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Advances in Nutrition

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August 8, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Jungwon Min, Lisa Jahns, Hong Xue, Jayanthi Kandiah, Youfa Wang
We aimed to systematically examine Americans' perceptions of fast food (FF) and how these perceptions might affect fast food consumption (FFC) and obesity risk. We searched PubMed and Google for studies published in English until February 17, 2017 that reported on Americans' perceptions (defined as their beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge) regarding FF as well as those on their associations with FFC and obesity risk. Thirteen articles met inclusion criteria. Limited research has been conducted on these topics, and most studies were based on convenience samples...
July 31, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Grace J Carroll, Gabriela S Buccini, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
Breastfeeding is one of the most feasible and cost-effective maternal-child health interventions. Currently, global investments needed to achieve the WHO global nutrition target for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) do not meet the recommended standards for economic investment and implementation of policies supporting mothers to breastfeed. Estimating implementation costs of high-quality, high-impact programs based on each country's enabling environment and specific context is essential for developing and prioritizing recommendations that can drive the successful scaling-up of breastfeeding programs globally...
July 27, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Malcolm Watford, Guoyao Wu
Proteins are polymers of amino acids linked via α-peptide bonds. They can be represented as primary, secondary, tertiary, and even quaternary structures, but from a nutritional viewpoint only the primary (amino acid) sequence is of interest. Similarly, although there are many compounds in the body that can be chemically defined as amino acids, we are only concerned with the 20 canonical amino acids encoded in DNA, plus 5 others-ornithine, citrulline, γ-aminobutyrate, β-alanine, and taurine-that play quantitatively important roles in the body...
July 27, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Bill J Gurley, Alyssa Tonsing-Carter, Sheila L Thomas, E Kim Fifer
The ability of certain foods to impair or augment the absorption of various vitamins and minerals has been recognized for many years. However, the contribution of botanical dietary supplements (BDSs) to altered micronutrient disposition has received little attention. Almost half of the US population uses some type of dietary supplement on a regular basis, with vitamin and mineral supplements constituting the majority of these products. BDS usage has also risen considerably over the last 2 decades, and a number of clinically relevant herb-drug interactions have been identified during this time...
July 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Nancy E Moran, Emily S Mohn, Noor Hason, John W Erdman, Elizabeth J Johnson
Carotenoids are orange, yellow, and red lipophilic pigments present in many fruit and vegetables, as well as other food groups. Some carotenoids contribute to vitamin A requirements. The consumption and blood concentrations of specific carotenoids have been associated with reduced risks of a number of chronic conditions. However, the interpretation of large, population-based observational and prospective clinical trials is often complicated by the many extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect the physiologic response to carotenoids...
July 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Ambika Satija, Meir J Stampfer, Eric B Rimm, Walter Willett, Frank B Hu
Nutritional research and policies have been criticized for relying on observational evidence, using self-report diet assessment methods, and supposedly being unable to present a consensus on what constitutes a healthy diet. In particular, it is often asserted that for progress to occur in nutrition science, large, simple trials, which have worked well in evaluating the efficacy of drugs, need to replace most observational research and small trials in nutrition. However, this idea is infeasible, and is unlikely to advance nutritional sciences or improve policies...
July 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Theresa Drabsch, Jennifer Gatzemeier, Lisa Pfadenhauer, Hans Hauner, Christina Holzapfel
A better understanding of the genetic underpinning of total energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake is a prerequisite to develop personalized dietary recommendations. For this purpose, we systematically reviewed associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and total energy, carbohydrate, and fat intakes. Four databases were searched for studies that assessed an association between SNPs and total energy, carbohydrate, and fat intakes. Screening of articles and data extraction was performed independently by 2 reviewers...
July 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Mary E Van Elswyk, Charli A Weatherford, Shalene H McNeill
A systematic review was used to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational epidemiologic studies (OBSs) that examined protein intake consistent with either the US RDA (0.8 g/kg or 10-15% of energy) or a higher protein intake (≥20% but <35% of energy or ≥10% higher than a comparison intake) and reported measures of kidney function. Studies (n = 26) of healthy, free-living adults (>18 y old) with or without metabolic disease risk factors were included. Studies of subjects with overt disease, such as chronic kidney, end-stage renal disease, cancer, or organ transplant, were excluded...
July 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Densie Webb, Alice H Lichtenstein, Katherine L Tucker, Sharon Akabas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Paleerath Peerapen, Visith Thongboonkerd
Kidney stone disease is a global health care problem, with a high recurrence rate after stone removal. It is thus crucial to develop effective strategies to prevent the formation of new or recurrent stones. Caffeine is one of the main components in caffeinated beverages worldwide (i.e., coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks). Previous retrospective and prospective studies have reported contradictory effects of caffeine on kidney stone risk. Although it has a diuretic effect on enhancing urinary output, it may slightly increase the stone risk index...
July 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Ahmad Jayedi, Alireza Emadi, Sakineh Shab-Bidar
Existing evidence suggests a link between the inflammatory potential of diet and risk of cancer. This study aimed to test the linear and potential nonlinear dose-response associations of the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), as being representative of inflammatory features of the diet, and site-specific cancer risk. A systematic search was conducted with the use of PubMed and Scopus from 2014 to November 2017. Prospective cohort or case-control studies reporting the risk estimates of any cancer type for ≥3 categories of the DII were selected...
July 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Joshua W Miller
There is clear evidence that proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs), and metformin can reduce serum vitamin B-12 concentrations by inhibiting the absorption of the vitamin. However, it is unclear if the effects of these drugs on serum vitamin B-12 are associated with increased risk of biochemical or functional deficiency (as is indicated by elevated blood concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid) or clinical deficiency (including megaloblastic anemia and neurologic disorders such as peripheral neuropathy and cognitive dysfunction)...
July 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Long He, Jie Zhang, Jinshan Zhao, Ning Ma, Sung Woo Kim, Shiyan Qiao, Xi Ma
Homeostasis of nutrient metabolism is critical for maintenance of the normal physiologic status of the cell and the integral health of humans and mammals. In vivo, there is a highly efficient and precise process involved in nutrient recycling and organelle cleaning. This process is named autophagy, and it can be induced in response to the dynamic change of nutrients. When cells face nutritional stress, such as stress caused by nutrient deficiency or nutrient excess, the autophagy pathway will be activated. Generally, when nutrients are withdrawn, cells will sense the signs of starvation and respond...
July 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Neil R Brett, Nathalie Gharibeh, Hope A Weiler
Meta-analyses on the effect of vitamin D intake on status in children are lacking, especially those focused on vitamin D-fortified foods. The objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of vitamin D interventions (fortified foods, supplements, bolus injections) on vitamin D status in children 2-18 y of age. Following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, literature searches were conducted up to December 2016. Randomized placebo-controlled vitamin D interventions in healthy children aged 2-18 y were included...
July 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Amanda L Zaleski, Beth A Taylor, Paul D Thompson
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are extremely well tolerated but are associated with a range of mild-to-moderate statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). Estimates of SAMS incidence vary from <1% in industry-funded clinical trials to 10-25% in nonindustry-funded clinical trials and ∼60% in some observational studies. SAMS are important because they result in dose reduction or discontinuation of these life-saving medications, accompanied by higher healthcare costs and cardiac events...
July 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
John B Vincent, Henry C Lukaski
Two oxidation states of chromium are considered to be biologically and environmentally relevant based on their stability in the presence of water and oxygen. Compounds containing chromium(6 + ) are mutagenic and carcinogenic when inhaled and potentially when ingested orally in large quantity as well. Chromium as the trivalent will be the focus of this work as it was proposed to be an essential element for mammals ∼60 y ago; however, in the last 2 decades its status has been questioned. Chromium has been postulated to be involved in regulating carbohydrate and lipid (and potentially also protein) metabolism by enhancing insulin's efficacy (1)...
July 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
John F Trepanowski, John P A Ioannidis
A large majority of human nutrition research uses nonrandomized observational designs, but this has led to little reliable progress. This is mostly due to many epistemologic problems, the most important of which are as follows: difficulty detecting small (or even tiny) effect sizes reliably for nutritional risk factors and nutrition-related interventions; difficulty properly accounting for massive confounding among many nutrients, clinical outcomes, and other variables; difficulty measuring diet accurately; and suboptimal research reporting...
July 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Daphna K Dror, Lindsay H Allen
Despite the critical role of vitamin B-12 in infant development, existing recommendations for infant and maternal intake during lactation are based on milk vitamin B-12 concentrations analyzed with outdated methods in a sample of 9 Brazilian women. Accurate quantification of vitamin B-12 in the milk matrix requires effective hydrolysis of the vitamin from haptocorrin, its binding protein. The objective of the present systematic review is to consider and critique evidence of associations between milk vitamin B-12 concentration and time postpartum, maternal vitamin B-12 consumption, maternal vitamin B-12 status, and sample collection methodology...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Lindsay H Allen, Juliana A Donohue, Daphna K Dror
Reported values for concentrations of micronutrients in human milk form the basis of the majority of micronutrient intake recommendations for infants and the additional maternal requirements for lactation. The infant recommendations may also be extrapolated to provide estimates for young children. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the adequacy of the milk micronutrient concentration data used by the Institute of Medicine to set recommendations for the United States and Canada, by FAO/WHO, the United Kingdom, and the European Food Safety Authority...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
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