journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Frontiers in Biology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973699/smoothened-regulation-in-response-to-hedgehog-stimulation
#1
Kai Jiang, Jianhang Jia
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway play critical roles in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. A critical step in Hh signal transduction is how Hh receptor Patched (Ptc) inhibits the atypical G protein-coupled receptor Smoothened (Smo) in the absence of Hh and how this inhibition is release by Hh stimulation. It is unlikely that Ptc inhibits Smo by direct interaction. Here we discuss how Hh regulates the phosphorylation and ubiquitination of Smo, leading to cell surface and ciliary accumulation of Smo in Drosophila and vertebrate cells, respectively...
December 1, 2015: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26913049/functional-states-of-resident-vascular-stem-cells-and-vascular-remodeling
#2
Desiree F Leach, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Taixing Cui
Recent evidence indicates that different types of vascular stem cells (VSCs) reside within the mural layers of arteries and veins. The precise identities of these resident VSCs are still unclear; generally, postnatal vasculature contains multilineage stem cells and vascular cell lineage-specific progenitor/stem cells which may participate in both vascular repair and lesion formation. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the potential molecular mechanisms, which may control the quiescence and activation of resident VSCs and highlight a notion that the differential states of resident VSCs are directly linked to vascular repair or lesion formation...
October 1, 2015: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26692106/beclin-1-vps34-complex-architecture-understanding-the-nuts-and-bolts-of-therapeutic-targets
#3
Deanna H Morris, Calvin K Yip, Yi Shi, Brian T Chait, Qing Jun Wang
Autophagy is an important lysosomal degradation pathway that aids in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis by breaking down and recycling intracellular contents. Dysregulation of autophagy is linked to a growing number of human diseases. The Beclin 1-Vps34 protein-protein interaction network is critical for autophagy regulation and is therefore essential to cellular integrity. Manipulation of autophagy, in particular via modulation of the action of the Beclin 1-Vps34 complexes, is considered a promising route to combat autophagy-related diseases...
October 2015: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683589/less-is-more-nutrient-limitation-induces-cross-talk-of-nutrient-sensing-pathways-with-nad-homeostasis-and-contributes-to-longevity
#4
Felicia Tsang, Su-Ju Lin
Nutrient sensing pathways and their regulation grant cells control over their metabolism and growth in response to changing nutrients. Factors that regulate nutrient sensing can also modulate longevity. Reduced activity of nutrient sensing pathways such as glucose-sensing PKA, nitrogen-sensing TOR and S6 kinase homolog Sch9 have been linked to increased life span in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and higher eukaryotes. Recently, reduced activity of amino acid sensing SPS pathway was also shown to increase yeast life span...
August 2015: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26557138/the-bacterial-and-host-factors-associated-with-extrapulmonary-dissemination-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#5
Dong Yang, Ying Kong
With high morbidity and mortality worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is still an important public health threat. The majority of human TB cases are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although pulmonary TB is the most common presentation, M. tuberculosis can disseminate into other organs and causes extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). The dissemination of bacteria from the initial site of infection to other organs can lead to fatal diseases, such as miliary and meningeal TB. Thoroughly understanding the mechanisms and pathways of dissemination would develop therapies to prevent the lethal prognosis of EPTB (miliary and meningeal TB) and vaccines to promote the development of adaptive immunity...
June 2015: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26494984/role-of-upstream-stimulatory-factor-2-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#6
Shuxia Wang
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). About 20%-30% of people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes develop DN. DN is characterized by both glomerulosclerosis with thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix expansion, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Hyperglycemia and the activation of the intra-renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in diabetes have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of DN. However, the mechanisms are not well known...
June 2015: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26366162/regulation-of-hedgehog-signaling-by-ubiquitination
#7
Elaine Y C Hsia, Yirui Gui, Xiaoyan Zheng
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays crucial roles both in embryonic development and in adult stem cell function. The timing, duration and location of Hh signaling activity need to be tightly controlled. Abnormalities of Hh signal transduction lead to birth defects or malignant tumors. Recent data point to ubiquitination-related posttranslational modifications of several key Hh pathway components as an important mechanism of regulation of the Hh pathway. Here we review how ubiquitination regulates the localization, stability and activity of the key Hh signaling components...
June 2015: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989402/emerging-roles-of-autophagy-in-metabolism-and-metabolic-disorders
#8
Altea Rocchi, Congcong He
The global prevalence of metabolic disorders is an immediate threat to human health. Genetic features, environmental aspects and lifestyle changes are the major risk factors determining metabolic dysfunction in the body. Autophagy is a housekeeping stress-induced lysosomal degradation pathway, which recycles macromolecules and metabolites for new protein synthesis and energy production and regulates cellular homeostasis by clearance of damaged protein or organelles. Recently, a dramatically increasing number of literatures has shown that defects of the autophagic machinery is associated with dysfunction of multiple metabolic tissues including pancreatic β cells, liver, adipose tissue and muscle, and is implicated in metabolic disorders such as obesity and insulin resistance...
April 2015: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26213533/analytical-strategies-for-studying-stem-cell-metabolism
#9
James M Arnold, William T Choi, Arun Sreekumar, Mirjana Maletić-Savatić
Owing to their capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency, stem cells possess untold potential for revolutionizing the field of regenerative medicine through the development of novel therapeutic strategies for treating cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Central to developing these strategies is improving our understanding of biological mechanisms responsible for governing stem cell fate and self-renewal. Increasing attention is being given to the significance of metabolism, through the production of energy and generation of small molecules, as a critical regulator of stem cell functioning...
April 2015: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25821458/transcriptional-regulation-of-secretory-capacity-by-bzip-transcription-factors
#10
Rebecca M Fox, Deborah J Andrew
Cells of specialized secretory organs expand their secretory pathways to accommodate the increased protein load necessary for their function. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the Golgi apparatus and the secretory vesicles, expand not only the membrane components but also the protein machinery required for increased protein production and transport. Increased protein load causes an ER stress response akin to the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). Recent work has implicated several bZip transcription factors in the regulation of protein components of the early secretory pathway necessary to alleviate this stress...
February 1, 2015: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25774193/nucleotide-sequence-conservation-of-novel-and-established-cis-regulatory-sites-within-the-tyrosine-hydroxylase-gene-promoter
#11
Meng Wang, Kasturi Banerjee, Harriet Baker, John W Cave
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis and its gene proximal promoter ( < 1 kb upstream from the transcription start site) is essential for regulating transcription in both the developing and adult nervous systems. Several putative regulatory elements within the TH proximal promoter have been reported, but evolutionary conservation of these elements has not been thoroughly investigated. Since many vertebrate species are used to model development, function and disorders of human catecholaminergic neurons, identifying evolutionarily conserved transcription regulatory mechanisms is a high priority...
February 1, 2015: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25691893/neural-regulation-of-cns-angiogenesis-during-development
#12
Shang Ma, Zhen Huang
Vertebrates have evolved a powerful vascular system that involves close interactions between blood vessels and target tissues. Vascular biology had been mostly focused on the study of blood vessels for decades, which has generated large bodies of knowledge on vascular cell development, function and pathology. We argue that the prime time has arrived for vascular research on vessel-tissue interactions, especially target tissue regulation of vessel development. The central nervous system (CNS) requires a highly efficient vascular system for oxygen and nutrient transport as well as waste disposal...
February 2015: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25844087/comparative-analysis-of-chromosome-segregation-in-human-yeasts-and-trypanosome
#13
Xianxian Han, Ziyin Li
Chromosome segregation is a tightly regulated process through which duplicated genetic materials are equally partitioned into daughter cells. During the past decades, tremendous efforts have been made to understand the molecular mechanism of chromosome segregation using animals and yeasts as model systems. Recently, new insights into chromosome segregation have gradually emerged using trypanosome, an early branching parasitic protozoan, as a model organism. To uncover the unique aspects of chromosome segregation in trypanosome, which potentially could serve as new drug targets for anti-trypanosome chemotherapy, it is necessary to perform a comparative analysis of the chromosome segregation machinery between trypanosome and its human host...
December 1, 2014: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25580106/functional-implications-of-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-generated-by-oncogenic-viruses
#14
Young Bong Choi, Edward William Harhaj
Between 15-20% of human cancers are associated with infection by oncogenic viruses. Oncogenic viruses, including HPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV-1, target mitochondria to influence cell proliferation and survival. Oncogenic viral gene products also trigger the production of reactive oxygen species which can elicit oxidative DNA damage and potentiate oncogenic host signaling pathways. Viral oncogenes may also subvert mitochondria quality control mechanisms such as mitophagy and metabolic adaptation pathways to promote virus replication...
December 2014: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158253/the-role-of-nkx3-2-in-chondrogenesis
#15
Roshni S Rainbow, Heenam K Won, Li Zeng
Transcription factor, Nkx3.2, is a member of the NK family of developmental genes and is expressed during embryogenesis in a variety of mammalian model organisms, including chicken and mouse. It was first identified in Drosophila as the Bagpipe (bap) gene, where it has been demonstrated to be essential during formation of the midgut musculature. However, mammalian homolog Nkx3.2 has been shown to play a significant role in axial and limb skeletogenesis; in particular, the human skeletal disease, spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia (SMMD), is associated with mutations of the Nkx3...
October 2014: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25568644/regulation-and-function-of-stimulus-induced-phosphorylation-of-mecp2
#16
Hongda Li, Qiang Chang
DNA methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation plays important roles in the development and function of the mammalian nervous system. MeCP2 is a key player in recognizing methylated DNA and interpreting the epigenetic information encoded in different DNA methylation patterns. Mutations in the MECP2 gene cause Rett syndrome, a devastating neurological disease that shares many features with autism. One interesting aspect of MeCP2 function is that it can be phosphorylated in response to diverse stimuli. Insights into the regulation and function of MeCP2 phosphorylation will help improve our understanding of how MeCP2 integrates environmental stimuli in neuronal nuclei to generate adaptive responses and may eventually lead to treatments for patients...
October 2014: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25558247/modeling-murine-yolk-sac-hematopoiesis-with-embryonic-stem-cell-culture-systems
#17
Brandoch D Cook
The onset of hematopoiesis in mammals is defined by generation of primitive erythrocytes and macrophage progenitors in embryonic yolk sac. Laboratories have met the challenge of transient and swiftly changing specification events from ventral mesoderm through multipotent progenitors and maturing lineage-restricted hematopoietic subtypes, by developing powerful in vitro experimental models to interrogate hematopoietic ontogeny. Most importantly, studies of differentiating embryonic stem cell derivatives in embryoid body and stromal coculture systems have identified crucial roles for transcription factor networks (e...
October 2014: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25554730/rna-binding-proteins-in-pluripotency-differentiation-and-reprogramming
#18
Diana Guallar, Jianlong Wang
Embryonic stem cell maintenance, differentiation, and somatic cell reprogramming require the interplay of multiple pluripotency factors, epigenetic remodelers, and extracellular signaling pathways. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are involved in a wide range of regulatory pathways, from RNA metabolism to epigenetic modifications. In recent years we have witnessed more and more studies on the discovery of new RBPs and the assessment of their functions in a variety of biological systems, including stem cells. We review the current studies on RBPs and focus on those that have functional implications in pluripotency, differentiation, and/or reprogramming in both the human and mouse systems...
October 2014: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25554729/dsrna-binding-protein-pact-rax-in-gene-silencing-development-and-diseases
#19
Yue Yong, Jia Luo, Zun-Ji Ke
PACT (Protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator) and its murine ortholog RAX (PKR-associated protein X) were originally identified as a protein activator for the dsRNA-dependent, interferon-inducible protein kinase (PKR). Endogenous PACT/RAX activates PKR in response to diverse stress signals such as serum starvation, and peroxide or arsenite treatment. PACT/RAX heterodimerized with PKR and activated it with its third motif in the absence of dsRNA. The activation of PKR leads to enhanced eIF2α phosphorylation followed by apoptosis or inhibition of growth...
October 2014: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25554728/reshaping-the-chromatin-landscape-after-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Jamie K Wong, Hongyan Zou
The pathophysiology underlying spinal cord injury is complex. Mechanistic understanding of the adaptive responses to injury is critical for targeted therapy aimed at reestablishing lost connections between proximal and distal neurons. After injury, cell-type specific gene transcription programs govern distinct cellular behaviors, and chromatin regulators play a central role in shaping the chromatin landscape to adjust transcriptional profiles in a context-dependent manner. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the pleiotropic roles of chromatin regulators in mediating the diverse adaptive behaviors of neurons and glial cells after spinal cord injury, and wherever possible, discuss the underlying mechanisms and genomic targets...
October 2014: Frontiers in Biology
journal
journal
43270
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"