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Frontiers in Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917128/what-role-can-avatars-play-in-e-mental-health-interventions-exploring-new-models-of-client-therapist-interaction
#1
REVIEW
Imogen C Rehm, Emily Foenander, Klaire Wallace, Jo-Anne M Abbott, Michael Kyrios, Neil Thomas
In the burgeoning field of e-mental health interventions, avatars are increasingly being utilized to facilitate online communication between clients and therapists, and among peers. Avatars are digital self-representations, which enable individuals to interact with each other in computer-based virtual environments. In this narrative review, we examine the psychotherapeutic applications of avatars that have been investigated and trialed to date. Five key applications were identified (1) in the formation of online peer support communities; (2) replicating traditional modes of psychotherapy by using avatars as a vehicle to communicate within a wholly virtual environment; (3) using avatar technology to facilitate or augment face-to-face treatment; (4) as part of serious games; and (5) communication with an autonomous virtual therapist...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909413/sex-effects-on-smoking-cue-perception-in-non-smokers-smokers-and-ex-smokers-a-pilot-study
#2
Davide Zanchi, Arthur Brody, Stefan Borgwardt, Sven Haller
INTRODUCTION: Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. METHODS: First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 females and 8 males), smokers (10 females and 8 males), and ex-smokers (10 females and 7 males)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899902/aggressive-antisocial-behaviors-are-related-to-character-maturity-in-young-swedish-violent-offenders-independent-of-adhd
#3
Thomas Nilsson, Örjan Falk, Eva Billstedt, Nóra Kerekes, Henrik Anckarsäter, Märta Wallinius, Björn Hofvander
BACKGROUND: Antisocial personality and psychopathic traits have constantly been found to accompany criminal and aggressive behaviors, but little attention has been given to aspects of character maturity and its relation to such behaviors. The present study investigated (1) whether level of character maturity (low, medium, and high) is associated with amount of aggressive antisocial behaviors (AABs) and psychopathic traits in young men imprisoned for violent criminality, and (2) whether such an association is independent of coexisting attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899901/association-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-related-gene-variants-with-the-severity-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Takashi X Fujisawa, Shota Nishitani, Ryoichiro Iwanaga, Junko Matsuzaki, Chisato Kawasaki, Mamoru Tochigi, Tsukasa Sasaki, Nobumasa Kato, Kazuyuki Shinohara
Exposure to environmental chemicals, such as dioxin, is known to have adverse effects on the homeostasis of gonadal steroids, thereby potentially altering the sexual differentiation of the brain to express autistic traits. Dioxin-like chemicals act on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), polymorphisms, and mutations of AhR-related gene may exert pathological influences on sexual differentiation of the brain, causing autistic traits. To ascertain the relationship between AhR-related gene polymorphisms and autism susceptibility, we identified genotypes of them in patients and controls and determined whether there are different gene and genotype distributions between both groups...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895598/pharmacotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorders-physicians-perceptions-and-practices
#5
Caridad Ponce Martinez, Priyanka Vakkalanka, Nassima Ait-Daoud
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) recommendations that medications be considered for patients with alcohol dependence, the mainstay of treatment has been counseling. We designed a survey to assess the treatment practices of psychiatrists and family medicine (FM) physicians in an effort to identify barriers to the use of pharmacotherapy and develop strategies to increase physician knowledge and utilization of these medications...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881965/fundamental-role-of-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-677-c%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-t-genotype-and-flavin-compounds-in-biochemical-phenotypes-for-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-psychosis
#6
Stephanie Fryar-Williams
The Mental Health Biomarker Project (2010-2016) explored variables for psychosis in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Blood samples from 67, highly characterized symptomatic cases and 67 gender and age matched control participants were analyzed for methyl tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C → T gene variants and for vitamin B6, B12 and D, folate, unbound copper, zinc cofactors for enzymes in the methylation cycle, and related catecholamine pathways. Urine samples were analyzed for indole-catecholamines, their metabolites, and oxidative-stress marker, hydroxylpyrolline-2-one (HPL)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872599/confirmatory-factor-analysis-of-the-12-item-center-for-epidemiologic-studies-depression-scale-among-blacks-and-whites
#7
Shervin Assari, Ehsan Moazen-Zadeh
BACKGROUND: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale is one of the most widely used tools to measure depressive symptoms in epidemiological studies. Given the importance of cross-racial measurement equivalence of the CES-D scale for research, we performed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the 12-item CES-D in a nationally representative sample of Black and White adults in the United States. METHODS: We used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867364/an-objective-screening-method-for-major-depressive-disorder-using-logistic-regression-analysis-of-heart-rate-variability-data-obtained-in-a-mental-task-paradigm
#8
Guanghao Sun, Toshikazu Shinba, Tetsuo Kirimoto, Takemi Matsui
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been intensively studied as a promising biological marker of major depressive disorder (MDD). Our previous study confirmed that autonomic activity and reactivity in depression revealed by HRV during rest and mental task (MT) conditions can be used as diagnostic measures and in clinical evaluation. In this study, logistic regression analysis (LRA) was utilized for the classification and prediction of MDD based on HRV data obtained in an MT paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867363/a-comparative-review-of-microrna-expression-patterns-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Steven D Hicks, Frank A Middleton
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of deficits in social interaction, communication, and behavior. There is a significant genetic component to ASD, yet no single gene variant accounts for >1% of incidence. Posttranscriptional mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression without altering the genetic code. They are abundant in the developing brain and are dysregulated in children with ASD. Patterns of miRNA expression are altered in the brain, blood, saliva, and olfactory precursor cells of ASD subjects...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840613/descriptive-characterization-of-psycho-trauma-psychological-distress-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-among-children-and-adolescent-internally-displaced-persons-in-kaduna-nigeria
#10
Taiwo Lateef Sheikh, Abdulaziz Mohammed, Edwin Eseigbe, Tosin Adekeye, Folorunsho Tajudeen Nuhu, Modupe Lasisi, Asiya Muhammad, Zainab Titilope Sulaiman, Aishatu Abubakar Abdullateef, Nafisatu Hayyatudeen, Yusuf Akande
BACKGROUND: A postelection violent conflict in Kaduna resulted in 800 deaths and 65,000 displaced people leading to setting up of camp for internally displaced persons (IDPs). We set out to determine the prevalence and pattern of psycho-traumatic stressful life events, psychological distress, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among child/adolescents IDPs. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 73 child/adolescent IDPs were selected by total sampling...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833568/mood-instability-and-irritability-as-core-symptoms-of-major-depression-an-exploration-using-rasch-analysis
#11
Lloyd Balbuena, Rudy Bowen, Marilyn Baetz, Steven Marwaha
BACKGROUND: Mood instability (MI) and irritability are related to depression but are not considered core symptoms. Instruments typically code clusters of symptoms that are used to define syndromic depression, but the place of MI and irritability has been under-investigated. Whether they are core symptoms can be examined using Rasch analysis. METHOD: We used the UK Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2000 data (n = 8,338) to determine whether the nine ICD/DSM symptoms, plus MI and irritability, constitute a valid depression scale...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822187/cell-phone-addiction-a-review
#12
REVIEW
José De-Sola Gutiérrez, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Gabriel Rubio
We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyze the concept of cell-phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features, and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799913/capitalizing-upon-the-attractive-and-addictive-properties-of-massively-multiplayer-online-role-playing-games-to-promote-wellbeing
#13
Gabriel Thorens, Joel Billieux, Pierre Megevand, Daniele Zullino, Stéphane Rothen, Sophia Achab, Yasser Khazaal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790159/neuronal-nicotinic-receptors-are-crucial-for-tuning-of-e-i-balance-in-prelimbic-cortex-and-for-decision-making-processes
#14
Elsa Cécile Pittaras, Alexis Faure, Xavier Leray, Elina Moraitopoulou, Arnaud Cressant, Arnaud Alexandre Rabat, Claire Meunier, Philippe Fossier, Sylvie Granon
RATIONALE: Decision-making is an essential component of our everyday life commonly disabled in a myriad of psychiatric conditions, such as bipolar and impulsive control disorders, addiction and pathological gambling, or schizophrenia. A large cerebral network encompassing the prefrontal cortex, the amygdala, and the nucleus accumbens is activated for efficient decision-making. METHODS: We developed a mouse gambling task well suited to investigate the influence of uncertainty and risk in decision-making and the role of neurobiological circuits and their monoaminergic inputs...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785124/editorial-third-generation-neuroimaging-translating-research-into-clinical-utility
#15
EDITORIAL
André Schmidt, Stefan Borgwardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777560/changes-in-the-influence-of-alcohol-paired-stimuli-on-alcohol-seeking-across-extended-training
#16
Laura H Corbit, Patricia H Janak
Previous work has demonstrated that goal-directed control of alcohol-seeking and other drug-related behaviors is reduced following extended self-administration and drug exposure. Here, we examined how the magnitude of stimulus influences on responding changes across similar training and drug exposure. Rats self-administered alcohol or sucrose for 2 or 8 weeks. Previous work has shown that 8 weeks, but not 2 weeks of self-administration produces habitual alcohol seeking. Next, all animals received equivalent Pavlovian conditioning sessions where a discrete stimulus predicted the delivery of alcohol or sucrose...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766085/corrigendum-adhd-rehabilitation-through-video-gaming-a-systematic-review-using-prisma-guidelines-of-the-current-findings-and-the-associated-risk-of-bias
#17
Thiago Strahler Rivero, Lina Maria Herrera Núñez, Emmy Uehara Pires, Orlando Francisco Amodeo Bueno
[This corrects the article on p. 151 in vol. 6, PMID: 26557098.].
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766084/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-adult-patients-with-schizophreniform-and-autism-spectrum-syndromes-a-one-year-cohort-study-at-a-german-tertiary-care-hospital
#18
Dominique Endres, Rick Dersch, Oliver Stich, Armin Buchwald, Evgeniy Perlov, Bernd Feige, Simon Maier, Andreas Riedel, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D has many immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective functions, and previous studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency and neuropsychiatric disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a 1-year cohort of adult inpatients with schizophreniform and autism spectrum syndromes in a naturalistic inpatient setting in Germany. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Our study was comprised of 60 adult schizophreniform and 23 adult high-functioning autism spectrum patients who were hospitalized between January and December of 2015...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766083/behavioral-neuroadaptation-to-alcohol-from-glucocorticoids-to-histone-acetylation
#19
Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746747/transforming-experience-the-potential-of-augmented-reality-and-virtual-reality-for-enhancing-personal-and-clinical-change
#20
Giuseppe Riva, Rosa M Baños, Cristina Botella, Fabrizia Mantovani, Andrea Gaggioli
During life, many personal changes occur. These include changing house, school, work, and even friends and partners. However, the daily experience shows clearly that, in some situations, subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: (a) the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict); (b) this reduction is achieved through (1) an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2) an internal or external reorganization of this experience; (c) personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages that however happen in discontinuous and non-linear ways; and (d) clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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