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Frontiers in Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780335/leg-movement-activity-during-sleep-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Corrado Garbazza, Cornelia Sauter, Juliane Paul, Jenny Kollek, Catharine Dujardin, Sandra Hackethal, Hans Dorn, Anita Peter, Marie-Luise Hansen, Mauro Manconi, Raffaele Ferri, Heidi Danker-Hopfe
Objectives: To conduct a first detailed analysis of the pattern of leg movement (LM) activity during sleep in adult subjects with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) compared to healthy controls. Methods: Fifteen ADHD patients and 18 control subjects underwent an in-lab polysomnographic sleep study. The periodic character of LMs was evaluated with established markers of "periodicity," i.e., the periodicity index, intermovement intervals, and time distribution of LM during sleep, in addition to standard parameters such as the periodic leg movement during sleep index (PLMSI) and the periodic leg movement during sleep arousal index (PLMSAI)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780334/an-innovative-framework-for-delivering-psychotherapy-to-patients-with-treatment-resistant-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-rationale-for-interactive-motion-assisted-therapy
#2
Marieke J van Gelderen, Mirjam J Nijdam, Eric Vermetten
Despite an array of evidence-based psychological treatments for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a majority of patients do not fully benefit from the potential of these therapies. In veterans with PTSD, up to two-thirds retain their diagnosis after psychotherapy and often their disorder is treatment-resistant, which calls for improvement of therapeutic approaches for this population. One of the factors hypothesized to underlie low response in PTSD treatment is high behavioral and cognitive avoidance to traumatic reminders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780333/neurological-soft-signs-spontaneous-and-treatment-emergent-extrapyramidal-syndromes-in-black-africans-with-first-episode-schizophrenia
#3
Akin Ojagbemi, Bonga Chiliza, Toyin Bello, Laila Asmal, Oluyomi Esan, Robin Emsley, Oye Gureje
Background: Very little is known about the relationship between spontaneous and treatment-induced motor syndromes in Africans with first episode schizophrenia. Objective: We investigated the association between spontaneous NSS and EPS, with treatment-induced EPS in a homogenous sample of Black Africans with first episode schizophrenia. Methods: We examined Xhosa (South Africa) and Yoruba (Nigeria) patients, using the Neurological Evaluation Scale and extrapyramidal symptoms scale before and at 3 months after exposure to low dose flupenthixol decanoate...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780332/myoclonic-jerks-and-schizophreniform-syndrome-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Dominique Endres, Dirk-M Altenmüller, Bernd Feige, Simon J Maier, Kathrin Nickel, Sabine Hellwig, Jördis Rausch, Christiane Ziegler, Katharina Domschke, John P Doerr, Karl Egger, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
Background: Schizophreniform syndromes can be divided into primary idiopathic forms as well as different secondary organic subgroups (e.g., paraepileptic, epileptic, immunological, or degenerative). Secondary epileptic explanatory approaches have often been discussed in the past, due to the high rates of electroencephalography (EEG) alterations in patients with schizophrenia. In particular, temporal lobe epilepsy is known to be associated with schizophreniform symptoms in well-described constellations. In the literature, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy has been linked to emotionally unstable personality traits, depression, anxiety, and executive dysfunction; however, the association with schizophrenia is largely unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773998/larger-gray-matter-volume-in-the-basal-ganglia-of-heavy-cannabis-users-detected-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-subcortical-volumetric-analysis
#5
Ana Moreno-Alcázar, Begoña Gonzalvo, Erick J Canales-Rodríguez, Laura Blanco, Diana Bachiller, Anna Romaguera, Gemma C Monté-Rubio, Carlos Roncero, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet
Background: Structural imaging studies of cannabis users have found evidence of both cortical and subcortical volume reductions, especially in cannabinoid receptor-rich regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. However, the findings have not been consistent. In the present study, we examined a sample of adult heavy cannabis users without other substance abuse to determine whether long-term use is associated with brain structural changes, especially in the subcortical regions. Method: We compared the gray matter volume of 14 long-term, heavy cannabis users with non-using controls...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773997/first-and-subsequent-lifetime-alcoholism-and-mental-disorders-in-suicide-victims-with-reference-to-a-community-sample-the-lundby-study-1947-1997
#6
Cecilia Holmstrand, Mats Bogren, Cecilia Mattisson, Louise Brådvik
Background: Suicide victims have been found to frequently suffer from mental disorders, often more than one, and comorbidity has also been found to be a risk factor for suicide. The aim of the present study was to determine the first disorder and possible subsequent disorders in suicide victims during their lifetimes and to compare their development with the development of mental and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in a community sample. Methods: The Lundby Study is a prospective longitudinal study of mental health in a general population comprising 3,563 subjects, including 68 suicide victims, followed by four field investigations from 1947 to 1997; mortality was monitored up to 2011...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765340/inconclusive-evidence-in-support-of-the-dopamine-hypothesis-of-psychosis-why-neurobiological-research-must-consider-medication-use-adjust-for-important-confounders-choose-stringent-comparators-and-use-larger-samples
#7
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765339/can-model-projects-of-need-adapted-care-reduce-involuntary-hospital-treatment-and-the-use-of-coercive-measures
#8
Alexandre Wullschleger, Jürgen Berg, Felix Bermpohl, Christiane Montag
Intensive outpatient models of need-adapted psychiatric care have been shown to reduce the length of hospital stays and to improve retention in care for people with severe mental illnesses. In contrast, evidence regarding the impact of such models on involuntary hospital treatment and other coercive measures in inpatient settings is still sparse, although these represent important indicators of the patients' wellbeing. In Germany, intensive models of care still have not been routinely implemented, and their effectiveness within the German psychiatric system is only studied in a few pioneering regions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765338/psychotherapeutic-treatment-for-anorexia-nervosa-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Almut Zeeck, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Hans-Christoph Friederich, Timo Brockmeyer, Gaby Resmark, Ulrich Hagenah, Stefan Ehrlich, Ulrich Cuntz, Stephan Zipfel, Armin Hartmann
Background: The aim of the study was a systematic review of studies evaluating psychotherapeutic treatment approaches in anorexia nervosa and to compare their efficacy. Weight gain was chosen as the primary outcome criterion. We also aimed to compare treatment effects according to service level (inpatient vs. outpatient) and age group (adolescents vs. adults). Methods: The data bases PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Cinahl, and PsychInfo were used for a systematic literature search (until Feb 2017)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760667/a-drd2-annk1-comt-interaction-consisting-of-functional-variants-confers-risk-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-traumatized-chinese
#10
Kunlin Zhang, Li Wang, Chengqi Cao, Gen Li, Ruojiao Fang, Ping Liu, Shu Luo, Xiangyang Zhang, Israel Liberzon
Objective: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma- and stress-related psychiatric syndrome that occurs after exposure to extraordinary stressors. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) plays important roles in neurobiological processes like reward and stress, and a link between PTSD and the dopaminergic system has been reported. Thus, the investigation of an association between PTSD and gene-gene interaction (epistasis) within dopaminergic genes could uncover the genetic basis of dopamine-related PTSD symptomatology and contribute to precision medicine...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760666/candyflipping-and-other-combinations-identifying-drug-drug-combinations-from-an-online-forum
#11
Michael Chary, David Yi, Alex F Manini
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) refer to synthetic compounds or derivatives of more widely known substances of abuse that have emerged over the last two decades. Case reports suggest that users combine substances to achieve desired psychotropic experiences while reducing dysphoria and unpleasant somatic effects. However, the pattern of combining NPS has not been studied on a large scale. Here, we show that posts discussing NPS describe combining nootropics with sedative-hypnotics and stimulants with plant hallucinogens or psychiatric medications...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755375/influence-of-crhr1-polymorphisms-and-childhood-abuse-on-suicide-attempts-in-affective-disorders-a-gxe-approach
#12
Birgit Ludwig, Klemens Kienesberger, Laura Carlberg, Patrick Swoboda, Alexandra Bernegger, Romina Koller, Qingzhong Wang, Michelle Inaner, Melanie Zotter, Nestor D Kapusta, Helmuth Haslacher, Martin Aigner, Siegfried Kasper, Alexandra Schosser
Background: Previous studies have shown that the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis) is closely involved in the development of affective disorders. Given that early life events are also linked to dysregulation of the same system, there might be an association between childhood adversities and suicidal behavior in affective disorders, moderated by HPA-axis genes. We aimed to investigate a potential association between childhood trauma and previous suicide attempts in affective disorder patients, moderated by variants of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755374/altered-amygdala-resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-hemispheric-asymmetry-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#13
Ye-Ha Jung, Jung E Shin, Yoonji I Lee, Joon H Jang, Hang J Jo, Soo-Hee Choi
Background: The amygdala plays a key role in emotional hyperreactivity in response to social threat in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). We investigated resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FCN) of the left and right amygdala with various brain regions and functional lateralization in patients with SAD. Methods: A total of 36 patients with SAD and 42 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at rest. Using the left and right amygdala as seed regions, we compared the strength of the rs-FCN in the patient and control groups...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755373/bidirectional-causal-connectivity-in-the-cortico-limbic-cerebellar-circuit-related-to-structural-alterations-in-first-episode-drug-naive-somatization-disorder
#14
Ranran Li, Feng Liu, Qinji Su, Zhikun Zhang, Jin Zhao, Ying Wang, Renrong Wu, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo
Background: Anatomical and functional deficits in the cortico-limbic-cerebellar circuit are involved in the neurobiology of somatization disorder (SD). The present study was performed to examine causal connectivity of the cortico-limbic-cerebellar circuit related to structural deficits in first-episode, drug-naive patients with SD at rest. Methods: A total of 25 first-episode, drug-naive patients with SD and 28 healthy controls underwent structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry and Granger causality analysis (GCA) were used to analyze the data...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743873/relationship-of-handgrip-strength-and-body-mass-index-with-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
Shinsuke Hidese, Junko Matsuo, Ikki Ishida, Moeko Hiraishi, Toshiya Teraishi, Miho Ota, Kotaro Hattori, Hiroshi Kunugi
Background: The relationship between muscle strength and cognition in schizophrenia has not been well studied. We investigated the potential relationship of handgrip strength (HGS) score and body mass index (BMI) with cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Participants included 153 patients with schizophrenia (age: 36.9 ± 9.4 years; 82 males) and 328 healthy controls (age: 36.4 ± 10.7 years; 150 males), matched for age, sex, and ethnicity (Japanese). HGS was measured using a digital handgrip dynamometer...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743872/pre-conceptional-and-peri-gestational-maternal-binge-alcohol-drinking-produces-inheritance-of-mood-disturbances-and-alcohol-vulnerability-in-the-adolescent-offspring
#16
Anna Brancato, Valentina Castelli, Angela Cavallaro, Gianluca Lavanco, Fulvio Plescia, Carla Cannizzaro
Although binge drinking is on the rise in women of reproductive age and during pregnancy, the consequences in the offspring, in particular the inheritance of alcohol-related mood disturbances and alcohol abuse vulnerability, are still poorly investigated. In this study, we modeled both Habitual- and Binge Alcohol Drinking (HAD and BAD) in female rats by employing a two-bottle choice paradigm, with 20% alcohol and water. The exposure started 12 weeks before pregnancy and continued during gestation and lactation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740361/-gold-standards-plurality-and-monocultures-the-need-for-diversity-in-psychotherapy
#17
Falk Leichsenring, Allan Abbass, Mark J Hilsenroth, Patrick Luyten, Thomas Munder, Sven Rabung, Christiane Steinert
For psychotherapy of mental disorders, presently several approaches are available, such as interpersonal, humanistic, systemic, psychodynamic or cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Pointing to the available evidence, proponents of CBT claim that CBT is the gold standard. Some authors even argue for an integrated CBT-based form of psychotherapy as the only form of psychotherapy. CBT undoubtedly has its strengths and CBT researchers have to be credited for developing and testing treatments for many mental disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740360/the-importance-of-social-cognition-in-improving-functional-outcomes-in-schizophrenia
#18
REVIEW
Afzal Javed, Asha Charles
Social cognition has become recognized as an important driver of functional outcomes and overall recovery in patients with schizophrenia, mediating the relationship between neurocognition and social functioning. Since antipsychotic therapy targeting remission of clinical symptoms has been shown to have a limited impact on social cognition, there has been an increasing drive to develop therapeutic strategies to specifically improve social cognition in schizophrenia. We sought to review current evidence relating to social cognition in schizophrenia and its clinical implications, including interventions designed to target the core domains of social cognition (emotion processing, theory of mind, attributional bias, and social perception) as a means of improving functional outcomes and thereby increasing the likelihood of recovery...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740359/profiling-of-amino-acids-and-their-derivatives-biogenic-amines-before-and-after-antipsychotic-treatment-in-first-episode-psychosis
#19
Liisa Leppik, Kärt Kriisa, Kati Koido, Kadri Koch, Kärolin Kajalaid, Liina Haring, Eero Vasar, Mihkel Zilmer
Schizophrenia (SCH) is a heterogeneous disorder, deriving from a potential multitude of etiopathogenetic factors. During the past few years there has been an increasing interest in the role of circulating amino acids (AAs) and biogenic amines (BAs) in the pathophysiology of SCH. In the present study, we aimed to provide an insight into the potential role of alterations in levels of AAs and BAs as well as examine their more specific metabolic shifts in relation to early stage of SCH. We measured 21 AAs and 17 BAs in serum samples of patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) before and after 7-month antipsychotic treatment in comparison to control subjects (CSs)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740358/the-comorbidity-between-internet-gaming-disorder-and-depression-interrelationship-and-neural-mechanisms
#20
Lu Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, Chiang-Shan R Li, Jin-Tao Zhang, Cui-Cui Xia, Jing Lan, Shan-Shan Ma, Nan Zhou, Xiao-Yi Fang
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by cognitive and emotional deficits. Previous studies have reported the co-occurrence of IGD and depression. However, extant brain imaging research has largely focused on cognitive deficits in IGD. Few studies have addressed the comorbidity between IGD and depression symptoms and underlying neural mechanisms. Here, we systematically investigated this issue by combining a longitudinal survey study, a cross-sectional resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) study and an intervention study...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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