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Aging and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053826/sensorineural-organs-dysfunction-and-cognitive-decline-a-review-article
#1
REVIEW
Supakanya Wongrakpanich, Aisawan Petchlorlian, Andrew Rosenzweig
Vision, hearing, olfaction, and cognitive function are essential components of healthy and successful aging. Multiple studies demonstrate relationship between these conditions with cognitive function. The present article focuses on hearing loss, visual impairment, olfactory loss, and dual sensory impairments in relation to cognitive declination and neurodegenerative disorders. Sensorineural organ impairment is a predictive factor for mild cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative disorders in the elderly. We recommend early detection of sensorineural dysfunction by history, physical examination, and screening tests...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053825/bioactive-flavonoids-and-catechols-as-hif1-and-nrf2-protein-stabilizers-implications-for-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Natalya A Smirnova, Navneet Ammal Kaidery, Dmitry M Hushpulian, Ilay I Rakhman, Andrey A Poloznikov, Vladimir I Tishkov, Saravanan S Karuppagounder, Irina N Gaisina, Anton Pekcec, Klaus Van Leyen, Sergey V Kazakov, Lichuan Yang, Bobby Thomas, Rajiv R Ratan, Irina G Gazaryan
Flavonoids are known to trigger the intrinsic genetic adaptive programs to hypoxic or oxidative stress via estrogen receptor engagement or upstream kinase activation. To reveal specific structural requirements for direct stabilization of the transcription factors responsible for triggering the antihypoxic and antioxidant programs, we studied flavones, isoflavones and catechols including dihydroxybenzoate, didox, levodopa, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), using novel luciferase-based reporters specific for the first step in HIF1 or Nrf2 protein stabilization...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053824/low-normal-tsh-levels-are-associated-with-impaired-bmd-and-hip-geometry-in-the-elderly
#3
Su Jin Lee, Kyoung Min Kim, Eun Young Lee, Mi Kyung Song, Dae Ryong Kang, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yoosik Youm, Young Mi Yun, Hyun-Young Park, Chang Oh Kim, Yumie Rhee
Subclinical hyperthyroidism is known to be associated with the risk of fractures in elderly people. However, there are few studies assessing whether low normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels affect bone density and geometry. Here, we aimed to assess the influence of the TSH level on bone mineral density (BMD) and geometry in elderly euthyroid subjects. This was a cross-sectional cohort study. A total of 343 men and 674 women with euthyroidism were included and analyzed separately. The subjects were divided into tertiles based on the serum TSH level...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053823/global-metabolic-profiling-of-plasma-shows-that-three-year-mild-caloric-restriction-lessens-an-age-related-increase-in-sphingomyelin-and-reduces-l-leucine-and-l-phenylalanine-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects
#4
Minjoo Kim, Sang-Hyun Lee, Jong Ho Lee
The effect of weight loss from long-term, mild-calorie diets (MCD) on plasma metabolites is unknown. This study was to examine whether MCD-induced weight reduction caused changes in the extended plasma metabolites. Overweight and obese subjects aged 40-59 years consumed a MCD (approximately 100 kcal/day deficit, n=47) or a weight-maintenance diet (control, n=47) in a randomized, controlled design with a three-year clinical intervention period and plasma samples were analyzed by using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053822/bulbocavernosus-reflex-test-for-diagnosis-of-pudendal-nerve-injury-in-female-patients-with-diabetic-neurogenic-bladder
#5
Xiaoting Niu, Xun Wang, Huanjie Huang, Peiqi Ni, Yuanshao Lin, Bei Shao
The study was designed to investigate the clinical application and significance of the bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) test for diagnosing diabetic neurogenic bladder (DNB) in female subjects. In this study, 68 female patients with DNB and 40 female normal controls were subjected to a nerve conduction study (NCS) of all four limbs and the BCR test. The data were analyzed and compared, and the corresponding diagnostic sensitivities were discussed. Mean BCR latency for female DNB patients was significantly prolonged, compared to that of the control group, suggesting pudendal nerve injuries in female DNB patients...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053821/microrna-181c-exacerbates-brain-injury-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#6
Qingfeng Ma, Haiping Zhao, Zhen Tao, Rongliang Wang, Ping Liu, Ziping Han, Shubei Ma, Yumin Luo, Jianping Jia
MicroRNA-181 (miR-181) is highly expressed in the brain, and downregulated in miRNA expression profiles of acute ischemic stroke patients. However, the roles of miR-181c in stroke are not known. The clinical relevance of miR-181c in acute stroke patients was evaluated by real-time PCR and correlation analyses. Proliferation and apoptosis of BV2 microglial cells and Neuro-2a cells cultured separately or together under oxidative stress or inflammation were assessed with the Cell Counting Kit-8 and by flow cytometry, respectively...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053820/effects-of-different-concurrent-resistance-and-aerobic-training-frequencies-on-muscle-power-and-muscle-quality-in-trained-elderly-men-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Rodrigo Ferrari, Sandra C Fuchs, Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Cristine Lima Alberton, Ronei Silveira Pinto, Régis Radaelli, Maira Schoenell, Mikel Izquierdo, Hirofumi Tanaka, Daniel Umpierre
Muscle power is a strong predictor of functional status in the elderly population and is required to perform different daily activities. To compare the effects of different weekly training frequencies on muscle power and muscle quality induced by concurrent training (resistance + aerobic) in previously trained elderly men. Twenty-four trained elderly men (65 ± 4 years), previously engaged in a regular concurrent training program, three times per week, for the previous five months, were randomly allocated to concurrent training programs in which training was performed either twice a week (2·week(-1), n = 12) or three times per week (3·week(-1), n = 12)...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053819/thalamic-atrophy-contributes-to-low-slow-wave-sleep-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#8
Lei Su, Yujuan Han, Rong Xue, Kristofer Wood, Fu-Dong Shi, Yaou Liu, Ying Fu
Slow wave sleep abnormality has been reported in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), but mechanism for such abnormality is unknown. To determine the structural defects in the brain that account for the decrease of slow wave sleep in NMOSD patients. Thirty-three NMOSD patients and 18 matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. Polysomnography was used to monitor slow wave sleep and three-dimensional T1-weighted MRIs were obtained to assess the alterations of grey matter volume. The percentage of deep slow wave sleep decreased in 93% NMOSD patients...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053818/association-between-serum-magnesium-levels-and-depression-in-stroke-patients
#9
Yingying Gu, Kai Zhao, Xiaoqian Luan, Zhihua Liu, Yan Cai, Qiongzhang Wang, Beilei Zhu, Jincai He
Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common psychiatric complication of stroke that is associated with a poor outcome in stroke patients. Our aim was to assess the association between the serum magnesium levels and the presence of PSD in Chinese patients. Two hundred nine stroke patients were included in the study. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 17-Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at 3 months after stroke. Based on the depressive symptoms, diagnoses of depression were made in line with the DSM-IV criteria for PSD...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053817/pretreatment-with-ginseng-fruit-saponins-affects-serotonin-expression-in-an-experimental-comorbidity-model-of-myocardial-infarction-and-depression
#10
Mei-Yan Liu, Yan-Ping Ren, Li-Jun Zhang, Jamie Y Ding
We previously demonstrated that serotonin (5-HT) and 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) levels in platelets were up- or down-regulated after myocardial infarction (MI) associated with depression. In this study, we further evaluated the effects of pretreatment with ginseng fruit saponins (GFS) on the expression of 5-HT and 5-HT2AR in MI with or without depression. Eighty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with saline and GFS (n=40 per group). The animals were then randomly divided into four subgroups: sham, MI, depression, and MI + depression (n=10 per subgroup)...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699087/guanosine-a-neuromodulator-with-therapeutic-potential-in-brain-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Débora Lanznaster, Tharine Dal-Cim, Tetsadê C B Piermartiri, Carla I Tasca
Guanosine is a purine nucleoside with important functions in cell metabolism and a protective role in response to degenerative diseases or injury. The past decade has seen major advances in identifying the modulatory role of extracellular action of guanosine in the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence from rodent and cell models show a number of neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of guanosine preventing deleterious consequences of seizures, spinal cord injury, pain, mood disorders and aging-related diseases, such as ischemia, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699086/atrial-fibrillation-the-science-behind-its-defiance
#12
REVIEW
Maureen E Czick, Christine L Shapter, David I Silverman
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent arrhythmia in the world, due both to its tenacious treatment resistance, and to the tremendous number of risk factors that set the stage for the atria to fibrillate. Cardiopulmonary, behavioral, and psychological risk factors generate electrical and structural alterations of the atria that promote reentry and wavebreak. These culminate in fibrillation once atrial ectopic beats set the arrhythmia process in motion. There is growing evidence that chronic stress can physically alter the emotion centers of the limbic system, changing their input to the hypothalamic-limbic-autonomic network that regulates autonomic outflow...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699085/proteomic-analysis-of-the-peri-infarct-area-after-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-in-experimental-stroke
#13
He Dongsheng, Zhang Zhuo, Lao Jiamin, Meng Hailan, Han Lijuan, Chen Fan, Ye Dan, Zhang He, Xu Yun
Among various therapeutic approaches for stroke, treatment with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) has acquired some promising results. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed the protein expression spectrum of the cortical peri-infarction region after ischemic stroke followed by treatment with hUC-MSCs, and found 16 proteins expressed differentially between groups treated with or without hUC-MSCs. These proteins were further determined by Gene Ontology term analysis and network with CD200-CD200R1, CCL21-CXCR3 and transcription factors...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699084/serum-il-33-is-a-novel-diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarker-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#14
Li Qian, Lin Yuanshao, Huang Wensi, Zhou Yulei, Chen Xiaoli, Wang Brian, Zhang Wanli, Cai Zhengyi, Xue Jie, Zhang Wenhui, Yu Tieer, Wang Hong, He Jincai, Jin Kunlin, Shao Bei
Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a newly recognized IL-1 family member, is expressed in various tissues and cells, and involved in pathogenesis of many human diseases. For example, IL-33 plays a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of IL-33 in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remains unclear. This study aims to investigate whether IL-33 level in AIS patient serum can be used as a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker. The study included two hundred and six patients with first-ever ischemic stroke, who were admitted within 72 hours after stroke onset...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699083/oxidative-stress-induced-telomere-length-shortening-of-circulating-leukocyte-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#15
Kyung Soo Kim, Jin Wook Kwak, Su Jin Lim, Yong Kyun Park, Hoon Shik Yang, Hyun Jik Kim
The main mechanism of pathogenesis which causes systemic complications in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients is believed to be intermittent hypoxia-induced intermediary effect and it depends on the burden of oxidative stress during sleep. We aimed to search the predictive markers which reflect the burden of systemic oxidative stress in patients with OSA and whether excessive telomere length shortening is a characteristic feature that can assess oxidative stress levels. We used quantitative PCR to measure telomere length using peripheral blood genomic DNA...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699082/relevance-study-on-cerebral-infarction-and-resistin-gene-polymorphism-in-chinese-han-population
#16
Aijuan Yan, Gaoyu Cai, Ningzhen Fu, Yulan Feng, Jialan Sun, Yiming Maimaiti, Weijun Zhou, Yi Fu
Recent research on genome-wide associations has implicated that the serum resistin level and its gene polymorphism are associated with cerebral infarction (CI) morbidity and prognosis, and could thereby regulate CI. This study aimed to investigate the association between the resistin single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the susceptibility to CI in the Chinese Han population. A total of 550 CI patients and 313 healthy controls were genotyped. Nine SNPs of the resistin gene previously shown were sequenced and assessed for an association with CI...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699081/fear-of-falling-correlates-with-subtle-neuromuscular-balance-and-strength-deficits-of-fragility-fracture-patients
#17
Corinne E Wee, Tyler D Ames, Khoi M Le, Tiffany Wang, Laura S Phieffer, Carmen E Quatman
Fragility fractures, or fractures occurring from a low-trauma event, are extremely prevalent among the elderly population worldwide and associated with significant mortality and morbidity. This study evaluated the relationship between FES-I Fear of Falling Survey results, self-reported activity restrictions via the SF-36 survey, and scores recorded by portable, inexpensive clinical assessment tools (CATs) during dynamic functional tasks. Low scores during these tasks may indicate functional deficits that put patients at risk for falls and subsequent fragility fractures...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699080/brain-formaldehyde-is-related-to-water-intake-behavior
#18
Ting Li, Tao Su, Yingge He, Jihui Lu, Weichuan Mo, Yan Wei, Rongqiao He
A promising strategy for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the identification of age-related changes that place the brain at risk for the disease. Additionally, AD is associated with chronic dehydration, and one of the significant changes that are known to result in metabolic dysfunction is an increase in the endogenous formaldehyde (FA) level. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of uric formaldehyde in AD patients were markedly increased compared with normal controls. The brain formaldehyde levels of wild-type C57 BL/6 mice increased with age, and these increases were followed by decreases in their drinking frequency and water intake...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699079/education-and-genetic-risk-modulate-hippocampal-structure-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Johanna Baumgaertel, Robert Haussmann, Antonia Gruschwitz, Annett Werner, Antje Osterrath, Jan Lange, Katharina L Donix, Jennifer Linn, Markus Donix
Genetic and environmental protective factors and risks modulate brain structure and function in neurodegenerative diseases and their preclinical stages. We wanted to investigate whether the years of formal education, a proxy measure for cognitive reserve, would influence hippocampal structure in Alzheimer's disease patients, and whether apolipoprotein Eε4 (APOE4) carrier status and a first-degree family history of the disease would change a possible association. Fifty-eight Alzheimer's disease patients underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699078/exposure-to-persistent-organic-pollutants-predicts-telomere-length-in-older-age-results-from-the-helsinki-birth-cohort-study
#20
Maria Angela Guzzardi, Patricia Iozzo, Minna K Salonen, Eero Kajantie, Riikka Airaksinen, Hannu Kiviranta, Panu Rantakokko, Johan Gunnar Eriksson
As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014)...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
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