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IEEE Pulse

Mark L Braunstein
It is hard to conceive of a better rationale for healthcare interoperability than the management of chronic disease. People in advanced, industrialized countries are living longer, and chronic disease rates among the elderly are on the rise in part because of lifestyle issues, such as obesity and inadequate exercise. As a result, the care of chronic diseases (such as hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, chronic lung disease, and chronic kidney disease) accounts for well over 90% of spending by Medicare, the U...
September 2018: IEEE Pulse
Josep Sola, Mattia Bertschi, Jens Krauss
According to the World Health Organization, every third adult suffers from hypertension-which amounts to 1 billion adults worldwide. Hypertension can lead to severe complications, such as stroke and heart failure. Each year, this illness results in 7.5 million premature deaths. The paradox of hypertension is that most people suffering from this condition are unaware of it. As such, hypertension is known as the "silent killer."
September 2018: IEEE Pulse
Leslie Mertz
Children in developing countries often don't receive their full set of basic vaccines, which leaves them at risk for diseases that can cause serious illness and even death. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), data from 2016 show that approximately 19.5 million infants globally were not fully vaccinated against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, and some 1.5 million children die from vaccine-preventable illnesses each year [1]. And when it comes to seasonal influenza vaccines, they can be difficult to prepare in advance...
September 2018: IEEE Pulse
Shadi Albarqouni
One of the major challenges currently facing researchers in applying deep learning (DL) models to medical image analysis is the limited amount of annotated data. Collecting such ground-truth annotations requires domain knowledge, cost, and time, making it infeasible for large-scale databases. Albarqouni et al. [S5] presented a novel concept for learning DL models from noisy annotations collected through crowdsourcing platforms (e.g., Amazon Mechanical Turk and Crowdflower) by introducing a robust aggregation layer to the convolutional neural networks (Figure S2)...
September 2018: IEEE Pulse
Kyongtae Ty Bae
Recent bold, eye-catching headline predictions made by nonradiologists, e.g., "in a few years, radiology will disappear" and "stop training radiologists now," are not only far from reality but also irresponsible and a disservice to the appropriate implementation and adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) technology to health care. It is highly likely and foreseeable that AI will enhance the quality and efficiency of the current clinical practice across many specialties and even render some activities in clinical practice obsolete...
September 2018: IEEE Pulse
Kamlesh K Yadav
Annually, approximately 20 million men are prostate-specific-antigen screened, and 1.3 million undergo an invasive biopsy to diagnose roughly 200,000 new cases, 50% of which end up being indolent. Approximately 30,000 men die of prostate cancer (PCa) yearly. Importantly, an estimated US$8 billion is spent on unnecessary biopsies. Thus, an integrative analysis and predictive model of prognosis is needed to help identify only lethal and aggressive forms of the disease.
September 2018: IEEE Pulse
Subhamoy Mandal, Aaron B Greenblatt, Jingzhi An
Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have influenced medicine in myriad ways, and medical imaging is at the forefront of technological transformation. Recent advances in AI/ML fields have made an impact on imaging and image analysis across the board, from microscopy to radiology. AI has been an active field of research since the 1950s; however, for most of this period, algorithms achieved subhuman performance and were not broadly adopted in medicine. Recent enhancements for computational hardware is enabling researchers to revisit old AI algorithms and experiment with new mathematical ideas...
September 2018: IEEE Pulse
Sarah Campbell
Around 2008, endoscopists David Carr-Locke and Petros Benias began to notice an unfamiliar pattern in the bile duct during endomicroscopy, which didn't look like anything they knew from pathology. Their confusion as to what it was persisted, so they brought their observations to their colleague, pathologist Neil Theise. Eventually, a larger group of researchers worked to figure out what exactly they were seeing in the bile duct samples. Their ultimate conclusion was that the structure is part of a network of connected interstitial spaces...
September 2018: IEEE Pulse
Jennifer Berglund
At first, Ahmed El-Sohemy was puzzled by his data-they were the complete opposite of what they should have been. It was supposed to be a straightforward study of cholesterol metabolism in rats and merely replicate the protocol from another, previously published study. El-Sohemy initially assumed the discrepancy had something to do with the rat chow; but, no, he had fed the rats the very same high-cholesterol feed as in the previous study, and the blood levels of cholesterol reflected that. Had he skipped a step? Taken the wrong measurement? He leafed through his lab notes, but, again, no, he had followed the previous study precisely...
September 2018: IEEE Pulse
Mohan Satyaranjan, Ilhaam Ashraf, Dayaparasad Kulkarni, N Sriraam
With fewer than 800,000 doctors to meet the needs of a population of 1.3 billion people, India is confronting an immense healthcare challenge. Simply put, how can more people get access to quality, affordable medical care in whatever state or territory they happen to live? This question holds relevance not just in India, but in all regions of the world where doctors are in short supply.
September 2018: IEEE Pulse
Jay Goldberg
In the 1950s and 1960s, there was a popular television show called To Tell the Truth, on which three contestants claimed to be a person with an unusual occupation or distinction. Two of them were impostors, and the other was telling the truth. Four panelists asked the contestants questions to determine who was being truthful. After each panelist chose the contestant he or she thought was telling the truth, the host would ask "Will the real _____ please stand up?" To create drama, each contestant would rise at different times and then sit, leaving the contestant with the unusual occupation or distinction standing...
July 2018: IEEE Pulse
Mary Bates
Mike McKenna was tired of epilepsy controlling his life. For years, he tried different medications and therapies to no avail; his seizures, which occurred every three to six days, dictated what he could do and where he could live. Then, about ten years ago, he joined a clinical trial for a new, implantable medical device from a company called NeuroPace. The RNS System monitors brain activity, detects patterns that indicate an imminent seizure, and responds by sending brief electrical pulses to disrupt the abnormal brain activity, stopping seizures in their tracks...
July 2018: IEEE Pulse
Wudan Yan
Although women and men share many similar health challenges throughout their lifetimes, women are not necessarily healthier. Some conditions that only women experience-such as pregnancy, ovarian cancer, or the abnormal growth of the uterus called endometriosis- can become great health risks. HIV, AIDS, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are also serious medical and social issues for women worldwide. And because a woman's reproductive system is complex and delicate-which makes it particularly vulnerable to dysfunction or disease-finding ways to treat conditions that take root in the reproductive tract often prove challenging...
July 2018: IEEE Pulse
Ahmed Morsy
As scholars have predicted and researchers have now shown, we are entering an age of global artificial intelligence (AI) convergence. Health care is just one area in which AI is gaining a foothold, as evidenced by two parallel conferences held in March 2018 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The first of these was the annual meeting of the Hospital Information and Management Systems Society, attended by nearly 45,000 participants; the second was a more focused, engineering-oriented conference on biomedical health informatics and biosensor networks, attended by about 450...
July 2018: IEEE Pulse
Leslie Mertz
Innovative researchers are employing flexible, rather than rigid materials in combination with new design approaches as part of the emerging field of biomedical soft robotics. The idea is to generate tools that conform to and interact with the human body in a much more natural and lightweight way, providing better treatment options for clinicians and translating into better outcomes for patients.
July 2018: IEEE Pulse
David A Zaharoff
More than a century ago, the American surgeon William Coley noticed a correlation between cancer remissions and postoperative infections: some patients who had battled an infection also experienced a regression of their cancer. Because of these observations, Coley hypothesized that a patient's immune response to a bacterial infection could be leveraged to treat cancer. To test his hypothesis, Coley injected live bacteria into an inoperable tumor of one of his patients. The patient's tumor regressed, and Coley went on to experiment with direct injections of live, and later heat-killed, bacteria into more than a thousand patients over the next 40-plus years...
July 2018: IEEE Pulse
Kristina Grifantini
Advances in automobile technology have made headlines over the last few years, and not always for good reasons. In March 2018, an Uber self-driving car ran over a pedestrian in Arizona-the latest in a handful of casualties tied to automated car systems. Despite such tragedies, however, cutting-edge technologies in cars may prove beneficial for people?s health overall. In 2016, a driver who suffered a pulmonary embolism while on the road credited the autopilot features of his Tesla Model X with saving his life: the car managed to navigate the 20 miles to the nearest hospital during the incident...
July 2018: IEEE Pulse
Leslie Mertz
Every device that contains a computer component is open to cyberattacks, and that potential escalates when the device is connected to another device, an information technology (IT) network, or the Internet. This is especially troublesome when it comes to medical devices, because patient care hangs in the balance.
May 2018: IEEE Pulse
Sarah Campbell
When soft robotics first emerged, it was defined (as breakthroughs often are) by what it was that its traditional counterparts were not, i.e., soft. A decade in, the nomenclature remains apt. The pliant materials used in soft robotics are often both a defining trait and a source of advantage. Soft robots continue to make headlines with their ability to squeeze, octopus-like, through narrow crevices; change shape; and survive impacts that would crush a traditional rigid robot. They distinguish themselves from their hard counterparts with their damage resilience, complex movements, and suitability for use with the human body...
May 2018: IEEE Pulse
Jim Banks
We live in a time when science fiction can quickly become science fact. Within a generation, the Internet has matured from a technological marvel to a utility, and mobile telephones have redefined how we communicate. Health care, as an industry, is quick to embrace technology, so it is no surprise that the application of programmable robotic systems that can carry out actions automatically and artificial intelligence (AI), e.g., machines that learn, solve problems, and respond to their environment, is being keenly explored...
May 2018: IEEE Pulse
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