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Frontiers in Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920753/neuroproteomics-and-systems-biology-approach-to-identify-temporal-biomarker-changes-post-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#1
Firas H Kobeissy, Joy D Guingab-Cagmat, Zhiqun Zhang, Ahmed Moghieb, Olena Y Glushakova, Stefania Mondello, Angela M Boutté, John Anagli, Richard Rubenstein, Hisham Bahmad, Amy K Wagner, Ronald L Hayes, Kevin K W Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a critical health problem of which diagnosis, management, and treatment remain challenging. TBI is a contributing factor in approximately one-third of all injury-related deaths in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 1.7 million people suffer a TBI in the United States annually. Efforts continue to focus on elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying TBI pathophysiology and defining sensitive and specific biomarkers that can aid in improving patient management and care...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917153/intracerebral-hemorrhage-perihemorrhagic-edema-and-secondary-hematoma-expansion-from-bench-work-to-ongoing-controversies
#2
REVIEW
Manoj K Mittal, Aaron LacKamp
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a medical emergency, which often leads to severe disability and death. ICH-related poor outcomes are due to primary injury causing structural damage and mass effect and secondary injury in the perihemorrhagic region over several days to weeks. Secondary injury after ICH can be due to hematoma expansion (HE) or a consequence of repair pathway along the continuum of neuroinflammation, neuronal death, and perihemorrhagic edema (PHE). This review article is focused on PHE and HE and will cover the animal studies, related human studies, and clinical trials relating to these mechanisms of secondary brain injury in ICH patients...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917152/amyloid-dysmetabolism-relates-to-reduced-glucose-uptake-in-white-matter-hyperintensities
#3
Lisa Flem Kalheim, Per Selnes, Atle Bjørnerud, Christopher Coello, Kjetil Vegge, Tormod Fladby
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and cause of dementia and is characterized by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. AD has traditionally been considered to primarily affect gray matter, but multiple lines of evidence also indicate white matter (WM) pathology and associated small-vessel cerebrovascular disease. WM glucose delivery and metabolism may have implications for local tissue integrity, and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may be helpful to assess neuroglial and axonal function in WM...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917151/impairment-of-smooth-pursuit-as-a-marker-of-early-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Nathaniel Lizak, Meaghan Clough, Lynette Millist, Tomas Kalincik, Owen B White, Joanne Fielding
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a diffuse disease that disrupts wide-ranging cerebral networks. The control of saccades and smooth pursuit are similarly dependent upon widespread networks, with the assessment of pursuit offering an opportunity to examine feedback regulation. We sought to characterize pursuit deficits in MS and to examine their relationship with disease duration. METHODS: Twenty healthy controls, 20 patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and 40 patients with clinically definite MS (CDMS) participated...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917150/nurse-led-intervention-to-improve-knowledge-of-medications-in-survivors-of-stroke-or-transient-ischemic-attack-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Muideen T Olaiya, Dominique A Cadilhac, Joosup Kim, David Ung, Mark R Nelson, Velandai K Srikanth, Christopher F Bladin, Richard P Gerraty, Sharyn M Fitzgerald, Thanh G Phan, Judith Frayne, Amanda G Thrift
INTRODUCTION: Limited evidence exists on effective interventions to improve knowledge of preventive medications in patients with chronic diseases, such as stroke. We investigated the effectiveness of a nurse-led intervention, where a component was to improve knowledge of prevention medications, in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: Prospective sub-study of the Shared Team Approach between Nurses and Doctors for Improved Risk Factor Management, a randomized controlled trial of risk factor management...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917149/wavelet-packet-feature-assessment-for-high-density-myoelectric-pattern-recognition-and-channel-selection-toward-stroke-rehabilitation
#6
Dongqing Wang, Xu Zhang, Xiaoping Gao, Xiang Chen, Ping Zhou
This study presents wavelet packet feature assessment of neural control information in paretic upper limb muscles of stroke survivors for myoelectric pattern recognition, taking advantage of high-resolution time-frequency representations of surface electromyogram (EMG) signals. On this basis, a novel channel selection method was developed by combining the Fisher's class separability index and the sequential feedforward selection analyses, in order to determine a small number of appropriate EMG channels from original high-density EMG electrode array...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899913/steroid-responsive-mononeuritis-multiplex-in-the-cronkhite-canada-syndrome
#7
Y L Lo, K H Lim, X M Cheng, S Mesenas
The Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a rare disorder of unknown origin characterized by generalized gastrointestinal polyposis, alopecia, hyperpigmentation, and onychodystrophy. We report a case of CCS with concomitant presentation of mononeuritis multiplex. The electrophysiological findings and steroid responsiveness suggests presence of an autoimmune mechanism.
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899912/specific-mri-abnormalities-reveal-severe-perrault-syndrome-due-to-clpp-defects
#8
Tom E J Theunissen, Radek Szklarczyk, Mike Gerards, Debby M E I Hellebrekers, Elvira N M Mulder-Den Hartog, Jo Vanoevelen, Rick Kamps, Bart de Koning, S Lane Rutledge, Thomas Schmitt-Mechelke, Carola G M van Berkel, Marjo S van der Knaap, Irenaeus F M de Coo, Hubert J M Smeets
In establishing a genetic diagnosis in heterogeneous neurological disease, clinical characterization and whole exome sequencing (WES) go hand-in-hand. Clinical data are essential, not only to guide WES variant selection and define the clinical severity of a genetic defect but also to identify other patients with defects in the same gene. In an infant patient with sensorineural hearing loss, psychomotor retardation, and epilepsy, WES resulted in identification of a novel homozygous CLPP frameshift mutation (c...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899911/pain-perception-in-unresponsive-wakefulness-syndrome-may-challenge-the-interruption-of-artificial-nutrition-and-hydration-neuroethics-in-action
#9
Francesco Riganello, Simone Macrì, Enrico Alleva, Carlo Petrini, Andrea Soddu, Josè Leòn-Carriòn, Giuliano Dolce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895619/a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-head-movements-in-cervical-dystonia
#10
Cecília N Prudente, Randall Stilla, Shivangi Singh, Cathrin Buetefisch, Marian Evatt, Stewart A Factor, Alan Freeman, Xiaoping Philip Hu, Ellen J Hess, K Sathian, H A Jinnah
Cervical dystonia (CD) is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures of the head. The brain regions responsible for these abnormal movements are not well understood, because most imaging techniques for assessing regional brain activity cannot be used when the head is moving. Recently, we mapped brain activation in healthy individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging during isometric head rotation, when muscle contractions occur without actual head movements. In the current study, we used the same methods to explore the neural substrates for head movements in subjects with CD who had predominantly rotational abnormalities (torticollis)...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895618/cyclooxygenase-1-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-seizure-suppression-evidences-from-zebrafish-pentylenetetrazole-seizure-model
#11
Patrícia Gonçalves Barbalho, Benilton de Sá Carvalho, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Claudia Vianna Maurer-Morelli
Cyclooxygenases (COX)-1 and -2 are isoenzymes that catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins (PGs). COX-2 and PGs are rapidly increased following seizures and are known to play important roles in the neuroinflammatory process. COX-2 isoform has been predominantly explored as the most suitable target for pharmacological intervention in epilepsy studies, while COX-1 remains poorly investigated. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of selective COX-1 inhibitor or selective COX-2 inhibitor on seizure suppression in the zebrafish pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-seizure model...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895617/understanding-the-ng2-glial-scar-after-spinal-cord-injury
#12
REVIEW
Amber R Hackett, Jae K Lee
NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, are located throughout the central nervous system and serve as a pool of progenitors to differentiate into oligodendrocytes. In response to spinal cord injury (SCI), NG2 cells increase their proliferation and differentiation into remyelinating oligodendrocytes. While astrocytes are typically associated with being the major cell type in the glial scar, many NG2 cells also accumulate within the glial scar but their function remains poorly understood. Similar to astrocytes, these cells hypertrophy, upregulate expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, inhibit axon regeneration, contribute to the glial-fibrotic scar border, and some even differentiate into astrocytes...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891112/deep-brain-stimulation-for-tourette-s-syndrome-the-case-for-targeting-the-thalamic-centromedian-parafascicular-complex
#13
REVIEW
Paola Testini, Hoon-Ki Min, Asif Bashir, Kendall H Lee
Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurologic condition characterized by both motor and phonic tics and is typically associated with psychiatric comorbidities, including obsessive-compulsive disorder/behavior and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and can be psychologically and socially debilitating. It is considered a disorder of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry, as suggested by pathophysiology studies and therapeutic options. Among these, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the centromedian-parafascicular nucleus (CM-Pf) of the thalamus is emerging as a valuable treatment modality for patients affected by severe, treatment-resistant TS...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877154/immununochemical-markers-of-the-amyloid-cascade-in-the-hippocampus-in-motor-neuron-diseases
#14
Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Rocio N Villar-Quiles, Lucia Galán, Jordi A Matías-Guiu, Maria S Benito-Martin, Antonio Guerrero-Sola, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, Jorge Matías-Guiu
BACKGROUND: Several findings suggest that the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the amyloid cascade may play a role in motor neuron disease (MND). OBJECTIVE: Considering that dementia is one of the most frequent non-motor symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and that hippocampus is one of the brain areas with greater presence of amyloid-related changes in neurodegenerative diseases, our aim was to analyze the molecular markers of the amyloid cascade of APP in pathology studies of the hippocampus of autopsied patients with ALS and ALS-frontotemporal dementia (FTD)...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872609/panitumumab-associated-encephalopathy-after-accidental-intra-arterial-application-through-dislocated-central-venous-access-device
#15
Slaven Pikija, Georg Pilz, Gerald Gschwandtner, Cornelia Rösler, Konstantin Schlick, Richard Greil, Johann Sellner
Acute central nervous system (CNS) toxicity and immune-related side effects are increasingly recognized with the use of monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy. Here, we report a patient who developed of acute-onset encephalopathy and coma, which began shortly after administration of panitumumab for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Echocardiography revealed that the drug had been infused into the left cardiac ventricle via a dislocated central venous line. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging disclosed multiple cortical hyperintensities, which were preferentially located in the frontal lobes...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872608/clinical-assessment-of-fatigability-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-shift-from-perception-to-performance
#16
Bryant A Seamon, Michael O Harris-Love
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872607/disparate-changes-in-plasma-and-brainstem-cytokine-levels-in-adult-and-ageing-rats-associated-with-age-related-changes-in-facial-motor-neuron-number-snout-muscle-morphology-and-exploratory-behavior
#17
Viythia Katharesan, Martin David Lewis, Robert Vink, Ian Paul Johnson
An overall increase in inflammatory cytokines with age in both the blood and the central nervous system (CNS) has been proposed to explain many aspects of ageing, including decreased motor function and neurodegeneration. This study tests the hypothesis that age-related increases in inflammatory cytokines in the blood and CNS lead to facial motor neuron degeneration. Groups of 3-5 female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 3, 12-18, and 24 months were used. Twelve cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interferon-γ, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor were measured in blood plasma and compared with those in the brainstem after first flushing blood from its vessels...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872606/an-exploratory-study-to-detect-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-in-conventional-mri-scans-using-radiomics
#18
E L van den Burg, M van Hoof, A A Postma, A M L Janssen, R J Stokroos, H Kingma, R van de Berg
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate whether a quantitative image analysis of the labyrinth in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using a radiomics approach showed differences between patients with Ménière's disease (MD) and the control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, MRI scans of the affected labyrinths of 24 patients with MD were compared to the MRI scans of labyrinths of 29 patients with an idiopathic asymmetrical sensorineural hearing loss...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853449/peripheral-inflammatory-markers-and-antioxidant-response-during-the-post-acute-and-chronic-phase-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Federico Licastro, Silvana Hrelia, Elisa Porcellini, Marco Malaguti, Cristina Di Stefano, Cristina Angeloni, Ilaria Carbone, Laura Simoncini, Roberto Piperno
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a mechanical insult to the brain caused by external forces and associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. The patients may show different profiles of neurological recovery and a combination of oxidative damage and inflammatory processes can affect their courses. It is known that an overexpression of cytokines can be seen in peripheral blood in the early hours/days after the injury, but little is known about the weeks and months encompassing the post-acute and chronic phases...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853448/a-novel-mutation-in-abca1-gene-causing-tangier-disease-in-an-italian-family-with-uncommon-neurological-presentation
#20
Marco Ceccanti, Chiara Cambieri, Vittorio Frasca, Emanuela Onesti, Antonella Biasiotta, Carla Giordano, Sabina M Bruno, Giancarlo Testino, Marco Lucarelli, Marcello Arca, Maurizio Inghilleri
Tangier disease is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and peripheral lipid storage. We describe a family with c.5094C > A p.Tyr1698* mutation in the ABCA1 gene, clinically characterized by syringomyelic-like anesthesia, demyelinating multineuropathy, and reduction in intraepidermal small fibers innervation. In the proband patient, cardiac involvement determined a myocardial infarction; lipid storage was demonstrated in gut, cornea, and aortic wall...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
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