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Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410406/a-pilot-study-on-secondhand-tobacco-exposure-parental-knowledge-about-health-impact-and-feasibility-of-cessation
#1
Hina Walia, Rebecca Miller, Dmitry Tumin, Joseph D Tobias, Roby Sebastian
Introduction: As the primary source of smoke exposure is in the home, the smoking behaviors of parents and other caregivers are key determinants of a child's exposure to secondhand smoke. The perioperative period offers an opportunity to discuss smoking cessation strategies. Methods: This prospective study included 97 parents or caregivers of patients undergoing dental surgery. Caregivers were surveyed in the dental waiting room during the preoperative phase. The primary aim was to determine the feasibility of using the preoperative encounter to offer smoking cessation resources to parents of pediatric patients...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174460/predictors-of-non-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-at-an-urban-hiv-care-and-treatment-center-in-tanzania
#2
Raphael Z Sangeda, Fausta Mosha, Said Aboud, Appolinary Kamuhabwa, Guerino Chalamilla, Jurgen Vercauteren, Eric Van Wijngaerden, Eligius F Lyamuya, Anne-Mieke Vandamme
Background: Measurement of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) can serve as a proxy for virologic failure in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to determine the factors underlying nonadherence measured by three methods. Patients and methods: This is a prospective longitudinal cohort of 220 patients on ART at Amana Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We measured adherence using a structured questionnaire combining a visual analog scale (VAS) and Swiss HIV Cohort Study Adherence Questionnaire (SHCS-AQ), pharmacy refill, and appointment keeping during four periods over 1 year...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050329/development-and-validation-of-a-questionnaire-to-self-assess-patient-knowledge-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-kodoa-test
#3
Corina Metaxas, Valerie Albert, Matthias Stahl, Kurt E Hersberger, Isabelle Arnet
Objective: Few studies have examined associations between patient knowledge of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) and clinical outcomes, mostly because of the lack of validated questionnaires for assessing knowledge. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to self-assess knowledge of DOAC. Methods: Twelve anticoagulation experts participated in the questionnaire development process to ensure content validity. The Knowledge Of Direct Oral Anticoagulants (KODOA)-test was submitted to patients on DOAC and to pharmacists to assess construct validity...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038524/erratum-long-term-safety-profile-of-tolvaptan-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-patients-tempo-extension-japan-trial-corrigendum
#4
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 93 in vol. 9, PMID: 29123425.].
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928146/therapeutic-potential-of-medicinal-marijuana-an-educational-primer-for-health-care-professionals
#5
REVIEW
Yara Mouhamed, Andrey Vishnyakov, Bessi Qorri, Manpreet Sambi, Sm Signy Frank, Catherine Nowierski, Anmol Lamba, Umrao Bhatti, Myron R Szewczuk
With the proposed Canadian July 2018 legalization of marijuana through the Cannabis Act, a thorough critical analysis of the current trials on the efficacy of medicinal marijuana (MM) as a treatment option is necessary. This review is particularly important for primary care physicians whose patients may be interested in using MM as an alternative therapy. In response to increased interest in MM, Health Canada released a document in 2013 for general practitioners (GPs) as an educational tool on the efficacy of MM in treating some chronic and acute conditions...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760569/concomitant-use-of-opioid-medications-with-triptans-or-serotonergic-antidepressants-in-us-office-based-physician-visits
#6
Kyle C Molina, Kathleen A Fairman, David A Sclar
Background: Opioids are not recommended for routine treatment of migraine because their benefits are outweighed by risks of medication overuse headache and abuse/dependence. A March 2016 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety communication warned of the risk of serotonin syndrome from using opioids concomitantly with 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonists (triptans) or serotonergic antidepressants: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713203/evaluating-cardiac-risk-exposure-response-analysis-in-early-clinical-drug-development
#7
REVIEW
Julie Grenier, Sabina Paglialunga, Bruce H Morimoto, Robert M Lester
The assessment of a drug's cardiac liability has undergone considerable metamorphosis by regulators since International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirement for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use E14 guideline was introduced in 2005. Drug developers now have a choice in how proarrhythmia risk can be evaluated; the options include a dedicated thorough QT (TQT) study or exposure response (ER) modeling of intensive electrocardiogram (ECG) captured in early clinical development. The alternative approach of ER modeling was incorporated into a guidance document in 2015 as a primary analysis tool which could be utilized in early phase dose escalation studies as an option to perform a dedicated TQT trial...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670404/evaluation-of-vancomycin-therapy-in-the-adult-icus-of-a-teaching-hospital-in-southern-iran
#8
Afsaneh Vazin, Motahare Mahi Birjand, Masoud Darake
Background: Vancomycin resistance in intensive care units (ICUs) accounts for significant morbidity and excess costs. The objective of the present study was to determine the appropriateness of vancomycin use in the various ICUs of Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Methods: This prospective study was performed on 95 critically ill patients (48 males and 47 females) who were treated with vancomycin for at least 3 subsequent doses in 6 ICUs during 12 months. Required demographic, clinical, and paraclinical data were collected by a pharmacist...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593437/calculating-reading-ease-score-of-patient-package-inserts-in-iran
#9
Vahideh Zarea Gavgani, Sedigheh Mirzadeh-Qasabeh, Jalal Hanaee, Hadi Hamishehkar
Background: The patient package inserts (PPIs), which contain the necessary information about medications intended for patients, need to be expressed in a clear language comprehensible to everyone. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the readability and understandability of the drug package inserts for the inexpert people. Methods: The readability of the 158 PPIs of the 33 drugs, registered and manufactured in Iran, was calculated. The main criterion for selecting PPIs to include in this study was of those top-selling drugs during the year 2015 according to the Social Security Organization in Iran...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445304/prevalence-of-medication-errors-in-primary-health-care-at-bahrain-defence-force-hospital-prescription-based-study
#10
Fatema Aljasmi, Fatema Almalood, Ahmed Al Ansari
Background: One of the important activities that physicians - particularly general practitioners - perform is prescribing. It occurs in most health care facilities and especially in primary health care (PHC) settings. Objectives: This study aims to determine what types of prescribing errors are made in PHC at Bahrain Defence Force (BDF) Hospital, and how common they are. Methods: This was a retrospective study of data from PHC at BDF Hospital...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184448/older-adults-and-high-risk-medication-administration-in-the-emergency-department
#11
Mitchell Kim, Steven H Mitchell, Medley Gatewood, Katherine A Bennett, Paul R Sutton, Carol A Crawford, Itay Bentov, Mamatha Damodarasamy, Stephen J Kaplan, May J Reed
Background: Older adults are susceptible to adverse effects from opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and benzodiazepines (BZDs). We investigated factors associated with the administration of elevated doses of these medications of interest to older adults (≥65 years old) in the emergency department (ED). Patients and methods: ED records were queried for the administration of medications of interest to older adults at two academic medical center EDs over a 6-month period...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123425/long-term-safety-profile-of-tolvaptan-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-patients-tempo-extension-japan-trial
#12
Satoru Muto, Tadashi Okada, Moriyoshi Yasuda, Hidetsugu Tsubouchi, Koji Nakajima, Shigeo Horie
Aim: The aim of this trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01280721) was to investigate the long-term safety profile of tolvaptan in Japanese patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Methods: This open-label multicenter trial was conducted to examine adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to tolvaptan up to an additional 3 years in 135 Japanese patients who participated in the Tolvaptan Efficacy and Safety in Management of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease and its Outcomes (TEMPO) 3:4 trial at doses of 60-120 mg/d...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932128/a-suspected-case-of-autoinduction-of-voriconazole-metabolism-in-a-patient-with-cerebral-aspergillosis
#13
Martin J Ferguson, Maria L Randles, Declan G de Freitas
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to report a case of accelerated metabolism of voriconazole in a patient with cerebral aspergillosis. CASE SUMMARY: A 36-year-old woman developed cerebral aspergillosis after immunosuppressive treatment for suspected atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. She was treated with voriconazole using therapeutic drug monitoring to guide dosing. After an initial high level, her dose was reduced, but over the following weeks, she required several dose increases in order to achieve a voriconazole level within the target range...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860862/early-rehospitalizations-of-frail-elderly-patients-the-role-of-medications-a-clinical-prospective-observational-trial
#14
Niklas Ekerstad, Kristoffer Bylin, Björn W Karlson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Early readmissions of frail elderly patients after an episode of hospital care are common and constitute a crucial patient safety outcome. Our purpose was to study the impact of medications on such early rehospitalizations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a clinical, prospective, observational study on rehospitalizations within 30 days after an acute hospital episode for frail patients over the age of 75 years. To identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs), underuse of evidence-based treatment and avoidability of rehospitalizations, the Naranjo score, the Hallas criteria and clinical judgment were used...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860861/potential-drug-drug-interactions-in-inpatients-treated-at-the-internal-medicine-ward-of-tikur-anbessa-specialized-hospital
#15
Zelalem Tilahun Tesfaye, Teshome Nedi
PURPOSE: Although the concomitant use of multiple drugs often increases therapeutic effectiveness, certain combinations result in unwanted drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Most interactions go unnoticed by physicians due to the absence of new clinical signs and symptoms, and because they often produce a worsening of already existing symptoms. Quantification of the occurrence of the potential DDIs is essential to prevent the harmful effects associated with interactions. This study was launched to assess the prevalence of potential DDIs in the Internal Medicine ward of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814901/prediction-of-drug-related-problems-in-diabetic-outpatients-in-a-number-of-hospitals-using-a-modeling-approach
#16
Ghaith M Al-Taani, Sayer I Al-Azzam, Karem H Alzoubi, Feras W Darwish Elhajji, Michael G Scott, Hamzah Alfahel, Mamoon A Aldeyab
OBJECTIVE: Drug-related problems (DRPs) are considered a serious, expensive, and important undesirable complication of health care. However, as current health care resources are limited, pharmacist DRP services cannot be provided to all patients. Using a modeling approach, we aimed to identify risk factors for DRPs so that patients for DRP-reduction services can be better identified. METHODS: Patients with diabetes from outpatient clinics from five key university-affiliated and public hospitals in Jordan were assessed for DRPs (drug without an indication, untreated indication, and drug efficacy problems)...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652818/adaptation-of-the-european-commission-recommended-user-testing-method-to-patient-medication-information-leaflets-in-japan
#17
Michiko Yamamoto, Hirohisa Doi, Ken Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Watanabe, Tsugumichi Sato, Machi Suka, Takeo Nakayama, Hiroki Sugimori
BACKGROUND: The safe use of drugs relies on providing accurate drug information to patients. In Japan, patient leaflets called Drug Guide for Patients are officially available; however, their utility has never been verified. This is the first attempt to improve Drug Guide for Patients via user testing in Japan. PURPOSE: To test and improve communication of drug information to minimize risk for patients via user testing of the current and revised versions of Drug Guide for Patients, and to demonstrate that this method is effective for improving Drug Guide for Patients in Japan...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579836/update-on-the-renal-toxicity-of-iodinated-contrast-drugs-used-in-clinical-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Michele Andreucci, Teresa Faga, Raffaele Serra, Giovambattista De Sarro, Ashour Michael
An important side effect of diagnostic contrast drugs is contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI; a sudden decrease in renal function) occurring 48-72 hours after injection of a contrast drug that cannot be attributed to other causes. Its existence has recently been challenged, because of some retrospective studies in which the incidence of AKI was not different between subjects who received a contrast drug and those who did not, even using propensity score matching to prevent selection bias. For some authors, only patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507450/patient-safety-attitudes-of-pharmacy-students-in-an-ethiopian-university-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Henok Getachew Tegegn, Tamrat Befekadu Abebe, Mohammed Biset Ayalew, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula
INTRODUCTION: Patient safety is a major health care concern and is being included in an undergraduate curriculum as it plays a major role in lessening harm. Therefore, we aim to assess the attitude of pharmacy students toward patient safety. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire containing 21 items was conducted at the University of Gondar among fourth and fifth year students. Data analysis was performed to calculate mean, standard deviation, percentages, and logistic regressions using SPSS software version 22 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA)...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356773/update-on-the-usage-and-safety-of-epinephrine-auto-injectors-2017
#20
REVIEW
Larry S Posner, Carlos A Camargo
Anaphylaxis is a serious, potentially fatal allergic reaction. Guidelines recommend prompt intramuscular injections of epinephrine as the first-line therapy for anaphylaxis. Delayed epinephrine treatment may cause undesirable clinical outcomes, including death. In the community, epinephrine auto-injectors (EAIs) are commonly used to treat anaphylaxis. This literature review examines several recent concerns regarding the safety of EAIs that may prevent the timely administration of epinephrine. Reports of cardiovascular complications are linked with epinephrine administration, although recent studies suggest that these events are much more commonly associated with intravenous epinephrine rather than with EAIs...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
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