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Frontiers in Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522988/multiple-sites-ultrasonography-of-peripheral-nerves-in-differentiating-charcot-marie-tooth-type-1a-from-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyradiculoneuropathy
#1
Jingwen Niu, Liying Cui, Mingsheng Liu
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sites measurement of cross-sectional areas (CSA) by ultrasound was performed to differentiate Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). METHODS: Nine patients with CMT1A, 28 patients with CIDP, and 14 healthy controls (HC) were recruited prospectively. Consecutive ultrasonography scanning was performed from wrist to axilla on median and ulnar nerves. CSAs were measured at 10 predetermined sites of each nerve...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522987/stroke-incidence-in-victoria-australia-emerging-improvements
#2
Benjamin B Clissold, Vijaya Sundararajan, Peter Cameron, John McNeil
BACKGROUND: Evidence of a decline in the incidence of stroke has emerged from population-based studies. These have included retrospective and prospective cohorts. However, in Australia and other countries, government bodies and stroke foundations predict a rise in the prevalence of stroke that is anticipated to increase the burden of stroke across the entire domain of care. This increase in prevalence must be viewed as different from the decline in incidence being observed, a measure of new stroke cases...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522986/retinal-ganglion-cells-and-circadian-rhythms-in-alzheimer-s-disease-parkinson-s-disease-and-beyond
#3
REVIEW
Chiara La Morgia, Fred N Ross-Cisneros, Alfredo A Sadun, Valerio Carelli
There is increasing awareness on the role played by circadian rhythm abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The characterization of the circadian dysfunction parallels the mounting evidence that the hallmarks of neurodegeneration also affect the retina and frequently lead to loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and to different degrees of optic neuropathy. In the RGC population, there is the subgroup of cells intrinsically photosensitive and expressing the photopigment melanopsin [melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs)], which are now well known to drive the entrainment of circadian rhythms to the light-dark cycles...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515710/resistant-hypertension-after-hypertensive-intracerebral-hemorrhage-is-associated-with-more-medical-interventions-and-longer-hospital-stays-without-affecting-outcome
#4
Daojun Hong, Dana Stradling, Cyrus K Dastur, Yama Akbari, Leonid Groysman, Lama Al-Khoury, Jefferson Chen, Steven L Small, Wengui Yu
BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HTN) is the most common cause of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The aim of this study is to investigate the role of resistant HTN in patients with ICH. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective study of all consecutive ICH admissions at our medical center from November 2013 to October 2015. The clinical features of patients with resistant HTN (requiring four or more antihypertensive agents to keep systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg) were compared with those with responsive HTN (requiring three or fewer agents)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515709/effects-of-10-hz-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-disorders-of-consciousness
#5
Xiaoyu Xia, Yang Bai, Yangzhong Zhou, Yi Yang, Ruxiang Xu, Xiaorong Gao, Xiaoli Li, Jianghong He
BACKGROUND: While repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been applied in treatment of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC), a standardized stimulation protocol has not been proposed, and its therapeutic effects are inconsistently documented. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of rTMS in improving consciousness in patients with persistent minimally conscious state (MCS) or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), previously known as vegetative state (VS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515708/disrupted-structural-and-functional-networks-and-their-correlation-with-alertness-in-right-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-graph-theory-study
#6
Wenyu Jiang, Jianping Li, Xuemei Chen, Wei Ye, Jinou Zheng
Previous studies have shown that temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) involves abnormal structural or functional connectivity in specific brain areas. However, limited comprehensive studies have been conducted on TLE associated changes in the topological organization of structural and functional networks. Additionally, epilepsy is associated with impairment in alertness, a fundamental component of attention. In this study, structural networks were constructed using diffusion tensor imaging tractography, and functional networks were obtained from resting-state functional MRI temporal series correlations in 20 right temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) patients and 19 healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515707/validation-of-repeated-endothelial-function-measurements-using-endopat-in-stroke
#7
Aina S Hansen, Jawad H Butt, Sonja Holm-Yildiz, William Karlsson, Christina Kruuse
BACKGROUND: Decreased endothelial function (EF) may be a prognostic marker for stroke. Measuring pharmacological effects on EF may be of interest in the development of personalized medicine for stroke prevention. In this study, we assessed the reliability of repeated EF measurements using a pulse amplitude tonometry technology in acute stroke patients. Similarly, reliability was tested in healthy subjects devoid of vascular disease to estimate reactivity and reliability in a younger non-stroke population...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515706/research-priorities-in-limb-and-task-specific-dystonias
#8
REVIEW
Sarah Pirio Richardson, Eckart Altenmüller, Katharine Alter, Ron L Alterman, Robert Chen, Steven Frucht, Shinichi Furuya, Joseph Jankovic, H A Jinnah, Teresa J Kimberley, Codrin Lungu, Joel S Perlmutter, Cecília N Prudente, Mark Hallett
Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer's cramp, runner's dystonia, or musician's dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512446/neuroprotective-roles-of-l-cysteine-in-attenuating-early-brain-injury-and-improving-synaptic-density-via-the-cbs-h2s-pathway-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#9
Tong Li, Lingxiao Wang, Quan Hu, Song Liu, Xuemei Bai, Yunkai Xie, Tiantian Zhang, Shishi Bo, Xiangqian Gao, Shuhua Wu, Gang Li, Zhen Wang
l-Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid and substrate for cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in the central nervous system. We previously reported that NaHS, an H2S donor, significantly alleviated brain damage after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats. However, the potential therapeutic value of l-cysteine and the molecular mechanism supporting these beneficial effects have not been determined. This study was designed to investigate whether l-cysteine could attenuate early brain injury following SAH and improve synaptic function by releasing endogenous H2S...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512445/the-therapeutic-value-of-bone-marrow-derived-endothelial-progenitor-cell-transplantation-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-rats
#10
Rui Zhang, Jing Yang, Jingjing Yuan, Bo Song, Yan Wang, Yuming Xu
AIMS: To study the effect of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) treatment on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats and elucidate possible mechanisms. METHODS: The rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) EPC group: ICH + EPC, (2) phosphate-buffered saline group: ICH + PBS, and (3) sham group. EPCs were transplanted intravenously 6 h after ICH. Modified neurological severity score was used to evaluate neurological function. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity was evaluated...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512444/longitudinal-quantification-of-eye-movement-impairments-after-pontine-hemorrhage
#11
Melis Suner, Glen T Prusky, Jason B Carmel, N Jeremy Hill
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of hypertrophic olivary degeneration due to pontine hemorrhage. A 59-year-old male with untreated hypertension suffered a primary pontine hemorrhage, which caused horizontal eye-movement limitation. Progressive neurological deterioration with involuntary eye and palatal movements began months after hemorrhage. This was accompanied by magnetic resonance imaging evidence of hypertrophic olivary degeneration at 4.5 months. BACKGROUND: Primary pontine hemorrhage often leads to impairment of eye movements and diplopia...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512443/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-post-concussion-syndrome-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#12
Robson Luis Oliveira de Amorim, André Russowsky Brunoni, Mirian Akiko Furutani de Oliveira, Ana Luiza Costa Zaninotto, Marcia Mitie Nagumo, Vinícius Monteiro de Paula Guirado, Iuri Santana Neville, Gláucia Rosana Guerra Benute, Mara Cristina Souza de Lucia, Wellingson Silva Paiva, Almir Ferreira de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) represents 70-80% of all treated brain injuries. A considerable proportion of MTBI patients experience post-concussion symptoms for a prolonged period after MTBI, and these symptoms are diagnosed as persistent post-concussion syndrome (PPCS). PPCS is defined as a range of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms. However, memory and executive dysfunction seems to be one of the most debilitating symptoms. Recently, non-invasive brain stimulation has been studied as a potential treatment method for traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507532/spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-as-a-new-diagnostic-marker-for-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#13
Joana M Afonso, Manuel Falcão, Frank Schlichtenbrede, Fernando Falcão-Reis, Sérgio Estrela Silva, Till M Schneider
PURPOSE: Characterized by a progressive onset of gait disturbances, dementia, and urinary incontinence, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is considered a rare, but under-diagnosed disease. Non-invasive diagnostic markers are still insufficient to enable the diagnosis of iNPH with certainty and yet early treatment with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting can reverse symptoms and stop disease progression. Vascular circulation abnormalities in iNPH may be reflected by changes in subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness (PPChT)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507531/noradrenergic-activation-of-hypoglossal-nucleus-modulates-the-central-regulation-of-genioglossus-in-chronic-intermittent-hypoxic-rats
#14
Xinshi Nie, Ling Zhou, Aidi Wang, Hongyu Jin, Zheng Qin, Jian Pang, Wei Wang, Jian Kang
Neuromuscular compensation of the genioglossus muscle can be induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in obstructive sleep apnea to maintain upper airway stability. Noradrenergic activation of hypoglossal nucleus plays a critical role in the central control of the genioglossus. However, it remains unknown whether norepinephrine takes part in the central regulation of the genioglossus during CIH. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 32) were studied to explore the influence of noradrenergic activation of hypoglossal nucleus on the central control of the genioglossus at different stages of CIH...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507530/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-val66met-gene-polymorphism-impacts-on-migraine-susceptibility-a-meta-analysis-of-case-control-studies
#15
REVIEW
Salvatore Terrazzino, Sarah Cargnin, Michele Viana, Grazia Sances, Cristina Tassorelli
Inconclusive results have been reported in studies investigating the association between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rs6265 polymorphism and migraine. In the present study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the published data in order to quantitatively estimate the relationship between rs6265 and migraine susceptibility. A comprehensive search was performed through PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane databases up to October 2016. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to estimate the strength of the association with rs6265 under an additive, dominant, or recessive model of inheritance...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507529/parkinson-disease-an-evolutionary-perspective
#16
Pedro J Garcia-Ruiz, Alberto J Espay
There are two central premises to this evolutionary view of Parkinson disease (PD). First, PD is a specific human disease. Second, the prevalence of PD has increased over the course of human history. Several lines of evidence may explain why PD appears to be restricted to the human species. The major manifestations of PD are the consequence of degeneration in the dopamine-synthesizing neurons of the mesostriatal neuronal pathway. It is of note the enormous expansion of the human dopamine mesencephalic neurons onto the striatum compared with other mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503164/superior-canal-dehiscence-syndrome-lessons-from-the-first-20-years
#17
REVIEW
Bryan K Ward, John P Carey, Lloyd B Minor
Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome was first reported by Lloyd Minor and colleagues in 1998. Patients with a dehiscence in the bone overlying the superior semicircular canal experience symptoms of pressure or sound-induced vertigo, bone conduction hyperacusis, and pulsatile tinnitus. The initial series of patients were diagnosed based on common symptoms, a physical examination finding of eye movements in the plane of the superior semicircular canal when ear canal pressure or loud tones were applied to the ear, and high-resolution computed tomography imaging demonstrating a dehiscence in the bone over the superior semicircular canal...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503163/different-effects-of-cold-stimulation-on-reflex-and-non-reflex-components-of-poststroke-spastic-hypertonia
#18
Sheng Li, Henry Shin, Ping Zhou, Xiaoyan Li
OBJECTIVE: To use an established biomechanical approach to quantify reflex and non-reflex responses from spastic-paretic elbow flexors in response to controlled cold and heat stimulation. METHODS: Thirteen spastic-hemiplegic stroke subjects were tested in the experiment. The spastic elbow joint was stretched into extension for 50° at two speeds (5°/s and 100°/s) in a customized apparatus. Thermal stimulation (HEAT at heat pain threshold, COLD at 0°C, or BASELINE at room temperature) was applied to the thenar eminence of the contralateral hand immediately prior to stretching for at least 30 s...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496432/vestibular-loss-in-older-adults-is-associated-with-impaired-spatial-navigation-data-from-the-triangle-completion-task
#19
Yanjun Xie, Robin T Bigelow, Scott F Frankenthaler, Stephanie A Studenski, Scott D Moffat, Yuri Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Vestibular inputs have been shown to play a critical role in spatial navigation. In this study, we sought to evaluate whether vestibular loss due to aging contributes to impaired spatial navigation as measured by the triangle completion task (TCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited three types of participants: young controls <55 years of age, older controls ≥55 years of age, and older patients from a Neurotology Clinic with evidence of vestibular physiologic impairment but who did not have any known vestibular disorder...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496431/sex-differences-in-outcomes-among-stroke-survivors-with-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation-in-china
#20
Yan Hong, Xun Yang, Wenjuan Zhao, Xianghui Zhang, Junli Zhao, Yuanju Yang, Xianjia Ning, Jinghua Wang, Zhongping An
Atrial fibrillation (AF) significantly increases the risk of stroke and disease burden and is an established predictor of poor outcomes after stroke. However, data regarding sex differences in long-term outcomes following stroke in patients with AF are scarce. We thus aimed to assess these differences. We recruited 951 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) treated at three hospitals in Tianjin, China, from January 2006 to September 2014. Information regarding stroke subtype, severity, risk factors, and outcomes (mortality, dependency, and recurrence) at 3, 12, and 36 months after stroke was recorded...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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