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Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645041/behavioral-and-neural-concordance-in-parent-child-dyadic-sleep-patterns
#1
Tae-Ho Lee, Michelle E Miernicki, Eva H Telzer
Sleep habits developed in adolescence shape long-term trajectories of psychological, educational, and physiological well-being. Adolescents' sleep behaviors are shaped by their parents' sleep at both the behavioral and biological levels. In the current study, we sought to examine how neural concordance in resting-state functional connectivity between parent-child dyads is associated with dyadic concordance in sleep duration and adolescents' sleep quality. To this end, we scanned both parents and their child (N=28 parent-child dyads; parent Mage=42...
June 15, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579480/sensory-reactivity-empathizing-and-systemizing-in-autism-spectrum-conditions-and-sensory-processing-disorder
#2
Teresa Tavassoli, Lucy Jane Miller, Sarah A Schoen, Jennifer Jo Brout, Jillian Sullivan, Simon Baron-Cohen
Although the DSM-5 added sensory symptoms as a criterion for ASC, there is a group of children who display sensory symptoms but do not have ASC; children with sensory processing disorder (SPD). To be able to differentiate these two disorders, our aim was to evaluate whether children with ASC show more sensory symptomatology and/or different cognitive styles in empathy and systemizing compared to children with SPD and typically developing (TD) children. The study included 210 participants: 68 children with ASC, 79 with SPD and 63 TD children...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602448/adaptation-of-social-and-non-social-cues-to-direction-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-neurotypical-adults-with-autistic-traits
#3
Rebecca P Lawson, Jessica Aylward, Jonathan P Roiser, Geraint Rees
Perceptual constancy strongly relies on adaptive gain control mechanisms, which shift perception as a function of recent sensory history. Here we examined the extent to which individual differences in magnitude of adaptation aftereffects for social and non-social directional cues are related to autistic traits and sensory sensitivity in healthy participants (Experiment 1); and also whether adaptation for social and non-social directional cues is differentially impacted in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) relative to neurotypical (NT) controls (Experiment 2)...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566139/arithmetic-in-the-developing-brain-a-review-of-brain-imaging-studies
#4
REVIEW
Lien Peters, Bert De Smedt
Brain imaging studies on academic achievement offer an exciting window on experience-dependent cortical plasticity, as they allow us to understand how developing brains change when children acquire culturally transmitted skills. This contribution focuses on the learning of arithmetic, which is quintessential to mathematical development. The nascent body of brain imaging studies reveals that arithmetic recruits a large set of interconnected areas, including prefrontal, posterior parietal, occipito-temporal and hippocampal areas...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545994/the-impact-of-atypical-sensory-processing-on-social-impairments-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Melissa D Thye, Haley M Bednarz, Abbey J Herringshaw, Emma B Sartin, Rajesh K Kana
Altered sensory processing has been an important feature of the clinical descriptions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is evidence that sensory dysregulation arises early in the progression of ASD and impacts social functioning. This paper reviews behavioral and neurobiological evidence that describes how sensory deficits across multiple modalities (vision, hearing, touch, olfaction, gustation, and multisensory integration) could impact social functions in ASD. Theoretical models of ASD and their implications for the relationship between sensory and social functioning are discussed...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527986/the-temporal-and-spatial-brain-dynamics-of-automatic-emotion-regulation-in-children
#6
Charline Urbain, Julie Sato, Elizabeth W Pang, Margot J Taylor
Mechanisms for automatic emotion regulation (AER) are essential during childhood as they offset the impact of unwanted or negative emotional responses without drawing on limited attentional resources. Despite the importance of AER in improving the efficiency and flexibility of self-regulation, few research studies have investigated the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. To fill this gap, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate AER-related brain processes in 25 children (∼10 years old) who performed a go/no-go task that included an incidental exposure to faces containing socio-emotional cues...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544983/longitudinal-associations-among-family-environment-neural-cognitive-control-and-social-competence-among-adolescents
#7
Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Dominique Maciejewski, Jacob Lee, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Brooks King-Casas
During adolescence, prefrontal cortex regions, important in cognitive control, undergo maturation to adapt to changing environmental demands. Ways through which social-ecological factors contribute to adolescent neural cognitive control have not been thoroughly examined. We hypothesize that household chaos is a context that may modulate the associations among parental control, adolescent neural cognitive control, and developmental changes in social competence. The sample involved 167 adolescents (ages 13-14 at Time 1, 53% male)...
May 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533112/where-arithmetic-and-phonology-meet-the-meta-analytic-convergence-of-arithmetic-and-phonological-processing-in-the-brain
#8
Courtney Pollack, Nicole C Ashby
Arithmetic facts can be solved using different strategies. Research suggests that some arithmetic problems, particularly those solved by fact retrieval, are related to phonological processing ability and elicit activity in left-lateralized brain regions that support phonological processing. However, it is unclear whether common brain regions support both retrieval-based arithmetic and phonological processing, and if these regions differ across children and adults. This study used activation likelihood estimation to investigate functional neural overlap between arithmetic and phonological processing, separately for children and adults...
May 10, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521247/cognitive-performance-of-juvenile-monkeys-after-chronic-fluoxetine-treatment
#9
Mari S Golub, Edward P Hackett, Casey E Hogrefe, Csaba Leranth, John D Elsworth, Robert H Roth
Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age) were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N=16/group) for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N=8/group) suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention...
May 1, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601369/body-representation-difficulties-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-may-be-due-to-delayed-development-of-visuo-tactile-temporal-binding
#10
Danielle Ropar, Katie Greenfield, Alastair D Smith, Mark Carey, Roger Newport
Recent research suggests visuo-tactile binding is temporally extended in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), although it is not clear whether this specifically underlies altered body representation in this population. In the current study children and adolescents with ASD, and typically developing controls, placed their hand into mediated reality system (MIRAGE) and saw two identical live video images of their own right hand. One image was in the proprioceptively correct location (veridical hand) and the other was displaced to either side...
April 27, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499139/a-novel-form-of-perceptual-attunement-context-dependent-perception-of-a-native-contrast-in-14-month-old-infants
#11
Mathilde Fort, Perrine Brusini, M Julia Carbajal, Yue Sun, Sharon Peperkamp
By the end of their first year of life, infants have become experts in discriminating the sounds of their native language, while they have lost the ability to discriminate non-native contrasts. This type of phonetic learning is referred to as perceptual attunement. In the present study, we investigated the emergence of a context-dependent form of perceptual attunement in infancy. Indeed, some native contrasts are not discriminated in certain phonological contexts by adults, due to the presence of a language-specific process that neutralizes the contrasts in those contexts...
April 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456088/neural-correlates-of-infants-sensitivity-to-vocal-expressions-of-peers
#12
Manuela Missana, Nicole Altvater-Mackensen, Tobias Grossmann
Responding to others' emotional expressions is an essential and early developing social skill among humans. Much research has focused on how infants process facial expressions, while much less is known about infants' processing of vocal expressions. We examined 8-month-old infants' processing of other infants' vocalizations by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive (infant laughter), negative (infant cries), and neutral (adult hummed speech) vocalizations. Our ERP results revealed that hearing another infant cry elicited an enhanced negativity (N200) at temporal electrodes around 200ms, whereas listening to another infant laugh resulted in an enhanced positivity (P300) at central electrodes around 300ms...
April 15, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436834/active-auditory-experience-in-infancy-promotes-brain-plasticity-in-theta-and-gamma-oscillations
#13
Gabriella Musacchia, Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Naseem Choudhury, Teresa Realpe-Bonilla, Cynthia Roesler, April A Benasich
Language acquisition in infants is driven by on-going neural plasticity that is acutely sensitive to environmental acoustic cues. Recent studies showed that attention-based experience with non-linguistic, temporally-modulated auditory stimuli sharpens cortical responses. A previous ERP study from this laboratory showed that interactive auditory experience via behavior-based feedback (AEx), over a 6-week period from 4- to 7-months-of-age, confers a processing advantage, compared to passive auditory exposure (PEx) or maturation alone (Naïve Control, NC)...
April 15, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436832/ventral-striatal-activity-links-adversity-and-reward-processing-in-children
#14
Niki H Kamkar, Daniel J Lewis, Wouter van den Bos, J Bruce Morton
Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards...
April 15, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436833/proactive-control-in-early-and-middle-childhood-an-erp-study
#15
Sarah Elke, Sandra A Wiebe
Children experience important cognitive control improvements in the transition to school. This study examined 4-5-year-olds' (n=17) and 7-8-year-olds' (n=22) ability to proactively deploy cognitive control. Children performed a cued task-switching paradigm presenting them with a cue indicating which attribute, color or shape, they should use to sort the upcoming stimulus. Following both cue and stimulus, we analyzed two event-related potentials: the P2 and P3, positive peaks reflecting sensory and attentional components of cognitive control, respectively...
April 14, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457745/sensory-hypersensitivity-predicts-enhanced-attention-capture-by-faces-in-the-early-development-of-asd
#16
E J H Jones, G Dawson, S J Webb
Sensory sensitivity is prevalent among young children with ASD, but its relation to social communication impairment is unclear. Recently, increased sensory hypersensitivity has been linked to greater activity of the neural salience network (Green et al., 2016). Increased neural sensitivity to stimuli, especially social stimuli, could provide greater opportunity for social learning and improved outcomes. Consistent with this framework, in Experiment 1 we found that parent report of greater sensory hypersensitivity at 2 years in toddlers with ASD (N=27) was predictive of increased neural responsiveness to social stimuli (larger amplitude event-related potential/ERP responses to faces at P1, P400 and Nc) at 4 years, and this in turn was related to parent report of increased social approach at 4 years...
April 12, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436831/gamma-power-in-rural-pakistani-children-links-to-executive-function-and-verbal-ability
#17
Amanda R Tarullo, Jelena Obradović, Brandon Keehn, Muneera A Rasheed, Saima Siyal, Charles A Nelson, Aisha K Yousafzai
Children in low- and middle-income countries are at high risk of cognitive deficits due to environmental deprivation that compromises brain development. Despite the high prevalence of unrealized cognitive potential, very little is known about neural correlates of cognition in this population. We assessed resting EEG power and cognitive ability in 105 highly disadvantaged 48-month-old children in rural Pakistan. An increase in EEG power in gamma frequency bands (21-30Hz and 31-45Hz) was associated with better executive function...
March 31, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629759/development-holds-the-key-to-understanding-the-interplay-of-nature-versus-nurture-in-shaping-the-individual
#18
EDITORIAL
Nikolaus Steinbeis, Eveline Crone, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233663/autism-as-an-adaptive-common-variant-pathway-for-human-brain-development
#19
REVIEW
Mark H Johnson
While research on focal perinatal lesions has provided evidence for recovery of function, much less is known about processes of brain adaptation resulting from mild but widespread disturbances to neural processing over the early years (such as alterations in synaptic efficiency). Rather than being viewed as a direct behavioral consequence of life-long neural dysfunction, I propose that autism is best viewed as the end result of engaging adaptive processes during a sensitive period. From this perspective, autism is not appropriately described as a disorder of neurodevelopment, but rather as an adaptive common variant pathway of human functional brain development...
June 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223034/children-s-head-motion-during-fmri-tasks-is-heritable-and-stable-over-time
#20
Laura E Engelhardt, Mary Abbe Roe, Jenifer Juranek, Dana DeMaster, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Jessica A Church
Head motion during fMRI scans negatively impacts data quality, and as post-acquisition techniques for addressing motion become increasingly stringent, data retention decreases. Studies conducted with adult participants suggest that movement acts as a relatively stable, heritable phenotype that serves as a marker for other genetically influenced phenotypes. Whether these patterns extend downward to childhood has critical implications for the interpretation and generalizability of fMRI data acquired from children...
June 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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