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Frontiers in Psychiatry

Justine Renard, Walter J Rushlow, Steven R Laviolette
Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse among adolescents. Considerable clinical evidence supports the hypothesis that adolescent neurodevelopmental exposure to high levels of the principal psychoactive component in marijuana, -delta-9-tetrahydrocanabinol (THC), is associated with a high risk of developing psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia later in life. This marijuana-associated risk is believed to be related to increasing levels of THC found within commonly used marijuana strains. Adolescence is a highly vulnerable period for the development of the brain, where the inhibitory GABAergic system plays a pivotal role in the maturation of regulatory control mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Chang-Hyun Park, Ji-Won Chun, Hyun Cho, Dai-Jin Kim
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is often diagnosed on the basis of nine underlying criteria from the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Here, we examined whether such symptom-based categorization could be translated into computation-based classification. Structural MRI (sMRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI) data were acquired in 38 gamers diagnosed with IGD, 68 normal gamers diagnosed as not having IGD, and 37 healthy non-gamers. We generated 108 features of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) structure from the MRI data...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jack Cotter, Jennifer H Barnett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Katharina Bey, Leonhard Lennertz, Rosa Grützmann, Stephan Heinzel, Christian Kaufmann, Julia Klawohn, Anja Riesel, Inga Meyhöfer, Ulrich Ettinger, Norbert Kathmann, Michael Wagner
Increasing evidence indicates that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exhibit alterations in fronto-striatal circuitry. Performance deficits in the antisaccade task would support this model, but results from previous small-scale studies have been inconclusive as either increased error rates, prolonged antisaccade latencies, both or neither have been reported in OCD patients. In order to address this issue, we investigated antisaccade performance in a large sample of OCD patients ( n = 169) and matched control subjects ( n = 183)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Mengjie Deng, Yunzhi Pan, Li Zhou, Xudong Chen, Chang Liu, Xiaojun Huang, Haojuan Tao, Weidan Pu, Guowei Wu, Xinran Hu, Zhong He, Zhimin Xue, Zhening Liu, Robert Rosenheck
Background: This study compared adaptive resilience among patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and healthy controls, and examined the relationship of resilience to cognitive function. Methods: A sample of 81 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, 34 with bipolar disorder, and 52 healthy controls completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and cognitive tests of verbal comprehension, executive functioning, and working memory. Paired comparison of diagnostic groups on CD-RISC and cognitive tests was conducted...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Aya Yamauchi, Takashi Okada, Masahiko Ando, Mako Morikawa, Yukako Nakamura, Chika Kubota, Masako Ohara, Satomi Murase, Setsuko Goto, Atsuko Kanai, Norio Ozaki
Background: The Highs scale has been developed to evaluate hypomanic symptoms in the first postpartum week. However, it has not been elucidated whether this scale is also applicable to pregnant women. To address this issue, we confirmed the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the Highs scale for pregnant and postpartum women. Methods: 418 women provided effective responses to both the Highs scale and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during early pregnancy (before week 25), late pregnancy (around week 36), at 5 days and at 1 month after delivery...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Eduardo R Butelman, Angelo G I Maremmani, Silvia Bacciardi, Carina Y Chen, Joel Correa da Rosa, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Background: The impact of increasing non-medical cannabis use on vulnerability to develop opioid use disorders has received considerable attention, with contrasting findings. A dimensional analysis of self-exposure to cannabis and other drugs, in individuals with and without opioid dependence (OD) diagnoses, may clarify this issue. Objective: To examine the age of onset of maximal self-exposure to cannabis, alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, in volunteers diagnosed with OD, using a rapidly administered instrument (the KMSK scales)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Bin Qin, Longlun Wang, Yun Zhang, Jinhua Cai, Jie Chen, Tingyu Li
Background: The functional mechanism behind autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not clear, but it is related to a brain connectivity disorder. Previous studies have found that functional brain connectivity of ASD is linked to both increased connections and weakened connections, and the inconsistencies in functional brain connectivity may be related to age. The functional connectivity in adolescents and adults with ASD is generally less than in age-matched controls; functional connectivity in younger children with the disorder appears to be higher...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Rolands Ivanovs, Anda Kivite, Douglas Ziedonis, Iveta Mintale, Jelena Vrublevska, Elmars Rancans
Background: Depression and anxiety have been recognized as independent risk factors for both the development and prognosis of cardiovascular (CV) diseases (CVD). The Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) function measures the 10-year risk of a fatal CVD and is a crucial tool for guiding CV patient management. This study is the first in Latvia to investigate the association of depression and anxiety with the 10-year CV mortality risk in a primary care population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at 24 primary care facilities...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
D Rangaprakash, Cara Bohon, Katherine E Lawrence, Teena Moody, Francesca Morfini, Sahib S Khalsa, Michael Strober, Jamie D Feusner
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) share distorted perceptions of appearance with extreme negative emotion, yet the neural phenotypes of emotion processing remain underexplored in them, and they have never been directly compared. We sought to determine if shared and disorder-specific fronto-limbic connectivity patterns characterize these disorders. FMRI data was obtained from three unmedicated groups: BDD ( n = 32), weight-restored AN ( n = 25), and healthy controls (HC; n = 37), while they viewed fearful faces and rated their own degree of fearfulness in response...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Seung-Hyun Shon, Woon Yoon, Harin Kim, Sung Woo Joo, Yangsik Kim, Jungsun Lee
Schizophrenia is a heterogenous neuropsychiatric disorder with varying degrees of altered connectivity in a wide range of brain areas. Network analysis using graph theory allows researchers to integrate and quantify relationships between widespread changes in a network system. This study examined the organization of brain structural networks by applying diffusion MRI, probabilistic tractography, and network analysis to 48 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy controls. T1-weighted MR images obtained from all participants were parcellated into 87 regions of interests (ROIs) according to a prior anatomical template and registered to diffusion-weighted images (DWI) of the same subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Xi-Jian Dai, Jian Jiang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Xiao Nie, Bi-Xia Liu, Li Pei, Honghan Gong, Jianping Hu, Guangming Lu, Yang Zhan
Background: Insufficient sleep is common in daily life and can lead to cognitive impairment. Sleep disturbance also exists in neuropsychiatric diseases. However, whether and how acute and chronic sleep loss affect brain morphology remain largely unknown. Methods: We used voxel-based morphology method to study the brain structural changes during sleep deprivation (SD) at six time points of rested wakefulness, 20, 24, 32, 36 h SD, and after one night sleep in 22 healthy subjects, and in 39 patients with chronic primary insomnia relative to 39 status-matched good sleepers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Seung-Yup Lee, Hae Kook Lee, Soo-Young Bang, Hyunsuk Jeong, Hyeon Woo Yim, Yong-Sil Kweon
Background: Relatively little is known about which neuropsychological factors promote recovery from Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Methods: With informed consents, a cohort study was conducted in Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, to investigate the course of IGD in youths. At baseline, we assessed psychosocial measures and gaming related measures such as Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Aggression Questionnaire. The Balloon Analog Risk Task was also performed to study risk-taking behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Rainer Leonhart, Lars de Vroege, Lan Zhang, Yang Liu, Zaiquan Dong, Rainer Schaefert, Sandra Nolte, Felix Fischer, Kurt Fritzsche, Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis
Background: Persistent somatic symptoms are associated with psychological distress, impaired function, and medical help-seeking behavior. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-15 is used as a screening instrument for somatization and as a monitoring instrument for somatic symptom severity. A bifactorial model has been described, with one general factor and four orthogonal specific symptom factors. The objective of the present study was to assess and to clarify the factor structure of the PHQ-15 within and between different countries in Western Europe and China...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Hale Yapici Eser, Anil S Kacar, Can M Kilciksiz, Merve Yalçinay-Inan, Dost Ongur
Objective: Bipolar disorder is highly comorbid with anxiety disorders, however current and lifetime comorbidity patterns of each anxiety disorder and their associated features are not well studied. Here, we aimed to conduct a meta-analysis and meta-regression study of current evidence. Method: We searched PubMed to access relevant articles published until September 2015, using the keywords "Bipolar disorder" or "Affective Psychosis" or "manic depressive" separately with "generalized anxiety," "panic disorder," "social phobia," "obsessive compulsive," and "anxiety...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Milica M Borovcanin, Slavica M Janicijevic, Ivan P Jovanovic, Nevena Gajovic, Nebojsa N Arsenijevic, Miodrag L Lukic
Schizophrenia and treatment of this disorder are often accompanied with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular issues. Alterations in the serum level of innate immune mediators, such as interleukin-33 (IL-33) and its receptor IL-33R (ST2) and Galectin-3 (Gal-3) were observed in these conditions. Moreover, these parameters are potential prognostic and therapeutic markers. There is also accumulating evidence that these molecules play a role in neuroinflammation. Therefore, in this study we have investigated the serum level of Gal-3, IL-33 and soluble ST2 (sST2) in different stages of schizophrenia...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Ciro Della Monica, Sigurd Johnsen, Giuseppe Atzori, John A Groeger, Derk-Jan Dijk
Sleep and its sub-states are assumed to be important for brain function across the lifespan but which aspects of sleep associate with various aspects of cognition, mood and self-reported sleep quality has not yet been established in detail. Sleep was quantified by polysomnography, quantitative Electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis and self-report in 206 healthy men and women, aged 20-84 years, without sleep complaints. Waking brain function was quantified by five assessments scheduled across the day covering objectively assessed performance across cognitive domains including sustained attention and arousal, decision and response time, motor and sequence control, working memory, and executive function as well as self-reports of alertness, mood and affect...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Chiara Davico, Carlotta Canavese, Roberta Vittorini, Marina Gandione, Benedetto Vitiello
Aim: Anticonvulsant medications are frequently used in clinical practice to treat psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, but the evidence for their efficacy is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review of published randomized controlled trials (RCT) that assessed the psychiatric benefit of anticonvulsants in patients under 18 years of age. Method: The Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed primary publications of RCTs with a minimum of 10 patients per treatment arm through December 2017...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Kyle D Webster, Susan Michalowski, Thomas E Hranilovich
The legitimacy and etiology of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) remains a controversial topic within Psychiatry. The two schools of thought are the Post-Traumatic Model (PTM) and the Socio-Cognitive Model (SCM). This case highlights the validity of PTM in an individual who suffered severe and prolonged physical, psychological, and sexual abuse from 2 years old through adulthood. The reported abuse was corroborated and proven on two separate occasions via medical professionals/rape kit and the police. This resulted in the incarceration of one of her abusers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Florian Hotzy, Jeff Kerner, Anke Maatz, Matthias Jaeger, Andres R Schneeberger
Involuntary hospitalization is a frequently discussed intervention physicians must sometimes execute. Because this intervention has serious implications for the citizens' civil liberties it is regulated by law. Every country's health system approaches this issue differently with regard to the relevant laws and the logistical processes by which involuntary hospitalization generally is enacted. This paper aims at analyzing the regulation and process of involuntary hospitalization in New York (United States) and Zurich (Switzerland)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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