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Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

Adele Diamond, Daphne S Ling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Grace McIlvain, Hillary Schwarb, Neal J Cohen, Eva H Telzer, Curtis L Johnson
Viscoelastic mechanical properties of the in vivo human brain, measured noninvasively with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), have recently been shown to be affected by aging and neurological disease, as well as relate to performance on cognitive tasks in adults. The demonstrated sensitivity of brain mechanical properties to neural tissue integrity make them an attractive target for examining the developing brain; however, to date, MRE studies on children are lacking. In this work, we characterized global and regional brain stiffness and damping ratio in a sample of 40 adolescents aged 12-14 years, including the lobes of the cerebrum and subcortical gray matter structures...
June 10, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Mara van der Meulen, Nikolaus Steinbeis, Michelle Achterberg, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Eveline A Crone
Experiencing and observing social exclusion and inclusion, as well as prosocial behavior, are important aspects of social relationships in childhood. However, it is currently unknown to what extent these processes and their neural correlates differ in heritability. We investigated influences of genetics and environment on experiencing social exclusion and compensating for social exclusion of others with the Prosocial Cyberball Game using fMRI in a twin sample (aged 7-9; N = 500). Neuroimaging analyses (N = 283) revealed that experiencing possible self-exclusion resulted in activity in inferior frontal gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex, which was influenced by genetics and unique environment...
June 7, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Angela Vandenberg, Wan Chen Lin, Lung-Hao Tai, Dorit Ron, Linda Wilbrecht
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Teodora Gliga, Teresa Farroni, Carissa J Cascio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
T M Centanni, D Pantazis, D T Truong, J R Gruen, J D E Gabrieli, T P Hogan
Individuals with dyslexia exhibit increased brainstem variability in response to sound. It is unknown as to whether increased variability extends to neocortical regions associated with audition and reading, extends to visual stimuli, and whether increased variability characterizes all children with dyslexia or, instead, a specific subset of children. We evaluated the consistency of stimulus-evoked neural responses in children with (N = 20) or without dyslexia (N = 12) as measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
May 26, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Angélina Vernetti, Nataşa Ganea, Leslie Tucker, Tony Charman, Mark H Johnson, Atsushi Senju
A fundamental question in functional brain development is how the brain acquires specialised processing optimised for its individual environment. The current study is the first to demonstrate that distinct experience of eye gaze communication, due to the visual impairment of a parent, affects the specificity of brain responses to dynamic gaze shifts in infants. Event-related potentials (ERPs) from 6 to 10 months old sighted infants with blind parents (SIBP group) and control infants with sighted parents (CTRL group) were recorded while they observed a face with gaze shifting Toward or Away from them...
May 26, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Simone P W Haller, Kathryn L Mills, Charlotte E Hartwright, Anthony S David, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh
Longitudinal studies offer a unique window into developmental change. Yet, most of what we know about the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders is based on cross-sectional work. Here, we highlight the importance of adopting a longitudinal approach in order to make progress towards identifying the neurobiological mechanisms of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Using examples, we illustrate how longitudinal data can uniquely inform SAD etiology and timing of interventions. The brain's inherently adaptive quality requires that we model risk correlates of disorders as dynamic in their expression...
May 25, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Jasmine L Hect, Ana M Daugherty, Klodia M Hermez, Moriah E Thomason
Non-heme iron is a vital metabolic cofactor for many core processes of brain development including myelination, dendritogenesis, and neurotransmitter synthesis, and accumulates in the brain with age. However, little is known about development-related differences in brain iron and its association with emerging cognitive abilities during formative years. In this study, we estimated brain iron via R2* relaxometry in children ages 7-16 (N = 57; 38 females) and examined its relation to age-related differences in cognitive ability...
May 22, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Eddie Brummelman, David Terburg, Miranda Smit, Susan M Bögels, Peter A Bos
The sense of touch develops in utero and enables parent-child communication from the earliest moments of life. Research shows that parental touch (e.g., licking and grooming in rats, skin-to-skin care in humans) has organizing effects on the offspring's stress system. Little is known, however, about the psychological effects of parental touch. Building on findings from ethology and psychology, we propose that parental touch-even as subtle as a touch on the shoulder-tells children that their environment is safe for exploration, thus reducing their social vigilance...
May 9, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Leehe Peled-Avron, Laura Glasner, Hila Z Gvirts, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
The neural mechanisms facilitating the experience of vicarious social touch are largely unknown. The right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) has been suggested as part of a simulation observation-execution neural network that plays a key role in the perception of tactile stimuli. Considering that vicarious social touch involves vicarious sharing of emotions, we hypothesized that emotional empathy, i.e., the ability to feel what another individual is feeling, modulates the neural responses to vicarious touch. To examine the role of the rIFG in vicarious touch and its modulation by levels of emotional empathy, we used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on forty participants who observed photos depicting social touch, nonsocial touch or no touch during tDCS or sham stimulation...
April 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Carissa J Cascio, David Moore, Francis McGlone
Social touch is a powerful force in human development, shaping social reward, attachment, cognitive, communication, and emotional regulation from infancy and throughout life. In this review, we consider the question of how social touch is defined from both bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the former category, there is a clear role for the C-touch (CT) system, which constitutes a unique submodality that mediates affective touch and contrasts with discriminative touch. Top-down factors such as culture, personal relationships, setting, gender, and other contextual influences are also important in defining and interpreting social touch...
April 24, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, James M Bjork, Monica Luciana
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD) will capture a breadth of multi-faceted biobehavioral, environmental, familial, and genetic longitudinal developmental open-access data from over 11,000 9-10 year olds throughout the United States of America (USA) for an envisioned ten-year span. This will subsequently represent the largest study ever attempted with this level of brain phenotypic detail. This study holds the opportunity for exciting advances in the understanding of typical adolescent neurodevelopment, discovery of neurodevelopmental underpinnings of mental illness, as well as the neurodevelopmental influences of (and on) social factors, substance use, and critically - their interaction...
August 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Allison M Auchter, Margie Hernandez Mejia, Charles J Heyser, Paul D Shilling, Terry L Jernigan, Sandra A Brown, Susan F Tapert, Gayathri J Dowling
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study is designed to be the largest study of brain development and child health in the United States, performing comprehensive assessments of 11,500 children repeatedly for 10 years. An endeavor of this magnitude requires an organized framework of governance and communication that promotes collaborative decision-making and dissemination of information. The ABCD consortium structure, built upon the Matrix Management approach of organizational theory, facilitates the integration of input from all institutions, numerous internal workgroups and committees, federal partners, and external advisory groups to make use of a broad range of expertise to ensure the study's success...
August 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
H Garavan, H Bartsch, K Conway, A Decastro, R Z Goldstein, S Heeringa, T Jernigan, A Potter, W Thompson, D Zahs
The ABCD study is a new and ongoing project of very substantial size and scale involving 21 data acquisition sites. It aims to recruit 11,500 children and follow them for ten years with extensive assessments at multiple timepoints. To deliver on its potential to adequately describe adolescent development, it is essential that it adopt recruitment procedures that are efficient and effective and will yield a sample that reflects the nation's diversity in an epidemiologically informed manner. Here, we describe the sampling plans and recruitment procedures of this study...
August 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Elizabeth A Hoffman, Katia D Howlett, Florence Breslin, Gayathri J Dowling
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, a large, longitudinal study of brain development and child health, relies on the engagement of communities, educators, and families to ensure its success. To that end, community and partner relationships, development of targeted messages and materials for specific audiences (educators, families, youth, scientists), and continued and consistent outreach must be an integral part of the Consortium activities. The ABCD Consortium has made these efforts a priority and developed a framework to raise awareness about the study and promote sustained broad-base support from diverse stakeholders...
August 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Rolf Loeber, Duncan B Clark, Lia Ahonen, Douglas FitzGerald, Elisa M Trucco, Robert A Zucker
To guide recruitment, the ABCD Study requires a method for identifying children at high risk for early-onset substance use that may be utilized during the recruitment process. This study was undertaken to inform the development of a brief screen for identifying youths' risk of early-onset substance use and other adverse outcomes. To be acceptable by participants in this context, consideration of potential items was limited to child characteristics previously determined to be potentially pertinent and parental cigarette smoking...
August 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
K S Bagot, S A Matthews, M Mason, Lindsay M Squeglia, J Fowler, K Gray, M Herting, A May, I Colrain, J Godino, S Tapert, S Brown, K Patrick
Mobile and wearable technologies and novel methods of data collection are innovating health-related research. These technologies and methods allow for multi-system level capture of data across environmental, physiological, behavioral, and psychological domains. In the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, there is great potential for harnessing the acceptability, accessibility, and functionality of mobile and social technologies for in-vivo data capture to precisely measure factors, and interactions between factors, that contribute to childhood and adolescent neurodevelopment and psychosocial and health outcomes...
August 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Robert A Zucker, Raul Gonzalez, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, Martin P Paulus, Judith Arroyo, Andrew Fuligni, Amanda Sheffield Morris, Mariana Sanchez, Thomas Wills
Neurodevelopmental maturation takes place in a social environment in addition to a neurobiological one. Characterization of social environmental factors that influence this process is therefore an essential component in developing an accurate model of adolescent brain and neurocognitive development, as well as susceptibility to change with the use of marijuana and other drugs. The creation of the Culture and Environment (CE) measurement component of the ABCD protocol was guided by this understanding. Three areas were identified by the CE Work Group as central to this process: influences relating to CE Group membership, influences created by the proximal social environment, influences stemming from social interactions...
August 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Kristina A Uban, Megan K Horton, Joanna Jacobus, Charles Heyser, Wesley K Thompson, Susan F Tapert, Pamela A F Madden, Elizabeth R Sowell
Biospecimen collection in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study - of hair samples, shed deciduous (baby) teeth, and body fluids - will serve dual functions of screening for study eligibility, and providing measures of biological processes thought to predict or correlate with key study outcomes on brain and cognitive development. Biosamples are being collected annually to screen for recency of drug use prior to the neuroimaging or cognitive testing visit, and to store for the following future studies: (1) on the effects of exposure to illicit and recreational drugs (including alcohol and nicotine); (2) of pubertal hormones on brain and cognitive developmental trajectories; (3) on the contribution of genomics and epigenomics to child and adolescent development and behavioral outcomes; and (4) with pre- and post-natal exposure to environmental neurotoxicants and drugs of abuse measured from novel tooth analyses...
August 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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