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Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences

Ahmad A Al-Ghamdi, Nowfal I M Bayaqoob, Ahmed I Rushdi, Yehya Alattal, Bernd R T Simoneit, Aarif H El-Mubarak, Khalid F Al-Mutlaq
Propolis is a gummy material made by honeybees for protecting their hives from bacteria and fungi. The main objective of this study is to determine the chemical compositions and concentrations of organic compounds in the extractable organic matter (EOM) of propolis samples collected from four different regions in Yemen. The propolis samples were extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the total extract yields ranged from 34% to 67% (mean = 55...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Ahmad A Al-Ghamdi, Nuru Adgaba, Yilma Tadesse, Awraris Getachew, Anwer A Al-Maktary
The aims of this study were to assess the seasonal population dynamics and evaluate the performance of Apis mellifera jemenitica (local bee) and introduced hybrid honeybee colonies in the lowlands and highlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia. Data regarding the performance and population dynamics parameters such as brood and adult bee population, amounts of stored pollen and nectar were gathered from the two races (25 colonies of each) for one year (April 2013 through March 2014), and statistically tested. The results indicated that at low lands, local bee colonies maintained relatively high brood and adult bee populations (P < 0...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Hussain Ali, Abdulaziz S Alqarni, Ayman A Owayss, Awad M Hassan, Brian H Smith
Hemolymph osmolarity has great effect on honey bee health, especially in arid and semi-arid zones. It regulates water and nutrients in stressed tissues. Osmotic concentration in three races (Apis mellifera ligustica, A. m. carnica and A. m. jemenitica) of Apis mellifera was tested in central Saudi Arabia during spring and summer seasons in 2015. Newly emerged bee workers were first marked and later their hemolymph was extracted after intervals of 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days. A significant positive correlation between age and osmolarity was found in all three races during spring and summer seasons...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Ahmed A Al-Ghamdi, Nuru Adgaba, Ahmed H Herab, Mohammad J Ansari
Information on the profitability and productivity of box hives is important to encourage beekeepers to adopt the technology. However, comparative analysis of profitability and productivity of box and traditional hives is not adequately available. The study was carried out on 182 beekeepers using cross sectional survey and employing a random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Cobb-Douglas (CD) production function and partial budgeting. The CD production function revealed that supplementary bee feeds, labor and medication were statistically significant for both box and traditional hives...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Ming-Cheng Wu, Ting-Hsuan Lu, Kuang-Hui Lu
Beekeeping has been a highly valued industry in Taiwan. As a result, many subspecies of Apis mellifera have been introduced to Taiwan since 1911, leading to the hybridization of different subspecies. In order to know the matrilineal origins of Taiwan A. mellifera, a total of 280 samples collected from 33 apiaries throughout the island were examined. Using PCR-RFLP of four mitochondrial gene fragments, i.e., the non-coding region between tRNA(leu) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (intergenic tRNA(leu)-COII), cytochrome b (Cyt b), large subunit rRNA (Ls rRNA) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), we only found two haplotypes exist in 280 samples...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Khalid Ali Khan, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Ahmad Al-Ghamdi, Adgaba Nuru, Steve Harakeh, Javaid Iqbal
The microbial communities associated with the alimentary tract of honey bees are very important as they help with food digestion, provide essential nutrients, protect the host from pathogens, detoxify harmful molecules, and increase host immunity. In this study, the structural diversity of the gut microbial communities of native honey bees, Apis mellifera jemenitica from two different geographical regions (Riyadh and Al-Baha) of Saudi Arabia was analyzed by culture-dependent methods and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Giovanni Benelli, Stefano Benvenuti, Pier Luigi Scaramozzino, Angelo Canale
Abundance and diversity of insect pollinators are declining in many ecosystems worldwide. The abundance and diversity of wild and managed bees are related to the availability of continuous floral resources. In particular, in Mediterranean basin countries, the presence of wildflower spots enhances the establishment of social Apoidea, since coastal regions are usually characterized by pollen and nectar shortage in early spring and late summer. Anthyllis barba-jovis produces both nectar and pollen as important food source for bees helping them to overcome early spring period food shortage...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Saad Naser Al-Kahtani, El-Kazafy Abdou Taha, Mohammed Al-Abdulsalam
This investigation was conducted at the Agricultural and Veterinary Training and Research Station, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, during the alfalfa growing season in 2014. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of phosphorus fertilization and honeybee pollination on alfalfa seed production. The experiment was divided into 9 treatments of open pollination, honeybee pollination, and non-pollination with three different levels (0, 300 or 600 kg P2O5/ha/year) of triple super phosphate. All vegetative growth attributes of Hassawi alfalfa were significantly higher in the non-insect pollination plots, while the yield and yield component traits were significantly higher with either open pollination or honeybee pollination in parallel with the increasing level of phosphorus fertilizer up to 600 kg P2O5/ha/year in light salt-affected loamy sand soils...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Paolo Zoccali, Antonino Malacrinò, Orlando Campolo, Francesca Laudani, Giuseppe M Algeri, Giulia Giunti, Cinzia P Strano, Giovanni Benelli, Vincenzo Palmeri
Honeybees are critically important for the environment and to the economy. However, there are in substantial decline worldwide, leading to serious threat to the stability and yield of food crops. Beekeeping is of pivotal importance, combining the wide economical aspect of honey production and the important ecological services provided by honeybees. In this scenario, the prompt identification of beekeeping areas is strategic, since it maximised productivity and lowered the risks of colony losses. Fuzzy logic is an ideal approach for problem-solving tasks, as it is specifically designed to manage problems with a high degree of uncertainty...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Nuru Adgaba, Ahmed Alghamdi, Rachid Sammoud, Awraris Shenkute, Yilma Tadesse, Mahammad J Ansari, Deepak Sharma, Colleen Hepburn
In arid zones, the shortage of bee forage is critical and usually compels beekeepers to move their colonies in search of better forages. Identifying and mapping the spatiotemporal distribution of the bee forages over given area is important for better management of bee colonies. In this study honey bee plants in the target areas were inventoried following, ground inventory work supported with GIS applications. The study was conducted on 85 large plots of 50 × 50 m each. At each plot, data on species name, height, base diameter, crown height, crown diameter has been taken for each plant with their respective geographical positions...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Ardo Sabir, Andi Sumidarti
Background: Propolis is a natural product of plant resins collected by honeybees from various plant sources. It is used as a remedy in folk medicine since ancient times because of its several biological and pharmacological properties. Recently, propolis has been used by dentist to treat various oral diseases. It was always mentioned as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cytokines are proteins that provide communication between cells and play a critical role in a wide variety of processes. It released from cells in an inflammatory process that active, mediate or potential actions of other cells or tissues...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Sultan Ayoub Meo, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Kamran Sattar, Habib Ullah Chaudhary, Waseem Hajjar, Saleh Alasiri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Since ancient times, honey has been used due to its nutritional and therapeutic value. The role of honey has been acknowledged in the scientific literature however, its use has been controversially discussed and has not been well accepted in modern medicine especially for diabetic patients. This study aimed to investigate the role of honey in diabetic patients. METHODS: In this study, we identified 107 research articles from data based search engines including "PubMed", "ISI-Web of Science", "Embase" and "Google Scholar"...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Chun-Hsien Lin, Mong-Chuan Lee, Jason T C Tzen, Hsien-Ming Lee, Sam-Min Chang, Wu-Chun Tu, Chuen-Fu Lin
Emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) has become a critical clinical problem worldwide and limited therapeutic options for infectious diseases caused by MDRAB. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of new antimicrobial agents or alternative therapy to combat MDRAB infection. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of Mastoparan-AF (MP-AF), an amphipathic peptide isolated from the hornet venom of Vespa affinis with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, on MDRAB...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Nighat Perveen, Munir Ahmad
Quantitative studies concerning total and differential haemocyte counts and abnormalities were performed under laboratory conditions for larvae, pupae and adults collected from a wild Apis dorsata colony. Haemolymph samples were observed immediately, thirty and sixty minutes after field recommended concentration exposure of five different insecticides. Total haemocyte counts were significantly higher for larvae and pupae but less for adult bees, however, differential haemocyte counts insignificantly different...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Dalal Musleh Aljedani
This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of some insecticides (abamectin and deltamethrin) on the lethal time (LT50) and midgut of foragers honeybee workers of Apis mellifera jemenatica were studied under laboratory conditions. The bees were provided with water, food, natural protein and sugar solution with insecticide (concentration: 2.50 ppm deltamethrin and 0.1 ppm abamectin). The control group was not treated with any kind of insecticides. The mortality was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hour (h) after insecticides treatment and period to calculate the value of lethal time (LT50)...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Mohammad Javed Ansari, Ahmad Al-Ghamdi, Salma Usmani, Khalid Ali Khan, Abdulaziz S Alqarni, Manpreet Kaur, Noori Al-Waili
Ascosphaera apis is one of the major fungal pathogens of honey bee broods and the causative agent of Chalkbrood disease. The factors responsible for the pathogenesis of Chalkbrood disease are still not fully understood, and the increasing resistance of A. apis to commonly used antifungal agents necessitates a search for new agents to control this disease. The in vitro antifungal activities of 27 plant essential oils against two isolates of A. apis (Aksu-4 and Aksu-9) were evaluated. Out of the 27 plant essential oils tested, 21 were found to be effective in killing both isolates of A...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Li Li, Zhe-Guang Lin, Shuai Wang, Xiao-Ling Su, Hong-Ri Gong, Hong-Liang Li, Fu-Liang Hu, Huo-Qing Zheng
Varroa destructor, a key biotic threat to the Western honey bee, has played a major role in colony losses over the past few years worldwide. Overuse of traditional acaricides, such as tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin, on V. destructor has only increased its tolerance to them. Therefore, the application of essential oils in place of traditional pesticides is an attractive alternative, as demonstrated by its high efficiency, lack of residue and tolerance resistance. To study the acaricidal activity of essential oils, we used clove oil (Syzygium aromaticum L...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Yehya Alattal, Ahmad AlGhamdi, Arif Single, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Hussien Alkathiri
Varroa mite is the most destructive pest to bee colonies worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, preliminary data indicated high infestation levels in the exotic honeybee colonies; such as Apis mellifera carnica and Apis mellifera ligustica, compared to native honeybee subspecies Apis mellifera jemenitica, which may imply higher tolerance to Varroasis. In this study, fertility and reproductive rate of Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, in capped brood cells of the native honeybee subspecies were investigated and compared with an exotic honeybee subspecies, A...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Mohammad Javed Ansari, Ahmad Al-Ghamdi, Adgaba Nuru, Khalid Ali Khan, Yehya Alattal
The aim of the study was to detect the infection level of honey bees with Nosema apis and/or Nosema ceranae using microscopic and molecular analysis from indigenous honeybee race of eight Saudi Arabian geographical regions. A detailed survey was conducted and fifty apiaries were chosen at random from these locations. Infection level was determined both by microscope and Multiplex-PCR and data were analyzed using bioinformatics tools and phylogenetic analysis. Result showed that N. ceranae was the only species infecting indigenous honeybee colonies in Saudi Arabia...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Roberto Papini, Francesca Mancianti, Roberto Canovai, Francesca Cosci, Guido Rocchigiani, Giovanni Benelli, Angelo Canale
Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis are microsporidia which play an important role in the epidemiology of honeybee microsporidiosis worldwide. Nosemiasis reduces honeybee population size and causes significant losses in honey production. To the best of our knowledge, limited information is available about the prevalence of nosemiasis in Italy. In this research, we determined the occurrence of Nosema infection in Central Italy. Thirty-eight seemingly healthy apiaries (2 to 4 hives each) were randomly selected and screened from April to September 2014 (n = 11) or from May to September 2015 (n = 27)...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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