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Frontiers in Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620325/reduced-consolidation-reinstatement-and-renewal-of-conditioned-fear-memory-by-repetitive-treatment-of-radix-polygalae-in-mice
#1
Jung-Won Shin, Hyunwoo Park, Yoonju Cho, Suck Lee, Jiwon Yoon, Sungho Maeng
The therapeutic goal for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is to promote extinction and to prevent the relapse of fearful memories. Research has identified pharmacological treatments that may regulate the formation and extinction of fear memories, but not many reagents that block the relapse of extinguished fear are known. Radix Polygalae (RP) is an Asian herb used for sedation, and its ingredients have anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. As various neurological effects have been identified, we tested whether RP affects the relapse of fear...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620324/description-of-various-factors-contributing-to-traffic-accidents-in-youth-and-measures-proposed-to-alleviate-recurrence
#2
REVIEW
Ludovic Gicquel, Pauline Ordonneau, Emilie Blot, Charlotte Toillon, Pierre Ingrand, Lucia Romo
Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18-24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1) factors specific to the traffic environment and (2) "human" factors, which seem to be the most influential...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620323/integrated-trauma-focused-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-post-traumatic-stress-and-psychotic-symptoms-a-case-series-study-using-imaginal-reprocessing-strategies
#3
Nadine Keen, Elaine C M Hunter, Emmanuelle Peters
Despite high rates of trauma in individuals with psychotic symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms are frequently overlooked in clinical practice. There is also reluctance to treat post-traumatic symptoms in case the therapeutic procedure of reprocessing the trauma exacerbates psychotic symptoms. Recent evidence demonstrates that it is safe to use reprocessing strategies in this population. However, most published studies have been based on treating post-traumatic symptoms in isolation from psychotic symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620322/the-relationship-of-complex-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-a-culturally-distinct-conflict-affected-population-a-study-among-west-papuan-refugees-displaced-to-papua-new-guinea
#4
Derrick Silove, Alvin Kuowei Tay, Moses Kareth, Susan Rees
BACKGROUND: Controversy continues about the validity of the construct of complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD). In particular, questions remain whether C-PTSD can be differentiated from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and, secondarily, other common mental disorders. The examination of these issues needs to be expanded to populations of diverse cultural backgrounds exposed to prolonged persecution. We undertake such an inquiry among a community sample of West Papuan refugees exposed to extensive persecution and trauma...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620321/treating-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-female-victims-of-trafficking-using-narrative-exposure-therapy-a-retrospective-audit
#5
Katy Robjant, Jackie Roberts, Cornelius Katona
BACKGROUND: Human trafficking is a form of modern slavery that involves the forced movement of people internally within countries, or externally across borders. Victims who are trafficked for sexual exploitation are subject to repeated, multiple trauma, and high rates of mental health problems including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is an evidence-based treatment for PTSD. METHODS: In this retrospective audit, we record the results of NET to treat 10 women who had been trafficked for sexual exploitation who were diagnosed with PTSD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611694/acute-frontal-lobe-dysfunction-following-prefrontal-low-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-a-patient-with-treatment-resistant-depression
#6
Guilhem Carle, Mehdi Touat, Nicolas Bruno, Damien Galanaud, Charles-Siegfried Peretti, Antoni Valero-Cabré, Richard Levy, Carole Azuar
The potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to treat numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders has been thoroughly studied for the last two decades. Here, we report for the first time, the case of a 65-year-old woman suffering from treatment-resistant depression who developed an acute frontal lobe syndrome following eight sessions of low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS) to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while also treated with sertraline and mianserin. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying such an unexpected acute frontal lobe dysfunction are discussed in relation to the therapeutic use of LF-rTMS in combination with pharmacotherapy in depressed patients...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611693/paired-associative-stimulation-induced-long-term-potentiation-like-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-healthy-adolescents
#7
Jonathan C Lee, Paul E Croarkin, Stephanie H Ameis, Yinming Sun, Daniel M Blumberger, Tarek K Rajji, Zafiris J Daskalakis
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using paired-associative stimulation (PAS) to study excitatory and inhibitory plasticity in adolescents while examining variables that may moderate plasticity (such as sex and environment). METHODS: We recruited 34 healthy adolescents (aged 13-19, 13 males, 21 females). To evaluate excitatory plasticity, we compared mean motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after PAS at 0, 15, and 30 min...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611692/development-of-a-mobile-phone-addiction-craving-scale-and-its-validation-in-a-spanish-adult-population
#8
José De-Sola, Hernán Talledo, Gabriel Rubio, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS). It consists of eight Likert-style items, with 10 response options, referring to possible situations in which the interviewee is asked to evaluate the degree of restlessness that he or she feels if the cell phone is unavailable at the moment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611691/morphine-reward-promotes-cue-sensitive-learning-implication-of-dorsal-striatal-creb-activity
#9
Mathieu Baudonnat, Jean-Louis Guillou, Marianne Husson, Veronique D Bohbot, Lars Schwabe, Vincent David
Different parallel neural circuits interact and may even compete to process and store information: whereas stimulus-response (S-R) learning critically depends on the dorsal striatum (DS), spatial memory relies on the hippocampus (HPC). Strikingly, despite its potential importance for our understanding of addictive behaviors, the impact of drug rewards on memory systems dynamics has not been extensively studied. Here, we assessed long-term effects of drug- vs food reinforcement on the subsequent use of S-R vs spatial learning strategies and their neural substrates...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611690/rethinking-a-negative-event-the-affective-impact-of-ruminative-versus-imagery-based-processing-of-aversive-autobiographical-memories
#10
Christien Slofstra, Maarten C Eisma, Emily A Holmes, Claudi L H Bockting, Maaike H Nauta
INTRODUCTION: Ruminative (abstract verbal) processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories evokes weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing. In the current study, we hypothesized that abstract verbal or concrete verbal processing of an aversive autobiographical memory would result in weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603504/the-safety-of-ingested-caffeine-a-comprehensive-review
#11
REVIEW
Jennifer L Temple, Christophe Bernard, Steven E Lipshultz, Jason D Czachor, Joslyn A Westphal, Miriam A Mestre
Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596741/commentary-a-neural-basis-for-the-acquired-capacity-for-suicide
#12
COMMENT
Xenia Gonda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588509/behavioral-effects-of-a-novel-benzofuranyl-piperazine-serotonin-2c-receptor-agonist-suggest-a-potential-therapeutic-application-in-the-treatment-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#13
Michelle M Rodriguez, Carl Overshiner, J David Leander, Xia Li, Denise Morrow, Richard G Conway, David L Nelson, Karin Briner, Jeffrey M Witkin
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the only effective pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Nonetheless, their generally limited efficacy, side-effects, and delayed onset of action require improved medications for this highly prevalent disorder. Preclinical and clinical findings have suggested serotonin2C (5-HT2C) receptors as a potential drug target. Data in rats and mice are presented here on the effects of a novel 5-HT2C receptor agonist ((3S)-3-Methyl-1-[4-(trifluoromethyl)-7-benzofuranyl]-piperazine) (CPD 1) with high potency and full efficacy at 5-HT2C receptors and less potency and partial agonism at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588508/individual-differences-in-subjective-utility-and-risk-preferences-the-influence-of-hedonic-capacity-and-trait-anxiety
#14
Jonathon R Howlett, Martin P Paulus
Individual differences in decision-making are important in both normal populations and psychiatric conditions. Variability in decision-making could be mediated by different subjective utilities or by other processes. For example, while traditional economic accounts attribute risk aversion to a concave subjective utility curve, in practice other factors could affect risk behavior. This distinction may have important implications for understanding the biological basis of variability in decision-making and for developing interventions to improve decision-making...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588507/neurovascular-unit-dysfunction-and-blood-brain-barrier-hyperpermeability-contribute-to-schizophrenia-neurobiology-a-theoretical-integration-of-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#15
REVIEW
Souhel Najjar, Silky Pahlajani, Virginia De Sanctis, Joel N H Stern, Amanda Najjar, Derek Chong
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, negative symptoms, as well as behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. It is a pathoetiologically heterogeneous disorder involving complex interrelated mechanisms that include oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Neurovascular endothelial dysfunction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability are established mechanisms in neurological disorders with comorbid psychiatric symptoms such as epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588506/the-role-of-infection-and-immune-responsiveness-in-a-case-of-treatment-resistant-pediatric-bipolar-disorder
#16
Rosalie Greenberg
A case of psychotropic-resistant pediatric bipolar disorder is presented. Both awareness and proper treatment of previously unrecognized infections and their effects on the immune system were very important in stabilizing the patient's psychiatric symptoms.
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579966/problematic-alcohol-use-among-university-students
#17
Tesfa Mekonen, Wubalem Fekadu, Tefera Chane, Shimelash Bitew
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is attributable to many diseases and injury-related health conditions, and it is the fifth leading risk factor of premature death globally. Hence, the objective of this study was to assess the proportion and associated factors of problematic alcohol use among University students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted among 725 randomly selected University students from November to December 2015. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire, and problematic alcohol use was assessed by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579965/neural-correlates-of-psychotherapeutic-treatment-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-systematic-literature-review
#18
Kathrin Malejko, Birgit Abler, Paul L Plener, Joana Straub
OBJECTIVES: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disease with changes in neural circuitries. Neurobiological models conceptualize the symptoms of PTSD as correlates of a dysfunctional stress reaction to traumatic events. Functional imaging studies showed an increased amygdala and a decreased prefrontal cortex response in PTSD patients. As psychotherapeutic approaches represent the gold standard for PTSD treatment, it is important to examine its underlying neurobiological correlates...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555115/long-term-results-from-the-empowering-a-multimodal-pathway-toward-healthy-youth-program-a-multimodal-school-based-approach-show-marked-reductions-in-suicidality-depression-and-anxiety-in-6-227-students-in-grades-6-12-aged-11-18
#19
Peter H Silverstone, Marni Bercov, Victoria Y M Suen, Andrea Allen, Ivor Cribben, Jodi Goodrick, Stu Henry, Catherine Pryce, Pieter Langstraat, Katherine Rittenbach, Samprita Chakraborty, Rutger C Engles, Christopher McCabe
Here, we report on findings from a 15-month follow-up of a school-based program called Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Toward Healthy Youth (EMPATHY). This was primarily intended to reduce suicidal thinking in pre-teens, adolescents, and youth students aged 11-18 in middle schools (Grades 6-8) and high SCHOOLS (Grades 9-12). It also aimed to reduce depression and anxiety. The EMPATHY multimodal program consisted of repeated data collection, identification of a high-risk group, a rapid intervention for this high-risk group including offering supervised online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program, a universal CBT intervention for those in Grades 6-8, a variety of interactions with trained staff ("Resiliency Coaches"), and referral to external medical and psychiatric services where appropriate...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555114/attitudes-about-future-genetic-testing-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-addiction-among-community-based-veterans
#20
Michelle R Lent, Stuart N Hoffman, H Lester Kirchner, Thomas G Urosevich, Joseph J Boscarino, Joseph A Boscarino
This study explored attitudes toward hypothetical genetic testing for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and addiction among veterans. We surveyed a random sample of community-based veterans (n = 700) by telephone. One year later, we asked the veterans to provide a DNA sample for analysis and 41.9% of them returned the DNA samples. Overall, most veterans were not interested in genetic testing neither for PTSD (61.7%) nor for addiction (68.7%). However, bivariate analyses suggested there was an association between having the condition of interest and the likelihood of genetic testing on a 5-point scale (p < 0...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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