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Advances in Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635347/erratum
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635313/perspective-protein-requirements-and-optimal-intakes-in-aging-are-we-ready-to-recommend-more-than-the-recommended-daily-allowance
#2
Daniel A Traylor, Stefan H M Gorissen, Stuart M Phillips
The Dietary Reference Intakes set the protein RDA for persons >19 y of age at 0.8 g protein ⋅ kg body weight-1 ⋅ d-1. A growing body of evidence suggests, however, that the protein RDA may be inadequate for older individuals. The evidence for recommending a protein intake greater than the RDA comes from a variety of metabolic approaches. Methodologies centered on skeletal muscle are of paramount importance given the age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) and the degree to which dietary protein could mitigate these declines...
April 9, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635305/modeling-the-western-diet-for-preclinical-investigations
#3
Korry J Hintze, Abby D Benninghoff, Clara E Cho, Robert E Ward
Rodent models have been invaluable for biomedical research. Preclinical investigations with rodents allow researchers to investigate diseases by using study designs that are not suitable for human subjects. The primary criticism of preclinical animal models is that results are not always translatable to humans. Some of this lack of translation is due to inherent differences between species. However, rodent models have been refined over time and translatability to humans has improved. Transgenic animals have greatly aided our understanding of interactions between genes and disease and have narrowed the translation gap between humans and model animals...
April 9, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659694/nutritional-genomics-and-direct-to-consumer-genetic-testing-an-overview
#4
Marta Guasch-Ferré, Hassan S Dashti, Jordi Merino
The increasing prevalence in polygenic diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes, observed over the past few decades is more likely linked to a rapid transition in lifestyle rather than to changes in the sequence of the nuclear genome. In the new era of precision medicine, nutritional genomics holds the promise to be translated into tailored nutritional strategies to prevent and manage polygenic diseases more effectively. Nutritional genomics aims to prevent, treat, and manage polygenic diseases through targeted therapies formulated from individuals' genetic makeup and dietary intake...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659693/the-history-and-future-of-dietary-guidance-in-america
#5
Lisa Jahns, Wendy Davis-Shaw, Alice H Lichtenstein, Suzanne P Murphy, Zach Conrad, Forrest Nielsen
Evidence-based dietary guidance in the United States has progressed substantially since its inception >100 y ago. This review describes the historical development and significance of dietary guidance in the United States, including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs), and emphasizes the foundations upon which they were developed, the process in the formation of past and current guidelines, and present and future applications. Dietary guidance during the first half of the 20th century was focused primarily on food groups in a healthy diet, food safety, safe food storage, and the role of some minerals and vitamins in the prevention of disease...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659692/bone-health-following-bariatric-surgery-implications-for-management-strategies-to-attenuate-bone-loss
#6
Tair Ben-Porat, Ram Elazary, Shiri Sherf-Dagan, Ariela Goldenshluger, Ronit Brodie, Yoav Mintz, Ram Weiss
Bariatric surgery (BS) is an effective treatment for morbid obesity and its associated comorbidities. Following such a procedure, however, patients are at risk of developing metabolic bone disease owing to the combination of rapid weight loss, severely restricted dietary intake, and reduced intestinal nutrient absorption. Patients undergoing malabsorptive procedures are at a higher risk of postoperative bone health deterioration than those undergoing restrictive procedures; however, studies have demonstrated negative skeletal consequences of restrictive procedures as well...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659691/perspective-cardiovascular-responses-to-sugar-sweetened-beverages-in-humans-a-narrative-review-with-potential-hemodynamic-mechanisms
#7
Cathriona R Monnard, Erik Konrad Grasser
Cardiovascular diseases are still the primary cause of mortality worldwide, with high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes as major promoters. Over the past 3 decades, almost in parallel with the rise in cardiovascular disease incidence, the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased. In this context, SSBs are potential contributors to weight gain and increase the risk for elevations in blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular and metabolic responses to SSBs, in particular on blood pressure, are poorly understood...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659690/perspective-challenges-and-controversial-issues-in-the-dietary-guidelines-for-americans-1980-2015
#8
Marion Nestle
Since 1980, every edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) has recommended increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, but reduced consumption of saturated fat, sugars, and sodium and, therefore, their primary food sources. Every edition has generated controversy, mainly from producers of foods affected by "eat less" recommendations, particularly meat. Objections to the 2015 DGAs focused on environmental as well as scientific issues, but also on purported conflicts of interest among members of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659689/perspective-total-added-or-free-what-kind-of-sugars-should-we-be-talking-about
#9
David J Mela, Elizabeth M Woolner
There is consistent public guidance to limit sugars intakes. However, WHO recommendations are for "free" sugars, whereas some other guidance documents and public discussion focus on "added" sugars, and globally most food labeling states "total" sugars. Total sugars comprise all mono- and disaccharides, regardless of source, whereas both added and free sugars exclude the sugars that naturally occur in dairy products and intact fruit and vegetables. Definitions of added and free sugars differ mainly in their respective exclusion or inclusion of sugars in juiced or pureed fruit and vegetables...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659688/thriving-not-just-surviving-skills-essential-to-leveraging-your-scientific-career
#10
Pao Ying Hsiao, Tracy S Moreira-Lucas, Mary J Christoph, Mary N R Lesser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659687/obesity-interventions-for-older-adults-diet-as-a-determinant-of-physical-function
#11
Connie W Bales, Kathryn N Porter Starr
Throughout the world, a high prevalence of obesity in older populations has created a new phenotype of frailty: the obese, functionally frail older adult. The convergence of the obesity epidemic with global graying will undoubtedly increase the prevalence of this concern. Barriers to treatment include ambiguities about the appropriate level of obesity that should trigger an intervention, due to age-related physiologic changes and a lack of consensus on specific criteria and cutoffs. Moreover, obesity interventions for this population have been limited by concerns about negative effects on lean mass, bone mineral density, and even mortality...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659686/erratum-food-groups-and-risk-of-hypertension-a-systematic-review-and-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659685/can-curcumin-counteract-cognitive-decline-clinical-trial-evidence-and-rationale-for-combining-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acids-with-curcumin
#13
Julia Christina Kuszewski, Rachel Heloise Xiwen Wong, Peter Ranald Charles Howe
The rate of cognitive decline in the elderly is highly variable. One potential factor contributing to accelerated cognitive decline is chronic systemic inflammation, because it has been linked to cognitive impairment and increased dementia risk. Certain lifestyle factors, such as excess body weight and sedentary behavior, can exacerbate a proinflammatory state in older adults, resulting in chronic low-grade inflammation. Supplementing the diet with curcumin, an anti-inflammatory polyphenolic compound from the curry spice turmeric, is a potential approach to prevent accelerated cognitive decline by counteracting chronic inflammatory processes...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659684/%C3%AF-3-fatty-acids-impaired-fetal-growth-and-cardiovascular-risk-nutrition-as-precision-medicine
#14
Michael R Skilton
Precision medicine refers to treatment or prevention strategies in a group of individuals identified by their phenotype or genotype. Dietary components or patterns may play an important role in precision medicine. There is emerging evidence to support a role for n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids in lowering blood pressure and reducing the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in people born with impaired fetal growth, a group at increased risk of coronary artery disease partly due to an increased risk of hypertensive disorders...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659683/review-of-100-fruit-juice-and-chronic-health-conditions-implications-for-sugar-sweetened-beverage-policy
#15
Brandon J Auerbach, Sepideh Dibey, Petra Vallila-Buchman, Mario Kratz, James Krieger
Whether or not drinking 100% fruit juice causes poor health is controversial. Although 100% fruit juice may contain as much sugar as regular soda, it provides needed nutrients to Americans' diets. We systematically reviewed the current evidence of the association of 100% fruit juice consumption and chronic health conditions in children and adults. We focused on data from systematic reviews and meta-analyses about cardiometabolic health outcomes, liver disease, and caries. Aside from increased risk of tooth decay in children and small amounts of weight gain in young children and adults, there is no conclusive evidence that consumption of 100% fruit juice has adverse health effects...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659682/xanthophylls
#16
Sara E Thomas, Elizabeth J Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659681/snacking-recommendations-worldwide-a-scoping-review
#17
Monika Potter, Antonis Vlassopoulos, Undine Lehmann
Across the globe, dietary habits include the consumption of foods and drinks between main meals. Although often described as "snacks" or "snacking," there is no scientific consensus of what constitutes a snack, either as an eating occasion or as a snack food. Nonetheless, food-based dietary guidelines, compiled at national or regional levels by governments, learned societies, and health organizations, frequently refer to snacking habits and desirable or undesirable snack food choices. This review aims to provide a comprehensive snapshot of snacking recommendations worldwide...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438462/butyrate-a-double-edged-sword-for-health
#18
Hu Liu, Ji Wang, Ting He, Sage Becker, Guolong Zhang, Defa Li, Xi Ma
Butyrate, a four-carbon short-chain fatty acid, is produced through microbial fermentation of dietary fibers in the lower intestinal tract. Endogenous butyrate production, delivery, and absorption by colonocytes have been well documented. Butyrate exerts its functions by acting as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor or signaling through several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, butyrate has received particular attention for its beneficial effects on intestinal homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438461/backpack-programs-and-the-crisis-narrative-of-child-hunger-a-critical-review-of-the-rationale-targeting-and-potential-benefits-and-harms-of-an-expanding-but-untested-model-of-practice
#19
Maryah S Fram, Edward A Frongillo
In recent years, school-based food backpack programs (BPPs) have come into national prominence as a response to a perceived crisis of child hunger in America. Distributing bags of free food directly to schoolchildren for their own personal consumption each weekend, BPPs bring together private donors, faith communities, and public schools around an intuitively appealing project: children are hungry, and so we give them food. Perhaps because of their intuitive appeal, BPPs have expanded rapidly, without rigorous evaluation to determine their impacts on children, families, and schools...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438460/practical-dietary-recommendations-for-the-prevention-and-management-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adults
#20
Elena S George, Adrienne Forsyth, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Amanda J Nicoll, Marno Ryan, Siddharth Sood, Stuart K Roberts, Audrey C Tierney
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. In the absence of effective pharmacotherapies, clinical guidelines focus primarily on weight loss to treat this condition. Established consensus, evidence-based, and clinical dietary recommendations for NAFLD are currently lacking. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence-based practical dietary recommendations for the prevention and management of NAFLD in adults. A literature review focusing on established principles for the development of clinical practice recommendations was employed using the following criteria: based on substantial evidence, ensures risk minimization, is flexible for an individual patient approach, and is open to further modification as evidence emerges...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
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