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Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416273/attention-allocation-and-social-worries-predict-interpretations-of-peer-related-social-cues-in-adolescents
#1
Simone P W Haller, Brianna R Doherty, Mihaela Duta, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh, Jennifer Y F Lau, Gaia Scerif
Adolescence is a sensitive period for increases in normative but also debilitating social fears and worries. As the interpretation of interpersonal cues is pertinent to social anxiety, investigating mechanisms that may underlie biases in social cue appraisal is important. Fifty-one adolescents from the community aged 14-19 were presented with self- and other-relevant naturalistic social scenes for 5s and then required to rate either a negative or a positive interpretation of the scene. Eye-tracking data were collected during the free viewing period to index attentional deployment...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372982/neural-correlates-of-face-processing-in-etiologically-distinct-12-month-old-infants-at-high-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Maggie W Guy, John E Richards, Bridgette L Tonnsen, Jane E Roberts
Neural correlates of face processing were examined in 12-month-olds at high-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including 21 siblings of children with ASD (ASIBs) and 15 infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS), as well as 21 low-risk (LR) controls. Event-related potentials were recorded to familiar and novel face and toy stimuli. All infants demonstrated greater N290 amplitude to faces than toys. At the Nc component, LR infants showed greater amplitude to novel stimuli than to their mother's face and own toy, whereas infants with FXS showed the opposite pattern of responses and ASIBs did not differentiate based on familiarity...
March 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351534/learning-word-order-at-birth-a-nirs-study
#3
Silvia Benavides-Varela, Judit Gervain
In language, the relative order of words in sentences carries important grammatical functions. However, the developmental origins and the neural correlates of the ability to track word order are to date poorly understood. The current study therefore investigates the origins of infants' ability to learn about the sequential order of words, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with newborn infants. We have conducted two experiments: one in which a word order change was implemented in 4-word sequences recorded with a list intonation (as if each word was a separate item in a list; list prosody condition, Experiment 1) and one in which the same 4-word sequences were recorded with a well-formed utterance-level prosodic contour (utterance prosody condition, Experiment 2)...
March 14, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359682/anticipatory-representations-of-reward-and-threat-in-perceptual-areas-from-preadolescence-to-late-adolescence
#4
Philippa Howsley, Liat Levita
This study examined whether changes in perceptual processes can partially account for the increase in reward-orientated behaviour during adolescence. This was investigated by examining reinforcement-dependent potentiation to discriminative stimuli (S(D)) that predicted rewarding or threatening outcomes. To that end, perceptual event-related potentials that are modulated by motivationally salient stimuli, the N170 and Late Positive Potential (LPP), were recorded from 30 preadolescents (9-12 years), 30 adolescents (13-17 years), and 34 late adolescents (18-23 years) while they completed an instrumental task in which they emitted or omitted a motor response to obtain rewards and avoid losses...
March 12, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342780/a-neural-basis-for-the-visual-sense-of-number-and-its-development-a-steady-state-visual-evoked-potential-study-in-children-and-adults
#5
Joonkoo Park
While recent studies in adults have demonstrated the existence of a neural mechanism for a visual sense of number, little is known about its development and whether such a mechanism exists at young ages. In the current study, I introduce a novel steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) technique to objectively quantify early visual cortical sensitivity to numerical and non-numerical magnitudes of a dot array. I then examine this neural sensitivity to numerical magnitude in children between three and ten years of age and in college students...
March 2, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292645/one-hand-two-hands-two-people-prospective-sensorimotor-control-in-children-with-autism
#6
Caterina Ansuini, Jessica Podda, Francesca Maria Battaglia, Edvige Veneselli, Cristina Becchio
Where grasps are made reveals how grasps are planned. The grasp height effect predicts that, when people take hold of an object to move it to a new position, the grasp height on the object is inversely related to the height of the target position. In the present study, we used this effect as a window into the prospective sensorimotor control of children with autism spectrum disorders without accompanying intellectual impairment. Participants were instructed to grasp a vertical cylinder and move it from a table (home position) to a shelf of varying height (target position)...
March 2, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314184/how-does-the-body-representation-system-develop-in-the-human-brain
#7
Aurelie Fontan, Fabien Cignetti, Bruno Nazarian, Jean-Luc Anton, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Christine Assaiante
Exploration of the body representation system (BRS) from kinaesthetic illusions in fMRI has revealed a complex network composed of sensorimotor and frontoparietal components. Here, we evaluated the degree of maturity of this network in children aged 7-11 years, and the extent to which structural factors account for network differences with adults. Brain activation following tendon vibration at 100Hz ('illusion') and 30Hz ('no illusion') were analysed using the two-stage random effects model, with or without white and grey matter covariates...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285127/the-neural-and-behavioral-correlates-of-social-evaluation-in-childhood
#8
Michelle Achterberg, Anna C K van Duijvenvoorde, Mara van der Meulen, Saskia Euser, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Eveline A Crone
Being accepted or rejected by peers is highly salient for developing social relations in childhood. We investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of social feedback and subsequent aggression in 7-10-year-old children, using the Social Network Aggression Task (SNAT). Participants viewed pictures of peers that gave positive, neutral or negative feedback to the participant's profile. Next, participants could blast a loud noise towards the peer, as an index of aggression. We included three groups (N=19, N=28 and N=27) and combined the results meta-analytically...
February 27, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279916/amygdala-reactivity-predicts-adolescent-antisocial-behavior-but-not-callous-unemotional-traits
#9
Hailey L Dotterer, Luke W Hyde, Johnna R Swartz, Ahmad R Hariri, Douglas E Williamson
Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested divergent relationships between antisocial behavior (AB) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits and amygdala reactivity to fearful and angry facial expressions in adolescents. However, little work has examined if these findings extend to dimensional measures of behavior in ethnically diverse, non-clinical samples, or if participant sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, and age moderate associations. We examined links between amygdala reactivity and dimensions of AB and CU traits in 220 Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian adolescents (age 11-15; 49...
February 27, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268177/prospective-relations-between-resting-state-connectivity-of-parietal-subdivisions-and-arithmetic-competence
#10
Gavin R Price, Darren J Yeo, Eric D Wilkey, Laurie E Cutting
The present study investigates the relation between resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of cytoarchitectonically defined subdivisions of the parietal cortex at the end of 1st grade and arithmetic performance at the end of 2nd grade. Results revealed a dissociable pattern of relations between rsFC and arithmetic competence among subdivisions of intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and angular gyrus (AG). rsFC between right hemisphere IPS subdivisions and contralateral IPS subdivisions positively correlated with arithmetic competence...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284787/sensory-over-responsivity-and-social-cognition-in-asd-effects-of-aversive-sensory-stimuli-and-attentional-modulation-on-neural-responses-to-social-cues
#11
Shulamite A Green, Leanna M Hernandez, Hilary C Bowman, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) is a common condition in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that is associated with greater social impairment. However, the mechanisms through which sensory stimuli may affect social functioning are not well understood. This study used fMRI to examine brain activity while interpreting communicative intent in 15 high-functioning youth with ASD and 16 age- and IQ-matched typically-developing (TD) controls. Participants completed the task with and without a tactile sensory distracter, and with and without instructions directing their attention to relevant social cues...
February 21, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254197/early-life-adversity-during-the-infant-sensitive-period-for-attachment-programming-of-behavioral-neurobiology-of-threat-processing-and-social-behavior
#12
REVIEW
Maya Opendak, Elizabeth Gould, Regina Sullivan
Animals, including humans, require a highly coordinated and flexible system of social behavior and threat evaluation. However, trauma can disrupt this system, with the amygdala implicated as a mediator of these impairments in behavior. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences, with trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver-child maltreatment, as particularly detrimental...
February 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258836/boys-vs-girls-gender-differences-in-the-neural-development-of-trust-and-reciprocity-depend-on-social-context
#13
Imke L J Lemmers-Jansen, Lydia Krabbendam, Dick J Veltman, Anne-Kathrin J Fett
Trust and cooperation increase from adolescence to adulthood, but studies on gender differences in this development are rare. We investigated gender and age-related differences in trust and reciprocity and associated neural mechanisms in 43 individuals (16-27 years, 22 male). Participants played two multi-round trust games with a cooperative and an unfair partner. Males showed more basic trust towards unknown others than females. Both genders increased trust during cooperative interactions, with no differences in average trust...
February 14, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262423/neurodevelopmental-changes-across-adolescence-in-viewing-and-labeling-dynamic-peer-emotions
#14
Jessica E Flannery, Nicole R Giuliani, John C Flournoy, Jennifer H Pfeifer
Adolescence is a sensitive period of social-affective development, characterized by biological, neurological, and social changes. The field currently conceptualizes these changes in terms of an imbalance between systems supporting reactivity and regulation, specifically nonlinear changes in reactivity networks and linear changes in regulatory networks. Previous research suggests that the labeling or reappraisal of emotion increases activity in lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), and decreases activity in amygdala relative to passive viewing of affective stimuli...
February 10, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233663/autism-as-an-adaptive-common-variant-pathway-for-human-brain-development
#15
REVIEW
Mark H Johnson
While research on focal perinatal lesions has provided evidence for recovery of function, much less is known about processes of brain adaptation resulting from mild but widespread disturbances to neural processing over the early years (such as alterations in synaptic efficiency). Rather than being viewed as a direct behavioral consequence of life-long neural dysfunction, I propose that autism is best viewed as the end result of engaging adaptive processes during a sensitive period. From this perspective, autism is not appropriately described as a disorder of neurodevelopment, but rather as an adaptive common variant pathway of human functional brain development...
February 9, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279917/at-risk-of-being-risky-the-relationship-between-brain-age-under-emotional-states-and-risk-preference
#16
Marc D Rudolph, Oscar Miranda-Domínguez, Alexandra O Cohen, Kaitlyn Breiner, Laurence Steinberg, Richard J Bonnie, Elizabeth S Scott, Kim Taylor-Thompson, Jason Chein, Karla C Fettich, Jennifer A Richeson, Danielle V Dellarco, Adriana Galván, B J Casey, Damien A Fair
Developmental differences regarding decision making are often reported in the absence of emotional stimuli and without context, failing to explain why some individuals are more likely to have a greater inclination toward risk. The current study (N=212; 10-25y) examined the influence of emotional context on underlying functional brain connectivity over development and its impact on risk preference. Using functional imaging data in a neutral brain-state we first identify the "brain age" of a given individual then validate it with an independent measure of cortical thickness...
February 1, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223034/children-s-head-motion-during-fmri-tasks-is-heritable-and-stable-over-time
#17
Laura E Engelhardt, Mary Abbe Roe, Jenifer Juranek, Dana DeMaster, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Jessica A Church
Head motion during fMRI scans negatively impacts data quality, and as post-acquisition techniques for addressing motion become increasingly stringent, data retention decreases. Studies conducted with adult participants suggest that movement acts as a relatively stable, heritable phenotype that serves as a marker for other genetically influenced phenotypes. Whether these patterns extend downward to childhood has critical implications for the interpretation and generalizability of fMRI data acquired from children...
February 1, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214667/effects-of-prior-testing-lasting-a-full-year-in-ncanda-adolescents-contributions-from-age-sex-socioeconomic-status-ethnicity-site-family-history-of-alcohol-or-drug-abuse-and-baseline-performance
#18
Edith V Sullivan, Ty Brumback, Susan F Tapert, Devin Prouty, Rosemary Fama, Wesley K Thompson, Sandra A Brown, Kevin Cummins, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker, Duncan B Clark, Tammy Chung, Michael D De Bellis, Stephen R Hooper, Bonnie J Nagel, B Nolan Nichols, Weiwei Chu, Dongjin Kwon, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Longitudinal study provides a robust method for tracking developmental trajectories. Yet inherent problems of retesting pose challenges in distinguishing biological developmental change from prior testing experience. We examined factors potentially influencing change scores on 16 neuropsychological test composites over 1year in 568 adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) project. The twice-minus-once-tested method revealed that performance gain was mainly attributable to testing experience (practice) with little contribution from predicted developmental effects...
January 24, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081519/interoception-and-psychopathology-a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Jennifer Murphy, Rebecca Brewer, Caroline Catmur, Geoffrey Bird
Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one's own emotion), underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding...
February 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012401/using-fnirs-to-examine-occipital-and-temporal-responses-to-stimulus-repetition-in-young-infants-evidence-of-selective-frontal-cortex-involvement
#20
Lauren L Emberson, Grace Cannon, Holly Palmeri, John E Richards, Richard N Aslin
How does the developing brain respond to recent experience? Repetition suppression (RS) is a robust and well-characterized response of to recent experience found, predominantly, in the perceptual cortices of the adult brain. We use functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate how perceptual (temporal and occipital) and frontal cortices in the infant brain respond to auditory and visual stimulus repetitions (spoken words and faces). In Experiment 1, we find strong evidence of repetition suppression in the frontal cortex but only for auditory stimuli...
February 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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