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Frontiers in Psychiatry

Jiashu Yao, Danmei Lv, Wei Chen
Here we report on a case of a 57-year-old woman with pain and discomfort in multiple sites of upper body who was diagnosed as somatic symptom disorder after completing a partial examinations of relevant parts which turned out to be negative. Finished imageological examinations of all painful parts, she was eventually diagnosed with multiple myeloma after 6-month being misdiagnosed as somatic symptom disorder. This case highlights the importance of completing imageological examinations of all the painful parts of the patient to exclude the possibility of multiple myeloma especially when symptoms are associated with objective signs and treatment has been ineffective; and it is as well as significant to notice characteristics of symptoms and to pay excessive attention directed toward the symptoms in the diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Felice Iasevoli, Camilla Avagliano, Benedetta Altavilla, Annarita Barone, Luigi D'Ambrosio, Marta Matrone, Danilo Notar Francesco, Eugenio Razzino, Andrea de Bartolomeis
This post-hoc study was aimed at assessing whether disease severity was higher in a sample of Treatment Resistant Schizophrenia patients (TRS) compared to schizophrenia patients responsive to antipsychotics (non-TRS). Determinants of disease severity were also investigated in these groups. Eligible patients were screened by standardized diagnostic algorithm to categorize them as TRS or non-TRS. All patients underwent the following assessments: CGI-S; PANSS; DAI; NES; a battery of cognitive tests. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were also recorded...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jia Cai, Xiao Hu, Kuifang Guo, Pingyuan Yang, Mingjing Situ, Yi Huang
Previous neuroimaging studies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have focused on subjects with IQ > 70 or ASD without considering IQ levels. It remains unclear whether differences in brain anatomy in this population are associated with variations in clinical phenotype. In this study, 19 children with low functioning autism (LFA) and 19 children with high functioning autism (HFA) were compared with 27 healthy controls (HC). We found increased gray matter volume (GMV) in the left inferior temporal gyrus in subjects with both HFA and LFA and increased GMV of left middle temporal gyrus BA21 was found only in the LFA group...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Johan Bilsen
Suicide occurs more often in older than in younger people, but is still one of the leading causes of death in late childhood and adolescence worldwide. This not only results in a direct loss of many young lives, but also has disruptive psychosocial and adverse socio-economic effects. From the perspective of public mental health, suicide among young people is a main issue to address. Therefore we need good insight in the risk factors contributing to suicidal behavior in youth. This mini review gives a short overview of the most important risk factors for late school-age children and adolescents, as established by scientific research in this domain...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Mary-Anne B MacKay, John W Paylor, James T F Wong, Ian R Winship, Glen B Baker, Serdar M Dursun
Schizophrenia is a very complex syndrome that involves widespread brain multi-dysconnectivity. Neural circuits within specific brain regions and their links to corresponding regions are abnormal in the illness. Theoretical models of dysconnectivity and the investigation of connectomics and brain network organization have been examined in schizophrenia since the early nineteenth century. In more recent years, advancements have been achieved with the development of neuroimaging tools that have provided further clues to the structural and functional organization of the brain and global neural networks in the illness...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Minlan Yuan, Changjian Qiu, Yajing Meng, Zhengjia Ren, Cui Yuan, Yuchen Li, Meng Gao, Su Lui, Hongru Zhu, Qiyong Gong, Wei Zhang
Background: The chronic phase of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the limited effectiveness of existing treatments creates the need for the development of potential biomarkers to predict response to antidepressant medication at an early stage. However, findings at present focus on acute therapeutic effect without following-up the long-term clinical outcome of PTSD. So far, studies predicting the long-term clinical outcome of short-term treatment based on both pre-treatment and post-treatment functional MRI in PTSD remains limited...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Smriti Vallath, Tanya Luhrmann, Joske Bunders, Lakshmi Ravikant, Vandana Gopikumar
Objective: This study aims to understand the impact of negative life experience (NLE) in auditory hallucinations (AHs) and explain the heterogeneity in phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). Method: In depth interviews were conducted with 21 individuals (7 males and 14 females) experiencing AHs and accessing mental health treatment services at a not-for-profit organization. Maximum variation purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample to ensure variegation is accounted for and was collected until saturation of themes data was obtained...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Keryn L Taylor, Steve Simpson, George A Jelinek, Sandra L Neate, Alysha M De Livera, Chelsea R Brown, Emily O'Kearney, Claudia H Marck, Tracey J Weiland
Background: Depression is common and has a significant impact on quality of life for many people with multiple sclerosis (MS). A preventive management approach via modification of lifestyle risk factors holds potential benefits. We examined the relationship between modifiable lifestyle factors and depression risk and the change in depression over 2.5 years. Methods: Sample recruited using online platforms. 2,224 (88.9%) at baseline and 1,309 (93.4%) at 2.5 years follow up completed the necessary survey data...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jasmyn E A Cunningham, Stephanie A H Jones, Gail A Eskes, Benjamin Rusak
Inadequate nightly sleep duration can impair daytime functioning, including interfering with attentional and other cognitive processes. Current models posit that attention is a complex function regulated by several separate, but interacting, neural systems responsible for vigilance, orienting, and executive control. However, it is not clear to what extent each of these underlying component processes is affected by sleep loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute sleep restriction on these attentional components using the Dalhousie Computerized Attention Battery (DalCAB)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Matthew J Knight, Bernhard T Baune
Background: Cognitive and psychosocial dysfunction are prevalent and disabling features of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Emerging evidence suggests that poor cognitive functioning mediates the negative effect of MDD on psychosocial function. However, there is a lack of research examining the domain-specific nature of this relationship. The current study evaluated whether the relationship between MDD and specific psychosocial subdomains (e.g., autonomy, occupational functioning) was mediated by domain-specific cognitive deficits...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Emily L Casanova, Zachary Gerstner, Julia L Sharp, Manuel F Casanova, Frank Alex Feltus
Background: Linking genotype to phenotype is a major aim of genetics research, yet the underlying biochemical mechanisms of many complex conditions continue to remain elusive. Recent research provides evidence that relevant gene-phenotype associations are discoverable in the study of intellectual disability (ID). Here we expand on that work, identifying distinctive gene interaction modules with unique enrichment patterns reflective of associated clinical features in ID. Methods: Two hundred twelve forms of monogenic ID were curated according to comorbidities with autism and epilepsy...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Catharina Zehetmair, Claudia Kaufmann, Inga Tegeler, David Kindermann, Florian Junne, Stephan Zipfel, Sabine C Herpertz, Wolfgang Herzog, Christoph Nikendei
Background: Due to persecution, human rights violations and armed conflicts, the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high in refugee populations. Previous studies indicate that trauma-focused treatments are highly effective in treating PTSD in refugees. However, these approaches rely on the stability of the therapeutic setting, treatment continuity, and safe housing. Although early treatment of PTSD is recommended, these requirements are not met in reception centers. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to examine the effect of imaginative stabilization techniques derived from psychodynamic psychotraumatology therapy for the early stabilization of traumatized refugees in a reception center...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Qiuxia Wu, Chang Qi, Jiang Long, Yanhui Liao, Xuyi Wang, An Xie, Jianbin Liu, Wei Hao, Yiyuan Tang, Baozhu Yang, Tieqiao Liu, Jinsong Tang
Background: The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) contains various neurotransmitter systems and plays an important role in drug use. Broad body of literature on how methamphetamine (MA) affects the structure and metabolism in the animal's mPFC is emerging, while the effects on metabolites of mPFC among human is still unclear. In this study, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) was used to measure metabolites of mPFC in methamphetamine dependent subjects. Methods: Sixty-one subjects with a history of MA dependence (fulfiled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria) and 65 drug-naïve control subjects (age19-45) completed 1H MRS scans using 3...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Carola Schildbach, Sebastian Schildbach
Background: Inmates are several times more likely to suffer from mental disorders than the general population.In order to take appropriate curative or preventive measures, a precise psychiatric diagnosis at detention start would therefore be imperative, but is frequently not carried out for reasons of time. The computer-aided expert system DIA-X enables a rapid and reliable diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. DIA-X is available as a short screening questionnaire with a processing time of a few minutes and as a standardized interview, which takes ~1 h to complete...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Anton N Isaacs, Joanne Enticott, Graham Meadows, Brett Inder
Background: Australia is a high-income country with increasing income inequality. It is unclear whether Australia's well-developed mental healthcare system is making a difference to population mental health and the Federal Government has targeted outcomes accountability in service funding strategies. In high-income countries, evidence generally suggests that income inequalities increase mental disorders among the poor. This study examined psychological-distress rates-a marker of mental ill- health-as varying by income among Australians living within and outside of capital cities...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Thomas Reisch, Simone Beeri, Georges Klein, Philipp Meier, Philippe Pfeifer, Etienne Buehler, Florian Hotzy, Matthias Jaeger
Background: In clinical psychiatric practice, health care professionals (HCP) must decide in exceptional circumstances after the weighing of interests, which, if any, containment measures including coercion are to be used. Here, the risk for patients, staff, and third parties, in addition to therapeutic considerations, factor into the decision. Patients' preference and the inclusion of relatives in these decisions are important; therefore, an understanding of how patients and next of kin (NOK) experience different coercive measures is crucial for clinical decision making...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jonathan Pugh, Jacinta Tan, Tipu Aziz, Rebecca J Park
Deep Brain Stimulation is currently being investigated as an experimental treatment for patients suffering from treatment-refractory AN, with an increasing number of case reports and small-scale trials published. Although still at an exploratory and experimental stage, initial results have been promising. Despite the risks associated with an invasive neurosurgical procedure and the long-term implantation of a foreign body, DBS has a number of advantageous features for patients with SE-AN. Stimulation can be fine-tuned to the specific needs of the particular patient, is relatively reversible, and the technique also allows for the crucial issue of investigating and comparing the effects of different neural targets...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Tao Wang, Min Li, Song Xu, Chenggang Jiang, Dong Gao, Tong Wu, Fang Lu, Botao Liu, Jia Wang
Background: Increasing studies have found that high trait anxiety is a key susceptibility phenotype that causes depression. Mindfulness-based interventions can target on dealing with depressogenic vulnerability effectively. Evidence indicates that trait anxiety could affect the trajectory of anti-depressive psychotherapy, and play an important role in the relationship between mindfulness and depression. Furthermore, related studies have found that trait anxiety could involve factors beyond anxiety and be a two-factor construct instead of one-dimensional concept...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Sebastian Schildbach, Carola Schildbach
In 1939, the Penrose hypothesis suggested that the number of psychiatric hospital beds was inversely related to the size of prison populations. Central to a causal interpretation of the Penrose hypothesis is the idea that a small proportion of any population requires institutional mental care. Several studies re-examining longitudinal and cross-sectional data found that a fall in available psychiatric hospital beds occurred over the same period as a rise in prisoner numbers. The observed inverse relationship was mostly interpreted as being the consequence of a lack of compassion for the disadvantaged in society, while other studies concluded that the correlation was spurious and determined by confounders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yu Ren, Cheng-Hua Yang, Zhu-Man Li, Zhen Yang, Zhi-Jun Xiao, Jing-Jing Duan, Ting Zhou, Feng Xu
About 30% of diabetes patients suffer from varying degrees of depression. Diabetes itself is associated with abnormal carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Whether chronic stress-induced depression-like behavior impacts the metabolome of blood plasma and urine in diabetes is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of chronic stress on metabolome of plasma and urine in spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. The GK rats were subjected to 8 weeks' chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) to induce depression-like behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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