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Journal of Asthma and Allergy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719412/acute-effects-of-smoke-exposure-on-airway-and-systemic-inflammation-in-forest-firefighters
#1
Niki Gianniou, Charilena Giannakopoulou, Efrossini Dima, Matina Kardara, Paraskevi Katsaounou, Alexandros Tsakatikas, Charis Roussos, Nikolaos Koulouris, Nikoletta Rovina
Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess respiratory health and airway and systemic inflammation in professional forest firefighters post firefighting. Methods: A total of 60 firefighters who participated in forest firefighting operations in Greece during 2008 were included in the study. A questionnaire consisting of symptoms and exposure, pulmonary function, atopy, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and markers of inflammation in induced sputum, serum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was assessed...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692617/both-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-and-sputum-eosinophil-were-associated-with-uncontrolled-asthma
#2
Jie Gao, Zhaocheng Chen, Xiang Jie, Ruihua Ye, Feng Wu
Background: Sputum eosinophil and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), noninvasive biomarkers of local eosinophilic airway inflammation, can be used to assess asthma outcome. Nevertheless, the clinical application of the association between FeNO and sputum eosinophil is controversial. The aim of the study was to investigate the predictive relationship between FeNO and sputum eosinophil in uncontrolled asthmatic patients and the correlation between sputum eosinophil and FeNO in bronchial reversibility and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR)...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670379/assessment-of-an-accessorized-pre-filled-syringe-for-home-administered-benralizumab-in-severe-asthma
#3
Gary T Ferguson, Adel H Mansur, Joshua S Jacobs, Jacques Hebert, Corbin Clawson, Wenli Tao, Yanping Wu, Mitchell Goldman
Background: Patients prefer at-home subcutaneous administration of biologics across different diseases, yet no biologic is approved for at-home use for severe, uncontrolled asthma. Objective: We assessed at-home functionality, reliability, and performance of an accessorized pre-filled syringe (APFS) for subcutaneous benralizumab administration, an anti-eosinophil monoclonal antibody indicated for add-on maintenance treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662320/omalizumab-for-severe-asthma-toward-personalized-treatment-based-on-biomarker-profile-and-clinical-history
#4
REVIEW
Farnaz Tabatabaian, Dennis K Ledford
Asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome with numerous underlining molecular and inflammatory mechanisms contributing to the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Multiple therapies targeting severe asthma with type 2 (T2) high inflammation are or soon will be available. T2 high inflammation is defined as inflammation associated with atopy or eosinophilia or an increase in cytokines associated with T-helper 2 lymphocytes. Omalizumab is a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody and the first biologic therapy approved for moderate-severe allergic asthma...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618933/current-perspectives-on-tree-nut-allergy-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Tamar Weinberger, Scott Sicherer
Tree nut (TN) allergy is common and often severe. It has become an important health concern as availability and consumption have increased. Prevalence varies by age and geographic region and appears to have increased in children. Accidental ingestion of TNs is common. Unfortunately, there is a lower likelihood of resolution of TN allergy, roughly 10%. TN-specific skin tests and serum immunoglobulin E levels can help aid in the diagnosis of TN allergy, but a careful medical history is important because a positive test in isolation is not typically diagnostic...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615844/bepotastine-besilate-ophthalmic-solution-1-5-for-alleviating-nasal-symptoms-in-patients-with-allergic-conjunctivitis
#6
Megan E Cavet, Paul J Gomes, Warner W Carr, Jon I Williams
Background: Bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solution (BBOS) 1.5% is a topical antihistamine for the treatment of ocular itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis (AC). Allergic rhinitis and AC are common comorbid conditions. We explored the efficacy of BBOS 1.5% in alleviating nasal symptoms in an integrated analysis of two Phase III conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) studies and a Phase IV environmental allergen study. Methods: In the Phase III trials, a CAC was performed 15 minutes, 8 hours, and 16 hours following ocular instillation of BBOS 1...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445292/late-onset-asthma-current-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Tsunahiko Hirano, Kazuto Matsunaga
Because the pathophysiology of asthma has diverse characteristics, to manage the disease effectively, it is important for clinicians to distinguish among the clinical phenotypes. Among them, adult-onset asthma, that is, late-onset asthma (LOA), is increasing because of the aging of the population. The phenotype of LOA is largely divided into two types according to the presence or absence of eosinophilic inflammation, T-helper (Th)2- and non-Th2-associated LOA. Especially in Th2 LOA related to rhinosinusitis, as pulmonary function at onset is poor and asthma exacerbations occur frequently, it is important to detect this phenotype in the early phase by using a biomarker of Th2-type inflammation such as fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO )...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398922/severe-bronchial-asthma-in-children-a-review-of-novel-biomarkers-used-as-predictors-of-the-disease
#8
REVIEW
Samuel N Uwaezuoke, Adaeze C Ayuk, Joy N Eze
Severe asthma or therapy-resistant asthma in children is a heterogeneous disease that affects all age-groups. Given its heterogeneity, precision in diagnosis and treatment has become imperative, in order to achieve better outcomes. If one is thus able to identify specific patient phenotypes and endotypes using the appropriate biomarkers, it will assist in providing the patient with more personalized and appropriate treatment. However, there appears to be a huge diagnostic gap in severe asthma, as there is no single test yet that accurately determines disease phenotype...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296089/elevated-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-and-blood-eosinophil-counts-are-associated-with-a-17q21-asthma-risk-allele-in-adult-subjects
#9
Elizabeth A Schwantes, Michael D Evans, Alex Cuskey, Alex Burford, Judith A Smith, Robert F Lemanske, Nizar N Jarjour, Sameer K Mathur
Background and objectives: Genome-wide association studies identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the 17q21 locus conferring increased risk for childhood-onset asthma. Little is known about how these SNPs impact adult asthma patients. We sought to examine an adult population for associations between rs7216389 (17q21-associated SNP) and features of asthma including fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), eosinophil counts, and age of asthma onset. Methods: Subjects were genotyped at SNP rs7216389...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290688/recovery-of-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis-suppression-during-treatment-with-inhaled-corticosteroids-for-childhood-asthma
#10
Arundoss Gangadharan, Paul McCoy, Aye Phyo, Michael P McGuigan, Poonam Dharmaraj, Renuka Ramakrishnan, Paul S McNamara, Joanne Blair
Objective: To describe recovery of adrenal insufficiency in asthmatic children treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and cortisol replacement therapy. Design: Retrospective, observational study. Patients: A total of 113 patients, 74 male; age 10.4 (3.3-16.5) years; beclomethasone-equivalent ICS dose, 800 μg, (100-1,000), tested by low dose short Synacthen (tetracosactide) test (LDSST), were studied. Test results were classified by basal and peak cortisol concentration: "normal" (basal >100 nmol/L, peak >500 nmol/L), "suboptimal" (basal >100 nmol/L, peak 350-499 nmol/L), "abnormal" (basal <100 nmol/L and/or peak <350 nmol/L)...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238209/transplant-acquired-food-allergy-current-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Shweta S Hosakoppal, Paul J Bryce
Mechanisms that regulate the tolerance to dietary proteins or the loss of this and subsequent development of disease are poorly understood. In food allergy, there is growing awareness of the urgency in understanding these events to aid in the development of next-generation therapies and interventions. This review focuses on the accumulating evidence related to food allergy that develops after transplantation. This intriguing immunological phenomenon has been described in several different types of transplant settings and to variety of different foods...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238208/is-it-severe-asthma-or-asthma-with-severe-comorbidities
#12
Luisa Brussino, Paolo Solidoro, Giovanni Rolla
Severe asthma is defined as asthma that requires treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) plus a second controller and/or systemic corticosteroids to prevent it from becoming uncontrolled or that remains uncontrolled despite this therapy. This definition has limitations: 1) it does not define any biological characteristic that distinguishes severe asthma from asthma in general and 2) it relies on the clinical interpretation of asthma symptoms that are not specific. Actually, wheezing, dyspnea, cough and chest tightness may be caused by the comorbidities (such as rhinosinusitis, obesity and vocal cord dysfunction [VCD]) which are associated with asthma...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158683/animal-models-of-asthma-utility-and-limitations
#13
REVIEW
Marcelo Vivolo Aun, Rafael Bonamichi-Santos, Fernanda Magalhães Arantes-Costa, Jorge Kalil, Pedro Giavina-Bianchi
Clinical studies in asthma are not able to clear up all aspects of disease pathophysiology. Animal models have been developed to better understand these mechanisms and to evaluate both safety and efficacy of therapies before starting clinical trials. Several species of animals have been used in experimental models of asthma, such as Drosophila , rats, guinea pigs, cats, dogs, pigs, primates and equines. However, the most common species studied in the last two decades is mice, particularly BALB/c. Animal models of asthma try to mimic the pathophysiology of human disease...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066920/study-of-the-clinical-and-functional-characteristics-of-asthmatic-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#14
Yen Nguyen-Hoang, Thuy Nguyen-Thi-Dieu, Sy Duong-Quy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common respiratory disorder in children, especially those at preschool and school ages. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of asthmatic children with OSA and the symptoms for a high risk of OSA. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: It was a prospective and descriptive study. The data of asthmatic children including medical history, clinical examination, blood tests, spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide (NO), and respiratory polygraphy were registered for analyses...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066919/differentiating-vocal-cord-dysfunction-from-asthma
#15
REVIEW
Andrew Fretzayas, Maria Moustaki, Ioanna Loukou, Konstantinos Douros
Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD)-associated symptoms are not rare in pediatric patients. Dyspnea, wheezing, stridor, chest pain or tightness and throat discomfort are the most commonly encountered symptoms. They may occur either at rest or more commonly during exercise in patients with VCD, as well as in asthmatic subjects. The phase of respiration (inspiration rather than expiration), the location of the wheezing origin, the rapid resolution of symptoms, and the timing occurring in relation to exercise, when VCD is exercise induced, raise the suspicion of VCD in patients who may have been characterized as merely asthmatics and, most importantly, had not responded to the appropriate treatment...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066918/asthma-with-bronchial-hypersecretion-expression-of-mucins-and-toll-like-receptors-in-sputum-and-blood
#16
Astrid Crespo-Lessmann, Eder Mateus, Montserrat Torrejón, Alicia Belda, Jordi Giner, Silvia Vidal, Oriol Sibila, Vicente Plaza
Asthma with bronchial hypersecretion is a type of asthma that is poorly studied. Its pathogenesis is not well understood, but is probably related to innate impaired immunity, particularly with toll-like receptors (TLRs) and secretory mucins (MUC). OBJECTIVES: 1) Define the clinical and inflammatory phenotype of asthma with bronchial hypersecretion of mucus. 2) Compare the type of mucin present in induced sputum (IS) of patients with and without bronchial hypersecretion. 3) Determine the expression of TLRs in IS and blood of asthmatics with and without bronchial hypersecretion...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042800/postpartum-airway-responsiveness-and-exacerbation-of-asthma-during-pregnancy-a-pilot-study
#17
Zarqa Ali, Lisbeth Nilas, Charlotte Suppli Ulrik
BACKGROUND: Airway responsiveness and inflammation are associated with the clinical manifestations of asthma and the response to pharmacological therapy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if airway responsiveness and inflammatory characteristics are related to asthma exacerbations during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In women with asthma who were prescribed controller medication and monitored closely during pregnancy, the risk of exacerbations was analyzed in relation to postpartum measures of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE NO), skin prick test reactivity, static and dynamic lung volumes, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, bronchial responsiveness to inhaled mannitol, and inflammatory characteristics in induced sputum...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042799/asthma-symptoms-mannitol-reactivity-and-exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction-in-adolescent-swimmers-versus-tennis-players
#18
Kerstin Romberg, Ellen Tufvesson, Leif Bjermer
BACKGROUND: Strenuous physical activity at an elite level is associated with an increased risk for asthma and, in some sports, also prevalence of allergies. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of asthma and allergy among elite swimmers and tennis players and compare airway hyperreactivity to mannitol and exercise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and one adolescent swimmers and 86 tennis players answered a questionnaire about respiratory symptoms and allergy and performed mannitol challenge and sport-specific exercise challenge...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919788/innovative-treatments-for-severe-refractory-asthma-how-to-choose-the-right-option-for-the-right-patient
#19
REVIEW
Francesco Menzella, Carla Galeone, Francesca Bertolini, Claudia Castagnetti, Nicola Facciolongo
The increasing understanding of the molecular biology and the etiopathogenetic mechanisms of asthma helps in identification of numerous phenotypes and endotypes, particularly for severe refractory asthma. For a decade, the only available biologic therapy that met the unmet needs of a specific group of patients with severe uncontrolled allergic asthma has been omalizumab. Recently, new biologic therapies with different mechanisms of action and targets have been approved for marketing, such as mepolizumab. Other promising drugs will be available in the coming years, such as reslizumab, benralizumab, dupilumab and lebrikizumab...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860828/the-evolving-role-of-tiotropium-in-asthma
#20
REVIEW
Emma R McIvor, R Andrew McIvor
Tiotropium is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) that exerts its bronchodilatory effect by blocking endogenous acetylcholine receptors in the airways. Its safety and efficacy are well established for the treatment of COPD, and it is now being recognized for its role in improving lung function and control in asthma. This review discusses the evolving role of tiotropium delivered by the Respimat® in patients across the range of asthma severities and ages, and provides an overview of safety and efficacy data...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
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