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Frontiers in Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713294/screening-for-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-a-psychiatric-outpatient-population-with-specific-focus-on-sex-differences
#1
Salvatore Corbisiero, Raffaela M Hartmann-Schorro, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Rolf-Dieter Stieglitz
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often overlooked in adults; moreover, the problem seems to be even more critical in women. In the present, observational screening study, a clinical, particularly adult outpatient population was examined regarding frequency and severity of a likely ADHD, whereby sex differences were of particular interest. METHODS: 224 participants, 146 men and 78 women, were included. Based on data recorded with the self-rating WHO screening instrument Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713293/predicting-future-high-cost-schizophrenia-patients-using-high-dimensional-administrative-data
#2
Yajuan Wang, Vijay Iyengar, Jianying Hu, David Kho, Erin Falconer, John P Docherty, Gigi Y Yuen
BACKGROUND: The burden of serious and persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia is substantial and requires health-care organizations to have adequate risk adjustment models to effectively allocate their resources to managing patients who are at the greatest risk. Currently available models underestimate health-care costs for those with mental or behavioral health conditions. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to develop and evaluate predictive models for identification of future high-cost schizophrenia patients using advanced supervised machine learning methods...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713292/cognitive-attachment-model-of-voices-evidence-base-and-future-implications
#3
Katherine Berry, Filippo Varese, Sandra Bucci
There is a robust association between hearing voices and exposure to traumatic events. Identifying mediating mechanisms for this relationship is key to theories of voice hearing and the development of therapies for distressing voices. This paper outlines the Cognitive Attachment model of Voices (CAV), a theoretical model to understand the relationship between earlier interpersonal trauma and distressing voice hearing. The model builds on attachment theory and well-established cognitive models of voices and argues that attachment and dissociative processes are key psychological mechanisms that explain how trauma influences voice hearing...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713291/an-expanding-world-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-opioids
#4
REVIEW
Jolanta B Zawilska
The abuse of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been increasing dramatically worldwide since late 2000s. By the end of 2015, more than 560 NPS had been reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Although the most popular compounds are synthetic cannabinoids and psychostimulatory derivatives of cathinone (so-called β-keto-amphetamines), novel synthetic opioids have recently emerged on the recreational drug market. They include fentanyl (a potent narcotic analgesic) and its analogs (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701963/hoarding-disorder-a-case-report
#5
Daniela Vilaverde, Jorge Gonçalves, Pedro Morgado
Hoarding disorder is characterized by a persistent difficulty discarding items, the desire to save items to avoid negative feelings associated with discarding them, significant accumulation of possessions that clutter active living areas and significant distress or impairment in areas of functioning. We present a case of a 52-year-old married man who was referred to the psychiatry department for collecting various objects that were deposited unorganized in the patient's house. He reported to get anxious when someone else discarded some of these items...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674507/impaired-coupling-between-the-dorsomedial-prefrontal-cortex-and-the-amygdala-in-schizophrenia-smokers-viewing-anti-smoking-images
#6
Stéphane Potvin, Andràs Tikàsz, Ovidiu Lungu, Emmanuel Stip, Vesséla Zaharieva, Pierre Lalonde, Olivier Lipp, Adrianna Mendrek
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in schizophrenia and is one of the main factors contributing to the significantly decreased life expectancy in this population. Schizophrenia smokers, compared to their counterparts with no comorbid psychiatric disorder, are largely unaware and indifferent to the long-term negative consequences of cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to determine, for the first time, if these meta-cognitive deficits are associated with neuro-functional alterations in schizophrenia smokers...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674506/sun-exposure-and-psychotic-experiences
#7
Izabela Pilecka, Sven Sandin, Abraham Reichenberg, Robert K R Scragg, Anthony David, Elisabete Weiderpass
OBJECTIVE: Sun exposure is considered the single most important source of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between sun exposure and psychotic experiences (PEs) in a general population sample of Swedish women. METHODS: The study population included participants from The Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort study. The 20-item community assessment of psychic experiences (CAPEs) was administered between ages 30 and 50 to establish PEs...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674505/vulnerability-or-sensitivity-to-the-environment-methodological-issues-trends-and-recommendations-in-gene-environment-interactions-research-in-human-behavior
#8
REVIEW
Caroline Leighton, Alberto Botto, Jaime R Silva, Juan Pablo Jiménez, Patrick Luyten
Research on the potential role of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in explaining vulnerability to psychopathology in humans has witnessed a shift from a diathesis-stress perspective to differential susceptibility approaches. This paper critically reviews methodological issues and trends in this body of research. Databases were screened for studies of GxE in the prediction of personality traits, behavior, and mental health disorders in humans published between January 2002 and January 2015. In total, 315 papers were included...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674504/antigliadin-antibodies-aga-igg-are-related-to-neurochemistry-in-schizophrenia
#9
Laura M Rowland, Haley K Demyanovich, S Andrea Wijtenburg, William W Eaton, Katrina Rodriguez, Frank Gaston, Daniela Cihakova, Monica V Talor, Fang Liu, Robert R McMahon, L Elliot Hong, Deanna L Kelly
Inflammation may play a role in schizophrenia; however, subgroups with immune regulation dysfunction may serve as distinct illness phenotypes with potential different treatment and prevention strategies. Emerging data show that about 30% of people with schizophrenia have elevated antigliadin antibodies of the IgG type, representing a possible subgroup of schizophrenia patients with immune involvement. Also, recent data have shown a high correlation of IgG-mediated antibodies between the periphery and cerebral spinal fluid in schizophrenia but not healthy controls, particularly AGA IgG suggesting that these antibodies may be crossing the blood-brain barrier with resulting neuroinflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670290/sex-differences-in-the-peripheral-immune-system-in-patients-with-depression
#10
Badari Birur, Ellen M Amrock, Richard C Shelton, Li Li
BACKGROUND: Females are twice as likely as males to experience depression. Recent findings indicate a relationship linking inflammation with depression. Whether the higher prevalence of depression in women is sex-specific or if inflammation contributes to a higher prevalence of depression in females is unclear. Thus, the objective was to determine whether depressed females show higher inflammation compared to males in a cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred participants were enrolled...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659835/vitamin-d-levels-in-different-severity-groups-of-schizophrenia
#11
Kehinde Sola Akinlade, Oyejide Afolabi Olaniyan, Victor Olufolahan Lasebikan, Sheu Kadiri Rahamon
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) continues to be associated with schizophrenia, but there is the dearth of information on the relationship between the severity of schizophrenia and plasma levels of vitamin D. This study, therefore, determined the plasma levels of vitamin D in different severity groups of schizophrenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma level of vitamin D was determined in 60 patients with schizophrenia and 30 apparently healthy individuals who served as controls...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659834/how-accurate-appraisal-of-behavioral-costs-and-benefits-guides-adaptive-pain-coping
#12
REVIEW
Wiebke Gandhi, India Morrison, Petra Schweinhardt
Coping with pain is a complex phenomenon encompassing a variety of behavioral responses and a large network of underlying neural circuits. Whether pain coping is adaptive or maladaptive depends on the type of pain (e.g., escapable or inescapable), personal factors (e.g., individual experiences with coping strategies in the past), and situational circumstances. Keeping these factors in mind, costs and benefits of different strategies have to be appraised and will guide behavioral decisions in the face of pain...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659833/neuropeptide-y-and-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-comorbid-depression-versus-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#13
Per Svenningsson, Sven Pålhagen, Aleksander A Mathé
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world. The diagnosis of PD is based on movement dysfunctions. Many patients also suffer from comorbid depression in spite of adequate treatment with dopamine replacement, indicating that also other non-dopaminergic mechanisms are involved. Indeed, neuropeptides are critically implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). To increase our understanding of the biochemical basis of depression in PD patients, we examined the levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from PD patients, with or without comorbid depression, and compared them to the levels in patients with MDD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659832/rehabilitation-interventions-to-promote-recovery-from-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Laurent Morin, Nicolas Franck
Only one out of seven patients recovers after a first episode of psychosis despite psychiatric care. Rehabilitation interventions have been developed to improve functional outcomes and to promote recovery. We conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness of the main psychiatric rehabilitation interventions following a search of the electronic databases Pubmed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using combinations of terms relating to cognitive remediation, psychoeducation, cognitive-behavioral therapies, and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659831/stress-and-burnout-in-health-care-workers-after-the-2009-l-aquila-earthquake-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#15
Antonella Mattei, Fabiana Fiasca, Mariachiara Mazzei, Stefano Necozione, Valeria Bianchini
Burnout is a work-related mental health impairment, which is now recognized as a real problem in the context of the helping professions due to its adverse health outcomes on efficiency. To our knowledge, the literature on the postdisaster scenario in Italy is limited by a focus on mental health professionals rather than other health-care workers. Our cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the prevalence of burnout and psychopathological distress in different categories of health-care workers, i.e., physicians, nurses, and health-care assistants, working in different departments of L'Aquila St...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659830/depression-reduces-accuracy-while-parkinsonism-slows-response-time-for-processing-positive-feedback-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-with-comorbid-major-depressive-disorder-tested-on-a-probabilistic-category-learning-task
#16
Mohammad M Herzallah, Hussain Y Khdour, Ahmad B Taha, Amjad M Elmashala, Hamza N Mousa, Mohamad B Taha, Zaid Ghanim, Mahmud M Sehwail, Adel J Misk, Tarryn Balsdon, Ahmed A Moustafa, Catherine E Myers, Mark A Gluck
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common non-motor manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD) affecting 50% of patients. However, little is known about the cognitive correlates of MDD in PD. Using a computer-based cognitive task that dissociates learning from positive and negative feedback, we tested four groups of subjects: (1) patients with PD with comorbid MDD, (2) patients with PD without comorbid MDD, (3) matched patients with MDD alone (without PD), and (4) matched healthy control subjects. Furthermore, we used a mathematical model of decision-making to fit both choice and response time data, allowing us to detect and characterize differences between the groups that are not revealed by cognitive results...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659829/risk-conferring-glutamatergic-genes-and-brain-glutamate-plus-glutamine-in-schizophrenia
#17
Juan R Bustillo, Veena Patel, Thomas Jones, Rex Jung, Nattida Payaknait, Clifford Qualls, Jose M Canive, Jingyu Liu, Nora Irma Perrone-Bizzozero, Vince D Calhoun, Jessica A Turner, Charles Gasparovic
BACKGROUND: The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) signals from glutamate (or the combined glutamate and glutamine signal-Glx) have been found to be greater in various brain regions in people with schizophrenia. Recently, the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium reported that several common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in glutamate-related genes confer increased risk of schizophrenia. Here, we examined the relationship between presence of these risk polymorphisms and brain Glx levels in schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649205/support-vector-machine-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-interoception-does-not-reliably-predict-individual-outcomes-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-panic-disorder-with-agoraphobia
#18
Benedikt Sundermann, Jens Bode, Ulrike Lueken, Dorte Westphal, Alexander L Gerlach, Benjamin Straube, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Andreas Ströhle, André Wittmann, Carsten Konrad, Tilo Kircher, Volker Arolt, Bettina Pfleiderer
BACKGROUND: The approach to apply multivariate pattern analyses based on neuro imaging data for outcome prediction holds out the prospect to improve therapeutic decisions in mental disorders. Patients suffering from panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG) often exhibit an increased perception of bodily sensations. The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether multivariate classification applied to a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) interoception paradigm can predict individual responses to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in PD/AG...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638352/why-psychiatric-research-must-abandon-traditional-diagnostic-classification-and-adopt-a-fully-dimensional-scope-two-solutions-to-a-persistent-problem
#19
Michael P Hengartner, Sandrine N Lehmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638351/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-considerations-for-research-in-adolescent-depression
#20
REVIEW
Jonathan C Lee, Charles P Lewis, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Paul E Croarkin
Adolescent depression is a prevalent disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current treatment interventions do not target relevant pathophysiology and are frequently ineffective, thereby leading to a substantial burden for individuals, families, and society. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex undergoes extensive structural and functional changes. Recent work suggests that frontolimbic development in depressed adolescents is delayed or aberrant. The judicious application of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to the prefrontal cortex may present a promising opportunity for durable interventions in adolescent depression...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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