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Frontiers in Psychiatry

Jocelyn V Hull, Zachary J Jacokes, Carinna M Torgerson, Andrei Irimia, John Darrell Van Horn
Ongoing debate exists within the resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) literature over how intrinsic connectivity is altered in the autistic brain, with reports of general over-connectivity, under-connectivity, and/or a combination of both. Classifying autism using brain connectivity is complicated by the heterogeneous nature of the condition, allowing for the possibility of widely variable connectivity patterns among individuals with the disorder. Further differences in reported results may be attributable to the age and sex of participants included, designs of the resting-state scan, and to the analysis technique used to evaluate the data...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Andreas Walther, Timothy Rice, Yael Kufert, Ulrike Ehlert
Epidemiological studies show low rates of diagnosed depression in men compared to women. At the same time, high rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and completed suicide are found among men. These data suggest that a male-specific pattern for depression may exist that is linked to AUDs and suicidal behavior. To date, no underlying neuroendocrine model for this specific pattern of male depression has been suggested. In this paper, we integrate findings related to this specific pattern of depression with underlying steroid secretion patterns, polymorphisms, and methylation profiles of key genes in order to detail an original neuroendocrine model of male-specific depression...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Ryoma Morigaki, Hideo Mure, Ryuji Kaji, Shinji Nagahiro, Satoshi Goto
Tardive syndrome (TDS) is a potentially permanent and irreversible hyperkinetic movement disorder caused by exposure to dopamine receptor blocking agents. Guidelines published by the American Academy of Neurology recommend pharmacological first-line treatment for TDS with clonazepam (level B), ginkgo biloba (level B), amantadine (level C), and tetrabenazine (level C). Recently, a class II study provided level C evidence for use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) in patients with TDS...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Chantanee Mungkhetklang, Edith L Bavin, Sheila G Crewther, Nahal Goharpey, Carl Parsons
It is usually assumed that performance on non-verbal intelligence tests reflects visual cognitive processing and that aspects of working memory (WM) will be involved. However, the unique contribution of memory to non-verbal scores is not clear, nor is the unique contribution of vocabulary. Thus, we aimed to investigate these contributions. Non-verbal test scores for 17 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and 39 children with typical development (TD) of similar mental age were compared to determine the unique contribution of visual and verbal short-term memory (STM) and WM and the additional variance contributed by vocabulary scores...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Aleksandra Aleksandrowicz, Stephanie Rodgers, Mario Müller, Wolfram Kawohl, Wulf Rössler, Enrique Castelao, Caroline Vandeleur, Roland von Känel, Margot Mutsch, Roselind Lieb, Martin Preisig
OBJECTIVE: Evidence showing that infectious diseases in childhood play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of neurodevelopmental and other mental disorders is growing. The aim of this study was to explore the timing of common childhood diseases in early-onset anxiety disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from PsyCoLaus, a large Swiss Population Cohort Study (N = 3720). In this study, we regressed overanxious disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, and specific phobias on the age of onset of several childhood diseases, always adjusting for the other anxiety disorders listed above and for sex...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yael Mazor, Marc Gelkopf, Kim T Mueser, David Roe
OBJECTIVE: Recent research has shown high rates of exposure to trauma among people with serious mental illness (SMI). In addition, studies suggest that psychosis and mental illness-related experiences can be extremely traumatic. While some individuals develop full blown PTSD related to these experiences, it has been noted that some may also experience posttraumatic growth (PTG). However, few studies have examined PTG as a possible outcome in people who have experienced psychosis. METHOD: To further understand the relationships between psychosis and PTG, 121 participants were recruited from community mental health rehabilitation centers and administered trauma and psychiatric questionnaires...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Andreas Gerhardt, Sabine Leisner, Mechthild Hartmann, Susanne Janke, Günter H Seidler, Wolfgang Eich, Jonas Tesarz
OBJECTIVE: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)-an evidence-based approach to eliminate emotional distress from traumatic experiences-was recently suggested for the treatment of chronic pain. The aim of this study was to estimate preliminary efficacy of a pain-focused EMDR intervention for the treatment of non-specific chronic back pain (CBP). DESIGN: Randomized controlled pilot study. METHODS: 40 non-specific CBP (nsCBP) patients reporting previous experiences of psychological trauma were consecutively recruited from outpatient tertiary care pain centers...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Christine Mohn, Bjørn Rishovd Rund
Both impaired and improved cognitive function after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients may occur. We have previously found improved cognitive function 6 weeks after ECT in this group. The aim of this study was to report 6-month follow-up results from the same prospective project monitoring cognitive effects of ECT. Thirty-one patients with MDD were assessed with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ), and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale prior to, 6 weeks, and 6 months after ECT...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Didrik Heggdal, Roar Fosse, Jan Hammer
New treatment approaches are needed for patients with severe and composite mental disorders who are resistant to conventional treatments. Such treatment-resistant patients often have diagnoses of psychotic or bipolar disorders or severe personality disorders and comorbid conditions. In this study, we evaluate basal exposure therapy (BET), a novel ward-integrated psychotherapeutic approach for these patients. Central to BET is the conceptualization of undifferentiated existential fear as basic to the patients' problem, exposure to this fear, and the therapeutic platform complementary external regulation, which integrates and governs the totality of interventions throughout the treatment process...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Neil Thomas, John Farhall, Fiona Foley, Nuwan Dominic Leitan, Kristi-Ann Villagonzalo, Emma Ladd, Cassy Nunan, Sue Farnan, Rosalie Frankish, Tara Smark, Susan L Rossell, Leon Sterling, Greg Murray, David Jonathon Castle, Michael Kyrios
BACKGROUND: For people with persisting psychotic disorders, personal recovery has become an important target of mental health services worldwide. Strongly influenced by mental health service consumer perspectives, personal recovery refers to being able to live a satisfying and contributing life irrespective of ongoing symptoms and disability. Contact with peers with shared lived experience is often cited as facilitative of recovery. We aimed to develop and pilot a novel recovery-based digitally supported intervention for people with a psychotic illness...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Dana Fischer, Götz Berberich, Michael Zaudig, Till Krauseneck, Sarah Weiss, Olga Pollatos
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies report reduced interoceptive abilities in anorexia nervosa (AN) using various methods. Recent research suggests that different levels of interoceptive processes aiming at different subdomains of interoceptive abilities must be further distinguished as these levels can be differentially affected. Two important levels refer to interoceptive accuracy (IA) derived from objective performance tasks such as the heartbeat detection task and interoceptive sensibility (IS) as assessed by self-report...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Florian Hotzy, Matthias Jaeger
INTRODUCTION: Although informal coercion is frequently applied in psychiatry, its use is discussed controversially. This systematic review aimed to summarize literature on attitudes toward informal coercion, its prevalence, and clinical effects. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, PsycINF, and Google Scholar was conducted. Publications were included if they reported original data describing patients' and clinicians' attitudes toward and prevalence rates or clinical effects of informal coercion...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Dominique Endres, Rick Dersch, Tilman Hottenrott, Evgeniy Perlov, Simon Maier, Dietrich van Calker, Benedikt Hochstuhl, Nils Venhoff, Oliver Stich, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and lifelong condition. Primary endogenic polygenetic forms are common. Secondary organic forms have received increasing interest recently due to the detection of immunological encephalopathies that mimic various psychiatric syndromes, including BD. However, only limited data about routine findings of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses in BD are available. Therefore, we investigated the frequency of alterations in the CSF in patients with BD and the association with autoantibodies, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, and electroencephalography findings...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Rafika Zebdi, Louise Goyet, Charlotte Pinabiaux, Bahia Guellaï
The links between deficits in executive functions (EFs) (e.g., mental flexibility, inhibition capacities, etc.) and some psychological disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders) have been investigated in the past decades or so. Observations evidenced that some deficits in working memory, planning, and mental flexibility were highly correlated with anxiety and depressive disorders. The majority of studies focused on adults' population, whereas it seems important to adopt a developmental perspective to fully understand the dynamic relation of these EF/psychological disorders...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Kirsten Jordan, Peter Fromberger, Jakob von Herder, Henrike Steinkrauss, Rebekka Nemetschek, Joachim Witzel, Jürgen L Müller
Pedophilic disorder, a subtype of paraphilia, is defined as a recurrent sexual interest in prepubescent children, which is characterized by persistent thoughts, fantasies, urges, sexual arousal, or behavior. Besides a deviant sexual preference, sexual preoccupation was found to be a dynamic risk factor for reoffending. Thus, it is conceivable that sex offenders and especially sex offenders against children have difficulties to control their responses to sexual stimuli. In the current study pedophiles, forensic and non-forensic control subjects had to solve a cognitive task, while sexual distractors were presented simultaneously...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Stefan O Reber, David A Slattery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Pegah Kassraian-Fard, Caroline Matthis, Joshua H Balsters, Marloes H Maathuis, Nicole Wenderoth
Most psychiatric disorders are associated with subtle alterations in brain function and are subject to large interindividual differences. Typically, the diagnosis of these disorders requires time-consuming behavioral assessments administered by a multidisciplinary team with extensive experience. While the application of Machine Learning classification methods (ML classifiers) to neuroimaging data has the potential to speed and simplify diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, the methods, assumptions, and analytical steps are currently opaque and not accessible to researchers and clinicians outside the field...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Beth Fairfield, Mario Altamura, Flavia A Padalino, Angela Balzotti, Alberto Di Domenico, Nicola Mammarella
Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Luca Puviani, Sidita Rama, Giorgio Matteo Vitetta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Eva Loth, Declan G Murphy, Will Spooren
The tremendous clinical and etiological variability between individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has made precision medicine the most promising treatment approach. It aims to combine new pathophysiologically based treatments with objective tests (stratification biomarkers) to predict which treatment may be beneficial for a particular person. Here we discuss significant advances and current challenges for this approach: rare monogenic forms of ASD have provided a major breakthrough for the identification of treatment targets by providing a means to trace causal links from a gene to specific molecular alterations and biological pathways...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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