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Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927641/gentle-touch-perception-from-early-childhood-to-adolescence
#1
Ilona Croy, Isac Sehlstedt, Helena Backlund Wasling, Rochelle Ackerley, Håkan Olausson
Affective touch plays an important role in children's social interaction and is involved in shaping the development of the social brain. The positive affective component of touch is thought to be conveyed via a group of unmyelinated, low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents, known as C-tactile fibers that are optimally activated by gentle, slow, stroking touch. Touch targeting these C-tactile fibers has been shown to decrease the heart rate in infants. The current study investigated the relationship between age and psychophysical ratings in response to affective touch...
August 18, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863370/cognitive-flexibility-and-its-electrophysiological-correlates-in-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#2
Florian Lange, Caroline Seer, Kirsten Müller-Vahl, Bruno Kopp
Motor symptoms in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) have been related to changes in frontostriatal brain networks. These changes may also give rise to alterations in cognitive flexibility. However, conclusive evidence for altered cognitive flexibility in patients with GTS is still lacking. Here, we meta-analyzed data from 20 neuropsychological studies that investigated cognitive flexibility in GTS using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results revealed medium-sized GTS-related performance deficits, which were significantly modulated by age: Whilst being substantial in children and adolescents with GTS, WCST deficits seem to dissolve in adult patients with GTS...
August 18, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844729/handling-newborn-monkeys-alters-later-exploratory-cognitive-and-social-behaviors
#3
Elizabeth A Simpson, Valentina Sclafani, Annika Paukner, Stefano S K Kaburu, Stephen J Suomi, Pier F Ferrari
Touch is one of the first senses to develop and one of the earliest modalities for infant-caregiver communication. While studies have explored the benefits of infant touch in terms of physical health and growth, the effects of social touch on infant behavior are relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated the influence of neonatal handling on a variety of domains, including memory, novelty seeking, and social interest, in infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n=48) from 2 to 12 weeks of age. Neonates were randomly assigned to receive extra holding, with or without accompanying face-to-face interactions...
August 18, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869843/flexing-dual-systems-models-how-variable-cognitive-control-in-children-informs-our-understanding-of-risk-taking-across-development
#4
REVIEW
Rosa Li
Prevailing models of the development of decision-making propose that peak risk-taking occurs in adolescence due to a neural imbalance between two processes: gradual, linearly developing cognitive control and rapid, non-linearly developing reward-processing. Though many studies have found neural evidence supporting this dual-systems imbalance model, its behavioral predictions have been surprisingly difficult to document. Most laboratory studies have not found adolescents to exhibit greater risk-taking than children, and public health data show everyday risk-taking to peak in late adolescence/early adulthood...
August 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889988/developmental-sequelae-and-neurophysiologic-substrates-of-sensory-seeking-in-infant-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Cara R Damiano-Goodwin, Tiffany G Woynaroski, David M Simon, Lisa V Ibañez, Michael Murias, Anne Kirby, Cassandra R Newsom, Mark T Wallace, Wendy L Stone, Carissa J Cascio
It has been proposed that early differences in sensory responsiveness arise from atypical neural function and produce cascading effects on development across domains. This longitudinal study prospectively followed infants at heightened risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on their status as younger siblings of children diagnosed with ASD (Sibs-ASD) and infants at relatively lower risk for ASD (siblings of typically developing children; Sibs-TD) to examine the developmental sequelae and possible neurophysiological substrates of a specific sensory response pattern: unusually intense interest in nonsocial sensory stimuli or "sensory seeking...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869201/cascading-effects-of-attention-disengagement-and-sensory-seeking-on-social-symptoms-in-a-community-sample-of-infants-at-risk-for-a-future-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Grace T Baranek, Tiffany G Woynaroski, Sallie Nowell, Lauren Turner-Brown, Michaela DuBay, Elizabeth R Crais, Linda R Watson
Recent work suggests sensory seeking predicts later social symptomatology through reduced social orienting in infants who are at high-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on their status as younger siblings of children diagnosed with ASD. We drew on extant longitudinal data from a community sample of at-risk infants who were identified at 12 months using the First Year Inventory, and followed to 3-5 years. We replicate findings of Damiano et al. (in this issue) that a) high-risk infants who go on to be diagnosed with ASD show heightened sensory seeking in the second year of life relative to those who do not receive a diagnosis, and b) increased sensory seeking indirectly relates to later social symptomatology via reduced social orienting...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939027/simulating-interaction-using-gaze-contingent-eye-tracking-to-measure-the-reward-value-of-social-signals-in-toddlers-with-and-without-autism
#7
Angelina Vernetti, Atsushi Senju, Tony Charman, Mark H Johnson, Teodora Gliga
Several accounts have been proposed to explain difficulties with social interaction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), amongst which atypical social orienting, decreased social motivation or difficulties with understanding the regularities driving social interaction. This study uses gaze-contingent eye-tracking to tease apart these accounts by measuring reward related behaviours in response to different social videos. Toddlers at high or low familial risk for ASD took part in this study at age 2 and were categorised at age 3 as low risk controls (LR), high-risk with no ASD diagnosis (HR-no ASD), or with a diagnosis of ASD (HR-ASD)...
August 12, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818429/exposure-shapes-the-perception-of-affective-touch
#8
Uta Sailer, Rochelle Ackerley
Touch is a common occurrence in our lives, where affective and inter-personal aspects of touch are important for our well-being. We investigated whether touch exposure affects hedonic and discriminative aspects of tactile perception. The perceived pleasantness and intensity of gentle forearm stroking, over different velocities, was assessed in individuals reporting to seldom receive inter-personal touch, and in controls who received touch often. The groups did not differ in their stroking intensity judgements, nor in tactile discrimination sensitivity; however, individuals with low touch exposure evaluated the pleasantness of touch differently...
August 9, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844728/brain-areas-associated-with-numbers-and-calculations-in-children-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#9
Marie Arsalidou, Matthew Pawliw-Levac, Mahsa Sadeghi, Juan Pascual-Leone
Children use numbers every day and typically receive formal mathematical training from an early age, as it is a main subject in school curricula. Despite an increase in children neuroimaging studies, a comprehensive neuropsychological model of mathematical functions in children is lacking. Using quantitative meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, we identify concordant brain areas across articles that adhere to a set of selection criteria (e.g., whole-brain analysis, coordinate reports) and report brain activity to tasks that involve processing symbolic and non-symbolic numbers with and without formal mathematical operations, which we called respectively number tasks and calculation tasks...
August 8, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823983/early-dynamics-of-white-matter-deficits-in-children-developing-dyslexia
#10
Jolijn Vanderauwera, Jan Wouters, Maaike Vandermosten, Pol Ghesquière
Neural anomalies have been demonstrated in dyslexia. Recent studies in pre-readers at risk for dyslexia and in pre-readers developing poor reading suggest that these anomalies might be a cause of their reading impairment. Our study goes one step further by exploring the neurodevelopmental trajectory of white matter anomalies in pre-readers with and without a familial risk for dyslexia (n=61) of whom a strictly selected sample develops dyslexia later on (n=15). We collected longitudinal diffusion MRI and behavioural data until grade 3...
August 8, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818707/a-biomarker-of-anxiety-in-children-and-adolescents-a-review-focusing-on-the-error-related-negativity-ern-and-anxiety-across-development
#11
REVIEW
Alexandria Meyer
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are the most common form of psychopathology and often begin early in development. Therefore, there is interest in identifying neural biomarkers that characterize pathways leading to anxiety disorders early in the course of development. A substantial amount of work focuses on the error-related negativity (ERN) as a biomarker of anxiety. While two previous reviews have focused on the relationship of the ERN and anxiety in adults, no previous review has focused on this issue in children and adolescents...
August 8, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777996/neural-connectivity-moderates-the-association-between-sleep-and-impulsivity-in-adolescents
#12
Sarah M Tashjian, Diane Goldenberg, Adriana Galván
Adolescence is characterized by chronic insufficient sleep and extensive brain development, but the relation between adolescent sleep and brain function remains unclear. We report the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to investigate functional connectivity as a moderator between sleep and impulsivity, a problematic behavior during this developmental period. Naturalistic differences in sleep have not yet been explored as treatable contributors to adolescent impulsivity. Although public and scientific attention focuses on sleep duration, we report individual differences in sleep quality, not duration, in fifty-five adolescents (ages 14-18) yielded significant differences in functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and default mode network...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777995/beyond-stereotypes-of-adolescent-risk-taking-placing-the-adolescent-brain-in-developmental-context
#13
REVIEW
Daniel Romer, Valerie F Reyna, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Recent neuroscience models of adolescent brain development attribute the morbidity and mortality of this period to structural and functional imbalances between more fully developed limbic regions that subserve reward and emotion as opposed to those that enable cognitive control. We challenge this interpretation of adolescent development by distinguishing risk-taking that peaks during adolescence (sensation seeking and impulsive action) from risk taking that declines monotonically from childhood to adulthood (impulsive choice and other decisions under known risk)...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919088/resilience-in-mathematics-after-early-brain-injury-the-roles-of-parental-input-and-early-plasticity
#14
Dana E Glenn, Özlem Ece Demir-Lira, Dominic J Gibson, Eliza L Congdon, Susan C Levine
Children with early focal unilateral brain injury show remarkable plasticity in language development. However, little is known about how early brain injury influences mathematical learning. Here, we examine early number understanding, comparing cardinal number knowledge of typically developing children (TD) and children with pre- and perinatal lesions (BI) between 42 and 50 months of age. We also examine how this knowledge relates to the number words children hear from their primary caregivers early in life...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756186/event-related-potential-response-to-auditory-social-stimuli-parent-reported-social-communicative-deficits-and-autism-risk-in-school-aged-children-with-congenital-visual-impairment
#15
Joe Bathelt, Naomi Dale, Michelle de Haan
Communication with visual signals, like facial expression, is important in early social development, but the question if these signals are necessary for typical social development remains to be addressed. The potential impact on social development of being born with no or very low levels of vision is therefore of high theoretical and clinical interest. The current study investigated event-related potential responses to basic social stimuli in a rare group of school-aged children with congenital visual disorders of the anterior visual system (globe of the eye, retina, anterior optic nerve)...
July 19, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780219/neurofunctionally-dissecting-the-reading-system-in-children
#16
Johanna Liebig, Eva Froehlich, Carmen Morawetz, Mario Braun, Arthur M Jacobs, Hauke R Heekeren, Johannes C Ziegler
The reading system can be broken down into four basic subcomponents in charge of prelexical, orthographic, phonological, and lexico-semantic processes. These processes need to jointly work together to become a fluent and efficient reader. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we systematically analyzed differences in neural activation patterns of these four basic subcomponents in children (N=41, 9-13 years) using tasks specifically tapping each component (letter identification, orthographic decision, phonological decision, and semantic categorization)...
July 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755632/heightened-activity-in-social-reward-networks-is-associated-with-adolescents-risky-sexual-behaviors
#17
Kristen L Eckstrand, Sophia Choukas-Bradley, Arpita Mohanty, Marissa Cross, Nicholas B Allen, Jennifer S Silk, Neil P Jones, Erika E Forbes
Adolescent sexual risk behavior can lead to serious health consequences, yet few investigations have addressed its neurodevelopmental mechanisms. Social neurocircuitry is postulated to underlie the development of risky sexual behavior, and response to social reward may be especially relevant. Typically developing adolescents (N=47; 18M, 29F; 16.3±1.4years; 42.5% sexual intercourse experience) completed a social reward fMRI task and reported their sexual risk behaviors (e.g., lifetime sexual partners) on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)...
July 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735165/development-of-selective-attention-in-preschool-age-children-from-lower-socioeconomic-status-backgrounds
#18
Amanda Hampton Wray, Courtney Stevens, Eric Pakulak, Elif Isbell, Theodore Bell, Helen Neville
Although differences in selective attention skills have been identified in children from lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, little is known about these differences in early childhood, a time of rapid attention development. The current study evaluated the development of neural systems for selective attention in children from lower SES backgrounds. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were acquired from 33 children from lower SES and 14 children from higher SES backgrounds during a dichotic listening task...
July 4, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716389/biomedical-ethics-and-clinical-oversight-in-multisite-observational-neuroimaging-studies-with-children-and-adolescents-the-abcd-experience
#19
REVIEW
Duncan B Clark, Celia B Fisher, Susan Bookheimer, Sandra A Brown, John H Evans, Christian Hopfer, James Hudziak, Ivan Montoya, Margaret Murray, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
Observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents may identify neurological anomalies and other clinically relevant findings. Planning for the management of this information involves ethical considerations that may influence informed consent, confidentiality, and communication with participants about assessment results. Biomedical ethics principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Each project presents unique challenges. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study (ABCD) collaborators have systematically developed recommendations with written guidelines for identifying and responding to potential risks that adhere to biomedical ethics principles...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688343/evidence-for-the-triadic-model-of-adolescent-brain-development-cognitive-load-and-task-relevance-of-emotion-differentially-affect-adolescents-and-adults
#20
Sven C Mueller, Sofie Cromheeke, Roma Siugzdaite, C Nicolas Boehler
In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12-16) and 28 adults (25-35) completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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