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Advances in Nutrition

Anastasia Levinta, Ilya Mukovozov, Christopher Tsoutsoulas
We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine whether adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) leads to improved outcomes for patients with schizophrenia. We searched the AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine; 1985-June 2016), MEDLINE (1946-June 2016), and Embase (1980-2016 week 24) databases using the terms "wheat" or "glutenin" or "gliadin" or "gluten" AND "schizophrenia." A total of 9 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review: 1 randomized controlled trial, 7 crossover studies, and 1 open-label pilot study...
October 15, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Nikos V Margaritelis, Vassilis Paschalis, Anastasios A Theodorou, Antonios Kyparos, Michalis G Nikolaidis
The present review highlights the idea that antioxidant supplementation can be optimized when tailored to the precise antioxidant status of each individual. A novel methodologic approach involving personalized nutrition, the mechanisms by which antioxidant status regulates human metabolism and performance, and similarities between antioxidants and other nutritional supplements are described. The usefulness of higher-level phenotypes for data-driven personalized treatments is also explained. We conclude that personally tailored antioxidant interventions based on specific antioxidant inadequacies or deficiencies could result in improved exercise performance accompanied by consistent alterations in redox profile...
September 25, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Ahmad Jayedi, Ali Rashidy-Pour, Mohammad Parohan, Mahdieh Sadat Zargar, Sakineh Shab-Bidar
The associations of various dietary or circulating antioxidants with the risk of all-cause mortality in the general population have not been established yet. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and Scopus, from their inception up to October 2017. Prospective observational studies reporting risk estimates of all-cause mortality in relation to dietary intake and/or circulating concentrations of antioxidants were included. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted. Forty-one prospective observational studies (total n = 507,251) involving 73,965 cases of all-cause mortality were included...
September 20, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Yongqing Hou, Guoyao Wu
Amino acids (AAs) are defined as organic compounds containing both amino and acid groups (1). Proteinogenic AAs are AAs that serve as substrates for protein synthesis in animal cells, and occur naturally as L-AAs except for glycine. Free AAs (those AAs that are not constituents of peptides or polymers) in physiologic fluid exist primarily in an L-isoform, but some of them may be present in a D-isoform. Based on his findings in 1912 that adult dogs exhibited a negative nitrogen balance when fed a tryptophan-free diet but maintained a positive nitrogen balance when fed a proline-free diet, Abderhalden (2) classified AAs as nutritionally essential (EAAs) or nonessential (NEAAs)...
September 15, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Jess A Gwin, Heather J Leidy
The recommendation to eat breakfast has received scrutiny due to insufficient causal evidence for improvements in weight management. Despite the limited number of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of breakfast consumption compared with skipping breakfast on weight loss, an increasing number of studies target the hormonal and behavioral mechanisms underlying weight management. This review provides a comprehensive examination of the intervention-based clinical trials that test whether breakfast consumption improves appetite control and satiety as well as energy expenditure compared with skipping breakfast...
September 10, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Anthony Fardet, Edmond Rock
Today, it seems that nutrition is in a state of great confusion, especially for the general public. For decades, some nutrients (e.g., cholesterol, saturated fats, sugars, gluten, salt) and food groups (e.g., dairy, cereals, meats) have been regularly denigrated. In this position paper, we hypothesize that such a state of confusion is mainly the result of the reductionist paradigm applied to nutrition research for more than a century, and by being pushed to its extreme, this perspective has led to accusations about some nutrients and foods...
September 10, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Dana Hawwash, Wim Pinxten, Noémie Aubert Bonn, Roosmarijn Verstraeten, Patrick Kolsteren, Carl Lachat
Nutrition research can guide interventions to tackle the burden of diet-related diseases. Setting priorities in nutrition research, however, requires the engagement of various stakeholders with diverse insights. Consideration of what matters most in research from a scientific, social, and ethical perspective is therefore not an automatic process. Systematic ways to explicitly define and consider relevant values are largely lacking. Here, we review existing nutrition research priority-setting exercises, analyze how values are reported, and provide guidance for transparent consideration of values while setting priorities in nutrition research...
September 10, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Kevin C Maki, Fulya Eren, Martha E Cassens, Mary R Dicklin, Michael H Davidson
The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend limiting the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to <10% of energy/d and replacing dietary SFAs with unsaturated fatty acids. A Presidential Advisory from the American Heart Association recently released its evaluation of the relation between dietary fats and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and also recommended a shift from SFAs to unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in conjunction with a healthy dietary pattern. However, the suggestion to increase the intake of PUFAs in general, and omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs in particular, continues to be controversial...
September 4, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Rozenn Gazan, Chloé M C Brouzes, Florent Vieux, Matthieu Maillot, Anne Lluch, Nicole Darmon
A sustainable diet is, by definition, nutritionally adequate, economically affordable, culturally acceptable, and environmentally respectful. Designing such a diet has to integrate different dimensions of diet sustainability that may not be compatible with each other. Among multicriteria assessment methods, diet optimization is a whole-diet approach that simultaneously combines several metrics for dimensions of diet sustainability. This narrative review based on 67 published studies shows how mathematical diet optimization can help with understanding the relations between the different dimensions of diet sustainability and how it can be properly used to identify sustainable diets...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Matheus Santos Cerqueira, Carolina Araújo Dos Santos, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Paulo Roberto Dos Santos Amorim, João Carlos Bouzas Marins, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
The Body Adiposity Index (BAI) is a practical anthropometric method used to measure body fat (BF) percentage (BF%). Recently developed, the validity and precision of BAI has been studied with adult samples of men and women, populations from different countries and ethnicities, varying amounts of BF, and sensitivity to detecting change over time. However, it is still necessary to determine its potential use in clinical practice and epidemiologic studies. Thus, our objective was to verify, through a systematic review, the validity of the BAI in predicting BF% in adults...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Jesse Sheftel, Cornelia Loechl, Najat Mokhtar, Sherry A Tanumihardjo
The ability of nutrition scientists to measure the status, bioavailability, and bioefficacy of micronutrients is affected by lack of access to the parts of the body through which a nutrient may travel before appearing in accessible body compartments (typically blood or urine). Stable isotope-labeled tracers function as safe, nonradioactive tools to follow micronutrients in a quantitative manner because the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the tracer are assumed to be similar to the unlabeled vitamin or mineral...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Rachael Patusco, Jane Ziegler
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are 4 times as likely to experience gastrointestinal symptoms as children without ASD. The gut microbiota has increasingly been the subject of investigation as a contributing factor to these symptoms in this population because there is evidence to suggest that alterations in the intestinal microflora are correlated with gastrointestinal and ASD symptom severity. Probiotic therapy has been proposed as a treatment for augmented gastrointestinal symptom severity in children with ASD...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Dennis Zeilstra, Jessica A Younes, Robert J Brummer, Michiel Kleerebezem
Studies on the relation between health and nutrition are often inconclusive. There are concerns about the validity of many research findings, and methods that can deliver high-quality evidence-such as the randomized controlled trial (RCT) method-have been embraced by nutritional researchers. Unfortunately, many nutritional RCTs also yield ambiguous results. It has been argued that RCTs are ill-suited for certain settings, including nutritional research. In this perspective, we investigate whether there are fundamental limitations of the RCT method in nutritional research...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Simin Nikbin Meydani, Erin Diane Lewis, Dayong Wu
Current vitamin E requirements are uniformly applied across the population for those >14 y of age. However, aging is associated with alterations in cellular and physiologic functions, which are affected by vitamin E. Therefore, it is questionable whether vitamin E requirements can be uniformly applied to all adult age categories. With aging, there is dysregulation of the immune system in which there are decreased cell-mediated and pathogen defense responses coupled with an overactive, prolonged inflammatory state...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Angela Bechthold, Heiner Boeing, Inge Tetens, Lukas Schwingshackl, Ute Nöthlings
Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) are important tools for nutrition policies and public health. FBDGs provide guidelines on healthy food consumption and are based on scientific evidence. In the past, disease prevention and nutrient recommendations dominated the process of establishing FBDGs. However, scientific advances and social developments such as changing lifestyles, interest in personalized health, and concerns about sustainability require a reorientation of the creation of FBDGs to include a wider range of aspects of dietary behavior...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Melissa Ann Theurich
In recent years, so-called baby food pouches and other novel packaging and devices have been marketed for complementary feeding. To date, no experimental studies have been conducted to determine health and nutrition effects or the safety of baby food pouches and related feeding devices. Yet, these products hold the potential to fundamentally change the ways in which infants and children consume solid foods in infancy and early childhood. In this review, a selection of complementary feeding devices and their potential effects on breastfeeding, formula-feeding, safe and appropriate complementary feeding, and the timely transition to family foods are explored...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
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September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Jungwon Min, Lisa Jahns, Hong Xue, Jayanthi Kandiah, Youfa Wang
We aimed to systematically examine Americans' perceptions of fast food (FF) and how these perceptions might affect fast food consumption (FFC) and obesity risk. We searched PubMed and Google for studies published in English until February 17, 2017 that reported on Americans' perceptions (defined as their beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge) regarding FF as well as those on their associations with FFC and obesity risk. Thirteen articles met inclusion criteria. Limited research has been conducted on these topics, and most studies were based on convenience samples...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Grace J Carroll, Gabriela S Buccini, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
Breastfeeding is one of the most feasible and cost-effective maternal-child health interventions. Currently, global investments needed to achieve the WHO global nutrition target for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) do not meet the recommended standards for economic investment and implementation of policies supporting mothers to breastfeed. Estimating implementation costs of high-quality, high-impact programs based on each country's enabling environment and specific context is essential for developing and prioritizing recommendations that can drive the successful scaling-up of breastfeeding programs globally...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Malcolm Watford, Guoyao Wu
Proteins are polymers of amino acids linked via α-peptide bonds. They can be represented as primary, secondary, tertiary, and even quaternary structures, but from a nutritional viewpoint only the primary (amino acid) sequence is of interest. Similarly, although there are many compounds in the body that can be chemically defined as amino acids, we are only concerned with the 20 canonical amino acids encoded in DNA, plus 5 others-ornithine, citrulline, γ-aminobutyrate, β-alanine, and taurine-that play quantitatively important roles in the body...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
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