors responsible for poor clinical outcome is an unnecessary long time between symptom onset and arrival at a hospital (pre-hospital delay). In the future, technological devices with the capability of real-time detection of AIS may become available...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Johanna Jonsdottir, Elisa Gervasoni, Thomas Bowman, Rita Bertoni, Eleonora Tavazzi, Marco Rovaris, Davide Cattaneo
Introduction: Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have deficits in many aspects of physical and cognitive functioning that can impact on mobility and participation in daily life. The effect of a 4 week intensive multimodal treadmill training on functional mobility, balance, executive functions and participation in persons with MS with moderate to severe disability was investigated. Methods: Thirty eight persons with MS admitted to a rehabilitation center participated in a two arm randomized 2:1 controlled trial...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Tayyabah Yousaf, Gennaro Pagano, Heather Wilson, Marios Politis
Sleep dysfunction is recognized as a distinct clinical manifestation in movement disorders, often reported early on in the disease course. Excessive daytime sleepiness, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and restless leg syndrome, amidst several others, are common sleep disturbances that often result in significant morbidity. In this article, we review the spectrum of sleep abnormalities across atypical Parkinsonian disorders including multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS), as well as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Joseph A Bovi
The incidence of brain metastases is projected to rise because survival rates of lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma continue to improve (1). The brain is being identified as a sanctuary site for harboring metastases despite excellent control of extracranial disease. This is thought to occur because the drug therapies that control extracranial disease have limited central nervous system (CNS) penetration. The development of brain metastases is a devastating diagnosis affecting both quality of life (QOL) and survival...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Yue-Hui Hong, Li-Xin Zhou, Ming Yao, Yi-Cheng Zhu, Li-Ying Cui, Jun Ni, Bin Peng
Objectives: The lesion topography of medullary infarction (MI) is heterogeneous and its correlation with stroke etiology remains elusive. We aim to clarify the lesion pattern of MI and to assess its correlation with stroke etiology. Material and Methods: Of 1129 subjects with available DWI in SMART study (a multi-center trial concerning secondary stroke prevention in China) between April 2008 and December 2010, 43 patients with DWI confirmed MI (3.8%) were retrospectively evaluated. Lesions were categorized as lateral and medial medullary infarction (LMI and MMI, 33 and 10 subjects respectively) at 3 levels rostro-caudally and correlated with the stroke etiology...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Łukasz Przepiórka, Przemysław Kunert, Paulina Juszyńska, Michał Zawadzki, Bogdan Ciszek, Mariusz Głowacki, Andrzej Marchel
Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is the most common vascular malformation of the spine in adults. However, the coincidence of tethered cord syndrome, lipoma, and SDAVF on the sacral level is exceptionally rare. We describe two patients, probably the fifth and sixth ever reported. The first was a 33 year-old female who underwent surgical cord de-tethering. Surprisingly, a sacral SDAVF was discovered intraoperatively, despite negative digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The second patient was a 30 year-old male with similar pathologies...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ruth L O'Gorman Tuura, Christian R Baumann, Heide Baumann-Vogel
Introduction: The axial symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) include difficulties with balance, posture, speech, swallowing, and locomotion with freezing of gait, as well as axial rigidity. These axial symptoms impact negatively on quality of life for many patients, yet remain poorly understood. Dopaminergic treatments typically have little effect on the axial symptoms of PD, suggesting that disruptions in other neurotransmitter systems beyond the dopamine system may underlie these symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the axial symptoms of PD and GABA and glutamate levels quantified with magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Uwe Walter, Panagiota Tsiberidou, Maxi Kersten, Alexander Storch, Matthias Löhle
Background: The vagus nerve has been suggested to represent one major route of disease progression in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we examined whether patients with idiopathic PD exhibit an atrophy of the vagus nerve in comparison to age-matched controls. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, performed between July 2017 and January 2018, we measured the caliber (cross-sectional area) of the mid-cervical vagus, accessory and phrenic nerves in 20 patients with PD (disease duration: 10.1 ± 7.4 years) and 61 (including 20 age-matched) controls using high-resolution ultrasonography...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Sarah-Maria Krieger, Manja Reimann, Rocco Haase, Elena Henkel, Markolf Hanefeld, Tjalf Ziemssen
Objective: The performance of the Sudoscan technology for diagnosing diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) was evaluated against the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART). Furthermore, the association of Sudoscan with two clinical neuropathy scoring systems was evaluated. Methods: Forty-seven patients with type 2 diabetes (20 without DPN, 27 with DPN) and 16 matched controls were examined for neuropathic symptoms and for the extent of sensory deficits. Sweat latency and volume by QSART and the skin electrochemical conductance (ESC) by Sudoscan were measured...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin, Hong Ni
The role of leptin in the pathogenesis of epilepsy is getting more and more attention in clinical and basic research. Although there are data indicating neuroprotective effects of elevated serum/brain leptin levels following acute seizures, no study to date has dealt with the impact of chronic leptin treatment on long-term brain injury following developmental seizures. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether chronic leptin treatment may have neuroprotective effects on cognitive and hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting following flurothyl-induced recurrent neonatal seizures and whether these effects are mediated by the zinc/CaMKII-associated mitophagy signaling pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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