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Advances in Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096143/methodological-challenges-in-studies-examining-the-effects-of-breakfast-on-cognitive-performance-and-appetite-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
REVIEW
Katie Adolphus, Nick Bellissimo, Clare L Lawton, Nikki A Ford, Tia M Rains, Julia Totosy de Zepetnek, Louise Dye
Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This review focuses on the myriad challenges involved in studying children and adolescents specifically...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096141/the-role-of-the-novel-lipokine-palmitoleic-acid-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
María E Frigolet, Ruth Gutiérrez-Aguilar
The monounsaturated fatty acid palmitoleate (palmitoleic acid) is one of the most abundant fatty acids in serum and tissues, particularly adipose tissue and liver. Its endogenous production by stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gives rise to its cis isoform, cis-palmitoleate. Although trans-palmitoleate is also synthesized in humans, it is mainly found as an exogenous source in ruminant fat and dairy products. Recently, palmitoleate was considered to be a lipokine based on evidence demonstrating its release from adipose tissue and its metabolic effects on distant organs...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096140/setting-the-lipid-component-of-the-diet-a-work-in-process
#3
REVIEW
Fabiola M Del Razo Olvera, Marco A Melgarejo Hernández, Roopa Mehta, Carlos A Aguilar Salinas
Some of the most relevant yet controversial issues in nutrition are those surrounding the guidelines on quality and quantity of dietary fat in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and coronary heart diseases. Conflicting evidence questions the credibility of the previous dietary guidelines, particularly the quality of the evidence on which these recommendations were based. It is therefore important to explore the changes that have occurred in these guidelines and their influence on the adoption of different dietary patterns over time...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096139/potential-health-benefits-of-combining-yogurt-and-fruits-based-on-their-probiotic-and-prebiotic-properties
#4
REVIEW
Melissa Anne Fernandez, André Marette
Fruit and yogurt have been identified individually as indicators of healthy dietary patterns. Fruits are relatively low in energy density and are an excellent source of antioxidants and prebiotic fibers and polyphenols, which can promote digestive health. Yogurt, on the other hand, is a nutrient-dense food that is a good source of dairy protein, calcium, magnesium, vitamin B-12, conjugated linoleic acid, and other key fatty acids. In addition, it contains beneficial bacterial cultures, making it a potential source of probiotics...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096138/associations-between-yogurt-consumption-and-weight-gain-and-risk-of-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Carmen Sayon-Orea, Miguel A Martínez-González, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Maira Bes-Rastrollo
The role of yogurt consumption in the risk of developing overweight, obesity, or metabolic syndrome has been the subject of epidemiologic studies over the last 10 y. A comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE and ISI Web of Knowledge from 1966 through June 2016 was conducted to examine the relation between yogurt consumption and weight gain, as well as the risk of overweight, obesity, or metabolic syndrome, in prospective cohort studies. Ten articles met all the inclusion criteria and were included in our systematic review...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096137/introduction-to-the-yogurt-in-nutrition-initiative-at-the-first-symposium-of-yogurt-in-mexico-the-balanced-diet-initiative
#6
REVIEW
Armando R Tovar, Guadalupe Herrera
In some European countries, yogurt consumption is common. However, such consumption is not common in Latin America, particularly in Mexico, partially because of the lack of a cultural tradition of consuming yogurt. Moreover, we also know that little information about the health benefits associated with yogurt consumption has been provided to the Mexican population. Thus, there is an immediate need to provide, at least to the nutrition community in the country, current scientific evidence about the health benefits of yogurt, with the aim that yogurt be included as part of the functional foods recommended to the population...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096134/nutritionally-nonessential-amino-acids-a-misnomer-in-nutritional-sciences
#7
Yongqing Hou, Guoyao Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096133/regulation-of-the-iron-homeostatic-hormone-hepcidin
#8
REVIEW
Veena Sangkhae, Elizabeta Nemeth
Iron is required for many biological processes but is also toxic in excess; thus, body iron balance is maintained through sophisticated regulatory mechanisms. The lack of a regulated iron excretory mechanism means that body iron balance is controlled at the level of absorption from the diet. Iron absorption is regulated by the hepatic peptide hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin also controls iron release from cells that recycle or store iron, thus regulating plasma iron concentrations. Hepcidin exerts its effects through its receptor, the cellular iron exporter ferroportin...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096132/innovative-techniques-for-evaluating-behavioral-nutrition-interventions
#9
REVIEW
Rachel E Scherr, Kevin D Laugero, Dan J Graham, Brian T Cunningham, Lisa Jahns, Karina R Lora, Marla Reicks, Amy R Mobley
Assessing outcomes and the impact from behavioral nutrition interventions has remained challenging because of the lack of methods available beyond traditional nutrition assessment tools and techniques. With the current high global obesity and related chronic disease rates, novel methods to evaluate the impact of behavioral nutrition-based interventions are much needed. The objective of this narrative review is to describe and review the current status of knowledge as it relates to 4 different innovative methods or tools to assess behavioral nutrition interventions...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096131/nutrition-micrornas-and-human-health
#10
REVIEW
Juan Cui, Beiyan Zhou, Sharon A Ross, Janos Zempleni
MicroRNAs (miRs) hybridize with complementary sequences in mRNA and silence genes by destabilizing mRNA or preventing translation of mRNA. Over 60% of human protein-coding genes are regulated by miRs, and 1881 high-confidence miRs are encoded in the human genome. Evidence suggests that miRs not only are synthesized endogenously, but also might be obtained from dietary sources, and that food compounds alter the expression of endogenous miR genes. The main food matrices for studies of biological activity of dietary miRs include plant foods and cow milk...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096130/early-life-nutrition-and-neurodevelopment-use-of-the-piglet-as-a-translational-model
#11
REVIEW
Austin T Mudd, Ryan N Dilger
Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096129/current-knowledge-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants-and-the-impact-of-different-types-of-enteral-nutrition-products
#12
REVIEW
Jocelyn Shulhan, Bryan Dicken, Lisa Hartling, Bodil Mk Larsen
Preterm infants are extremely vulnerable to a range of morbidities and mortality. Underdeveloped cardiac, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and immune systems in the preterm period increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious disease of the gut. NEC affects 5-12% of very-low birth-weight infants, leads to surgery in 20-40% of cases, and is fatal in 25-50% of cases. There are multiple factors that may contribute to NEC, but the exact cause is not yet fully understood. Severe cases can result in intestinal resection or death, and the health care costs average >$300,000/infant when surgical management is required...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096128/a-systematic-review-of-methods-to-assess-children-s-diets-in-the-school-context
#13
REVIEW
Claire N Tugault-Lafleur, Jennifer L Black, Susan I Barr
To evaluate the impact of school-based nutrition interventions, accurate and reliable methods are needed to assess what children eat at school. The primary objective of this study was to systematically review methodological evidence on the relative accuracy and reliability of dietary assessment methods used in the school context. The secondary objective was to assess the frequency of methods and analytical approaches used in studies reporting in-school dietary outcomes. Three health databases were searched for full-text English-language studies...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096127/formation-of-fructose-mediated-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-their-roles-in-metabolic-and-inflammatory-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Alejandro Gugliucci
Fructose is associated with the biochemical alterations that promote the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. Its consumption has increased in parallel with MetS. It is metabolized by the liver, where it stimulates de novo lipogenesis. The triglycerides synthesized lead to hepatic insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Fructose-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may be involved via the Maillard reaction. Fructose has not been a main focus of glycation research because of the difficulty in measuring its adducts, and, more importantly, because although it is 10 times more reactive than glucose, its plasma concentration is only 1% of that of glucose...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096126/the-age-related-eye-disease-2-study-micronutrients-in-the-treatment-of-macular-degeneration
#15
REVIEW
Aruna Gorusupudi, Kelly Nelson, Paul S Bernstein
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of vision loss in the elderly. With an increasingly aged population worldwide, the need for the prevention of AMD is rising. Multiple studies investigating AMD with the use of animal models and cell culture have identified oxidative stress-related retinal damage as an important contributing factor. In general, diet is an excellent source of the antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals necessary for healthy living; moreover, the general public is often receptive to recommendations made by physicians and health care workers regarding diet and supplements as a means of empowering themselves to avoid common and worrisome ailments such as AMD, which has made epidemiologists and clinicians enthusiastic about dietary intervention studies...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096125/dietary-supplements-and-risk-of-cause-specific-death-cardiovascular-disease-and-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-primary-prevention-trials
#16
REVIEW
Lukas Schwingshackl, Heiner Boeing, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Marion Gottschald, Stefan Dietrich, Georg Hoffmann, Anna Chaimani
Our aim was to assess the efficacy of dietary supplements in the primary prevention of cause-specific death, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer by using meta-analytical approaches. Electronic and hand searches were performed until August 2016. Inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) minimum intervention period of 12 mo; 2) primary prevention trials; 3) mean age ≥18 y; 4) interventions included vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, supplements containing combinations of vitamins and minerals, protein, fiber, prebiotics, and probiotics; and 5) primary outcome of all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes of mortality or incidence from CVD or cancer...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096124/nutritional-considerations-for-healthy-aging-and-reduction-in-age-related-chronic-disease
#17
REVIEW
Julie Shlisky, David E Bloom, Amy R Beaudreault, Katherine L Tucker, Heather H Keller, Yvonne Freund-Levi, Roger A Fielding, Feon W Cheng, Gordon L Jensen, Dayong Wu, Simin N Meydani
A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet. However, as adults age they become at risk of "nutritional frailty," which can compromise their ability to meet nutritional requirements at a time when specific nutrient needs may be high...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096123/current-evidence-on-the-association-of-dietary-patterns-and-bone-health-a-scoping-review
#18
REVIEW
Elham Z Movassagh, Hassan Vatanparast
Nutrition is an important modifiable factor that affects bone health. Diet is a complex mixture of nutrients and foods that correlate or interact with each other. Dietary pattern approaches take into account contributions from various aspects of diet. Findings from dietary pattern studies could complement those from single-nutrient and food studies on bone health. In this study we aimed to conduct a scoping review of the literature that assessed the impact of dietary patterns (derived with the use of both a priori and data-driven approaches) on bone outcomes, including bone mineral status, bone biomarkers, osteoporosis, and fracture risk...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140331/docosahexaenoic-acid
#19
Caroline Richard, Philip C Calder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140330/insights-for-setting-of-nutrient-requirements-gleaned-by-comparison-of-selenium-status-biomarkers-in-turkeys-and-chickens-versus-rats-mice-and-lambs
#20
REVIEW
Roger A Sunde, Jin-Long Li, Rachel M Taylor
To gain insights into nutrient biomarkers and setting of dietary nutrient requirements, selenium biomarker levels and requirements in response to multiple graded levels of dietary selenium were compared between day-old turkeys and chickens versus weanling rats and mice and 2-d-old lambs supplemented with sodium selenite. In rodents, there was no significant effect of dietary selenium on growth, indicating that the minimum selenium requirement was <0.007 μg Se/g diet. In contrast, there was a significant effect in turkeys, chicks, and lambs, which showed selenium requirements for growth of 0...
November 2016: Advances in Nutrition
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