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Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777996/neural-connectivity-moderates-the-association-between-sleep-and-impulsivity-in-adolescents
#1
Sarah M Tashjian, Diane Goldenberg, Adriana Galván
Adolescence is characterized by chronic insufficient sleep and extensive brain development, but the relation between adolescent sleep and brain function remains unclear. We report the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to investigate functional connectivity as a moderator between sleep and impulsivity, a problematic behavior during this developmental period. Naturalistic differences in sleep have not yet been explored as treatable contributors to adolescent impulsivity. Although public and scientific attention focuses on sleep duration, we report individual differences in sleep quality, not duration, in fifty-five adolescents (ages 14-18) yielded significant differences in functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and default mode network...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777995/beyond-stereotypes-of-adolescent-risk-taking-placing-the-adolescent-brain-in-developmental-context
#2
REVIEW
Daniel Romer, Valerie F Reyna, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Recent neuroscience models of adolescent brain development attribute the morbidity and mortality of this period to structural and functional imbalances between more fully developed limbic regions that subserve reward and emotion as opposed to those that enable cognitive control. We challenge this interpretation of adolescent development by distinguishing risk-taking that peaks during adolescence (sensation seeking and impulsive action) from risk taking that declines monotonically from childhood to adulthood (impulsive choice and other decisions under known risk)...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756186/event-related-potential-response-to-auditory-social-stimuli-parent-reported-social-communicative-deficits-and-autism-risk-in-school-aged-children-with-congenital-visual-impairment
#3
Joe Bathelt, Naomi Dale, Michelle de Haan
Communication with visual signals, like facial expression, is important in early social development, but the question if these signals are necessary for typical social development remains to be addressed. The potential impact on social development of being born with no or very low levels of vision is therefore of high theoretical and clinical interest. The current study investigated event-related potential responses to basic social stimuli in a rare group of school-aged children with congenital visual disorders of the anterior visual system (globe of the eye, retina, anterior optic nerve)...
July 19, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780219/neurofunctionally-dissecting-the-reading-system-in-children
#4
Johanna Liebig, Eva Froehlich, Carmen Morawetz, Mario Braun, Arthur M Jacobs, Hauke R Heekeren, Johannes C Ziegler
The reading system can be broken down into four basic subcomponents in charge of prelexical, orthographic, phonological, and lexico-semantic processes. These processes need to jointly work together to become a fluent and efficient reader. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we systematically analyzed differences in neural activation patterns of these four basic subcomponents in children (N=41, 9-13 years) using tasks specifically tapping each component (letter identification, orthographic decision, phonological decision, and semantic categorization)...
July 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755632/heightened-activity-in-social-reward-networks-is-associated-with-adolescents-risky-sexual-behaviors
#5
Kristen L Eckstrand, Sophia Choukas-Bradley, Arpita Mohanty, Marissa Cross, Nicholas B Allen, Jennifer S Silk, Neil P Jones, Erika E Forbes
Adolescent sexual risk behavior can lead to serious health consequences, yet few investigations have addressed its neurodevelopmental mechanisms. Social neurocircuitry is postulated to underlie the development of risky sexual behavior, and response to social reward may be especially relevant. Typically developing adolescents (N=47; 18M, 29F; 16.3±1.4years; 42.5% sexual intercourse experience) completed a social reward fMRI task and reported their sexual risk behaviors (e.g., lifetime sexual partners) on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)...
July 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735165/development-of-selective-attention-in-preschool-age-children-from-lower-socioeconomic-status-backgrounds
#6
Amanda Hampton Wray, Courtney Stevens, Eric Pakulak, Elif Isbell, Theodore Bell, Helen Neville
Although differences in selective attention skills have been identified in children from lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, little is known about these differences in early childhood, a time of rapid attention development. The current study evaluated the development of neural systems for selective attention in children from lower SES backgrounds. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were acquired from 33 children from lower SES and 14 children from higher SES backgrounds during a dichotic listening task...
July 4, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716389/biomedical-ethics-and-clinical-oversight-in-multisite-observational-neuroimaging-studies-with-children-and-adolescents-the-abcd-experience
#7
REVIEW
Duncan B Clark, Celia B Fisher, Susan Bookheimer, Sandra A Brown, John H Evans, Christian Hopfer, James Hudziak, Ivan Montoya, Margaret Murray, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
Observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents may identify neurological anomalies and other clinically relevant findings. Planning for the management of this information involves ethical considerations that may influence informed consent, confidentiality, and communication with participants about assessment results. Biomedical ethics principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Each project presents unique challenges. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study (ABCD) collaborators have systematically developed recommendations with written guidelines for identifying and responding to potential risks that adhere to biomedical ethics principles...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688343/evidence-for-the-triadic-model-of-adolescent-brain-development-cognitive-load-and-task-relevance-of-emotion-differentially-affect-adolescents-and-adults
#8
Sven C Mueller, Sofie Cromheeke, Roma Siugzdaite, C Nicolas Boehler
In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12-16) and 28 adults (25-35) completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774477/connecting-brain-responsivity-and-real-world-risk-taking-strengths-and-limitations-of-current-methodological-approaches
#9
REVIEW
Lauren Sherman, Laurence Steinberg, Jason Chein
In line with the goal of limiting health risk behaviors in adolescence, a growing literature investigates whether individual differences in functional brain responses can be related to vulnerability to engage in risky decision-making. We review this body of work, investigate when and in what way findings converge, and provide best practice recommendations. We identified 23 studies that examined individual differences in brain responsivity and adolescent risk taking. Findings varied widely in terms of the neural regions identified as relating to risky behavior...
June 27, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654838/callous-unemotional-traits-moderate-executive-function-in-children-with-asd-and-adhd-a-pilot-event-related-potential-study
#10
C Tye, R Bedford, P Asherson, K L Ashwood, B Azadi, P Bolton, G McLoughlin
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with varied executive function (EF) difficulties. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, a proposed antecedent of adult psychopathy, are often associated with intact or enhanced EF. Here we test whether CU traits may therefore modulate EF in ASD and ADHD, in which EF is typically impaired. We collected CU traits and measured event-related potentials (ERPs) that index EF during a cued-continuous performance test (CPT-OX) in boys with ASD, ADHD, comorbid ASD+ADHD and typical controls...
June 13, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648549/hippocampal-spatial-mechanisms-relate-to-the-development-of-arithmetic-symbol-processing-in-children
#11
Romain Mathieu, Justine Epinat-Duclos, Jessica Léone, Michel Fayol, Catherine Thevenot, Jérôme Prado
Understanding the meaning of abstract mathematical symbols is a cornerstone of arithmetic learning in children. Studies have long focused on the role of spatial intuitions in the processing of numerals. However, it has been argued that such intuitions may also underlie symbols that convey fundamental arithmetic concepts, such as arithmetic operators. In the present cross-sectional study, we used fMRI to investigate how and when associations between arithmetic operators and brain regions processing spatial information emerge in children from 3(rd) to 10(th) grade...
June 13, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645041/behavioral-and-neural-concordance-in-parent-child-dyadic-sleep-patterns
#12
Tae-Ho Lee, Michelle E Miernicki, Eva H Telzer
Sleep habits developed in adolescence shape long-term trajectories of psychological, educational, and physiological well-being. Adolescents' sleep behaviors are shaped by their parents' sleep at both the behavioral and biological levels. In the current study, we sought to examine how neural concordance in resting-state functional connectivity between parent-child dyads is associated with dyadic concordance in sleep duration and adolescents' sleep quality. To this end, we scanned both parents and their child (N=28 parent-child dyads; parent Mage=42...
August 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544983/longitudinal-associations-among-family-environment-neural-cognitive-control-and-social-competence-among-adolescents
#13
Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Dominique Maciejewski, Jacob Lee, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Brooks King-Casas
During adolescence, prefrontal cortex regions, important in cognitive control, undergo maturation to adapt to changing environmental demands. Ways through which social-ecological factors contribute to adolescent neural cognitive control have not been thoroughly examined. We hypothesize that household chaos is a context that may modulate the associations among parental control, adolescent neural cognitive control, and developmental changes in social competence. The sample involved 167 adolescents (ages 13-14 at Time 1, 53% male)...
August 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521247/cognitive-performance-of-juvenile-monkeys-after-chronic-fluoxetine-treatment
#14
Mari S Golub, Edward P Hackett, Casey E Hogrefe, Csaba Leranth, John D Elsworth, Robert H Roth
Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age) were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N=16/group) for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N=8/group) suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention...
August 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629759/development-holds-the-key-to-understanding-the-interplay-of-nature-versus-nurture-in-shaping-the-individual
#15
EDITORIAL
Nikolaus Steinbeis, Eveline Crone, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442223/diurnal-cortisol-after-early-institutional-care-age-matters
#16
Jessica E Flannery, Laurel J Gabard-Durnam, Mor Shapiro, Bonnie Goff, Christina Caldera, Jennifer Louie, Dylan G Gee, Eva H Telzer, Kathryn L Humphreys, Daniel S Lumian, Nim Tottenham
Several studies have shown that young children who have experienced early caregiving adversity (e.g. previously institutionalization (PI)) exhibit flattened diurnal cortisol slopes; however, less is known about how these patterns might differ between children and adolescents, since the transition between childhood and adolescence is a time of purported plasticity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. PI youth experience a massive improvement in caregiving environment once adopted into families; therefore we anticipated that a developmental increase in HPA axis plasticity during adolescence might additionally allow for an enhanced enrichment effect by the adoptive family...
June 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416273/attention-allocation-and-social-worries-predict-interpretations-of-peer-related-social-cues-in-adolescents
#17
Simone P W Haller, Brianna R Doherty, Mihaela Duta, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh, Jennifer Y F Lau, Gaia Scerif
Adolescence is a sensitive period for increases in normative but also debilitating social fears and worries. As the interpretation of interpersonal cues is pertinent to social anxiety, investigating mechanisms that may underlie biases in social cue appraisal is important. Fifty-one adolescents from the community aged 14-19 were presented with self- and other-relevant naturalistic social scenes for 5s and then required to rate either a negative or a positive interpretation of the scene. Eye-tracking data were collected during the free viewing period to index attentional deployment...
June 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254197/early-life-adversity-during-the-infant-sensitive-period-for-attachment-programming-of-behavioral-neurobiology-of-threat-processing-and-social-behavior
#18
REVIEW
Maya Opendak, Elizabeth Gould, Regina Sullivan
Animals, including humans, require a highly coordinated and flexible system of social behavior and threat evaluation. However, trauma can disrupt this system, with the amygdala implicated as a mediator of these impairments in behavior. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences, with trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver-child maltreatment, as particularly detrimental...
June 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233663/autism-as-an-adaptive-common-variant-pathway-for-human-brain-development
#19
REVIEW
Mark H Johnson
While research on focal perinatal lesions has provided evidence for recovery of function, much less is known about processes of brain adaptation resulting from mild but widespread disturbances to neural processing over the early years (such as alterations in synaptic efficiency). Rather than being viewed as a direct behavioral consequence of life-long neural dysfunction, I propose that autism is best viewed as the end result of engaging adaptive processes during a sensitive period. From this perspective, autism is not appropriately described as a disorder of neurodevelopment, but rather as an adaptive common variant pathway of human functional brain development...
June 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223034/children-s-head-motion-during-fmri-tasks-is-heritable-and-stable-over-time
#20
Laura E Engelhardt, Mary Abbe Roe, Jenifer Juranek, Dana DeMaster, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Jessica A Church
Head motion during fMRI scans negatively impacts data quality, and as post-acquisition techniques for addressing motion become increasingly stringent, data retention decreases. Studies conducted with adult participants suggest that movement acts as a relatively stable, heritable phenotype that serves as a marker for other genetically influenced phenotypes. Whether these patterns extend downward to childhood has critical implications for the interpretation and generalizability of fMRI data acquired from children...
June 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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