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Childhood Obesity

Courtney M Giannini, Megan B Irby, Joseph A Skelton, Sabina B Gesell
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence supporting social network-based interventions for adolescents with obesity. This study's aim was to determine the feasibility of a social network-based intervention by assessing adolescents' friendship networks, willingness to involve friends in treatment, and how these factors influence enjoyment. METHODS: Adolescents (N = 42) were recruited from a tertiary care obesity clinic. Participants gave a list of closest friends, friendship characteristics, and which of their friends they would involve in treatment...
October 21, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Shelley Kirk, Sarah Armstrong, Eileen King, Christine Trapp, Mollie Grow, Jared Tucker, Madeline Joseph, Lenna Liu, Ashley Weedn, Brooke Sweeney, Claudia Fox, Samreen Fathima, Ronald Williams, Roy Kim, William Stratbucker
BACKGROUND: Prospective patient registries have been successfully utilized in several disease states with a goal of improving treatment approaches through multi-institutional collaboration. The prevalence of youth with severe obesity is at a historic high in the United States, yet evidence to guide effective weight management is limited. The Pediatric Obesity Weight Evaluation Registry (POWER) was established in 2013 to identify and promote effective intervention strategies for pediatric obesity...
October 12, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Lisa M Shank, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Nichole R Kelly, Natasha A Schvey, Shannon E Marwitz, Rim D Mehari, Sheila M Brady, Andrew P Demidowich, Miranda M Broadney, Ovidiu A Galescu, Courtney K Pickworth, Susan Z Yanovski, Jack A Yanovski
BACKGROUND: Loss of control (LOC) eating in youth is associated with excess body weight and adiposity. After adjusting for fat mass, youth with LOC eating have higher blood pressure and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to youth without LOC eating. Increased inflammation may account for this relationship, although few data have examined this hypothesis. Therefore, this study explored the association between LOC eating and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a marker of inflammation...
October 12, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Enrique Carmona-Montesinos, Raul Velazquez-Perez, Edna Pichardo Aguirre, Selva Rivas-Arancibia
BACKGROUND: Obesity during early stages of life may condition states of oxidative stress. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme involved in oxidative metabolism; it has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions and is related in sensitivity to insulin. However, a high concentration of this enzyme has been described to cause alterations such as insulin resistance. The objective of this work was to study the relationship between obesity, oxidative stress, HO-1, and insulin in children aged 3 to 5 years...
October 11, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Takehiro Sugiyama, Masako Horino, Kaori Inoue, Yasuki Kobayashi, Martin F Shapiro, William J McCarthy
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes on self- and parental weight perceptions and parental communication with healthcare professionals (HCPs) in the United States during the mid-2000s period when the terminology changed for classifications of childhood obesity/overweight. METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted with 6799 children aged 8-15 years with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2014. BMI was calculated from objectively measured heights and weights, and children were classified as normal/underweight, overweight or obese, using the new terminology...
October 6, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Angelina R Sutin, Eric Robinson, Michael Daly, Antonio Terracciano
BACKGROUND: Childhood bullying has long-term negative mental and physical health correlates, including weight gain and symptoms of depression. The purpose of this research is to examine whether bullying in the first year of school is associated with greater weight gain by early adolescence and whether adolescent depressive symptoms mediate this association. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Children (N = 3929) were measured every 2 years; BMI and waist circumference were available from ages 4 to 15...
October 6, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Aviva Must, Misha Eliasziw, Sarah M Phillips, Carol Curtin, Tanja V E Kral, Mary Segal, Nancy E Sherwood, Linmarie Sikich, Heidi I Stanish, Linda G Bandini
BACKGROUND: We sought to assess the association between age and the prevalence of obesity among children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. METHODS: Analyses were restricted to 43,777 children, ages 10-17, with valid measures of parent-reported weight, height, and ASD status. Exploratory analyses describe the impact of sex, race/ethnicity, and household income on the relationship between age and obesity in ASD...
October 5, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Sara E Benjamin Neelon, Jonathan Finkelstein, Brian Neelon, Matthew W Gillman
OBJECTIVES: A number of states have enacted regulations to increase physical activity in children attending child care, but most were not evaluated. In 2010, Massachusetts (MA) enacted a new regulation requiring 60 minutes of light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity (LMVPA) for children in child care; we conducted a prospective evaluation. We hypothesized that MA centers would comply with the regulation at follow-up, resulting in increases in children's LMVPA. METHODS: We evaluated compliance with the regulation in MA using Rhode Island (RI) as the comparison...
September 28, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Cindy V Elias, Thomas G Power, Ashley E Beck, L Suzanne Goodell, Susan L Johnson, Maria A Papaioannou, Sheryl O Hughes
BACKGROUND: Maternal depressive symptoms and perceptions of child difficulty are associated with negative effects on general development and cognitive functioning in children. The study examined associations between maternal depressive symptoms, perceptions of child difficulty, and maternal feeding behaviors in a population at elevated risk for childhood obesity. METHODS: Participants were 138 low-income black and Hispanic mothers and their children (ages 3-5) participating in an observational study of mealtimes among Head Start families...
September 23, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Neha Khandpur, Jo Charles, Kirsten K Davison
BACKGROUND: In a diverse sample of fathers, this study examined coparenting dynamics specific to (1) how fathers managed responsibilities for food parenting with the child's mother and (2) the extent to which their food parenting practices were co-operative versus conflicting with those of the mother. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 37 fathers (38 ± 9.1 years) using a piloted interview guide. Interview questions focused on the division of responsibility in food parenting practices, experiences of consistent versus conflicting practices, and the source and consequences of conflicting practices...
September 16, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Francieli Barreiro-Ribeiro, Ana Carolina Junqueira Vasques, Cleliani de Cassia da Silva, Mariana Porto Zambon, Ana Maria De Bernardi Rodrigues, Daniella Fernandes Camilo, Maria Ângela Reis de Góes Monteiro Antonio, Ana Raimunda Dâmaso, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira Campos, Sergio Tufik, Marco Túlio de Mello, Bruno Geloneze
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify cutoff points for detecting hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HTWP) in adolescents and to investigate the association of the HTWP with insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome components. METHODS: A multicentric cross-sectional study of 861 adolescents (10-19 years of age, 504 girls) was conducted. Pubertal stage, anthropometric, and laboratory parameters were assessed. IR was assessed by Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA1-IR) index and hyperglycemic clamp (n = 80)...
September 14, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Rimei Nishimura, Hironari Sano, Takako Shirasawa, Toru Matsudaira, Yumi Miyashita, Hirotaka Ochiai, Akatsuki Kokaze, Naoko Tajima, Kazunori Utsunomiya
BACKGROUND: Little information is available regarding changes in adiponectin fractions. The objective of this study was to examine changes in the composition of differing adiponectin fractions using a population-based, prospective pediatric cohort. METHODS: A total of 358 fourth graders (9-10 years old) from Ina town in Saitama, Japan, were followed up for 3 years. BMI and total adiponectin (TAD), high-molecular weight adiponectin (HAD), medium-molecular weight adiponectin, and low-molecular weight adiponectin levels were measured in these subjects at baseline and at the end of the follow-up...
September 1, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Jennifer L Harris, Maia Hyary, Marlene B Schwartz
BACKGROUND: In 2014, USDA established nutrition standards for snack foods sold in schools. Many manufacturers reformulated products to meet these Smart Snacks standards, but continue to advertise unhealthy versions of the same brands. Furthermore, Smart Snack packaging often looks similar to less nutritious versions sold outside of schools (look-alike products). This practice may confuse consumers about the nutritional quality of Smart Snacks and raise concerns about schools selling them...
August 30, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Giorgio Bedogni, Andrea Mari, Alessandra De Col, Nicoletta Marazzi, Claudio Tiribelli, Melania Manco, Alessandro Sartorio
BACKGROUND: No study so far has evaluated the relationship between insulin secretion (ISEC) and insulin sensitivity (ISEN) in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the relationship between ISEC and ISEN in young obese patients with and without NAFLD. METHODS: We matched 401 NAFLD(+) and 595 NAFLD(-) children by sex (same), age (≤1 year), pubertal status (same), and body mass index (BMI; ≤0.05 standard deviation scores) using coarsened exact matching...
August 19, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Erin R Hager, Christina J Calamaro, Lauren M Bentley, Kristen M Hurley, Yan Wang, Maureen M Black
BACKGROUND: Shortened sleep duration is associated with poor health and obesity among young children. Little is known about relationships among nighttime sleep duration, sleep behaviors, and obesogenic behaviors/obesity among toddlers. This study characterizes sleep behaviors/duration and examines relationships with obesogenic behaviors/obesity among toddlers from low-income families. METHODS: Mothers of toddlers (age 12-32 months) were recruited from urban/suburban sites serving low-income families...
October 2016: Childhood Obesity
Erin K Howie, Alexandra McManus, Kyla L Smith, Ashley A Fenner, Leon M Straker
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical time to intervene and establish healthy long-term behaviors to decrease the impact of adult obesity in the future. The purpose of this study was to identify key intervention strategies and techniques for community interventions by analyzing the short-term and longer-term shared experiences of both adolescents with overweight or obesity and their parents involved in a community-based, healthy lifestyle intervention. METHODS: Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted with teens (aged 12-16 years with a BMI above the 85th percentile) and their parents immediately following the 8-week intervention (n = 37 teens, n = 33 parents) and at 12 months follow-up (n = 23 teens, n = 20 parents)...
October 2016: Childhood Obesity
Kathleen F Gaffney, Albert V Brito, Panagiota Kitsantas, Deborah Ann Kermer
BACKGROUND: Hispanic preschoolers have higher rates of BMI ≥85th percentile than any other racial/ethnic group. To identify underpinnings of this disparity, we compared early feeding practices and subsequent weight status for a sample of infants of low-income, Hispanic immigrant mothers with participants from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II). METHODS: Proyecto de Bebés Hispanos Saludables (PBHS) collected medical record data for mother-infant dyads (n = 550) from a large pediatric clinic for low-income families and merged it with IFPS II data (n = 1502) to compare early feeding practices and late infancy weight status...
October 2016: Childhood Obesity
André O Werneck, Danilo R Silva, Paul J Collings, Rômulo A Fernandes, Enio R V Ronque, Décio S Barbosa, Edilson S Cyrino
BACKGROUND: Earlier biological maturation has been related to increased metabolic risk. In this study, we verified mediating effects by central adiposity of the relationship between somatic maturity and metabolic risk factors in adolescents. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 1034 adolescents aged 10-16 years from Londrina/PR/Brazil were evaluated. The age of peak height velocity (PHV) method was used to evaluate somatic maturity. Central adiposity was estimated through waist circumference measurements...
October 2016: Childhood Obesity
Nora L Nock, Carolyn E Ievers-Landis, Rachel Dajani, Darryl Knight, Alexander Rigda, Sumana Narasimhan, Naveen Uli
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding how dimensions of the family social environment relate to fitness levels and physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) among adolescents who are overweight or obese and whether these relationships are mediated by self-esteem. METHODS: Potential associations were evaluated between relationship subdomains (cohesion, conflict, expressivity) of the Family Environment Scale (FES), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, RSES), and PASE and fitness, using recovery heart rate [RHR, beats per minute (bpm)] from a 3-minute submaximal step test at baseline...
October 2016: Childhood Obesity
Larine Sluggett, Shannon L Wagner, Cindy Hardy, R Luke Harris
BACKGROUND: Indicators of cardiometabolic disease-including obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia-are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes in Canadian children and adolescents have increased rapidly in recent years; research exploring modifiable risk factors is critical. Experimental and epidemiological research demonstrates that partial sleep loss is linked with deteriorations in indicators of cardiometabolic health...
October 2016: Childhood Obesity
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