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Frontiers in Psychiatry

Nitin Shivappa, James R Hebert, Asal Neshatbini Tehrani, Bita Bayzai, Farah Naja, Bahram Rashidkhani
Background: The relation between dietary inflammation and risk of depression has not been widely explored. We examined the association between the inflammatory effect of the diet and the odds of depression among Iranian female adolescents. Methods: Using a stratified cluster sampling technique, 300 female adolescents aged 15-18 years were recruited from schools in Tehran between years 2014-2015. Depression was assessed using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS)- a 21-point scale. The dietary inflammatory index (DII®) was used to evaluate the inflammatory potential of the diet...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Alexander Voulgaris, Nadine Kose, Norbert Konrad, Annette Opitz-Welke
Background: There is limited international as well as national research on suicide events in prisons and in forensic psychiatric hospitals. This retrospective study compares completed suicide events within these two high-risk populations in state institutions over a time period of 5 years from 2000 to 2004. Material and Methods: Data was collected through a nationwide survey: all forensic psychiatric hospitals within Germany were contacted via postal mail and received a questionnaire concerning the suicide events from 2000 to 2004...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Ekaterini Georgiadou, Ali Zbidat, Gregor M Schmitt, Yesim Erim
Background: High rates of prevalence of mental distress among the Syrian refugee population have been repeatedly confirmed. However, little is known about the influence of length of stay, living conditions, and residence permission in the host country or about the duration of the escape journey and travel conditions on mental health in this refugee population. This study examines the mental health of Syrian refugees, taking into account the circumstances in their country of origin and host country, as well as their escape conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yicheng Long, Xuan Ouyang, Zhening Liu, Xudong Chen, Xinran Hu, Edwin Lee, Eric Y H Chen, Weidan Pu, Baoci Shan, Robert M Rohrbaugh
Objective: The study was aimed to investigate the possible associations among suicidal ideation, brain white matter (WM) integrity and cognitive deficit in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) using diffusion tensor imaging. Methods: The sample contained 18 FES patients with suicidal ideation (SI+), 45 FES patients without suicidal ideation (SI-) and 44 healthy controls. The Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia was used to measure the suicidal ideation and depression symptoms. The whole brain WM integrity and three domains of cognitive function: working memory, verbal comprehension as well as processing speed were compared between the three groups...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Sonja Weilenmann, Ulrich Schnyder, Brian Parkinson, Claudio Corda, Roland von Känel, Monique C Pfaltz
Physicians experience many emotionally challenging situations in their professional lives, influencing their emotional state through emotion contagion or social appraisal processes. Successful emotion regulation is crucial to sustain health, enable well-being, foster resilience, and prevent burnout or compassion fatigue. Despite the alarmingly high rate of stress-related disorders in physicians, affecting not only physician well-being, but also outcomes such as physician performance, quality of care, or patient satisfaction, research on how to deal with emotionally challenging situations in physicians is lacking...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Enitan T Marcelle, Erica J Ho, Michelle S Kaplan, Lenard A Adler, F Xavier Castellanos, Michael P Milham
Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT), an online cognitive training program developed for children, is an increasingly popular non-pharmacological intervention for ADHD amongst all ages, despite limited supporting evidence. The initial objective of the present work was to examine the short- and long-term impacts of CWMT on brain function in adults with ADHD. However, during the conduct of our study, we experienced multiple levels of failures in recruitment and retention that signaled potential concerns about the suitability of CWMT for adults with ADHD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yuko Nakamura, Naohiro Okada, Akira Kunimatsu, Kiyoto Kasai, Shinsuke Koike
Increasing evidence shows that the midbrain dopaminergic system is involved in various functions. However, details of the role of the midbrain dopaminergic system in these functions are still to be determined in humans. Considering that the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) in the midbrain are the primary dopamine producers, creating reliable anatomical templates of the VTA and SN through neuroimaging studies would be useful for achieving a detailed understanding of this dopaminergic system...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Samantha J Groves, Katie M Douglas, Richard J Porter
Background: Research suggests that only 50% of patients with major depression respond to psychotherapy or pharmacological treatment, and relapse is common. Therefore, there is interest in elucidating factors that help predict clinical response. Cognitive impairment is a key feature of depression, which often persists beyond remission; thus, the aim of this systematic review was to determine whether baseline cognitive functioning can predict treatment outcomes in individuals with depression. Method: Studies examining cognitive predictors of treatment response in depression were identified using Pub Med and Web of Science databases...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yishul Wei, Tessa F Blanken, Eus J W Van Someren
Insomnia and chronic pain are highly prevalent conditions and are often comorbid. Somatic complaints other than pain are also often observed in insomnia. Poor sleep and pain are known to mutually reinforce each other. However, it is unknown whether the habitual severity of insomnia modulates the acute effect of a particularly bad night's sleep on the next day's pain severity, and whether it modulates the acute effect of pain on the following night's sleep quality. Using data from 3,508 volunteers (2,684 female, mean age 50...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Xiaojie Huang, Kathrine Meyers, Xinchao Liu, Xia Li, Tong Zhang, Wei Xia, Jiahua Hou, Aixin Song, Haolan He, Chongxi Li, Shenghua He, Weiping Cai, Huolin Zhong, Chengyu Huang, Shuiqing Liu, Hui Wang, Xuemei Ling, Ping Ma, Rongxia Ye, Gang Xiao, Taisheng Li, Ding Ding, Kristine Yaffe, Hui Chen, Yaokai Chen, Hao Wu
Background: Anxiety and depression continue to be significant comorbidities for people with HIV infection. We investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with anxiety and depression among adult HIV-infected patients across China. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we described clinical and psychosocial variables related to depression and anxiety in 4103 HIV-infected persons. Doctors assessed anxiety and depression by asking patients whether they had experienced anxiety or depression in the prior month...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Felicity Waite, Jonathan Bradley, Eleanor Chadwick, Sarah Reeve, Jessica C Bird, Daniel Freeman
We view sleep disruption as a contributory causal factor in the development of psychotic experiences. Clinical trials indicate that psychological interventions targeting insomnia result in improvements in both sleep and psychotic experiences. The aim of this study was to gain the perspective of young people at ultra-high risk of psychosis on their sleep problems and associated psychological treatment. Interviews were conducted with 11 patients, aged 15-22 years, at ultra-high risk of psychosis who had received a psychological sleep intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jinhee Kim, Eunjoo Kang
Internet gaming disorder is associated with abnormal reward processing in the reward circuit, which is known to interact with other brain regions during feedback learning. Kim et al. (1) observed that individuals with internet game overuse (IGO) exhibit altered behavior and neural activity for non-monetary reward, but not for monetary reward. Here, we extend our analysis of IGO to the functional connectivity of the reward network. Functional MRI data were obtained during a stimulus-response association learning task from 18 young males with IGO and 20 age-matched controls, where either monetary or non-monetary rewards were given as positive feedback for a correct response...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Guillaume Fond, Christophe Lançon, Pascal Auquier, Laurent Boyer
Objectives: The objective of this systematic review was to synthetize the published data on the relationships between elevated blood C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and schizophrenia (SZ) onset risk, illness characteristics and treatments, cognition and physical health. Method: The systematic bibliographic searches have been carried out according to the Cochrane methodology. Medline, web of science, Google Scholar with each database being searched from inception to November 2017. Results: 53 studies were included in the present review...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Shinichiro Tomitaka, Yohei Kawasaki, Kazuki Ide, Maiko Akutagawa, Yutaka Ono, Toshiaki A Furukawa
Background: Epidemiological studies using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) have reported inconsistencies regarding the relationship between age and total scores. To determine whether this discrepancy is due to the stability of the distribution of PHQ-9 total scores against age, we investigated whether the total score distribution remains stable during adulthood, and also investigated the mathematical patterns of the total score distribution. Methods: The present study utilized data from 15,847 participants of the 2009-2014 United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, all of whom responded to all PHQ-9 items...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Alice Pisoni, Rebecca Strawbridge, John Hodsoll, Timothy R Powell, Gerome Breen, Stephani Hatch, Matthew Hotopf, Allan H Young, Anthony J Cleare
Background: Since the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression was formulated, conflicting results have been reported regarding the role of growth factor proteins in depressed patients, including whether there are state or trait alterations found in patients compared to controls and whether they represent predictors of treatment response. Recently it has been hypothesized that heterogeneity of findings within this literature might be partly explained by participants' history of treatment-resistant depression. This study aimed to investigate the role of growth factor proteins in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) undergoing an inpatient intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Nicolas Simon, Romain Moirand, Maurice Dematteis, Régis Bordet, Dominique Deplanque, Benjamin Rolland
Baclofen a gamma amino-butyric acid type B (GABA-B) receptor agonist, which has raised some interest for the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD), occasionally at dose up to 300 mg/d. We conducted the first full-profile pharmacokinetic study on baclofen in AUD subjects, up to the oral daily dose of 300 mg. Sixty subjects treated for AUD with marketed baclofen were enrolled in a prospective phase-1 study. Participants were divided into four dose groups (1: <60 mg/d; 2: 60-120 mg/d; 3: >120 mg/d-180 mg/d; and 4: >180 mg/d), and they underwent a full-profile pharmacokinetic analysis of baclofen, using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Xiudeng Yang, Huai Tao, Ledong Xiao, Cunyan Li, Yamei Tang, Yong Liu
The aim of this study is to explore the changes and clinical significance of serum C3, C4, hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and uric acid (UA) in patients of bipolar disorder (BD). In this case-control study, we recruited 141 BD patients from The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, and 151 age and gender matched healthy controls (HC) from the health management central of The Second Xiangya Hospital. These patients were divided into two subgroups based on medicines use: 91 patients were treated with psychiatric drugs and 50 patients were drugs free, or four subgroups based on mood states: 54 patients in manic/hypomanic phase, 30 patients in depressive phase, 52 patients in euthymic phase and 5 patients in mixed phase...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Shauna L Mc Gee, Jan Höltge, Andreas Maercker, Myriam V Thoma
Background: Trauma, stress, and adversity are well-known for having lasting negative effects on health. Yet, not all individuals go on to develop psychopathology or impaired health. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms which influence the development of stress-related resilience. Sense of coherence-revised (SOC-R) may play a role in this process, as it is formed through overcoming stress or adversity. It may also influence the steeling effect, which suggests that previous exposure to moderate adversity increases resilience to later adversities...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Luísa K Pilz, Alicia Carissimi, Ana Paula Francisco, Melissa A B Oliveira, Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Kristina Epifano, Luciene L S Garay, Raul C Fabris, Marina Scop, David L Streiner, Maria Paz Hidalgo, Benicio N Frey
Background: The Mood Rhythm Instrument (MRI) is a new self-report questionnaire that aims to assess, the presence, and timing of daily patterns of mood-related symptoms. Here, we examined the reliability of the MRI against a prospective daily investigation over the course of 15 days. As a secondary aim, we examined whether the number of items with a perceived daily pattern correlated with severity of depressive symptoms and psychological well-being. Methods: Thirty-two participants recruited from the general population were asked to prospectively fill out a daily version of the MRI (MRI-d) for 15 days...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Benjamin Rolland, Nicolas Simon, Nicolas Franchitto
Since the early 2000s, the gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA-B) receptor agonist baclofen has been extensively used for treating alcohol use disorder (AUD). In some countries, like France, Australia, or Germany, baclofen has been used at patient-tailored dose regimens, which can reach 300 mgpd or even more in some patients. The GABA-B-related pharmacology of baclofen expose patients to a specific profile of neuropsychiatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs), primarily some frequent sedative symptoms whose risk of occurrence and severity are both related to the absolute baclofen dosing and the kinetics of dose variations...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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