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Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860862/early-rehospitalizations-of-frail-elderly-patients-the-role-of-medications-a-clinical-prospective-observational-trial
#1
Niklas Ekerstad, Kristoffer Bylin, Björn W Karlson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Early readmissions of frail elderly patients after an episode of hospital care are common and constitute a crucial patient safety outcome. Our purpose was to study the impact of medications on such early rehospitalizations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a clinical, prospective, observational study on rehospitalizations within 30 days after an acute hospital episode for frail patients over the age of 75 years. To identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs), underuse of evidence-based treatment and avoidability of rehospitalizations, the Naranjo score, the Hallas criteria and clinical judgment were used...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860861/potential-drug-drug-interactions-in-inpatients-treated-at-the-internal-medicine-ward-of-tikur-anbessa-specialized-hospital
#2
Zelalem Tilahun Tesfaye, Teshome Nedi
PURPOSE: Although the concomitant use of multiple drugs often increases therapeutic effectiveness, certain combinations result in unwanted drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Most interactions go unnoticed by physicians due to the absence of new clinical signs and symptoms, and because they often produce a worsening of already existing symptoms. Quantification of the occurrence of the potential DDIs is essential to prevent the harmful effects associated with interactions. This study was launched to assess the prevalence of potential DDIs in the Internal Medicine ward of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814901/prediction-of-drug-related-problems-in-diabetic-outpatients-in-a-number-of-hospitals-using-a-modeling-approach
#3
Ghaith M Al-Taani, Sayer I Al-Azzam, Karem H Alzoubi, Feras W Darwish Elhajji, Michael G Scott, Hamzah Alfahel, Mamoon A Aldeyab
OBJECTIVE: Drug-related problems (DRPs) are considered a serious, expensive, and important undesirable complication of health care. However, as current health care resources are limited, pharmacist DRP services cannot be provided to all patients. Using a modeling approach, we aimed to identify risk factors for DRPs so that patients for DRP-reduction services can be better identified. METHODS: Patients with diabetes from outpatient clinics from five key university-affiliated and public hospitals in Jordan were assessed for DRPs (drug without an indication, untreated indication, and drug efficacy problems)...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652818/adaptation-of-the-european-commission-recommended-user-testing-method-to-patient-medication-information-leaflets-in-japan
#4
Michiko Yamamoto, Hirohisa Doi, Ken Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Watanabe, Tsugumichi Sato, Machi Suka, Takeo Nakayama, Hiroki Sugimori
BACKGROUND: The safe use of drugs relies on providing accurate drug information to patients. In Japan, patient leaflets called Drug Guide for Patients are officially available; however, their utility has never been verified. This is the first attempt to improve Drug Guide for Patients via user testing in Japan. PURPOSE: To test and improve communication of drug information to minimize risk for patients via user testing of the current and revised versions of Drug Guide for Patients, and to demonstrate that this method is effective for improving Drug Guide for Patients in Japan...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579836/update-on-the-renal-toxicity-of-iodinated-contrast-drugs-used-in-clinical-medicine
#5
REVIEW
Michele Andreucci, Teresa Faga, Raffaele Serra, Giovambattista De Sarro, Ashour Michael
An important side effect of diagnostic contrast drugs is contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI; a sudden decrease in renal function) occurring 48-72 hours after injection of a contrast drug that cannot be attributed to other causes. Its existence has recently been challenged, because of some retrospective studies in which the incidence of AKI was not different between subjects who received a contrast drug and those who did not, even using propensity score matching to prevent selection bias. For some authors, only patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507450/patient-safety-attitudes-of-pharmacy-students-in-an-ethiopian-university-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Henok Getachew Tegegn, Tamrat Befekadu Abebe, Mohammed Biset Ayalew, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula
INTRODUCTION: Patient safety is a major health care concern and is being included in an undergraduate curriculum as it plays a major role in lessening harm. Therefore, we aim to assess the attitude of pharmacy students toward patient safety. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire containing 21 items was conducted at the University of Gondar among fourth and fifth year students. Data analysis was performed to calculate mean, standard deviation, percentages, and logistic regressions using SPSS software version 22 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA)...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356773/update-on-the-usage-and-safety-of-epinephrine-auto-injectors-2017
#7
REVIEW
Larry S Posner, Carlos A Camargo
Anaphylaxis is a serious, potentially fatal allergic reaction. Guidelines recommend prompt intramuscular injections of epinephrine as the first-line therapy for anaphylaxis. Delayed epinephrine treatment may cause undesirable clinical outcomes, including death. In the community, epinephrine auto-injectors (EAIs) are commonly used to treat anaphylaxis. This literature review examines several recent concerns regarding the safety of EAIs that may prevent the timely administration of epinephrine. Reports of cardiovascular complications are linked with epinephrine administration, although recent studies suggest that these events are much more commonly associated with intravenous epinephrine rather than with EAIs...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144164/quantifying-the-relationship-between-patient-characteristics-and-involvement-in-developing-and-implementing-a-treatment-plan
#8
Natalie T Roy, Erin E Ulrich
OBJECTIVE: Improving the patient-physician relationship through patient involvement in the care may lead to improved patient safety and better health outcomes. There exists a gap in knowledge in identifying factors that affect self-reported patient involvement in individualized treatment plans. The objectives of this study were to 1) describe patients' perceptions of their involvement in the creation and implementation of their treatment plans and 2) determine if patient involvement varied by medical condition or demographic characteristics...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008285/development-and-validation-of-evaluation-tools-of-nursing-students-clinical-pharmacology-unit
#9
Nasrin Navabi, Fatemeh Ghaffari, Abbas Shamsalinia, Safieh Faghani
INTRODUCTION: The need for valid, reliable, and objective tools has always been emphasized in studies related to the clinical assessment of nursing students. The aims of this study were to develop and assess the validity and reliability of the tools used to evaluate the clinical pharmacology unit. METHODS: This study was a methodological one, conducted in 2016. An item pool was developed based on the literature review and personal interviews with faculty members...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008284/implementation-of-co-trimoxazole-preventive-therapy-policy-for-malaria-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-the-public-health-facilities-in-tanzania
#10
Appolinary Ar Kamuhabwa, Richard Gordian, Ritah F Mutagonda
BACKGROUND: In 2011, Tanzania adopted a policy for provision of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to HIV-infected pregnant women for prevention of malaria and other opportunistic infections. As per the policy, HIV-infected pregnant women should not be given sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive therapy. The challenges associated with this policy change and the extent to which the new policy for prevention of malaria in pregnant women coinfected with HIV was implemented need to be assessed...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994485/pattern-of-chemotherapy-related-adverse-effects-among-adult-cancer-patients-treated-at-gondar-university-referral-hospital-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Sewunet Admasu Belachew, Daniel Asfaw Erku, Abebe Basazn Mekuria, Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a global problem and constitute a major clinical problem in terms of human suffering. The high toxicity and narrow therapeutic index of chemotherapeutic agents makes oncology pharmacovigilance essential. The objective of the present study was to assess the pattern of ADRs occurring in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study over a 2-year period from September 2013 to August 2015 was conducted on cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy at Gondar University Referral Hospital Oncology Center...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920580/positive-clinical-outcomes-derived-from-using-streptococcus-salivarius-k12-to-prevent-streptococcal-pharyngotonsillitis-in-children-a-pilot-investigation
#12
Francesco Di Pierro, Maria Colombo, Alberto Zanvit, Amilcare S Rottoli
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12(®)) is a probiotic strain producing the bacteriocins salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B, both of which strongly antagonize the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. It successfully colonizes and exhibits persistence in the oral cavity and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. Previous observations of a small group of children indicated that the use of BLIS K12 could also reduce the occurrence of viral pharyngitis...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601932/point-prevalence-of-hospital-acquired-infections-in-two-teaching-hospitals-of-amhara-region-in-ethiopia
#13
Walelegn Worku Yallew, Abera Kumie, Feleke Moges Yehuala
PURPOSE: Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is a major safety issue affecting the quality of care of hundreds of millions of patients every year, in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive research that presents the whole picture of HAIs in hospitals. The objective of this study was to examine the nature and extent of HAIs in Ethiopia. METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted in two teaching hospitals...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471409/extent-of-dispensing-prescription-only-medications-without-a-prescription-in-community-drug-retail-outlets-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-simulated-patient-study
#14
Daniel Asfaw Erku, Abebe Basazn Mekuria, Abdrrahman Shemsu Surur, Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie
PURPOSE: This study was aimed at assessing the extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets (CDROs) of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study design was used to sample 31 pharmacies, 25 drug stores, and two rural drug vendors from August 11, 2015, to October 21, 2015, through a simple random sampling method. A simulated-patient method of visit was implemented to collect data...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354829/topiramate-induced-maculopathy-in-igg4-related-disease
#15
Joanna DaCosta, Saad Younis
This report describes a case of reversible topiramate-induced maculopathy in a 32-year-old female patient with IgG4-related disease. The patient presented with decreased vision associated with anterior uveitis and cystoid macula edema, which was unresponsive to oral and topical steroids. Following topiramate cessation, both cystoid macula edema and vision improved. The ocular side effects of topiramate and putative pharmacological mechanisms for topiramate-induced maculopathy in the context of IgG4-related disease are discussed...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217800/the-virgin-land-of-quality-management-a-first-measure-of-patient-safety-climate-at-the-national-hospital-of-the-faroe-islands
#16
Solvejg Kristensen, Naina Túgvustein, Hjørdis Zachariassen, Svend Sabroe, Paul Bartels, Jan Mainz
PURPOSE: The Faroe Islands are formally part of the Kingdom of Denmark, but the islands enjoy extensive autonomy as home ruled. In Denmark, extensive quality management initiatives have been implemented throughout hospitals, this was not the case in the Faroese Islands in 2013. The purpose of this study is to investigate the patient safety culture in the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands prior to implementation of quality management initiatives. METHODS: The Danish version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ-DK) was distributed electronically to 557 staff members from five medical centers of the hospital, and one administrative unit...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099532/seasonality-in-acute-liver-injury-findings-in-two-health-care-claims-databases
#17
Rachel B Weinstein, Martijn J Schuemie, Patrick B Ryan, Paul E Stang
BACKGROUND: Presumed seasonal use of acetaminophen-containing products for relief of cold/influenza ("flu") symptoms suggests that there might also be a corresponding seasonal pattern for acute liver injury (ALI), a known clinical consequence of acetaminophen overdose. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether there were any temporal patterns in hospitalizations for ALI that would correspond to assumed acetaminophen use in cold/flu season. METHODS: In the period 2002-2010, monthly hospitalization rates for ALI using a variety of case definitions were calculated...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937206/safety-of-apixaban-for-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-the-evidence-to-date
#18
REVIEW
Vladimir Trkulja
Apixaban, a direct orally active anticoagulant (selective, direct factor Xa inhibitor) is approved for (primary) prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing elective total-hip or total-knee arthroplasty, for acute treatment/prevention of recurrent events in patients with VTE, and extended prophylaxis in patients with a history of VTE. Another approved use is prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The present overview focuses on the safety of apixaban specifically in the VTE setting...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937205/clinical-utility-safety-and-efficacy-of-pregabalin-in-the-treatment-of-fibromyalgia
#19
REVIEW
Santosh Bhusal, Sherilyn Diomampo, Marina N Magrey
Fibromyalgia is a chronic debilitating medical syndrome with limited therapeutic options. Pregabalin, an anticonvulsant and α-2-Δ subunit receptor ligand, is one of the anchor drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of fibromyalgia. The drug has shown clinically meaningful benefits across multiple symptom domains of fibromyalgia. Efficacy of pregabalin in fibromyalgia pain has been evaluated in at least five high-quality randomized trials, two long-term extension studies, a meta-analysis, a Cochrane database systematic review, and several post hoc analyses...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26929668/a-fatal-adverse-effect-of-cefazolin-administration-severe-brain-edema-in-a-patient-with-multiple-meningiomas
#20
Sirirat Tribuddharat, Thepakorn Sathitkarnmanee, Amnat Kitkhuandee, Sunchai Theerapongpakdee, Kriangsak Ngamsaengsirisup, Sarinya Chanthawong
Cefazolin is commonly administered before surgery as a prophylactic antibiotic. Hypersensitivity to cefazolin is not uncommon, and the symptoms mostly include urticaria, skin reaction, diarrhea, vomiting, and transient neutropenia, which are rarely life threatening. We present a rare case of fatal cefazolin hypersensitivity in a female who was diagnosed with multiple meningiomas and scheduled for craniotomy and tumor removal. Immediately after cefazolin IV administration, the patient developed acute hypertensive crisis, which resolved within 10 minutes after the treatment...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
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