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Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

L A Kirby, D Moraczewski, K Warnell, K Velnoskey, E Redcay
The ability to perceive others' actions and goals from human motion (i.e., biological motion perception) is a critical component of social perception and may be linked to the development of real-world social relationships. Adult research demonstrates two key nodes of the brain's biological motion perception system-amygdala and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)-are linked to variability in social network properties. The relation between social perception and social network properties, however, has not yet been investigated in middle childhood-a time when individual differences in social experiences and social perception are growing...
March 6, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Timothy J McDermott, Mackenzie S Mills, Alex I Wiesman, Yu-Ping Wang, Julia M Stephen, Vince D Calhoun, Tony W Wilson
Numerous studies connect beta oscillations in the motor cortices to volitional movement, and beta is known to be aberrant in multiple movement disorders. However, the dynamic interplay between these beta oscillations, motor performance, and spontaneous beta power (e.g., during rest) in the motor cortices remains unknown. This study utilized magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate these three parameters and their lifespan trajectory in 57 healthy participants aged 9-75 years old. Movement-related beta activity was imaged using a beamforming approach, and voxel time series data were extracted from the peak voxels in the primary motor cortices...
March 2, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Fabrizia Festante, Ross E Vanderwert, Valentina Sclafani, Annika Paukner, Elizabeth A Simpson, Stephen J Suomi, Nathan A Fox, Pier Francesco Ferrari
Previous developmental research suggests that motor experience supports the development of action perception across the lifespan. However, it is still unknown when the neural mechanisms underlying action-perception coupling emerge in infancy. The goal of this study was to examine the neural correlates of action perception during the emergence of grasping abilities in newborn rhesus macaques. Neural activity, recorded via electroencephalogram (EEG), while monkeys observed grasping actions, mimed actions and means-end movements during the first (W1) and second week (W2) of life was measured...
March 1, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Ethan M McCormick, Michael T Perino, Eva H Telzer
Adolescence is a period of sensitivity to social stimuli. In particular, research has focused on the increased sensitivity to risks and social information seen during adolescence. However, recent evidence also suggests that adolescents can flexibly use information in service of their goals, raising an interesting question: are adolescents able to selectively discount social information if it conflicts with their goals? To test this question, fifty-five children and adolescents (ages 8-17 years) completed a social variant of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task during an fMRI session...
March 1, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
M Luciana, J M Bjork, B J Nagel, D M Barch, R Gonzalez, S J Nixon, M T Banich
Adolescence is characterized by numerous social, hormonal and physical changes, as well as a marked increase in risk-taking behaviors. Dual systems models attribute adolescent risk-taking to tensions between developing capacities for cognitive control and motivational strivings, which may peak at this time. A comprehensive understanding of neurocognitive development during the adolescent period is necessary to permit the distinction between premorbid vulnerabilities and consequences of behaviors such as substance use...
February 21, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Timothy J Hendrickson, Bryon A Mueller, Elizabeth R Sowell, Sarah N Mattson, Claire D Coles, Julie A Kable, Kenneth L Jones, Christopher J Boys, Susanne Lee, Kelvin O Lim, Edward P Riley, Jeffrey R Wozniak
OBJECTIVES: Cortical abnormalities in prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are known, including in gyrification (LGI), thickness (CT), volume (CV), and surface area (CS). This study provides longitudinal and developmental context to the PAE cortical development literature. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Included: 58 children with PAE and 52 controls, ages 6-17 at enrollment, from four Collaborative Initiative on FASD (CIFASD) sites. Participants underwent a formal evaluation of physical anomalies and dysmorphic facial features associated with PAE...
February 21, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Themelis Karaminis, Louise Neil, Catherine Manning, Marco Turi, Chiara Fiorentini, David Burr, Elizabeth Pellicano
Ensemble perception, the ability to assess automatically the summary of large amounts of information presented in visual scenes, is available early in typical development. This ability might be compromised in autistic children, who are thought to present limitations in maintaining summary statistics representations for the recent history of sensory input. Here we examined ensemble perception of facial emotional expressions in 35 autistic children, 30 age- and ability-matched typical children and 25 typical adults...
February 20, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Terry L Jernigan, Sandra A Brown
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a longitudinal, observational study of over 10,000 youth recruited at 21 sites throughout the United States. Comprehensive biennial assessments and more limited interim assessments measure health, mental health, neurocognition, family, cultural and environmental variables, substance use, genetic and other biomarkers, and structural and functional brain development. Within this Special Issue, readers will find much information about the rationale and objectives of the study, the broad ranging assessment protocols and new as well as traditional methodologies applied at baseline, the recruitment and retention strategies, and the anticipated final composition of the cohort...
February 15, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Dominique Maciejewski, Nina Lauharatanahirun, Toria Herd, Jacob Lee, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Brooks King-Casas, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon
Adolescence is a critical period for the initiation of risk-taking behaviors. We examined the longitudinal interplay between neural correlates of risk processing and cognitive control in predicting risk-taking behaviors via stress. The sample consisted of 167 adolescents (53% males) who were assessed twice (MAgeTime1  = 14.13, MAgeTime2  = 15.05). Neural risk processing was operationalized as blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the anterior insula during a lottery choice task and neural cognitive control as BOLD responses during an inhibitory control task...
February 14, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Jin Wang, Marc F Joanisse, James R Booth
The left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) is important in visual word recognition. Studies have shown that the left vOT is generally observed to be involved in spoken language processing in skilled readers, suggesting automatic access to corresponding orthographic information. However, little is known about where and how the left vOT is involved in the spoken language processing of young children with emerging reading ability. In order to answer this question, we examined the relation of reading ability in 5-6-year-old kindergarteners to the activation of vOT during an auditory phonological awareness task...
February 14, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Eva H Telzer, Ethan M McCormick, Sabine Peters, Danielle Cosme, Jennifer H Pfeifer, Anna C K van Duijvenvoorde
There has been a large spike in longitudinal fMRI studies in recent years, and so it is essential that researchers carefully assess the limitations and challenges afforded by longitudinal designs. In this article, we provide an overview of important considerations for longitudinal fMRI research in developmental samples, including task design, sampling strategies, and group-level analyses. We first discuss considerations for task designs, weighing the pros and cons of many commonly used tasks, as well as outlining how the tasks may be impacted by repeated exposure...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Marion I van den Heuvel, Elise Turk, Janessa H Manning, Jasmine Hect, Edgar Hernandez-Andrade, Sonia S Hassan, Roberto Romero, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Moriah E Thomason
Advances in neuroimaging and network analyses have lead to discovery of highly connected regions, or hubs, in the connectional architecture of the human brain. Whether these hubs emerge in utero, has yet to be examined. The current study addresses this question and aims to determine the location of neural hubs in human fetuses. Fetal resting-state fMRI data (N = 105) was used to construct connectivity matrices for 197 discrete brain regions. We discovered that within the connectional functional organization of the human fetal brain key hubs are emerging...
February 6, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Irene Mantis, Marisa Mercuri, Dale M Stack, Tiffany M Field
Touch is a critical channel of communication used by mothers to communicate and interact with their infants and to contribute to their infants' socio-emotional development. The present study examined maternal touching in 41 mothers with and without depressive symptomatology. Mothers and their 4-month-old infants participated in the Still-Face (maternal emotional unavailability) and Separation (maternal physical unavailability) procedures. Maternal touching behaviours were video-recorded and coded using the Caregiver Infant Touch Scale (CITS)...
February 2, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Laura Crucianelli, Lisa Wheatley, Maria Laura Filippetti, Paul M Jenkinson, Elizabeth Kirk, Aikaterini Katerina Fotopoulou
Increasing evidence shows that maternal touch may promote emotion regulation in infants, however less is known about how parental higher-order social cognition abilities are translated into tactile, affect-regulatory behaviours towards their infants. During 10 min book-reading, mother-infant sessions when infants were 12 months old (N = 45), we investigated maternal mind-mindedness (MM), the social cognitive ability to understand an infant's mental state, by coding the contingency of maternal verbal statements towards the infants' needs and desires...
January 31, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Cécile Issard, Judit Gervain
Measuring brain activity in developmental populations remains a major challenge despite great technological advances. Among the numerous available methods, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging modality that probes the hemodynamic response, is a powerful tool for recording brain activity in a great variety of situations and populations. Neurocognitive studies with infants have often reported inverted hemodynamic responses, i.e. a decrease instead of an increase in regional blood oxygenation, but the exact physiological explanation and cognitive interpretation of this response remain unclear...
January 31, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
David G Weissman, Rand D Conger, Richard W Robins, Paul D Hastings, Amanda E Guyer
Experiencing poverty during childhood and adolescence may affect brain function. However, income is dynamic, and studies have not addressed whether income change relates to brain function. In the present study, we investigated whether intrinsic functional connectivity of default mode network (DMN) regions was influenced by mean family income and family income change. Parents of 68 Mexican-origin adolescents (35 females) reported family income annually when adolescents were 10-16 years old. Intercept and slope of income at each of these ages were calculated for each participant...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Josiah R Boivin, David J Piekarski, A Wren Thomas, Linda Wilbrecht
Pyramidal neurons in the neocortex receive a majority of their synapses on dendritic spines, whose growth, gain, and loss regulate the strength and identity of neural connections. Juvenile brains typically show higher spine density and turnover compared to adult brains, potentially enabling greater capacity for experience-dependent circuit 'rewiring'. Although spine pruning and stabilization in frontal cortex overlap with pubertal milestones, it is unclear if gonadal hormones drive these processes. To address this question, we used hormone manipulations and in vivo 2-photon microscopy to test for a causal relationship between pubertal hormones and spine pruning and stabilization in layer 5 neurons in the frontal cortex of female mice...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Arjun Sethi, Sagari Sarkar, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Essi Viding, Marco Catani, Declan G M Murphy, Michael C Craig
We recently reported that emotional detachment in adult psychopathy was associated with structural abnormalities in the dorsal 'default-mode' network (DMN). However, it is unclear whether these differences are present in young people at risk of psychopathy. The most widely recognised group at risk for psychopathy are children/adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits. We therefore examined the microstructure of the dorsal DMN in 27 CD youths (14-with/13-without CU traits) compared to 16 typically developing controls using DTI tractography...
January 27, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Jasmine B Taylor, Troy A W Visser, Simone N Fueggle, Mark A Bellgrove, Allison M Fox
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have postulated that the error-related negativity (ERN) may reflect individual differences in impulsivity; however, none have used a longitudinal framework or evaluated impulsivity as a multidimensional construct. The current study evaluated whether ERN amplitude, measured in childhood and adolescence, is predictive of impulsiveness during adolescence. METHODS: Seventy-five children participated in this study, initially at ages 7-9 years and again at 12-18 years...
January 10, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Heidemarie K Laurent, Dorianne Wright, Megan Finnegan
Mindfulness is thought to promote well-being by shaping the way people respond to challenging social-emotional situations. Current understanding of how this occurs at the neural level is based on studies of response to decontextualized emotion stimuli that may not adequately represent lived experiences. In this study, we tested relations between mothers' dispositional mindfulness and neural responses to their own infant in different emotion-eliciting contexts. Mothers (n = 25) engaged with their 3-month-old infants in videorecorded tasks designed to elicit negative (arm restraint) or positive (peekaboo) emotion...
January 5, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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