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Frontiers in Neurology

Anders Björkman, Andreas Weibull, Hampus Svensson, Lars Dahlin
The functional outcome after a brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) is based on changes in the peripheral nerve and in the central nervous system. Most patients with a BPBI recover, but residual deficits in shoulder function are not uncommon. The aim of this study was to determine cerebral activation patterns in patients with BPBI and also residual symptoms from the shoulder. In seven patients (six females and one male, aged 17-23 years) with a BPBI and residual shoulder problems (Mallet score IV or lower), the cerebral response to active movement of the shoulder and elbow of the injured and healthy arm was monitored using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Arvid Frostell, Ramil Hakim, Eric Peter Thelin, Per Mattsson, Mikael Svensson
Knowledge of the average size and variability of the human spinal cord can be of importance when treating pathological conditions in the spinal cord. Data on healthy human spinal cord morphometrics have been published for more than a century using different techniques of measurements, but unfortunately, comparison of results from different studies is difficult because of the different anatomical landmarks used as reference points along the craniocaudal axis for the measurements. The aim of this review was to compute population estimates of the transverse and anteroposterior diameter of the human spinal cord by comparing and combining previously published data on a normalized craniocaudal axis...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Eva Schaeffer, Gerd Linke, Daniela Berg
We describe the case of an early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) patient, suffering from a severe and unusual dyskinetic gait pattern, earlier described as "Silly walk." On presentation, the 58-year-old patient showed a painful, bizarre dyskinetic gait disorder, resulting in a significantly impairment of her social life. We developed an individual conservative training method for the patient, using "Cueing mechanisms," well known for treatment of Freezing in PD, to overcome her dyskinetic gait pattern. An impressive improvement was seen after the use of visual and acousting cues...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Fang Zhao, Meng Li, Zhongyi Jiang, Joe Z Tsien, Zhaohui Lu
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a baby younger than 1-year-old. Even though researchers have discovered some factors that may put babies at extra risk, SIDS remains unpredictable up until now. One hypothesis is that impaired cardiovascular control may play a role in the underlying mechanism of SIDS. A reduction of heart rate variability (HRV) and progressive decrease in heart rate (HR) have been observed in infants who have later succumbed to SIDS. Many clues indicated the heart could be the final weakness in SIDS...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Xiaoyue Zhen, Yu Zheng, Xunning Hong, Yan Chen, Ping Gu, Jinrong Tang, Hong Cheng, Ti-Fei Yuan, Xiao Lu
OBJECTIVES: To observe the effectiveness and mechanisms of physiological ischemic training (PIT) on brain cerebral collateral formation and functional recovery in patients with acute cerebral infarction. METHODS: 20 eligible patients with acute cerebral infarction were randomly assigned to either PIT group (n = 10) or Control group (n = 10). Both groups received 4 weeks of routine rehabilitation therapy, while an additional session of PIT, which consisted of 10 times of maximal voluntary isometric handgrip for 1 min followed by 1 min rest, was prescribed for patients in the PIT groups...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Marcelo M Valença
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Thomas Langerak, Harvey Yang, Mark Baptista, Laura Doornekamp, Tessa Kerkman, John Codrington, Jimmy Roosblad, Stephen G S Vreden, Erwin De Bruin, Ramona Mögling, Bart C Jacobs, Suzan D Pas, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel, Chantal B E M Reusken, Marion P Koopmans, Eric C M Van Gorp, Henk Alberga
We present three patients from Suriname who were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in this country. One patient had a positive ZIKV urine real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) result. The other two patients had a negative ZIKV urine qRT-PCR but a positive virus neutralization test and presence of IgG antibodies against ZIKV in the serum. Considering the evidence of a past ZIKV infection and absence of evidence for recent infections with the most common preceding infections of GBS, it is very likely that these GBS cases were triggered by ZIKV...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Qadeer Arshad, Barry M Seemungal
The vestibular system sub-serves a number of reflex and perceptual functions, comprising the peripheral apparatus, the vestibular nerve, the brainstem and cerebellar processing circuits, the thalamic relays, and the vestibular cerebral cortical network. This system provides signals of self-motion, important for gaze and postural control, and signals of traveled distance, for spatial orientation, especially in the dark. Current evidence suggests that certain aspects of this multi-faceted system may deteriorate with age and sometimes with severe consequences, such as falls...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Samuel B Tomlinson, Camilo Bermudez, Chiara Conley, Merritt W Brown, Brenda E Porter, Eric D Marsh
Synchronized cortical activity is implicated in both normative cognitive functioning and many neurologic disorders. For epilepsy patients with intractable seizures, irregular synchronization within the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is believed to provide the network substrate through which seizures initiate and propagate. Mapping the EZ prior to epilepsy surgery is critical for detecting seizure networks in order to achieve postsurgical seizure control. However, automated techniques for characterizing epileptic networks have yet to gain traction in the clinical setting...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Jean-Pierre Lin, Nardo Nardocci
Dystonia in childhood may be severely disabling and often unremitting and unrecognized. Considered a rare disorder, dystonic symptoms in childhood are pervasive in many conditions including disorders of developmental delay, cerebral palsy (CP), autism, neurometabolic, neuroinflammatory, and neurogenetic disorders. Collectively, there is a need to recognize the role of early postures and movements which characterize phases of normal fetal, infant, and child development as a backdrop to the many facets of dystonia in early childhood neurological disorders and to be aware of the developmental context of dystonic symptoms...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Jason V Tso, Roxanna Farinpour, Helena C Chui, Collin Y Liu
The need for memory specialists is increasing as the incidence of dementia rapidly rises across the globe. In rural areas, demand for these specialists far outstrips supply. It is increasingly difficulty for patients to receive care in a timely manner. In this paper, we document our experience using videoconference telemedicine to bring a multidisciplinary model of care to a rural retirement community in Southern California. To our knowledge, we are one of the first to integrate telemedicine into dementia care on this large a scale...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Matteo Bologna, Isabella Berardelli, Giulia Paparella, Luca Marsili, Lucia Ricciardi, Giovanni Fabbrini, Alfredo Berardelli
BACKGROUND: Altered emotional processing, including reduced emotion facial expression and defective emotion recognition, has been reported in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, few studies have objectively investigated facial expression abnormalities in PD using neurophysiological techniques. It is not known whether altered facial expression and recognition in PD are related. OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible deficits in facial emotion expression and emotion recognition and their relationship, if any, in patients with PD...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Azza Abass Ghali, Mohamed Khalil Yousef, Osama AbdAllah Ragab, Enas Arafa ElZamarany
INTRODUCTION: Based on many preclinical and small clinical trials, stem cells can help stroke patient with the possibility of replacing the cells and supporting the remaining cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of bone marrow mononuclear (BMMN) stem cell transplantation in subacute ischemic stroke patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine (n = 39) patients with subacute ischemic cerebral infarct due to large artery occlusion in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory were recruited...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Maëlle Biotteau, Yves Chaix, Mélody Blais, Jessica Tallet, Patrice Péran, Jean-Michel Albaret
The most common neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., developmental dyslexia (DD), autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) have been the subject of numerous neuroimaging studies, leading to certain brain regions being identified as neural correlates of these conditions, referring to a neural signature of disorders. Developmental coordination disorder (DCD), however, remains one of the least understood and studied neurodevelopmental disorders. Given the acknowledged link between motor difficulties and brain features, it is surprising that so few research studies have systematically explored the brains of children with DCD...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Gordon A Barr, Shaoning Wang, Christine L Weisshaar, Beth A Winkelstein
Neuropathic pain is chronic pain that develops after nerve injury and is less frequent in infants and children than in adults. Likewise, in animal models of neuropathic pain, allodynia and hyperalgesia are non-existent or attenuated in the infant, with a "switch" during development by which acute nerve injury transitions to chronic pain. Concomitant with the delay in neuropathic pain, there is a parallel delay in the ability of nerve injury to activate the immune system. Models of neuropathic pain in the infant have used various ligation methods and find that neuropathic pain does not occur under after postnatal days 21-28 (PN21-PN28), linked to activation of immune processes and developmental regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Kevin Pendo, Christopher M DeGiorgio
There is increasing evidence supporting dietary and alternative therapies for epilepsy, including the ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and omega-3 fatty acids. Vitamin D3 is actively under investigation as a potential intervention for epilepsy. Vitamin D3 is fat-soluble steroid, which shows promise in animal models of epilepsy. Basic research has shed light on the possible mechanisms by which Vitamin D3 may reduce seizures, and animal data support the efficacy of Vitamin D3 in rat and mouse models of epilepsy...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Maria Fiorella Contarino, Marenka Smit, Joost van den Dool, Jens Volkmann, Marina A J Tijssen
[This corrects the article on p. 165 in vol. 7, PMID: 27733842.].
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Yi-Sen Zhang, Shuo Wang, Yang Wang, Zhong-Bin Tian, Jian Liu, Kun Wang, Jun-Fan Chen, Xin-Jian Yang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the clinicoradiological features and treatment outcomes of intracranial dissecting aneurysms (IDAs) in childhood. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of pediatric patients who were treated for spontaneous IDAs in our institute between January 2010 and December 2015. The clinical presentation, aneurysm characteristics, treatment modality, and outcome were studied. RESULTS: We studied 26 pediatric patients (mean age, 13...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Tatiana Koudriavtseva, Domenico Plantone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Gyaninder Pal Singh, Tumul Chowdhury, Barkha Bindu, Bernhard Schaller
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is an unexplained death in infants, which usually occurs during sleep. The cause of SIDS remains unknown and multifactorial. In this regard, the diving reflex (DR), a peripheral subtype of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR), is also hypothesized as one of the possible mechanisms for this condition. The TCR is a well-established neurogenic reflex that manifests as bradycardia, hypotension, apnea, and gastric hypermotility. The TCR shares many similarities with the DR, which is a significant physiological adaptation to withstand hypoxia during apnea in many animal species including humans in clinical manifestation and mechanism of action...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
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