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Childhood Obesity

Zan Gao
PURPOSE: This study examined trajectories in children's physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and body mass index (BMI) for both genders, and relationships among these trajectories, from childhood through early adolescence. METHODS: A total of 261 seconds and third-grade children (135 girls; Meanage  = 7.81; 73% White) from two U.S. elementary schools participated in this study. Their objective PA, sedentary behavior, and BMI were measured yearly from 2012 to 2015...
May 18, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Felice Sirico, Antonio Bianco, Giovanni D'Alicandro, Clotilde Castaldo, Stefania Montagnani, Rocco Spera, Franca Di Meglio, Daria Nurzynska
BACKGROUND: New findings on adipose tissue physiology and obesity-associated inflammation status suggest that modification of the adipokine level can be relevant for the long-term prevention of obesity-associated chronic disease. OBJECTIVES: The scope of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of physical exercise in reducing the systemic inflammation related to obesity in children. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis of controlled randomized trials, identified through electronic database search, which investigated the effect of physical exercise, without concomitant dietary intervention, on adiponectin, leptin, and/or other inflammatory markers in children up to age 18 years with a body mass index greater than the 95th percentile for age and sex...
May 15, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Tabashir Z Nobari, Shannon E Whaley, Michael L Prelip, Catherine M Crespi, May C Wang
BACKGROUND: Obesity prevalence among low-income preschool-aged children in the United States decreased between 2010 and 2014. However, this decreasing trend may be varied across socioeconomic subgroups. This study examined trends in obesity prevalence among low-income children from 2003 to 2014 by child's age and household and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: This study used administrative data for all children, aged 2-4 years, participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in Los Angeles County (LAC) during the years 2003-2014...
May 9, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Charita Koya, Tsung Yu, Carol Strong, Meng-Che Tsai
BACKGROUND: Two common missense variants in the melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) gene, Thr6Lys (T6K) and Val81Ile (V81I), are presumably correlated with pediatric obesity. This meta-analysis aimed to examine and synthesize evidence on the association between these two common MC3R polymorphisms and the development of childhood obesity. METHODS: A combination of words relevant to the research question was searched on PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and the Cochrane database...
April 24, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Ross Krawczyk, Daniel S Kirschenbaum, Kristen J Caraher
BACKGROUND: Pediatric obesity is recognized as a worldwide epidemic. Treatment of this problem has proven difficult, but many promising interventions exist, including immersion treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine the potential influence of psychotropic medications on immersion treatment outcomes in a real-world treatment setting. METHODS: This study examines the prescription rates of psychotropic medications and treatment process and outcomes of 642 adolescents in ten different cognitive behavioral therapeutic immersion weight-loss camps in the United States and in the United Kingdom...
April 5, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Jing Zhang, Xinyue Li, Nicola Hawley, Zhijie Zheng, Zhen Zou, Linglin Tan, Qian Chen, Hong Shi, Hongyu Zhao, Zhiruo Zhang
BACKGROUND: In China, recent rapid economic growth has been associated with increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. This study aimed to provide the most updated prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among school-age children and adolescents in Shanghai, China, in 2010-2015. METHODS: Annual physical examination data were collected from 66,410, 43,812, 104,887, 113,667, 119,401, and 109,068 school children and adolescents aged 6-17 in Minhang District, Shanghai, in 2010-2015...
April 5, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Gina L Tripicchio, Alice S Ammerman, Dianne S Ward, Myles S Faith, Kimberly P Truesdale, Kyle S Burger, Kelsey Dean, Levent Dumenci, Ann Davis
BACKGROUND: Clinical-community collaboration is a promising strategy for pediatric obesity treatment, but current research is limited. This study examined the effect of a family-based treatment program embedded in a primary care clinic on retention and changes in child weight status at 1 year. METHODS: Children (2-16 years, BMI ≥85th percentile, 87.0% Hispanic) and their parents were recruited from a single pediatric clinic for Healthy Hawks Primary Plus (HHP+)...
March 27, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Janne Boone-Heinonen, Rebecca M Sacks, Erin E Takemoto, Elizabeth R Hooker, Nathan F Dieckmann, Curtis S Harrod, Kent L Thornburg
OBJECTIVE: Higher body-mass index (BMI) and lower birth weight (BW) are associated with elevated risk of diabetes in adulthood, but the extent to which they compose two distinct pathways is unclear. METHODS: We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a cohort of adolescents (1994-1995) followed for 14 years over four waves into adulthood (n = 13,413). Sex-stratified path analysis was used to examine pathways from BW [kg; linear (BW) and quadratic (BW2 )] to latent trajectories in BMI from adolescence to adulthood to prevalent diabetes or prediabetes (pre/diabetes) in adulthood, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics...
April 2018: Childhood Obesity
Chisato Miyakoshi, Yosuke Yamamoto, Hiroki Mishina, Chika Shirai, Ichiro Morioka, Shunichi Fukuhara
BACKGROUND: Maternal employment may affect child care styles and contribute to the increasing prevalence of overweight children. We explored the potential risk factors for becoming overweight during early childhood, especially in the child care environment. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from health check-up services from 2007 to 2015 in Kobe, Japan. The main outcome was being overweight at age 3 years, which was defined by the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs...
April 2018: Childhood Obesity
Alaina L Pearce, Eleanor Mackey, Evan P Nadler, Chandan J Vaidya
OBJECTIVE: Executive and motivational dysfunction have been associated with pediatric obesity. Poor sleep quality and psychopathology, often comorbid with obesity, are also associated with executive and motivational dysfunction. We examined the contribution of these comorbid factors to the association between obesity and executive function and reward-related decision-making. METHODS: Seven- to 18-year-old children with and without obesity performed a working memory task with low and high loads, a response inhibition task, and a probabilistic reward-related decision-making task...
April 2018: Childhood Obesity
Tina J Kauh, Nicola Dawkins-Lyn, Carrie Dooyema, Carole Harris, Jan Jernigan, Laura Kettel Khan, Phyllis Ottley, Deborah Young-Hyman
BACKGROUND: Recent findings show that national childhood obesity prevalence overall is improving among some age groups, but that disparities continue to persist, particularly among populations that have historically been at higher risk of obesity and overweight. Over the past several years, many jurisdictions at the city or county level across the nation have also reported declines. Little evaluation has focused on understanding the factors that influence the implementation of efforts to reduce childhood obesity rates...
March 2018: Childhood Obesity
Laura Kettel Khan, Phyllis Ottley, Carole Harris, Nicola Dawkins-Lyn, Carrie Dooyema, Jan Jernigan, Tina Kauh, Deborah Young-Hyman
BACKGROUND: The evidence for and our understanding of community-level strategies such as policies, system, and environmental changes that support healthy eating and active living is growing. However, researchers and evaluation scientists alike are still not confident in what to recommend for preventing or sustaining declines in the prevalence of obesity. METHODS: The Systematic Screening and Assessment (SSA) methodology was adapted as a retrospective process to confirm obesity declines and to better understand what and how policies and programs or interventions may contribute as drivers...
March 2018: Childhood Obesity
Deborah Young-Hyman, Kathryn Morris, Laura Kettel Khan, Nicola Dawkins-Lyn, Carrie Dooyema, Carole Harris, Jan Jernigan, Phyllis Ottley, Tina Kauh
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity remains prevalent and is increasing in some disadvantaged populations. Numerous research, policy and community initiatives are undertaken to impact this pandemic. Understudied are natural experiments. The need to learn from these efforts is paramount. Resulting evidence may not be readily available to inform future research, community initiatives, and policy development/implementation. METHODS: We discuss the implications of using an adaptation of the Systematic Screening and Assessment (SSA) method to evaluate the Childhood Obesity Declines (COBD) project...
March 2018: Childhood Obesity
Carrie Dooyema, Jan Jernigan, Amy Lowry Warnock, Nicola Dawkins-Lyn, Carole Harris, Tina Kauh, Laura Kettel Khan, Phyllis Ottley, Deborah Young-Hyman
BACKGROUND: State- and local-level policies can influence children's diet quality and physical activity (PA) behaviors. The goal of this article is to understand the enacted state and local policy landscape in four communities reporting declines in childhood obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: State-level policies were searched within the CDC's online Chronic Disease State Policy Tracking System. Local level policies were captured during key informant interviews in each of the sites...
March 2018: Childhood Obesity
Jan Jernigan, Laura Kettel Khan, Carrie Dooyema, Phyllis Ottley, Carole Harris, Nicola Dawkins-Lyn, Tina Kauh, Deborah Young-Hyman
BACKGROUND: The social ecological model (SEM) is a framework for understanding the interactive effects of personal and environmental factors that determine behavior. The SEM has been used to examine childhood obesity interventions and identify factors at each level that impact behaviors. However, little is known about how those factors interact both within and across levels of the SEM. METHODS: The Childhood Obesity Declines (COBD) project was exploratory, attempting to capture retrospectively policies and programs that occurred in four communities that reported small declines in childhood obesity...
March 2018: Childhood Obesity
Phyllis G Ottley, Nicola Dawkins-Lyn, Carole Harris, Carrie Dooyema, Jan Jernigan, Tina Kauh, Laura Kettel Khan, Deborah Young-Hyman
BACKGROUND: Although childhood obesity rates have been high in the last few decades, recent national reports indicate a stabilization of rates among some subpopulations of children. This study examines the implementation of initiatives, policies, and programs (referred to as strategies) in four communities that experienced declines in childhood obesity between 2003 and 2012. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Childhood Obesity Decline project verified obesity declines and identified strategies that may have influenced and supported the decline in obesity...
March 2018: Childhood Obesity
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February 2018: Childhood Obesity
Tina Lavin, David B Preen
BACKGROUND: Caesarean section birth may be associated with overweight in childhood; however, findings to date have been inconsistent. This study explored the association of caesarean section vs. vaginal birth with childhood overweight in Vietnam. METHODS: This longitudinal cohort study explored the association of delivery mode with overweight, obesity, and overweight/or obesity at 8 years of age in children (n = 1937) across 20 sites in Vietnam, using Young Lives longitudinal cohort study data...
February 2018: Childhood Obesity
Katherine Hawton, Tom Norris, Esther Crawley, Julian P H Shield
BACKGROUND: Child abuse is associated with obesity in adulthood through multiple mechanisms. However, little is known about the relationship between abuse and obesity during adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a birth cohort, whether there is an association between child abuse and overweight or obesity in adolescence. METHODS: This study utilizes data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective cohort study based in South West England...
February 2018: Childhood Obesity
Johanna Enö Persson, Benjamin Bohman, Per Tynelius, Finn Rasmussen, Ata Ghaderi
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is an urgent public health concern, and there's a need for long-term, high-quality, primary prevention trials targeting parents of young children. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the long-term effect of a parental support program based on motivational interviewing (MI). METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out in eight Swedish counties. Participating families (N = 1355) were enrolled when the child was 9 months old, and participated in nine sessions during ∼39 months...
February 2018: Childhood Obesity
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