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Advances in Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633112/riboflavin
#1
John T Pinto, Janos Zempleni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633111/improvements-in-metabolic-health-with-consumption-of-ellagic-acid-and-subsequent-conversion-into-urolithins-evidence-and-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Inhae Kang, Teresa Buckner, Neil F Shay, Liwei Gu, Soonkyu Chung
Ellagic acid (EA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in some fruits and nuts, including berries, pomegranates, grapes, and walnuts. EA has been investigated extensively because of its antiproliferative action in some cancers, along with its anti-inflammatory effects. A growing body of evidence suggests that the intake of EA is effective in attenuating obesity and ameliorating obesity-mediated metabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633110/energy-drinks-and-their-impact-on-the-cardiovascular-system-potential-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Erik Konrad Grasser, Jennifer Lynn Miles-Chan, Nathalie Charrière, Cathríona R Loonam, Abdul G Dulloo, Jean-Pierre Montani
Globally, the popularity of energy drinks is steadily increasing. Scientific interest in their effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems in humans is also expanding and with it comes a growing number of case reports of adverse events associated with energy drinks. The vast majority of studies carried out in the general population report effects on blood pressure and heart rate. However, inconsistencies in the current literature render it difficult to draw firm conclusions with regard to the effects of energy drinks on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular variables...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633109/effects-of-diet-on-sleep-quality
#4
REVIEW
Marie-Pierre St-Onge, Anja Mikic, Cara E Pietrolungo
There is much emerging information surrounding the impact of sleep duration and quality on food choice and consumption in both children and adults. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of dietary patterns and specific foods on nighttime sleep. Early studies have shown that certain dietary patterns may affect not only daytime alertness but also nighttime sleep. In this review, we surveyed the literature to describe the role of food consumption on sleep. Research has focused on the effects of mixed meal patterns, such as high-carbohydrate plus low-fat or low-carbohydrate diets, over the short term on sleep...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633108/probiotics-prebiotics-and-synbiotics-for-the-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#5
REVIEW
Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Thomas R Abrahamsson, Richard You Wu, Philip M Sherman
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in preterm infants characterized by barrier disruption, intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and persistent inflammation of the colon, which results in high mortality rates. Current strategies used to manage this disease are not sufficient, although the use of human breast milk reduces the risk of NEC. Mother's milk is regarded as a fundamental nutritional source for neonates, but pasteurization of donor breast milk affects the composition of bioactive compounds...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633107/recent-findings-in-alzheimer-disease-and-nutrition-focusing-on-epigenetics
#6
REVIEW
Dimitrios Athanasopoulos, George Karagiannis, Magda Tsolaki
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with no effective cure so far. The current review focuses on the epigenetic mechanisms of AD and how nutrition can influence the course of this disease through regulation of gene expression, according to the latest scientific findings. The search strategy was the use of scientific databases such as PubMed and Scopus in order to find relative research or review articles published in the years 2012-2015. By showing the latest data of various nutritional compounds, this study aims to stimulate the scientific community to recognize the value of nutrition in this subject...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633106/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-oxylipins-in-neuroinflammation-and-management-of-alzheimer-disease
#7
REVIEW
Jessay Gopuran Devassy, Shan Leng, Melissa Gabbs, Md Monirujjaman, Harold M Aukema
Alzheimer disease (AD) is becoming one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative conditions worldwide. Although the disease progression is becoming better understood, current medical interventions can only ameliorate some of the symptoms but cannot slow disease progression. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the advancement of this disorder, and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are involved in both the reduction in and resolution of inflammation. These effects may be mediated by the anti-inflammatory and proresolving effects of bioactive lipid mediators (oxylipins) derived from n-3 PUFAs [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] in fish oil...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633105/mediterranean-diet-cognitive-function-and-dementia-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#8
REVIEW
Sara Danuta Petersson, Elena Philippou
A growing body of evidence suggests that adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) may protect against cognitive decline and dementia. Many epidemiologic studies and several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have found positive effects of the MD on cognitive function, but findings remain inconsistent. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an update on the current knowledge of the effects of the MD on cognitive function, cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease (AD), and all-type dementia. Five databases were searched-PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and PsycINFO (1806 to 25 May 2015)-with the use of prespecified criteria...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633104/vitamin-b-12-and-cognition-in-children
#9
REVIEW
Sudha Venkatramanan, Ilianna E Armata, Barbara J Strupp, Julia L Finkelstein
Vitamin B-12 is essential for brain development, neural myelination, and cognitive function. Inadequate vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and early childhood has been associated with adverse child health outcomes, including impaired cognitive development. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. This review was conducted to examine the evidence that links vitamin B-12 and cognition in children. The search strategy resulted in 17 studies: 3 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 12 cohort studies, and 1 randomized trial...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633103/snack-food-satiety-and-weight
#10
REVIEW
Valentine Yanchou Njike, Teresa M Smith, Omree Shuval, Kerem Shuval, Ingrid Edshteyn, Vahid Kalantari, Amy L Yaroch
In today's society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in suppressing overconsumption, which can lead to overweight and obesity...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633102/perspective-the-potential-role-of-essential-amino-acids-and-the-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-mtorc1-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-child-stunting
#11
Richard D Semba, Indi Trehan, Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Klaus Kraemer, Ruin Moaddel, M Isabel Ordiz, Luigi Ferrucci, Mark J Manary
Stunting is the best summary measure of chronic malnutrition in children. Approximately one-quarter of children under age 5 worldwide are stunted. Lipid-based or micronutrient supplementation has little to no impact in reducing stunting, which suggests that other critical dietary nutrients are missing. A dietary pattern of poor-quality protein is associated with stunting. Stunted children have significantly lower circulating essential amino acids than do nonstunted children. Inadequate dietary intakes of essential amino acids could adversely affect growth, because amino acids are required for synthesis of proteins...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422522/flavor-preferences-conditioned-by-dietary-glutamate
#12
REVIEW
Karen Ackroff, Anthony Sclafani
Our understanding of the molecular basis of umami taste and its appetitive qualities has been greatly aided by studies in laboratory rodents. This review describes methods for testing responses to the prototypical umami substance monosodium glutamate (MSG) in rodents. Two techniques, forced exposure to MSG and 2-bottle choice tests with ascending concentrations, were used to evaluate the responses to the taste of umami itself, and 2 other methods used oral or postoral MSG to modify the responses to other flavors...
July 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422521/protein-and-amino-acid-requirements-during-pregnancy
#13
REVIEW
Rajavel Elango, Ronald O Ball
Protein forms an essential component of a healthy diet in humans to support both growth and maintenance. During pregnancy, an exceptional stage of life defined by rapid growth and development, adequate dietary protein is crucial to ensure a healthy outcome. Protein deposition in maternal and fetal tissues increases throughout pregnancy, with most occurring during the third trimester. Dietary protein intake recommendations are based on factorial estimates because the traditional method of determining protein requirements, nitrogen balance, is invasive and undesirable during pregnancy...
July 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422520/human-skeletal-muscle-protein-metabolism-responses-to-amino-acid-nutrition
#14
REVIEW
W Kyle Mitchell, Daniel J Wilkinson, Bethan E Phillips, Jonathan N Lund, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton
Healthy individuals maintain remarkably constant skeletal muscle mass across much of adult life, suggesting the existence of robust homeostatic mechanisms. Muscle exists in dynamic equilibrium whereby the influx of amino acids (AAs) and the resulting increases in muscle protein synthesis (MPS) associated with the intake of dietary proteins cancel out the efflux of AAs from muscle protein breakdown that occurs between meals. Dysregulated proteostasis is evident with aging, especially beyond the sixth decade of life...
July 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422519/glutamate-tastant-and-neuromodulator-in-taste-buds
#15
REVIEW
Aurelie Vandenbeuch, Sue C Kinnamon
In taste buds, glutamate plays a double role as a gustatory stimulus and neuromodulator. The detection of glutamate as a tastant involves several G protein-coupled receptors, including the heterodimer taste receptor type 1, member 1 and 3 as well as metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Both receptor types participate in the detection of glutamate as shown with knockout animals and selective antagonists. At the basal part of taste buds, ionotropic glutamate receptors [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA] are expressed and participate in the modulation of the taste signal before its transmission to the brain...
July 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422518/genetics-of-amino-acid-taste-and-appetite
#16
REVIEW
Alexander A Bachmanov, Natalia P Bosak, John I Glendinning, Masashi Inoue, Xia Li, Satoshi Manita, Stuart A McCaughey, Yuko Murata, Danielle R Reed, Michael G Tordoff, Gary K Beauchamp
The consumption of amino acids by animals is controlled by both oral and postoral mechanisms. We used a genetic approach to investigate these mechanisms. Our studies have shown that inbred mouse strains differ in voluntary amino acid consumption, and these differences depend on sensory and nutritive properties of amino acids. Like humans, mice perceive some amino acids as having a sweet (sucrose-like) taste and others as having an umami (glutamate-like) taste. Mouse strain differences in the consumption of some sweet-tasting amino acids (d-phenylalanine, d-tryptophan, and l-proline) are associated with polymorphisms of a taste receptor, type 1, member 3 gene (Tas1r3), and involve differential peripheral taste responsiveness...
July 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422517/leucine-metabolism-in-t-cell-activation-mtor-signaling-and-beyond
#17
REVIEW
Elitsa A Ananieva, Jonathan D Powell, Susan M Hutson
In connection with the increasing interest in metabolic regulation of the immune response, this review discusses current advances in understanding the role of leucine and leucine metabolism in T lymphocyte (T cell) activation. T cell activation during the development of an immune response depends on metabolic reprogramming to ensure that sufficient nutrients and energy are taken up by the highly proliferating T cells. Leucine has been described as an important essential amino acid and a nutrient signal that activates complex 1 of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1), which is a critical regulator of T cell proliferation, differentiation, and function...
July 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422516/the-role-of-circulating-amino-acids-in-the-hypothalamic-regulation-of-liver-glucose-metabolism
#18
REVIEW
Isabel Arrieta-Cruz, Roger Gutiérrez-Juárez
A pandemic of diabetes and obesity has been developing worldwide in close association with excessive nutrient intake and a sedentary lifestyle. Variations in the protein content of the diet have a direct impact on glucose homeostasis because amino acids (AAs) are powerful modulators of insulin action. In this work we review our recent findings on how elevations in the concentration of the circulating AAs leucine and proline activate a metabolic mechanism located in the mediobasal hypothalamus of the brain that sends a signal to the liver via the vagus nerve, which curtails glucose output...
July 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422515/influence-of-amino-acid-metabolism-on-embryonic-stem-cell-function-and-differentiation
#19
REVIEW
Michael S Kilberg, Naohiro Terada, Jixiu Shan
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have promise in regenerative medicine because of their ability to differentiate into all 3 primary germ layers. This review describes recent advances in the understanding of the link between the metabolism of ESCs/iPSCs and their maintenance/differentiation in the cell culture setting, with particular emphasis on amino acid (AA) metabolism. ESCs are endowed with unique metabolic features with regard to energy consumption, metabolite flux through particular pathways, and macromolecular synthesis...
July 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422514/stress-response-and-adaptation-mediated-by-amino-acid-misincorporation-during-protein-synthesis
#20
REVIEW
Xiaoyun Wang, Tao Pan
Translation of genetic information into functional proteins is critical for all cellular life. Accurate protein synthesis relies on proper aminoacylation of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and decoding of mRNAs by the ribosome with the use of aminoacyl-tRNAs. Mistranslation can lead to pathologic consequences. All cells contain elaborate quality control mechanisms in translation, although translational fidelity may be regulated by various factors such as nutrient limitation or reactive oxygen species. Translation fidelity is maintained via the accuracy of tRNA aminoacylation by the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and matching of the mRNA codon with the tRNA anticodon by the ribosome...
July 2016: Advances in Nutrition
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