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Advances in Nutrition

Daphna K Dror, Lindsay H Allen
Despite the critical role of vitamin B-12 in infant development, existing recommendations for infant and maternal intake during lactation are based on milk vitamin B-12 concentrations analyzed with outdated methods in a sample of 9 Brazilian women. Accurate quantification of vitamin B-12 in the milk matrix requires effective hydrolysis of the vitamin from haptocorrin, its binding protein. The objective of the present systematic review is to consider and critique evidence of associations between milk vitamin B-12 concentration and time postpartum, maternal vitamin B-12 consumption, maternal vitamin B-12 status, and sample collection methodology...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Lindsay H Allen, Juliana A Donohue, Daphna K Dror
Reported values for concentrations of micronutrients in human milk form the basis of the majority of micronutrient intake recommendations for infants and the additional maternal requirements for lactation. The infant recommendations may also be extrapolated to provide estimates for young children. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the adequacy of the milk micronutrient concentration data used by the Institute of Medicine to set recommendations for the United States and Canada, by FAO/WHO, the United Kingdom, and the European Food Safety Authority...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Daniela Hampel, Daphna K Dror, Lindsay H Allen
Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended by the WHO for the first 6 mo of life because human milk protects against gastrointestinal infections and supplies balanced and adequate nutrient contents to the infant. However, reliable data on micronutrient concentrations in human milk are sparse, especially because some micronutrients are affected by maternal diet. Microbiological and competitive protein-binding assays, nuclear magnetic resonance or inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and chromatographic analyses are among the methods that have been applied to human-milk micronutrient analysis...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Daphna K Dror, Lindsay H Allen
The WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 mo of life to promote optimal infant health and development. Understanding the micro- and macronutrient concentrations of human milk and how each nutrient fluctuates with lactational stage, maternal factors, and supplementation is imperative for supporting good breastfeeding practices. Where maternal undernutrition compromises human milk quality, a thorough awareness of the effectiveness of interventions can direct efforts to achieve both maternal and infant nutrient sufficiency...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Daphna K Dror, Lindsay H Allen
Vitamin A in human milk is critical for meeting infant requirements and building liver stores needed after weaning. A number of studies have measured milk retinol, but only a subset have corrected for fat, which serves as the retinol carrier in breast milk. The purpose of the present work was to review and analyze studies in which human-milk retinol concentrations were reported in relation to milk fat and to compare these results with unadjusted breast-milk retinol concentrations in terms of time trends over the course of lactation, influences of maternal nutritional and constitutional factors, and effects of maternal vitamin A supplementation...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Daphna K Dror, Lindsay H Allen
Because infants are born with small amounts of stored intrathyroidal iodine, they depend on human-milk iodine for normal physical and neurologic growth and development. The mammary gland concentrates iodide; however, there is a lack of consensus on the concentrations of breast-milk iodine necessary to achieve equilibrium in the infant. The objectives of the present review are to consider trends in breast-milk iodine concentrations over the course of lactation, to determine which maternal factors or interventions influence breast-milk iodine concentrations, to examine the association between breast-milk iodine concentrations and infant iodine status, and to identify how newer data contribute to the literature and inform recommendations for achieving optimal breast-milk iodine concentrations...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Lindsay H Allen, Daphna K Dror
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Melisa A Bailey, Hannah D Holscher
The Mediterranean diet pattern is increasingly associated with improved metabolic health. Two mechanisms by which consuming a Mediterranean diet pattern may contribute to improved metabolic health are modulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota and reduction of metabolic endotoxemia. Metabolic endotoxemia, defined as a 2- to 3-fold increase in circulating levels of bacterial endotoxin, has been proposed as a cause of inflammation during metabolic dysfunction. As the largest source of endotoxins in the human body, the GI microbiota represents a crucial area for research on strategies for reducing endotoxemia...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Jessica Farebrother, Celeste E Naude, Liesl Nicol, Zhongna Sang, Zhenyu Yang, Pieter L Jooste, Maria Andersson, Michael B Zimmermann
Hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency can impair physical development, most visibly in the marked stunting of myxedematous cretinism caused by severe in utero iodine deficiency. Whether iodine repletion improves growth in noncretinous children is uncertain. Therefore, the aim of our systematic review was to assess the effects of iodine fortification or supplementation on prenatal and postnatal growth outcomes in noncretinous children. Following Cochrane methods and PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) reporting guidelines, we searched 10 databases including 2 Chinese databases (latest search February 2017)...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
María J Ramírez-Luzuriaga, Leila M Larson, Venkatesh Mannar, Reynaldo Martorell
Double-fortified salt (DFS) containing iron and iodine has been proposed as a feasible and cost-effective alternative for iron fortification in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis from randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials to 1) assess the effect of DFS on biomarkers of iron status and the risk of anemia and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and 2) evaluate differential effects of DFS by study type (efficacy or effectiveness), population subgroups, iron formulation (ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, and ferric pyrophosphate), iron concentration, duration of intervention, and study quality...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
E Madison Sullivan, Edward Ross Pennington, William D Green, Melinda A Beck, David A Brown, Saame Raza Shaikh
Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles within a cell. Furthermore, mitochondria have a role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and proper calcium concentrations, building critical components of hormones and other signaling molecules, and controlling apoptosis. Structurally, mitochondria are unique because they have 2 membranes that allow for compartmentalization. The composition and molecular organization of these membranes are crucial to the maintenance and function of mitochondria. In this review, we first present a general overview of mitochondrial membrane biochemistry and biophysics followed by the role of different dietary saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in modulating mitochondrial membrane structure-function...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
John C Wallingford
In the context of a food product label, the term "claim" refers to information that attributes value to the product. The term extends to many different types of information, from product identity, descriptors of intended use, and identification of characteristic properties to the physiologic effects in the body of substances in the food, including the reduction of risk of disease. Food labeling, which includes claims, provides information that consumers want and use to improve their diets. Consumers prefer short statements on the front label claims to longer, more detailed information, including ingredients statements and a nutrition panel...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Anitha Ananthan, Haribalakrishna Balasubramanian, Shripada Rao, Sanjay Patole
Erythropoietin (EPO) plays an important role in the development and maturation of the gastrointestinal tract. Recombinant EPO (rEPO) has been used to prevent anemia of prematurity. The gastrointestinal trophic effects of EPO may reduce feeding intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates. The aim of this systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the effects of rEPO on clinical outcomes such as feeding intolerance, stage II or higher NEC, any stage NEC, sepsis, retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm neonates...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Janet A Novotny, Catherine A Peterson
Molybdenum, a trace element essential for micro-organisms, plants, and animals, was discovered in 1778 by a Swedish chemist named Karl Scheele. Initially mistaken for lead, molybdenum was named after the Greek work molybdos, meaning lead-like. In the 1930s, it was recognized that ingestion of forage with high amounts of molybdenum by cattle caused a debilitating condition. In the 1950s, the essentiality of molybdenum was established with the discovery of the first molybdenum-containing enzymes. In humans, only 4 enzymes requiring molybdenum have been identified to date: sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and mitochondrial amidoxime-reducing component (mARC)...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Daniel A Traylor, Stefan H M Gorissen, Stuart M Phillips
The Dietary Reference Intakes set the protein RDA for persons >19 y of age at 0.8 g protein ⋅ kg body weight-1 ⋅ d-1. A growing body of evidence suggests, however, that the protein RDA may be inadequate for older individuals. The evidence for recommending a protein intake greater than the RDA comes from a variety of metabolic approaches. Methodologies centered on skeletal muscle are of paramount importance given the age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) and the degree to which dietary protein could mitigate these declines...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Korry J Hintze, Abby D Benninghoff, Clara E Cho, Robert E Ward
Rodent models have been invaluable for biomedical research. Preclinical investigations with rodents allow researchers to investigate diseases by using study designs that are not suitable for human subjects. The primary criticism of preclinical animal models is that results are not always translatable to humans. Some of this lack of translation is due to inherent differences between species. However, rodent models have been refined over time, and translatability to humans has improved. Transgenic animals have greatly aided our understanding of interactions between genes and disease and have narrowed the translation gap between humans and model animals...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Marta Guasch-Ferré, Hassan S Dashti, Jordi Merino
The increasing prevalence in polygenic diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes, observed over the past few decades is more likely linked to a rapid transition in lifestyle rather than to changes in the sequence of the nuclear genome. In the new era of precision medicine, nutritional genomics holds the promise to be translated into tailored nutritional strategies to prevent and manage polygenic diseases more effectively. Nutritional genomics aims to prevent, treat, and manage polygenic diseases through targeted therapies formulated from individuals' genetic makeup and dietary intake...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Lisa Jahns, Wendy Davis-Shaw, Alice H Lichtenstein, Suzanne P Murphy, Zach Conrad, Forrest Nielsen
Evidence-based dietary guidance in the United States has progressed substantially since its inception >100 y ago. This review describes the historical development and significance of dietary guidance in the United States, including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs), and emphasizes the foundations upon which they were developed, the process in the formation of past and current guidelines, and present and future applications. Dietary guidance during the first half of the 20th century was focused primarily on food groups in a healthy diet, food safety, safe food storage, and the role of some minerals and vitamins in the prevention of disease...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Tair Ben-Porat, Ram Elazary, Shiri Sherf-Dagan, Ariela Goldenshluger, Ronit Brodie, Yoav Mintz, Ram Weiss
Bariatric surgery (BS) is an effective treatment for morbid obesity and its associated comorbidities. Following such a procedure, however, patients are at risk of developing metabolic bone disease owing to the combination of rapid weight loss, severely restricted dietary intake, and reduced intestinal nutrient absorption. Patients undergoing malabsorptive procedures are at a higher risk of postoperative bone health deterioration than those undergoing restrictive procedures; however, studies have demonstrated negative skeletal consequences of restrictive procedures as well...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
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