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Childhood Obesity

Ariella R Korn, Erin Hennessy, Alison Tovar, Camille Finn, Ross A Hammond, Christina D Economos
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity prevention interventions have engaged coalitions in study design, implementation, and/or evaluation to improve research outcomes; yet, no systematic reviews have been conducted on this topic. This mixed methods review aims to characterize the processes and dynamics of coalition engagement in community-based childhood obesity prevention interventions. METHODS: Data Sources: Studies extracted from Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science; complementary original survey and interview data among researchers of included studies...
September 6, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Cláudia Maria Dos Santos Pereira Indiani, Karina Ferreira Rizzardi, Paula Midori Castelo, Lúcio Fábio Caldas Ferraz, Michelle Darrieux, Thaís Manzano Parisotto
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to undertake a systematic review exploring the relationship between childhood obesity and fecal microorganisms, to answer the following question: "Are Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes a significant risk indicator/factor for obesity in children?" The main search terms were "child" and "obesity" together with "gut microbiota" (PubMed: 2005-2017). The minimal requirements for inclusion were the evaluation of gut microbiota composition and BMI in children between 0 and 13 years of age...
September 5, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Renee M Porter, Alexis Tindall, Bethany J Gaffka, Shelley Kirk, Melissa Santos, Indira Abraham-Pratt, Jane Gray, David Heckler, Wendy L Ward, Jared M Tucker, Brooke Sweeney
Early-onset severe obesity in childhood presents a significant clinical challenge signaling an urgent need for effective and sustainable interventions. A large body of literature examines overweight and obesity, but little focuses specifically on the risk factors for severe obesity in children ages 5 and younger. This narrative review identified modifiable risk factors associated with severe obesity in children ages 5 and younger: nutrition (consuming sugar sweetened beverages and fast food), activity (low frequency of outdoor play and excessive screen time), behaviors (lower satiety responsiveness, sleeping with a bottle, lack of bedtime rules, and short sleep duration), and socio-environmental risk factors (informal child care setting, history of obesity in the mother, and gestational diabetes)...
August 29, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Bethany J Gaffka, Sandra G Hassink, Melissa Santos, Ihuoma Eneli
BACKGROUND: Over 2% of children between the ages of 2 and 5 have severe obesity; however, little is known about the characteristics of this population to guide healthcare professionals in providing care. An initial step is to examine observations of practitioners who manage children with severe early onset obesity in the clinical setting. METHODS: A total of 72 interdisciplinary healthcare providers with experience providing obesity treatment to children under age 5 with severe obesity completed a semistructured online questionnaire...
August 29, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Lauren Fiechtner, Maria Luisa Fonte, Ines Castro, Monica Gerber, Chrissy Horan, Mona Sharifi, Hellas Cena, Elsie M Taveras
BACKGROUND: Examining binge eating symptoms before the diagnosis of binge eating disorder in children with obesity could provide important information on prevention of future eating disorders. METHODS: We examined the prevalence and multilevel determinants of three binge eating symptoms: (1) sneaking, hiding, or hoarding food; (2) eating in the absence of hunger, and (3) inhibition or embarrassment when eating in front of others among 817 children aged 5-12 years old with overweight/obesity receiving primary care in eastern Massachusetts...
August 28, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Sarah E Barlow, Meliha Salahuddin, Nancy F Butte, Deanna M Hoelscher, Stephen J Pont
BACKGROUND: The Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multicenter, multisystem approach to childhood overweight and obesity (OW/OB), included training and materials to support primary care clinics (PCCs) in addressing child OW/OB in the office. This study evaluated the impact over 24 months of brief training and practice-based support on primary care providers' (PCPs) perceived self-efficacy and practice behaviors. METHODS: The PCPs at five Houston and seven Austin PCCs completed questionnaires at baseline (2012, n = 36), 12 months (2013, n = 30), and 24 months (2014, n = 34) follow-up...
August 28, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Alen Agaronov, Tayla Ash, Martina Sepulveda, Elsie M Taveras, Kirsten K Davison
Sleep promotion in childhood may reduce the risk of obesity, but little is known of its inclusion in family-based interventions. This study examines the proportion and context of family-based interventions to prevent childhood obesity that promote child sleep. We drew on data from a recent systematic review and content analysis of family-based interventions for childhood obesity prevention published between 2008 and 2015, coupled with new data on sleep promotion strategies, designs, and measures. Out of 119 eligible family-based interventions to prevent childhood obesity, 24 (20%) promoted child sleep...
August 15, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Amy L Christison, Susma Vaidya, Lydia Tinajero-Deck, Sarah E Hampl
BACKGROUND: Growth in the prevalence of severe pediatric obesity and tertiary care pediatric weight management programs supports the application of chronic disease management models to the care of children with severe obesity. One such model, the medical neighborhood, aims to optimize care coordination between primary and tertiary care by applying principles of the Patient-Centered Medical Home to all providers. METHODS: An exploration of the literature was performed describing effective programs, approaches, and coordinated care models applied to pediatric weight management and other chronic conditions...
August 15, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Loretta S Warnakulasuriya, Manel M A Fernando, Adikaram V N Adikaram, Abdul R M Thawfeek, Weda-Muhandiramge L Anurasiri, Renuka R Silva, Mohamed S F Sirasa, Elisabet Rytter, Anders H Forslund, Dulani L Samaranayake, V Pujitha Wickramasinghe
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity-related metabolic derangements are increasing among South Asian populations. Dietary and physical activity plans have limited effect. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of metformin in the management of obesity among 8- to 16-year-old children in Gampaha District of Sri Lanka. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A triple-blinded controlled trial was conducted on 150 obese school children. After 12-hour overnight fast, blood was drawn for fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profile...
August 2, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Monica A Lazarus, Pooja S Tandon, Jennifer J Otten
BACKGROUND: Sixty percent of US children 5 years old and under receive up to two-thirds of their daily nutrition in early care and education (ECE) settings. Although participation in the federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) is shown to improve nutrition, little is known about the relationship between procurement practices (where and how child care programs purchase food) and nutrition in ECE settings or whether these practices differ depending on participation in CACFP. METHODS: We assessed self-reported nutrition practices and procurement practices by CACFP participation using a 2013 cross-sectional survey of 690 Washington ECE centers ("Centers") and 1260 family homes (family home child care [FHCCs]) serving children aged 2-5 years old using validated survey tools...
August 2018: Childhood Obesity
Sara E Benjamin-Neelon, Brian Neelon, John Pearce, Elyse R Grossman, Sarah Gonzalez-Nahm, Meghan Slining, Kiyah Duffey, Natasha Frost
BACKGROUND: State policies have the potential to improve early care and education (ECE) settings, but little is known about the extent to which states are updating their licensing and administrative regulations, especially in response to national calls to action. In 2013, we assessed state regulations promoting infant physical activity in ECE and compared them with national recommendations. To assess change over time, we conducted this review again in 2018. METHODS: We reviewed regulations for all US states for child care centers (centers) and family child care homes (homes) and compared them with three national recommendations: (1) provide daily tummy time; (2) use cribs, car seats, and high chairs for their primary purpose; and (3) limit the use of restrictive equipment (e...
August 2018: Childhood Obesity
Tatiana Andreyeva, Kathryn E Henderson
BACKGROUND: The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) sets nutrition standards for foods served in participating settings. Licensing regulations in many states, including Connecticut (CT), extend these rules to nonparticipating facilities. This study evaluates the food environment for preschool-age children in CT child care centers and describes center-reported adherence to the CACFP nutrition regulations. METHODS: We surveyed directors of licensed CACFP-participating and non-CACFP centers that served meals and/or snacks...
August 2018: Childhood Obesity
Dianne Ward, Mary Story
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Childhood Obesity
Kaitlyn K Stanhope, Erika Bettermann, Elizabeth C H Stevenson, Samantha D Julius, Anusheh Kafi, Christi Kay, Julie A Gazmararian
BACKGROUND: This article describes the process and intermediate outcomes from a program implemented in 65 Early Care and Education (ECE) centers serving low-income families throughout Georgia during the 2014-2017 school years. METHODS: The HealthMPowers' Empowering Healthy Choices in Schools, Homes, and Communities ECE program was based on the organization's previously successful elementary school program and aligns with current early childhood nutrition and physical activity recommendations...
August 2018: Childhood Obesity
Jamie F Chriqui, Rebecca M Schermbeck, Julien Leider
BACKGROUND: More than 3.6 million children are served daily by the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-participating child day care centers. This study provides a nationwide assessment of center-level responsibilities for menu, meal/snack preparation, meal preparer training, and food and beverage (F&B) purchasing. METHODS: A nationally representative survey of 5483 CACFP child day care centers was conducted between August 22, 2017, and September 30, 2017...
August 2018: Childhood Obesity
Daniel A Zaltz, Russell R Pate, Jennifer R O'Neill, Brian Neelon, Sara E Benjamin-Neelon
BACKGROUND: Early care and education (ECE) policies can improve childhood obesity risk factors. We evaluated barriers and facilitators to implementing mandatory nutrition standards for foods provided in South Carolina ECE centers serving low-income children, comparing centers participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) with non-CACFP centers. METHODS: We mailed 261 surveys (demographics, policies and practices, barriers and facilitators) to center directors after new state nutrition standards were implemented in South Carolina...
August 2018: Childhood Obesity
Kristin Bussell, Lucine Francis, Bridget Armstrong, Sarah Kilby, Maureen M Black, Erin R Hager
BACKGROUND: Child care settings provide opportunities for obesity prevention by implementing nutrition/physical activity best practices. This study examines how center policies, provider training, family education, and center demographics relate to best practices for nutrition/physical activity in Maryland's child care centers. METHODS: A survey, including minor modifications to The Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (Go NAP SACC), was sent by e-mail to center directors statewide...
August 2018: Childhood Obesity
Jamie F Chriqui, Julien Leider, Rebecca M Schermbeck
BACKGROUND: The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) serves nutritious meals/snacks to >3.6 million children in early childhood education (ECE) centers. This study provides a nationwide assessment of nonhome-based CACFP-participating ECE centers' awareness of and reported readiness for implementing updated CACFP standards/best practices that took effect October 1, 2017. METHODS: A national frame of 38,760 centers serving children ages 0-5 was developed. A web-based survey of 5483 sampled centers, stratified by census division, was conducted between August 22 and September 30, 2017...
August 2018: Childhood Obesity
Laura Lessard, Katherine E Speirs, Nicole Slesinger
BACKGROUND: Child care settings have been a target for childhood obesity prevention efforts; changing licensing standards to require physical activity (PA)-related best practices is one strategy being used by states. The mechanisms used to support implementation by providers remain understudied, despite the potential for these efforts to significantly impact child-level outcomes. This qualitative study explored the mechanisms used and any outstanding challenges to implementation experienced by US states with one specific best practice PA licensing standard for toddlers (60-90 min of PA/day)...
August 2018: Childhood Obesity
Danielle L Lee, Klara Gurzo, Sallie Yoshida, Elyse Homel Vitale, Ken Hecht, Lorrene D Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Nationally, child care providers serve nutritious food to over 4.5 million children each day as part of the federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). As implementation of the first major revisions to the CACFP standards occurs in 2017, understanding how to support compliance is critical. METHODS: In 2016, surveys were sent to a randomly selected sample of 2400 licensed California child care centers and homes. Compliance with the new CACFP standards and best practices for infants under 1 year and children 1-5 years of age was assessed...
August 2018: Childhood Obesity
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