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Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety

Natalie T Roy, Erin E Ulrich
OBJECTIVE: Improving the patient-physician relationship through patient involvement in the care may lead to improved patient safety and better health outcomes. There exists a gap in knowledge in identifying factors that affect self-reported patient involvement in individualized treatment plans. The objectives of this study were to 1) describe patients' perceptions of their involvement in the creation and implementation of their treatment plans and 2) determine if patient involvement varied by medical condition or demographic characteristics...
2017: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Nasrin Navabi, Fatemeh Ghaffari, Abbas Shamsalinia, Safieh Faghani
INTRODUCTION: The need for valid, reliable, and objective tools has always been emphasized in studies related to the clinical assessment of nursing students. The aims of this study were to develop and assess the validity and reliability of the tools used to evaluate the clinical pharmacology unit. METHODS: This study was a methodological one, conducted in 2016. An item pool was developed based on the literature review and personal interviews with faculty members...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Appolinary Ar Kamuhabwa, Richard Gordian, Ritah F Mutagonda
BACKGROUND: In 2011, Tanzania adopted a policy for provision of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to HIV-infected pregnant women for prevention of malaria and other opportunistic infections. As per the policy, HIV-infected pregnant women should not be given sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive therapy. The challenges associated with this policy change and the extent to which the new policy for prevention of malaria in pregnant women coinfected with HIV was implemented need to be assessed...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Sewunet Admasu Belachew, Daniel Asfaw Erku, Abebe Basazn Mekuria, Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a global problem and constitute a major clinical problem in terms of human suffering. The high toxicity and narrow therapeutic index of chemotherapeutic agents makes oncology pharmacovigilance essential. The objective of the present study was to assess the pattern of ADRs occurring in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study over a 2-year period from September 2013 to August 2015 was conducted on cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy at Gondar University Referral Hospital Oncology Center...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Francesco Di Pierro, Maria Colombo, Alberto Zanvit, Amilcare S Rottoli
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12(®)) is a probiotic strain producing the bacteriocins salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B, both of which strongly antagonize the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. It successfully colonizes and exhibits persistence in the oral cavity and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. Previous observations of a small group of children indicated that the use of BLIS K12 could also reduce the occurrence of viral pharyngitis...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Walelegn Worku Yallew, Abera Kumie, Feleke Moges Yehuala
PURPOSE: Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is a major safety issue affecting the quality of care of hundreds of millions of patients every year, in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive research that presents the whole picture of HAIs in hospitals. The objective of this study was to examine the nature and extent of HAIs in Ethiopia. METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted in two teaching hospitals...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Daniel Asfaw Erku, Abebe Basazn Mekuria, Abdrrahman Shemsu Surur, Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie
PURPOSE: This study was aimed at assessing the extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets (CDROs) of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study design was used to sample 31 pharmacies, 25 drug stores, and two rural drug vendors from August 11, 2015, to October 21, 2015, through a simple random sampling method. A simulated-patient method of visit was implemented to collect data...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Joanna DaCosta, Saad Younis
This report describes a case of reversible topiramate-induced maculopathy in a 32-year-old female patient with IgG4-related disease. The patient presented with decreased vision associated with anterior uveitis and cystoid macula edema, which was unresponsive to oral and topical steroids. Following topiramate cessation, both cystoid macula edema and vision improved. The ocular side effects of topiramate and putative pharmacological mechanisms for topiramate-induced maculopathy in the context of IgG4-related disease are discussed...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Solvejg Kristensen, Naina Túgvustein, Hjørdis Zachariassen, Svend Sabroe, Paul Bartels, Jan Mainz
PURPOSE: The Faroe Islands are formally part of the Kingdom of Denmark, but the islands enjoy extensive autonomy as home ruled. In Denmark, extensive quality management initiatives have been implemented throughout hospitals, this was not the case in the Faroese Islands in 2013. The purpose of this study is to investigate the patient safety culture in the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands prior to implementation of quality management initiatives. METHODS: The Danish version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ-DK) was distributed electronically to 557 staff members from five medical centers of the hospital, and one administrative unit...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Rachel B Weinstein, Martijn J Schuemie, Patrick B Ryan, Paul E Stang
BACKGROUND: Presumed seasonal use of acetaminophen-containing products for relief of cold/influenza ("flu") symptoms suggests that there might also be a corresponding seasonal pattern for acute liver injury (ALI), a known clinical consequence of acetaminophen overdose. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether there were any temporal patterns in hospitalizations for ALI that would correspond to assumed acetaminophen use in cold/flu season. METHODS: In the period 2002-2010, monthly hospitalization rates for ALI using a variety of case definitions were calculated...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Vladimir Trkulja
Apixaban, a direct orally active anticoagulant (selective, direct factor Xa inhibitor) is approved for (primary) prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing elective total-hip or total-knee arthroplasty, for acute treatment/prevention of recurrent events in patients with VTE, and extended prophylaxis in patients with a history of VTE. Another approved use is prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The present overview focuses on the safety of apixaban specifically in the VTE setting...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Santosh Bhusal, Sherilyn Diomampo, Marina N Magrey
Fibromyalgia is a chronic debilitating medical syndrome with limited therapeutic options. Pregabalin, an anticonvulsant and α-2-Δ subunit receptor ligand, is one of the anchor drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of fibromyalgia. The drug has shown clinically meaningful benefits across multiple symptom domains of fibromyalgia. Efficacy of pregabalin in fibromyalgia pain has been evaluated in at least five high-quality randomized trials, two long-term extension studies, a meta-analysis, a Cochrane database systematic review, and several post hoc analyses...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Sirirat Tribuddharat, Thepakorn Sathitkarnmanee, Amnat Kitkhuandee, Sunchai Theerapongpakdee, Kriangsak Ngamsaengsirisup, Sarinya Chanthawong
Cefazolin is commonly administered before surgery as a prophylactic antibiotic. Hypersensitivity to cefazolin is not uncommon, and the symptoms mostly include urticaria, skin reaction, diarrhea, vomiting, and transient neutropenia, which are rarely life threatening. We present a rare case of fatal cefazolin hypersensitivity in a female who was diagnosed with multiple meningiomas and scheduled for craniotomy and tumor removal. Immediately after cefazolin IV administration, the patient developed acute hypertensive crisis, which resolved within 10 minutes after the treatment...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Daniela Pugliese, Carla Felice, Rosario Landi, Alfredo Papa, Luisa Guidi, Alessandro Armuzzi
Significant advances in the management of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have been made since the introduction of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha agents, especially for those who fail or do not tolerate conventional therapies. Two drugs, infliximab first, then adalimumab afterward, showed effectiveness in inducing and maintaining long-term remission both in pivotal trials as well as in clinical practice. However, approximately 25% of patients with UC, who fail or do not tolerate all available therapies, require a colectomy for refractory disease...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Andrew L Dodgen, Kevin D Hill
Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor approved for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in adults. Data from pediatric trials demonstrate a similar acute safety profile to the adult population but have raised concerns regarding the safety of long-term use in children. Interpretation of these trials remains controversial with major regulatory agencies differing in their recommendations - the US Food and Drug Administration recommends against the use of sildenafil for treatment of PAH in children, while the European Medicines Agency supports its use at "low doses"...
2015: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Michele Jara, Thomas Aquilina, Peter Aupperle, Adrian L Rabinowicz
BACKGROUND: Dalfampridine extended release tablets (dalfampridine-ER; prolonged-, modified, or sustained-release fampridine outside the US), 10 mg twice daily, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in January 2010 to improve walking in people with multiple sclerosis, as determined by an increase in walking speed. OBJECTIVE: To provide a descriptive analysis of reported adverse events (AEs) for commercially available dalfampridine-ER from March 2010 through March 31, 2015...
2015: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Alberto Gajofatto, Marco Turatti, Salvatore Monaco, Maria Donata Benedetti
Fingolimod is a selective immunosuppressive agent approved worldwide for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic and potentially disabling neurological condition. Randomized double-blind clinical trials have shown that fingolimod significantly reduces relapse rate and ameliorates a number of brain MRI measures, including cerebral atrophy, compared to both placebo and intramuscular interferon-β1a. The effect on disability progression remains controversial, since one Phase III trial showed a significant benefit of treatment while two others did not...
2015: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Appolinary Ar Kamuhabwa, Vicky Manyanga
BACKGROUND: If children born to HIV-infected mothers are not identified early, approximately 30% of them will die within the first year of life due to opportunistic infections. In order to prevent morbidity and mortality due to opportunistic infections in children, the World Health Organization recommends the use of prophylaxis using co-trimoxazole. However, the challenges affecting effective implementation of this policy in Tanzania have not been documented. AIM: In this study, we assessed the challenges facing the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the public hospitals of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania...
2015: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Kevin J Friesen, Shawn C Bugden
BACKGROUND: Citalopram is the most commonly prescribed antidepressant in Canada. Concerns have been raised about its cardiac safety, and a dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval has been documented. Drug interactions involving concomitant use of other medications that prolong the QT interval or increase citalopram levels by interfering with its metabolism increase the cardiac risk. Regulatory bodies (Health Canada and the US Food and Drug Administration) issued warnings and required labeling changes in 2011/2012, suggesting maximum citalopram doses (<40 mg for those <65 years; <20 mg for those ≥65 years) and avoiding drug interactions that increase cardiac risk...
2015: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Jason F Lester, Malcolm D Mason
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the mainstay of treatment for advanced prostate cancer for decades, and has been shown to control disease and improve symptoms. In addition, for men with high-risk localized or locally advanced prostate cancer, short-course ADT in combination with radiotherapy improves survival. There is evidence that ADT increases cardiovascular risk, particularly in men with preexisting cardiovascular disease. This increased risk may apply even with short-course ADT. In an individual patient, the benefits of ADT should be balanced against the risk, and patients who require ADT should have risk factors for cardiovascular disease optimized...
2015: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
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