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Advances in Nutrition

Suzana Almoosawi, Snieguole Vingeliene, Frederic Gachon, Trudy Voortman, Luigi Palla, Jonathan D Johnston, Rob Martinus Van Dam, Christian Darimont, Leonidas G Karagounis
Chrono-nutrition is an emerging research field in nutritional epidemiology that encompasses 3 dimensions of eating behavior: timing, frequency, and regularity. To date, few studies have investigated how an individual's circadian typology, i.e., one's chronotype, affects the association between chrono-nutrition and cardiometabolic health. This review sets the directions for future research by providing a narrative overview of recent epidemiologic research on chronotype, its determinants, and its association with dietary intake and cardiometabolic health...
November 30, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Katelyn E Senkus, Libo Tan, Kristi M Crowe-White
Cardiometabolic risk factors increase the likelihood of cardiovascular disease development by 2-fold. Lycopene, a potent lipophilic antioxidant, may be able to mediate oxidative stress, a mechanism underpinning metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its risk factors. This is, to our knowledge, the first systematic review of the literature with the purpose of investigating the relation between circulating lycopene or dietary intake of lycopene and MetS as well as its risk factors. The review was conducted using PubMed and EBSCOhost databases with the search terms "lycopene" and "metabolic syndrome...
November 24, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Marija Glisic, Natyra Kastrati, Valentina Gonzalez-Jaramillo, Wichor M Bramer, Fariba Ahmadizar, Rajiv Chowdhury, Ah Jan Danser, Anton Jm Roks, Trudy Voortman, Oscar H Franco, Taulant Muka
Phytoestrogens might have advantageous effects on diabetes in women. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of phytoestrogens on glucose homeostasis and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) among women. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective observational studies that assessed associations of phytoestrogens (supplementation, dietary intake, or biomarkers) with fasting glucose or insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), or with the risk of T2D were included...
November 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Albert Salas-Huetos, Nuria Rosique-Esteban, Nerea Becerra-Tomás, Barbara Vizmanos, Mònica Bulló, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
Infertility, which affects ∼15% of the world's population, is a global public health issue recognized by the WHO. Therefore, it is of major clinical and public health importance to investigate whether modifiable lifestyle factors-such as stress, drug use, smoking, alcohol intake, and diet-may influence human fertility. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) from the MEDLINE-PubMed database was conducted to assess the effect of nutrients, dietary supplements, or food on sperm quality parameters...
November 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Marie-Ève Labonté, Theresa Poon, Branka Gladanac, Mavra Ahmed, Beatriz Franco-Arellano, Mike Rayner, Mary R L'Abbé
Nutrient profile (NP) models, tools used to rate or evaluate the nutritional quality of foods, are increasingly used by government bodies worldwide to underpin nutrition-related policies. An up-to-date and accessible list of existing NP models is currently unavailable to support their adoption or adaptation in different jurisdictions. This study used a systematic approach to develop a global resource that summarizes key characteristics of NP models with applications in government-led nutrition policies. NP models were identified from an unpublished WHO catalog of NP models last updated in 2012 and from searches conducted in different databases of the peer-reviewed (n = 3; e...
November 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Scott B Ickes, Muttaquina Hossain, Gaelen Ritter, Monica Lazarus, Katie Reynolds, Baitun Nahar, Tahmeed Ahmed, Judd Walson, Donna M Denno
Child undernutrition has multifactorial causes, ranging from food insecurity to etiologies refractory to conventional nutritional approaches, such as infections, environmental enteric dysfunction, and other conditions that lead to systemic inflammation. Poor appetite may be an important symptom of these causes and may be a useful marker of an undernourished child's ability to recover. We conducted a systematic review to characterize the methods and tools to measure appetite among children <5 y old in low- and middle-income countries...
November 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Anastasia Levinta, Ilya Mukovozov, Christopher Tsoutsoulas
We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine whether adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) leads to improved outcomes for patients with schizophrenia. We searched the AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine; 1985-June 2016), MEDLINE (1946-June 2016), and Embase (1980-2016 week 24) databases using the terms "wheat" or "glutenin" or "gliadin" or "gluten" AND "schizophrenia." A total of 9 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review: 1 randomized controlled trial, 7 crossover studies, and 1 open-label pilot study...
November 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Nikos V Margaritelis, Vassilis Paschalis, Anastasios A Theodorou, Antonios Kyparos, Michalis G Nikolaidis
The present review highlights the idea that antioxidant supplementation can be optimized when tailored to the precise antioxidant status of each individual. A novel methodologic approach involving personalized nutrition, the mechanisms by which antioxidant status regulates human metabolism and performance, and similarities between antioxidants and other nutritional supplements are described. The usefulness of higher-level phenotypes for data-driven personalized treatments is also explained. We conclude that personally tailored antioxidant interventions based on specific antioxidant inadequacies or deficiencies could result in improved exercise performance accompanied by consistent alterations in redox profile...
November 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Ahmad Jayedi, Ali Rashidy-Pour, Mohammad Parohan, Mahdieh Sadat Zargar, Sakineh Shab-Bidar
The associations of various dietary or circulating antioxidants with the risk of all-cause mortality in the general population have not been established yet. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and Scopus, from their inception up to October 2017. Prospective observational studies reporting risk estimates of all-cause mortality in relation to dietary intake and/or circulating concentrations of antioxidants were included. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted. Forty-one prospective observational studies (total n = 507,251) involving 73,965 cases of all-cause mortality were included...
November 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Yongqing Hou, Guoyao Wu
Amino acids (AAs) are defined as organic compounds containing both amino and acid groups (1). Proteinogenic AAs are AAs that serve as substrates for protein synthesis in animal cells, and occur naturally as L-AAs except for glycine. Free AAs (those AAs that are not constituents of peptides or polymers) in physiologic fluid exist primarily in an L-isoform, but some of them may be present in a D-isoform. Based on his findings in 1912 that adult dogs exhibited a negative nitrogen balance when fed a tryptophan-free diet but maintained a positive nitrogen balance when fed a proline-free diet, Abderhalden (2) classified AAs as nutritionally essential (EAAs) or nonessential (NEAAs)...
November 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Jess A Gwin, Heather J Leidy
The recommendation to eat breakfast has received scrutiny due to insufficient causal evidence for improvements in weight management. Despite the limited number of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of breakfast consumption compared with skipping breakfast on weight loss, an increasing number of studies target the hormonal and behavioral mechanisms underlying weight management. This review provides a comprehensive examination of the intervention-based clinical trials that test whether breakfast consumption improves appetite control and satiety as well as energy expenditure compared with skipping breakfast...
November 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Anthony Fardet, Edmond Rock
Today, it seems that nutrition is in a state of great confusion, especially for the general public. For decades, some nutrients (e.g., cholesterol, saturated fats, sugars, gluten, salt) and food groups (e.g., dairy, cereals, meats) have been regularly denigrated. In this position paper, we hypothesize that such a state of confusion is mainly the result of the reductionist paradigm applied to nutrition research for more than a century, and by being pushed to its extreme, this perspective has led to accusations about some nutrients and foods...
November 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Dana Hawwash, Wim Pinxten, Noémie Aubert Bonn, Roosmarijn Verstraeten, Patrick Kolsteren, Carl Lachat
Nutrition research can guide interventions to tackle the burden of diet-related diseases. Setting priorities in nutrition research, however, requires the engagement of various stakeholders with diverse insights. Consideration of what matters most in research from a scientific, social, and ethical perspective is therefore not an automatic process. Systematic ways to explicitly define and consider relevant values are largely lacking. Here, we review existing nutrition research priority-setting exercises, analyze how values are reported, and provide guidance for transparent consideration of values while setting priorities in nutrition research...
November 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Kevin C Maki, Fulya Eren, Martha E Cassens, Mary R Dicklin, Michael H Davidson
The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend limiting the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to <10% of energy/d and replacing dietary SFAs with unsaturated fatty acids. A Presidential Advisory from the American Heart Association recently released its evaluation of the relation between dietary fats and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and also recommended a shift from SFAs to unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in conjunction with a healthy dietary pattern. However, the suggestion to increase the intake of PUFAs in general, and omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs in particular, continues to be controversial...
November 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Rozenn Gazan, Chloé M C Brouzes, Florent Vieux, Matthieu Maillot, Anne Lluch, Nicole Darmon
A sustainable diet is, by definition, nutritionally adequate, economically affordable, culturally acceptable, and environmentally respectful. Designing such a diet has to integrate different dimensions of diet sustainability that may not be compatible with each other. Among multicriteria assessment methods, diet optimization is a whole-diet approach that simultaneously combines several metrics for dimensions of diet sustainability. This narrative review based on 67 published studies shows how mathematical diet optimization can help with understanding the relations between the different dimensions of diet sustainability and how it can be properly used to identify sustainable diets...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Matheus Santos Cerqueira, Carolina Araújo Dos Santos, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Paulo Roberto Dos Santos Amorim, João Carlos Bouzas Marins, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
The Body Adiposity Index (BAI) is a practical anthropometric method used to measure body fat (BF) percentage (BF%). Recently developed, the validity and precision of BAI has been studied with adult samples of men and women, populations from different countries and ethnicities, varying amounts of BF, and sensitivity to detecting change over time. However, it is still necessary to determine its potential use in clinical practice and epidemiologic studies. Thus, our objective was to verify, through a systematic review, the validity of the BAI in predicting BF% in adults...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Jesse Sheftel, Cornelia Loechl, Najat Mokhtar, Sherry A Tanumihardjo
The ability of nutrition scientists to measure the status, bioavailability, and bioefficacy of micronutrients is affected by lack of access to the parts of the body through which a nutrient may travel before appearing in accessible body compartments (typically blood or urine). Stable isotope-labeled tracers function as safe, nonradioactive tools to follow micronutrients in a quantitative manner because the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the tracer are assumed to be similar to the unlabeled vitamin or mineral...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Rachael Patusco, Jane Ziegler
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are 4 times as likely to experience gastrointestinal symptoms as children without ASD. The gut microbiota has increasingly been the subject of investigation as a contributing factor to these symptoms in this population because there is evidence to suggest that alterations in the intestinal microflora are correlated with gastrointestinal and ASD symptom severity. Probiotic therapy has been proposed as a treatment for augmented gastrointestinal symptom severity in children with ASD...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Dennis Zeilstra, Jessica A Younes, Robert J Brummer, Michiel Kleerebezem
Studies on the relation between health and nutrition are often inconclusive. There are concerns about the validity of many research findings, and methods that can deliver high-quality evidence-such as the randomized controlled trial (RCT) method-have been embraced by nutritional researchers. Unfortunately, many nutritional RCTs also yield ambiguous results. It has been argued that RCTs are ill-suited for certain settings, including nutritional research. In this perspective, we investigate whether there are fundamental limitations of the RCT method in nutritional research...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Simin Nikbin Meydani, Erin Diane Lewis, Dayong Wu
Current vitamin E requirements are uniformly applied across the population for those >14 y of age. However, aging is associated with alterations in cellular and physiologic functions, which are affected by vitamin E. Therefore, it is questionable whether vitamin E requirements can be uniformly applied to all adult age categories. With aging, there is dysregulation of the immune system in which there are decreased cell-mediated and pathogen defense responses coupled with an overactive, prolonged inflammatory state...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
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