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Research Synthesis Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834422/adapting-realist-synthesis-methodology-the-case-of-workplace-harassment-interventions
#1
Tracey Carr, Elizabeth Quinlan, Susan Robertson, Angie Gerrard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801932/introduction-comparison-and-validation-of-meta-essentials-a-free-and-simple-tool-for-meta-analysis
#2
Robert Suurmond, Henk van Rhee, Tony Hak
We present a new tool for meta-analysis, Meta-Essentials, which is free-of-charge and easy to use. In this paper, we introduce the tool and compare its features to other tools for meta-analysis. We also provide detailed information on the validation of the tool. Though free-of-charge and simple, Meta-Essentials automatically calculates effect sizes from a wide range of statistics and can be used for a wide range of meta-analysis applications, including subgroup analysis, moderator analysis, and publication bias analyses...
August 12, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759708/methods-for-including-information-from-multi-arm-trials-in-pairwise-meta-analysis
#3
Gerta Rücker, Christopher J Cates, Guido Schwarzer
Systematic reviewers conducting pairwise meta-analyses sometimes encounter multi-arm studies. To include these studies, in order to avoid a unit-of-analysis error, often two or more arms are combined or the control arm is split up. In this tutorial we present five different approaches that can be used. Particularly, we present a novel approach (Method 4) that to the best of our knowledge has not been presented before. We demonstrate their application on three selected data sets, discuss their scope of application and their advantages and limitations, and give recommendations...
July 31, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742955/bayesian-one-step-ipd-network-meta-analysis-of-time-to-event-data-using-royston-parmar-models
#4
Suzanne C Freeman, James R Carpenter
Network meta-analysis (NMA) combines direct and indirect evidence from trials to calculate and rank treatment estimates. While modelling approaches for continuous and binary outcomes are relatively well developed, less work has been done with time-to-event outcomes. Such outcomes are usually analysed using Cox proportional hazard (PH) models. However, in oncology with longer follow-up time, and time-dependent effects of targeted treatments, this may no longer be appropriate. Network meta-analysis conducted in the Bayesian setting has been increasing in popularity...
July 25, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741808/reconciling-disparate-data-to-determine-the-right-answer-a-grounded-theory-of-meta-analysts-reasoning-in-meta-analysis
#5
Lisa Chan, Mary Ellen Macdonald, Franco A Carnevale, Russ Steele, Ian Shrier
While the systematic review process is intended to maximize objectivity and limit researchers' biases, examples remain of discordant recommendations from meta-analyses. Current guidelines to explore discrepancies assume the variation is produced by methodological differences, and thus focus only on the study process. Since heterogeneity of interpretation also occurs when experts examine the same data, our purpose was to examine if there are 'reasoning' differences, i.e., in how information is processed and valued...
July 25, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737842/network-meta-analysis-of-disconnected-networks-how-dangerous-are-random-baseline-treatment-effects
#6
Audrey Béliveau, Sarah Goring, Robert W Platt, Paul Gustafson
In network meta-analysis, the use of fixed baseline treatment effects (a priori independent) in a contrast-based approach is regularly preferred to the use of random baseline treatment effects (a priori dependent). That is because, often, there is not a need to model baseline treatment effects, which carry the risk of model misspecification. However, in disconnected networks, fixed baseline treatment effects do not work (unless extra assumptions are made), as there is not enough information in the data to update the prior distribution on the contrasts between disconnected treatments...
July 24, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732142/network-meta-analysis-including-treatment-by-covariate-interactions-consistency-can-vary-across-covariate-values
#7
Sarah Donegan, Nicky J Welton, Catrin Tudur Smith, Umberto D'Alessandro, Sofia Dias
BACKGROUND: Many reviews aim to compare numerous treatments and report results stratified by subgroups (eg, by disease severity). In such cases, a network meta-analysis model including treatment by covariate interactions can estimate the relative effects of all treatment pairings for each subgroup of patients. Two key assumptions underlie such models: consistency of treatment effects and consistency of the regression coefficients for the interactions. Consistency may differ depending on the covariate value at which consistency is assessed...
July 21, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703492/comparison-of-a-full-systematic-review-versus-rapid-review-approaches-to-assess-a-newborn-screening-test-for-tyrosinemia-type-1
#8
Sian Taylor-Phillips, Julia Geppert, Chris Stinton, Karoline Freeman, Samantha Johnson, Hannah Fraser, Paul Sutcliffe, Aileen Clarke
BACKGROUND: Rapid reviews are increasingly used to replace/complement systematic reviews to support evidence-based decision-making. Little is known about how this expedited process affects results. OBJECTIVES: To assess differences between rapid and systematic review approaches for a case study of test accuracy of succinylacetone for detecting tyrosinemia type 1. METHODS: Two reviewers conducted an 'enhanced' rapid review then a systematic review...
July 13, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677339/towards-a-taxonomy-of-logic-models-in-systematic-reviews-and-health-technology-assessments-a-priori-staged-and-iterative-approaches
#9
Eva A Rehfuess, Andrew Booth, Louise Brereton, Jacob Burns, Ansgar Gerhardus, Kati Mozygemba, Wija Oortwijn, Lisa M Pfadenhauer, Marcia Tummers, Gert-Jan van der Wilt, Anke Rohwer
The complexity associated with how interventions result-or fail to result-in outcomes and how context matters is increasingly recognised. Logic models provide an important tool for handling complexity, with contrasting uses in programme evaluation and evidence synthesis. To reconcile these, we developed an approach that combines the strengths of both traditions, propose a taxonomy of logic models, and provide guidance on how to choose between approaches and types of logic models in systematic reviews and health technology assessments (HTA)...
July 5, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719074/influence-diagnostics-in-meta-regression-model
#10
Lei Shi, ShanShan Zuo, Dalei Yu, Xiaohua Zhou
This paper studies the influence diagnostics in meta-regression model including case deletion diagnostic and local influence analysis. We derive the subset deletion formulae for the estimation of regression coefficient and heterogeneity variance and obtain the corresponding influence measures. The DerSimonian and Laird estimation and maximum likelihood estimation methods in meta-regression are considered, respectively, to derive the results. Internal and external residual and leverage measure are defined. The local influence analysis based on case-weights perturbation scheme, responses perturbation scheme, covariate perturbation scheme, and within-variance perturbation scheme are explored...
September 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683516/diagnostics-for-generalized-linear-hierarchical-models-in-network-meta-analysis
#11
Hong Zhao, James S Hodges, Bradley P Carlin
Network meta-analysis (NMA) combines direct and indirect evidence comparing more than 2 treatments. Inconsistency arises when these 2 information sources differ. Previous work focuses on inconsistency detection, but little has been done on how to proceed after identifying inconsistency. The key issue is whether inconsistency changes an NMA's substantive conclusions. In this paper, we examine such discrepancies from a diagnostic point of view. Our methods seek to detect influential and outlying observations in NMA at a trial-by-arm level...
September 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677322/an-exploration-of-crowdsourcing-citation-screening-for-systematic-reviews
#12
Michael L Mortensen, Gaelen P Adam, Thomas A Trikalinos, Tim Kraska, Byron C Wallace
Systematic reviews are increasingly used to inform health care decisions, but are expensive to produce. We explore the use of crowdsourcing (distributing tasks to untrained workers via the web) to reduce the cost of screening citations. We used Amazon Mechanical Turk as our platform and 4 previously conducted systematic reviews as examples. For each citation, workers answered 4 or 5 questions that were equivalent to the eligibility criteria. We aggregated responses from multiple workers into an overall decision to include or exclude the citation using 1 of 9 algorithms and compared the performance of these algorithms to the corresponding decisions of trained experts...
September 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660680/text-mining-for-search-term-development-in-systematic-reviewing-a-discussion-of-some-methods-and-challenges
#13
Claire Stansfield, Alison O'Mara-Eves, James Thomas
Using text mining to aid the development of database search strings for topics described by diverse terminology has potential benefits for systematic reviews; however, methods and tools for accomplishing this are poorly covered in the research methods literature. We briefly review the literature on applications of text mining for search term development for systematic reviewing. We found that the tools can be used in 5 overarching ways: improving the precision of searches; identifying search terms to improve search sensitivity; aiding the translation of search strategies across databases; searching and screening within an integrated system; and developing objectively derived search strategies...
September 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631402/authors-response-to-letter-to-the-editor
#14
LETTER
Michael Borenstein, Julian P T Higgins, Larry V Hedges, Hannah R Rothstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631294/practical-challenges-of-i-2-as-a-measure-of-heterogeneity
#15
LETTER
David C Hoaglin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585280/meta-analysis-combining-parallel-and-crossover-trials-using-generalised-estimating-equation-method
#16
François Curtin
Clinical trials have different designs: In late stage drug development, the parallel trial design is the most frequent one; however, the crossover design is not rare; different techniques are used to analyse their results. Although both designs measure the same treatment effect, combining parallel and crossover trials in a meta-analysis is not straightforward. We present here a meta-analysis method based on generalised estimating equation (GEE) regression to combine aggregated results of crossover and parallel trials using a marginal estimation approach...
September 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453179/the-albatross-plot-a-novel-graphical-tool-for-presenting-results-of-diversely-reported-studies-in-a-systematic-review
#17
Sean Harrison, Hayley E Jones, Richard M Martin, Sarah J Lewis, Julian P T Higgins
Meta-analyses combine the results of multiple studies of a common question. Approaches based on effect size estimates from each study are generally regarded as the most informative. However, these methods can only be used if comparable effect sizes can be computed from each study, and this may not be the case due to variation in how the studies were done or limitations in how their results were reported. Other methods, such as vote counting, are then used to summarize the results of these studies, but most of these methods are limited in that they do not provide any indication of the magnitude of effect...
September 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429470/meta-analysis-combining-parallel-and-cross-over-trials-with-random-effects
#18
François Curtin
Meta-analysis can necessitate the combination of parallel and cross-over trial designs. Because of the differences in the trial designs and potential biases notably associated with the crossover trials, one often combines trials of the same designs only, which decreases the power of the meta-analysis. To combine results of clinical trials from parallel and cross-over designs, we extend the method proposed in an accompanying study to account for random effects. We propose here a hierarchical mixed model allowing the combination of the 2 types of trial designs and accounting for additional covariates where random effects can be introduced to account for heterogeneity in trial, treatment effect, and interactions...
September 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429447/using-the-realist-perspective-to-link-theory-from-qualitative-evidence-synthesis-to-quantitative-studies-broadening-the-matrix-approach
#19
Leonie van Grootel, Floryt van Wesel, Alison O'Mara-Eves, James Thomas, Joop Hox, Hennie Boeije
BACKGROUND: This study describes an approach for the use of a specific type of qualitative evidence synthesis in the matrix approach, a mixed studies reviewing method. The matrix approach compares quantitative and qualitative data on the review level by juxtaposing concrete recommendations from the qualitative evidence synthesis against interventions in primary quantitative studies. However, types of qualitative evidence syntheses that are associated with theory building generate theoretical models instead of recommendations...
September 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378395/power-analysis-for-random-effects-meta-analysis
#20
Dan Jackson, Rebecca Turner
One of the reasons for the popularity of meta-analysis is the notion that these analyses will possess more power to detect effects than individual studies. This is inevitably the case under a fixed-effect model. However, the inclusion of the between-study variance in the random-effects model, and the need to estimate this parameter, can have unfortunate implications for this power. We develop methods for assessing the power of random-effects meta-analyses, and the average power of the individual studies that contribute to meta-analyses, so that these powers can be compared...
September 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
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