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Aging and Disease

Stefano Rizza, Marina Cardellini, Alessio Farcomeni, Pasquale Morabito, Daniele Romanello, Giovanni Di Cola, Maria Paola Canale, Massimo Federici
Despite its beneficial role on insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, adiponectin has been frequently reported as an independent positive predictor of cardiovascular mortality. Very few information is available regarding adiponectin isoforms and mortality, in particular in advanced aging. Baseline serum levels of Total Adiponectin and its circulating isoforms (HMW-, MMW-, LMW-Adiponectin) were measured in 97 old patients (mean age: 79 years). Patients were followed up for all-cause mortality (study end-point) for an average of 76...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Linsha Ma, Liang Hu, Xiaoyu Feng, Songlin Wang
The source of dietary nitrate (NO3 ) is mainly green, leafy vegetables, partially absorbed into blood through intestinal mucosa. The recycled nitrate is reabsorbed and concentrated by the salivary glands and then secreted into saliva. In 2012, sialin was first discovered as the mammalian membrane nitrate transporter in salivary glands and plays a key role in circulation of inorganic nitrate, providing a scientific basis for further investigation into the circulation and functions of nitrate. Dietary nitrate can be converted to nitrite (NO2 ) by oral commensal bacteria under the tongue or in the stomach, following which nitrite is converted to nitric oxide (NO) through non-enzymatic synthesis...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Fan Liu, Jianfei Lu, Anatol Manaenko, Junjia Tang, Qin Hu
Stroke is the leading cause of death and adult disability worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been regarded as one of the hallmarks of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced neuronal death. Maintaining the function of mitochondria is crucial in promoting neuron survival and neurological improvement. In this article, we review current progress regarding the roles of mitochondria in the pathological process of cerebral I/R injury. In particular, we emphasize on the most critical mechanisms responsible for mitochondrial quality control, as well as the recent findings on mitochondrial transfer in acute stroke...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Shashank Ghai, Ishan Ghai, Alfred O Effenberg
Rhythmic auditory cueing has been widely used in gait rehabilitation over the past decade. The entrainment effect has been suggested to introduce neurophysiological changes, alleviate auditory-motor coupling and reduce cognitive-motor interferences. However, a consensus as to its influence over aging gait is still warranted. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to analyze the effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on spatiotemporal gait parameters among healthy young and elderly participants. This systematic identification of published literature was performed according to PRISMA guidelines, from inception until May 2017, on online databases: Web of science, PEDro, EBSCO, MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and PROQUEST...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Maxime Fournet, Frédéric Bonté, Alexis Desmoulière
Glycation is both a physiological and pathological process which mainly affects proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Exogenous and endogenous glycation produces deleterious reactions that take place principally in the extracellular matrix environment or within the cell cytosol and organelles. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation begins by the non-enzymatic glycation of free amino groups by sugars and aldehydes which leads to a succession of rearrangements of intermediate compounds and ultimately to irreversibly bound products known as AGEs...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Changhong Ren, Ning Li, Sijie Li, Rongrong Han, Qingjian Huang, Jiangnan Hu, Kunlin Jin, Xunming Ji
Intracranial and extracranial arterial stenosis, the primary cause of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), is a critical reason for the pathogenesis of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease characterized by cognitive impairments. Our previous study demonstrated that limb remote ischemic conditioning (LRIC) improved cerebral perfusion in intracranial arterial stenosis patients. The current study aimed to test whether LRIC promotes angiogenesis and increases phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS) activity in CCH rat model...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Emmanuel Navarro-Flores, Marta Elena Losa-Iglesias, Ricardo Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Daniel Lopez-Lopez, Juan Manuel Vilar-Fernandez, Patricia Palomo-Lopez, Cesar Calvo-Lobo
The Bristol Foot Score is considered an instrument for measuring the impact of foot problems and pain. It was developed and validated in United Kingdom. Therefore, this aim was to perform the transcultural adaptation and validation of the Spanish version. The recommended forward/backward translation protocol was applied for the procedure of translation, transcultural adaptation and validation to Spain. Considering each domain and question, internal consistency and reliability were analyzed through the Crombach alpha (α) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI)...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Binquan You, Bingbing Zhu, Xi Su, Feng Liu, Bingyin Wang
Several epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that females with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have a higher mortality than males following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Many analyses of sex-based differences following STEMI have revealed conflicting results. Currently, more and more elderly patients with STEMI have undergone emergency interventional therapy. From January 2014 to December 2016, a total of 337 elderly patients with STEMI were enrolled in this study from two chest pain centers, and all patients underwent PPCI...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Li-Huang Zha, Jun Zhou, Tang-Zhiming Li, Hui Luo, Jing-Ni He, Lin Zhao, Zai-Xin Yu
The nucleotide-oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor subfamily C3 (NLRC3) is a newly discovered and incompletely characterized member of the NLR family which negatively regulates inflammatory responses. Inflammation is considered a critical pathogenesis in pulmonary hypertension (PH). This is the first study to hypothesize that NLRC3 is closely correlated with PH. Total of 43 PH patients who were diagnosed by right heart catheterization (RHC) and 20 age-matched healthy control subjects were included. Echocardiographic variables and blood biochemical parameters were tested...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Szkup Małgorzata, Brodowski Jacek, Owczarek Aleksander Jerzy, Choręza Piotr, Jurczak Anna, Grochans Elżbieta
Metabolic syndrome is an increasing health problem, whose pathogenesis may be associated with genetic factors. The main purpose of our study was to assess relationships between MetS and the presence of the FTO rs9939609, the MC4R rs17782313, and the PPAR-γ rs1801282 polymorphisms in 45-60-year-old women. The study included patients from the general population of the Westpomeranian Province (Poland). The mean age was 54.3 ± 4.2 years. The research procedure involved taking structured history, physical examination, anthropometric measurements, and collecting blood for biochemical and genetic analysis...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Stefanie Hardt, Lucie Valek, Jinyang Zeng-Brouwers, Annett Wilken-Schmitz, Liliana Schaefer, Irmgard Tegeder
Loss-of-function mutations of progranulin are associated with frontotemporal dementia in humans, and its deficiency in mice is a model for this disease but with normal life expectancy and mild cognitive decline on aging. The present study shows that aging progranulin deficient mice develop progressive polydipsia and polyuria under standard housing conditions starting at middle age (6-9 months). They showed high water licking behavior and doubling of the normal daily drinking volume, associated with increased daily urine output and a decrease of urine osmolality, all maintained during water restriction...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Ze Teng, Aibo Wang, Peng Wang, Rui Wang, Wei Wang, Hongbin Han
It has been reported that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) deficiency impairs transportation between the cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid (ISF) as well as the clearance of interstitial solutes in the superficial brain. However, the effect of AQP4 on ISF flow in the deep brain remains unclear. This study compared the brain ISF flow in the caudate nucleus and thalamus of normal rats (NO) and AQP4 knockout rats (KO) using tracer-based magnetic resonance imaging. The rate of brain ISF flow slowed to different degrees in the two regions of KO rats' brains...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Diano F Marrone, Elham Satvat, Anuj Patel
The perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical mediator of recognition memory, and a wealth of evidence points to impairment in PRh function with age. Despite this evidence, age-related deficits in recognition memory are not consistently observed. This may be partially due to the fact that older animals also have well-established deficits in hippocampal function, and many protocols that assess perirhinal function are also sensitive to hippocampal damage. When using one of these protocols, spontaneous object recognition in an open field, we are able to replicate published age-related deficits using pairs of complex objects...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Yong-Fei Zhao, Qiong-Zhang, Jian-Feng Zhang, Zhi-Yin Lou, Hen-Bing Zu, Zi-Gao Wang, Wei-Cheng Zeng, Kai-Yao, Bao-Guo Xiao
Aging is an inevitable physiological challenge occurring in organisms over time, and is also the most important risk factor of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we observed cellular and molecular changes of different age mice and LPS-induced Parkinson disease (PD) model. The results showed that behavioral performance and dopaminergic (DA) neurons were declined, accompanied by increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors (TLR2, p-NF-kB-p65, IL-1β and TNF-α), as well as pro-oxidative stress factor gp91phox in aged mice compared with young mice...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Patricia Sosa, Elena Alcalde-Estevez, Patricia Plaza, Nuria Troyano, Cristina Alonso, Laura Martínez-Arias, Andresa Evelem de Melo Aroeira, Diego Rodriguez-Puyol, Gemma Olmos, Susana López-Ongil, María P Ruíz-Torres
In mammalians, advancing age is associated with sarcopenia, the progressive and involuntary loss of muscle mass and strength. Hyperphosphatemia is an aging-related condition involved in several pathologies. The aim of this work was to assess whether hyperphosphatemia plays a role in the age-related loss of mass muscle and strength by inducing cellular senescence in murine myoblasts and to explore the intracellular mechanism involved in this effect. Cultured mouse C2 C12 cells were treated with 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate (BGP] at different periods of time to induce hyperphosphatemia...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Changhong Ren, Sijie Li, Gary Rajah, Guo Shao, Guowei Lu, Rongrong Han, Qingjian Huang, Haiyan Li, Yuchuan Ding, Kunlin Jin, Xunming Ji
Hibernation is a unique physiological state that evolved to survive periods of food shortages. It is characterized by profound decreases in metabolic rate, body temperature and physiological functions. Studies have shown that animals in hibernation can resist neurological damage. Here, we aimed to study whether hypoxia can induce a hibernation-like state in a traditionally non-hibernating animal and whether it is neuroprotective. All procedures were conducted according to international guidelines on laboratory animal safety...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
Daichi Sone, Etsuko Imabayashi, Norihide Maikusa, Masayo Ogawa, Noriko Sato, Hiroshi Matsuda
Voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease (VSRAD) software is widely used in clinical practice in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The existing VSRAD is based on the normal database with 1.5-tesla MRI scans (VSRAD-1.5T), and its utility for patients have undergone 3-tesla MRI is still controversial. We recruited 19 patients with early AD and 28 healthy controls who had undergone 3-tesla MRI scans at our institute (Cohort 1). We also used the 3-tesla MRI data of 30 patients with early AD and 13 healthy controls from the Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Cohort 2)...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
Carmen G Vinagre, Fatima R Freitas, Carlos H de Mesquita, Juliana C Vinagre, Ana Carolina Mariani, Roberto Kalil-Filho, Raul C Maranhão
Dietary fats absorbed in the intestine are transported in the circulation as chylomicrons and remnants that have atherogenic potential. Although postprandial lipidemia is increased in older subjects, the specific chylomicron metabolism has not been explored in older subjects nor compared to young subjects, which is the focus of this study. After a 12 h fast, artificially-made emulsions similar to lymph chylomicrons and doubly labeled with radioactive cholesteryl esters and triglycerides were intravenously injected in 23 older (66±4 years) and 20 young (24±3 years) subjects...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
Faheemuddin Azher Ahmed
The population in the United States is aging and presents many challenges in the healthcare world. According to the report released by United States Census Bureau in June 2017, there are around 50 million residents aged 65 years and over as of 2016. Among the multiple healthcare challenges, kidney disease is a significant one because of its high burden, high cost and low awareness. Medicare spending on chronic kidney disease for 65 plus aged patients exceeded $ 50 billion in 2013. Different studies based on different calculations have estimated that at least one-third of chronic kidney disease patients are aged above 65 years...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
Schamim H Eckert, Janett Gaca, Nathalie Kolesova, Kristina Friedland, Gunter P Eckert, Walter E Muller
Dimebon (latrepirdine), an old antihistaminic drug, showed divergent results in two large clinical trials in Alzheimer disease (AD), which according to our review might be related to the specific pharmacological properties of the drug and the different patient populations included in both studies. Out of the many pharmacological effects of Dimebon, improvement of impaired mitochondrial function seeems to be most relevant for the substantial effects on cognition and behaviour reported in one of the studies, as these effects are already present at the low concentrations of dimebon measured in plasma and tissues of patients and experimental animals...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
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