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Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292645/one-hand-two-hands-two-people-prospective-sensorimotor-control-in-children-with-autism
#1
Caterina Ansuini, Jessica Podda, Francesca Maria Battaglia, Edvige Veneselli, Cristina Becchio
Where grasps are made reveals how grasps are planned. The grasp height effect predicts that, when people take hold of an object to move it to a new position, the grasp height on the object is inversely related to the height of the target position. In the present study, we used this effect as a window into the prospective sensorimotor control of children with autism spectrum disorders without accompanying intellectual impairment. Participants were instructed to grasp a vertical cylinder and move it from a table (home position) to a shelf of varying height (target position)...
March 2, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314184/how-does-the-body-representation-system-develop-in-the-human-brain
#2
Aurelie Fontan, Fabien Cignetti, Bruno Nazarian, Jean-Luc Anton, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Christine Assaiante
Exploration of the body representation system (BRS) from kinaesthetic illusions in fMRI has revealed a complex network composed of sensorimotor and frontoparietal components. Here, we evaluated the degree of maturity of this network in children aged 7-11 years, and the extent to which structural factors account for network differences with adults. Brain activation following tendon vibration at 100Hz ('illusion') and 30Hz ('no illusion') were analysed using the two-stage random effects model, with or without white and grey matter covariates...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285127/the-neural-and-behavioral-correlates-of-social-evaluation-in-childhood
#3
Michelle Achterberg, Anna C K van Duijvenvoorde, Mara van der Meulen, Saskia Euser, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Eveline A Crone
Being accepted or rejected by peers is highly salient for developing social relations in childhood. We investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of social feedback and subsequent aggression in 7-10-year-old children, using the Social Network Aggression Task (SNAT). Participants viewed pictures of peers that gave positive, neutral or negative feedback to the participant's profile. Next, participants could blast a loud noise towards the peer, as an index of aggression. We included three groups (N=19, N=28 and N=27) and combined the results meta-analytically...
February 27, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279916/amygdala-reactivity-predicts-adolescent-antisocial-behavior-but-not-callous-unemotional-traits
#4
Hailey L Dotterer, Luke W Hyde, Johnna R Swartz, Ahmad R Hariri, Douglas E Williamson
Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested divergent relationships between antisocial behavior (AB) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits and amygdala reactivity to fearful and angry facial expressions in adolescents. However, little work has examined if these findings extend to dimensional measures of behavior in ethnically diverse, non-clinical samples, or if participant sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, and age moderate associations. We examined links between amygdala reactivity and dimensions of AB and CU traits in 220 Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian adolescents (age 11-15; 49...
February 27, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268177/prospective-relations-between-resting-state-connectivity-of-parietal-subdivisions-and-arithmetic-competence
#5
Gavin R Price, Darren J Yeo, Eric D Wilkey, Laurie E Cutting
The present study investigates the relation between resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of cytoarchitectonically defined subdivisions of the parietal cortex at the end of 1st grade and arithmetic performance at the end of 2nd grade. Results revealed a dissociable pattern of relations between rsFC and arithmetic competence among subdivisions of intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and angular gyrus (AG). rsFC between right hemisphere IPS subdivisions and contralateral IPS subdivisions positively correlated with arithmetic competence...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284787/sensory-over-responsivity-and-social-cognition-in-asd-effects-of-aversive-sensory-stimuli-and-attentional-modulation-on-neural-responses-to-social-cues
#6
Shulamite A Green, Leanna M Hernandez, Hilary C Bowman, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) is a common condition in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that is associated with greater social impairment. However, the mechanisms through which sensory stimuli may affect social functioning are not well understood. This study used fMRI to examine brain activity while interpreting communicative intent in 15 high-functioning youth with ASD and 16 age- and IQ-matched typically-developing (TD) controls. Participants completed the task with and without a tactile sensory distracter, and with and without instructions directing their attention to relevant social cues...
February 21, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254197/early-life-adversity-during-the-infant-sensitive-period-for-attachment-programming-of-behavioral-neurobiology-of-threat-processing-and-social-behavior
#7
REVIEW
Maya Opendak, Elizabeth Gould, Regina Sullivan
Animals, including humans, require a highly coordinated and flexible system of social behavior and threat evaluation. However, trauma can disrupt this system, with the amygdala implicated as a mediator of these impairments in behavior. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences, with trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver-child maltreatment, as particularly detrimental...
February 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258836/boys-vs-girls-gender-differences-in-the-neural-development-of-trust-and-reciprocity-depend-on-social-context
#8
Imke L J Lemmers-Jansen, Lydia Krabbendam, Dick J Veltman, Anne-Kathrin J Fett
Trust and cooperation increase from adolescence to adulthood, but studies on gender differences in this development are rare. We investigated gender and age-related differences in trust and reciprocity and associated neural mechanisms in 43 individuals (16-27 years, 22 male). Participants played two multi-round trust games with a cooperative and an unfair partner. Males showed more basic trust towards unknown others than females. Both genders increased trust during cooperative interactions, with no differences in average trust...
February 14, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262423/neurodevelopmental-changes-across-adolescence-in-viewing-and-labeling-dynamic-peer-emotions
#9
Jessica E Flannery, Nicole R Giuliani, John C Flournoy, Jennifer H Pfeifer
Adolescence is a sensitive period of social-affective development, characterized by biological, neurological, and social changes. The field currently conceptualizes these changes in terms of an imbalance between systems supporting reactivity and regulation, specifically nonlinear changes in reactivity networks and linear changes in regulatory networks. Previous research suggests that the labeling or reappraisal of emotion increases activity in lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), and decreases activity in amygdala relative to passive viewing of affective stimuli...
February 10, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233663/autism-as-an-adaptive-common-variant-pathway-for-human-brain-development
#10
REVIEW
Mark H Johnson
While research on focal perinatal lesions has provided evidence for recovery of function, much less is known about processes of brain adaptation resulting from mild but widespread disturbances to neural processing over the early years (such as alterations in synaptic efficiency). Rather than being viewed as a direct behavioral consequence of life-long neural dysfunction, I propose that autism is best viewed as the end result of engaging adaptive processes during a sensitive period. From this perspective, autism is not appropriately described as a disorder of neurodevelopment, but rather as an adaptive common variant pathway of human functional brain development...
February 9, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279917/at-risk-of-being-risky-the-relationship-between-brain-age-under-emotional-states-and-risk-preference
#11
Marc D Rudolph, Oscar Miranda-Domínguez, Alexandra O Cohen, Kaitlyn Breiner, Laurence Steinberg, Richard J Bonnie, Elizabeth S Scott, Kim Taylor-Thompson, Jason Chein, Karla C Fettich, Jennifer A Richeson, Danielle V Dellarco, Adriana Galván, B J Casey, Damien A Fair
Developmental differences regarding decision making are often reported in the absence of emotional stimuli and without context, failing to explain why some individuals are more likely to have a greater inclination toward risk. The current study (N=212; 10-25y) examined the influence of emotional context on underlying functional brain connectivity over development and its impact on risk preference. Using functional imaging data in a neutral brain-state we first identify the "brain age" of a given individual then validate it with an independent measure of cortical thickness...
February 1, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223034/children-s-head-motion-during-fmri-tasks-is-heritable-and-stable-over-time
#12
Laura E Engelhardt, Mary Abbe Roe, Jenifer Juranek, Dana DeMaster, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Jessica A Church
Head motion during fMRI scans negatively impacts data quality, and as post-acquisition techniques for addressing motion become increasingly stringent, data retention decreases. Studies conducted with adult participants suggest that movement acts as a relatively stable, heritable phenotype that serves as a marker for other genetically influenced phenotypes. Whether these patterns extend downward to childhood has critical implications for the interpretation and generalizability of fMRI data acquired from children...
February 1, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214667/effects-of-prior-testing-lasting-a-full-year-in-ncanda-adolescents-contributions-from-age-sex-socioeconomic-status-ethnicity-site-family-history-of-alcohol-or-drug-abuse-and-baseline-performance
#13
Edith V Sullivan, Ty Brumback, Susan F Tapert, Devin Prouty, Rosemary Fama, Wesley K Thompson, Sandra A Brown, Kevin Cummins, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker, Duncan B Clark, Tammy Chung, Michael D De Bellis, Stephen R Hooper, Bonnie J Nagel, B Nolan Nichols, Weiwei Chu, Dongjin Kwon, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Longitudinal study provides a robust method for tracking developmental trajectories. Yet inherent problems of retesting pose challenges in distinguishing biological developmental change from prior testing experience. We examined factors potentially influencing change scores on 16 neuropsychological test composites over 1year in 568 adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) project. The twice-minus-once-tested method revealed that performance gain was mainly attributable to testing experience (practice) with little contribution from predicted developmental effects...
January 24, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188104/observing-and-participating-in-social-interactions-action-perception-and-action-control-across-the-autistic-spectrum
#14
REVIEW
Dimitris Bolis, Leonhard Schilbach
Autism is a developmental condition, characterized by difficulties of social interaction and communication, as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Although several important conceptions have shed light on specific facets, there is still no consensus about a universal yet specific theory in terms of its underlying mechanisms. While some theories have exclusively focused on sensory aspects, others have emphasized social difficulties. However, sensory and social processes in autism might be interconnected to a higher degree than what has been traditionally thought...
January 23, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130077/attention-to-novelty-versus-repetition-contrasting-habituation-profiles-in-autism-and-williams-syndrome
#15
Giacomo Vivanti, Darren R Hocking, Peter A J Fanning, Mirko Uljarevic, Valentina Postorino, Luigi Mazzone, Cheryl Dissanayake
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in habituation have been documented in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS). Such abnormalities have been proposed to underlie the distinctive social and non-social difficulties that define ASD, including sensory features and repetitive behaviours, and the distinctive social phenotype characterizing WS. METHODS: We measured habituation in 39 preschoolers with ASD, 20 peers with WS and 19 typically developing (TD) children using an eye-tracking protocol that measured participants' duration of attention in response to a repeating stimulus and a novel stimulus presented side by side across multiple trials...
January 19, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182973/dyslexia-risk-gene-relates-to-representation-of-sound-in-the-auditory-brainstem
#16
Nicole E Neef, Bent Müller, Johanna Liebig, Gesa Schaadt, Maren Grigutsch, Thomas C Gunter, Arndt Wilcke, Holger Kirsten, Michael A Skeide, Indra Kraft, Nina Kraus, Frank Emmrich, Jens Brauer, Johannes Boltze, Angela D Friederici
Dyslexia is a reading disorder with strong associations with KIAA0319 and DCDC2. Both genes play a functional role in spike time precision of neurons. Strikingly, poor readers show an imprecise encoding of fast transients of speech in the auditory brainstem. Whether dyslexia risk genes are related to the quality of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem remains to be investigated. Here, we quantified the response consistency of speech-evoked brainstem responses to the acoustically presented syllable [da] in 159 genotyped, literate and preliterate children...
January 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223033/children-with-asd-show-links-between-aberrant-sound-processing-social-symptoms-and-atypical-auditory-interhemispheric-and-thalamocortical-functional-connectivity
#17
Annika C Linke, R Joanne Jao Keehn, Ellyn B Pueschel, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex and prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communicative deficits, as well as repetitive behaviors and atypical sensitivity to sensory stimulation. Alterations in network connectivity are widely recognized, but their interplay with social and sensory symptoms remains largely unclear. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging and diagnostic and behavioral assessments were used in a cohort of children and adolescents with ASD (n=40) and matched typically developing (TD, n=38) controls to examine the relation between auditory processing, interhemispheric and thalamocortical network connectivity, and social-behavioral symptom severity...
January 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160619/ensemble-perception-of-emotions-in-autistic-and-typical-children-and-adolescents
#18
Themelis Karaminis, Louise Neil, Catherine Manning, Marco Turi, Chiara Fiorentini, David Burr, Elizabeth Pellicano
Ensemble perception, the ability to assess automatically the summary of large amounts of information presented in visual scenes, is available early in typical development. This ability might be compromised in autistic children, who are thought to present limitations in maintaining summary statistics representations for the recent history of sensory input. Here we examined ensemble perception of facial emotional expressions in 35 autistic children, 30 age- and ability-matched typical children and 25 typical adults...
January 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131929/neural-evidence-for-enhanced-attention-to-mistakes-among-school-aged-children-with-a-growth-mindset
#19
Hans S Schroder, Megan E Fisher, Yanli Lin, Sharon L Lo, Judith H Danovitch, Jason S Moser
Individuals who believe intelligence is malleable (a growth mindset) are better able to bounce back from failures than those who believe intelligence is immutable. Event-related potential (ERP) studies among adults suggest this resilience is related to increased attention allocation to errors. Whether this mechanism is present among young children remains unknown, however. We therefore evaluated error-monitoring ERPs among 123 school-aged children while they completed a child-friendly go/no-go task. As expected, higher attention allocation to errors (indexed by larger error positivity, Pe) predicted higher post-error accuracy...
January 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119183/word-and-object-recognition-during-reading-acquisition-meg-evidence
#20
Sendy Caffarra, Clara D Martin, Mikel Lizarazu, Marie Lallier, Asier Zarraga, Nicola Molinaro, Manuel Carreiras
Studies on adults suggest that reading-induced brain changes might not be limited to linguistic processes. It is still unclear whether these results can be generalized to reading development. The present study shows to which extent neural responses to verbal and nonverbal stimuli are reorganized while children learn to read. MEG data of thirty Basque children (4-8y) were collected while they were presented with written words, spoken words and visual objects. The evoked fields elicited by the experimental stimuli were compared to their scrambled counterparts...
January 10, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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