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Aging and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090664/hypoxia-hibernation-and-neuroprotection-an-experimental-study-in-mice
#1
Changhong Ren, Sijie Li, Gary Rajah, Guo Shao, Guowei Lu, Rongrong Han, Qingjian Huang, Haiyan Li, Yuchuan Ding, Kunlin Jin, Xunming Ji
Hibernation is a unique physiological state that evolved to survive periods of food shortages. It is characterized by profound decreases in metabolic rate, body temperature and physiological functions. Studies have shown that animals in hibernation can resist neurological damage. Here, we aimed to study whether hypoxia can induce a hibernation-like state in a traditionally non-hibernating animal and whether it is neuroprotective. All procedures were conducted according to international guidelines on laboratory animal safety...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090663/voxel-based-specific-regional-analysis-system-for-alzheimer-s-disease-vsrad-on-3-tesla-normal-database-diagnostic-accuracy-in-two-independent-cohorts-with-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Daichi Sone, Etsuko Imabayashi, Norihide Maikusa, Masayo Ogawa, Noriko Sato, Hiroshi Matsuda
Voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease (VSRAD) software is widely used in clinical practice in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The existing VSRAD is based on the normal database with 1.5-tesla MRI scans (VSRAD-1.5T), and its utility for patients have undergone 3-tesla MRI is still controversial. We recruited 19 patients with early AD and 28 healthy controls who had undergone 3-tesla MRI scans at our institute (Cohort 1). We also used the 3-tesla MRI data of 30 patients with early AD and 13 healthy controls from the Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Cohort 2)...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090662/removal-of-chylomicron-remnants-from-the-bloodstream-is-delayed-in-aged-subjects
#3
Carmen G Vinagre, Fatima R Freitas, Carlos H de Mesquita, Juliana C Vinagre, Ana Carolina Mariani, Roberto Kalil-Filho, Raul C Maranhão
Dietary fats absorbed in the intestine are transported in the circulation as chylomicrons and remnants that have atherogenic potential. Although postprandial lipidemia is increased in older subjects, the specific chylomicron metabolism has not been explored in older subjects nor compared to young subjects, which is the focus of this study. After a 12 h fast, artificially-made emulsions similar to lymph chylomicrons and doubly labeled with radioactive cholesteryl esters and triglycerides were intravenously injected in 23 older (66±4 years) and 20 young (24±3 years) subjects...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090661/kidney-disease-in-elderly-importance-of-collaboration-between-geriatrics-and-nephrology
#4
EDITORIAL
Faheemuddin Azher Ahmed
The population in the United States is aging and presents many challenges in the healthcare world. According to the report released by United States Census Bureau in June 2017, there are around 50 million residents aged 65 years and over as of 2016. Among the multiple healthcare challenges, kidney disease is a significant one because of its high burden, high cost and low awareness. Medicare spending on chronic kidney disease for 65 plus aged patients exceeded $ 50 billion in 2013. Different studies based on different calculations have estimated that at least one-third of chronic kidney disease patients are aged above 65 years...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090660/mitochondrial-pharmacology-of-dimebon-latrepirdine-calls-for-a-new-look-at-its-possible-therapeutic-potential-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Schamim H Eckert, Janett Gaca, Nathalie Kolesova, Kristina Friedland, Gunter P Eckert, Walter E Muller
Dimebon (latrepirdine), an old antihistaminic drug, showed divergent results in two large clinical trials in Alzheimer disease (AD), which according to our review might be related to the specific pharmacological properties of the drug and the different patient populations included in both studies. Out of the many pharmacological effects of Dimebon, improvement of impaired mitochondrial function seeems to be most relevant for the substantial effects on cognition and behaviour reported in one of the studies, as these effects are already present at the low concentrations of dimebon measured in plasma and tissues of patients and experimental animals...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090659/superoxide-radical-dismutation-as-new-therapeutic-strategy-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Federica De Lazzari, Luigi Bubacco, Alexander J Whitworth, Marco Bisaglia
Aging is the biggest risk factor for developing many neurodegenerative disorders, including idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is still an incurable disorder and the available medications are mainly directed to the treatment of symptoms in order to improve the quality of life. Oxidative injury has been identified as one of the principal factors involved in the progression of PD and several indications are now reported in the literature highlighting the prominent role of the superoxide radical in inducing neuronal toxicity...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090658/the-prevalence-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-china-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Jiang Xue, Jiarui Li, Jiaming Liang, Shulin Chen
The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among the aging population (60 years of age and above) in China. Epidemiological investigations on MCI in online Chinese journals were identified manually using the CQVIP, CNKI, and Wanfang databases. Articles from journals published in English were identified using PubMed and Web of Science. Original studies that included prevalence surveys of MCI were selected. Forty-eight relevant studies were included in the analysis, covering 22 provinces in China...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090657/the-whole-exome-sequencing-clarifies-the-genotype-phenotype-correlations-in-patients-with-early-onset-dementia
#8
Yangqi Xu, Xiaoli Liu, Junyi Shen, Wotu Tian, Rong Fang, Binyin Li, Jianfang Ma, Li Cao, Shengdi Chen, Guanjun Li, Huidong Tang
Our study aimed to identify the underlying causes in patients with early onset dementia by clinical and genetic exploration. We recruited a group of 38 patients with early-onset dementia. Firstly, hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9ORF72 gene were screened in all subjects to exclude the possibility of copy number variation. Then, the whole exome sequencing (WES) was conducted, and the data were analyzed focusing on 89 dementia-related causing and susceptible genes. The effects of identified variants were classified according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) standards and guidelines...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090656/glibenclamide-enhances-the-therapeutic-benefits-of-early-hypothermia-after-severe-stroke-in-rats
#9
Shuzhen Zhu, Xiaoya Gao, Kaibin Huang, Yong Gu, Yafang Hu, Yongming Wu, Zhong Ji, Qing Wang, Suyue Pan
Glibenclamide (GBC) is an antidiabetic drug that is in a class of medications known as sulfonylureas, which play critical roles in attenuating brain edema and reducing mortality in ischemic stroke patients. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is another robust neuroprotectant that prevents brain swelling and improves the neurological outcomes of stroke patients. However, whether the combination of GBC and TH can be used as a reliable neuroprotectant in ischemic stroke remains largely unknown. We used the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model as well as oxygen and glucose deprivation-reoxygenation (OGD/R) endothelial cells as ischemic stroke models to investigate the efficacy and mechanisms of treating ischemic stroke with the combination of GBC and TH...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090655/hyperglycemia-alters-astrocyte-metabolism-and-inhibits-astrocyte-proliferation
#10
Wenjun Li, Gourav Roy Choudhury, Ali Winters, Jude Prah, Wenping Lin, Ran Liu, Shao-Hua Yang
Diabetes milieu is a complex metabolic disease that has been known to associate with high risk of various neurological disorders. Hyperglycemia in diabetes could dramatically increase neuronal glucose levels which leads to neuronal damage, a phenomenon referred to as glucose neurotoxicity. On the other hand, the impact of hyperglycemia on astrocytes has been less explored. Astrocytes play important roles in brain energy metabolism through neuron-astrocyte coupling. As the component of blood brain barrier, glucose might be primarily transported into astrocytes, hence, impose direct impact on astrocyte metabolism and function...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090654/n-acetylcysteine-treatment-reduces-age-related-hearing-loss-and-memory-impairment-in-the-senescence-accelerated-prone-8-samp8-mouse-model
#11
Aurore Marie, Johann Meunier, Emilie Brun, Susanna Malmstrom, Veronique Baudoux, Elodie Flaszka, Gaëlle Naert, François Roman, Sylvie Cosnier-Pucheu, Sergio Gonzalez-Gonzalez
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is the most common sensory disorder in the elderly population. SAMP8 mouse model presents accelerated senescence and has been identified as a model of gerontological research. SAMP8 displays a progressive age-related decline in brain function associated with a progressive hearing loss mimicking human aging memory deficits and ARHL. The molecular mechanisms associated with SAMP8 senescence process involve oxidative stress leading to chronic inflammation and apoptosis. Here, we studied the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, on SAMP8 hearing loss and memory to determine the potential interest of this model in the study of new antioxidant therapies...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090653/pkc%C3%AE-activation-is-involved-in-ros-mediated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-apoptosis-in-cardiomyocytes-exposed-to-advanced-glycation-end-products-ages
#12
Yao-Chih Yang, Cheng-Yen Tsai, Chien-Lin Chen, Chia-Hua Kuo, Chien-Wen Hou, Shi-Yann Cheng, Ritu Aneja, Chih-Yang Huang, Wei-Wen Kuo
Diabetic patients exhibit serum AGE accumulation, which is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and diabetic cardiomyopathy. ROS-induced PKCδ activation is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in human cells. However, the role of PKCδ in cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by AGE in diabetes is still unclear. AGE-BSA-treated cardiac cells showed dose- and time-dependent cell apoptosis, ROS generation, and selective PKCδ activation, which were reversed by NAC and rotenone. Similar tendency was also observed in diabetic and obese animal hearts...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090652/gait-analyses-in-mice-effects-of-age-and-glutathione-deficiency
#13
J Thomas Mock, Sherilynn G Knight, Philip H Vann, Jessica M Wong, Delaney L Davis, Michael J Forster, Nathalie Sumien
Minor changes (~0.1 m/s) in human gait speed are predictive of various measures of decline and can be used to identify at-risk individuals prior to further decline. These associations are possible due to an abundance of human clinical research. However, age-related gait changes are not well defined in rodents, even though rodents are used as the primary pre-clinical model for many disease states as well as aging research. Our study investigated the usefulness of a novel automated system, the CatWalk™ XT, to measure age-related differences in gait...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090651/involvement-of-kif4a-in-spindle-formation-and-chromosome-segregation-in-mouse-oocytes
#14
Feng Tang, Meng-Hao Pan, Yujie Lu, Xiang Wan, Yu Zhang, Shao-Chen Sun
Kif4a, a member of the kinesin superfamily, has been reported to participate in a series of cellular processes such as chromosome condensation and cytokinesis during mitosis. However, the roles of KIF4a in meiosis are still unknown. In present study we found that the Kif4a protein expression decreased in maternal aged mouse oocytes. We then explored the roles of Kif4a in mouse oocyte meiosis by knockdown analysis. Kif4a was enriched at the spindle during mouse oocyte maturation. By specific knock down of the Kif4a using morpholino microinjection, we found that the disruption of Kif4a caused the failure of polar body extrusion...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090650/neuroprotective-effect-of-caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-involves-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#15
Fabiana Morroni, Giulia Sita, Agnese Graziosi, Eleonora Turrini, Carmela Fimognari, Andrea Tarozzi, Patrizia Hrelia
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive pathology, where dementia symptoms gradually worsen over a number of years. The hallmarks of AD, such as amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in senile plaque and neurofibrillary tangles, are strongly intertwined with oxidative stress, which is considered one of the common effectors of the cascade of degenerative events. The endogenous nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the "master regulator" of the antioxidant response and it is known as an indicator and regulator of oxidative stress...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090649/fucoidan-protects-dopaminergic-neurons-by-enhancing-the-mitochondrial-function-in-a-rotenone-induced-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Li Zhang, Junwei Hao, Yan Zheng, Ruijun Su, Yajin Liao, Xiaoli Gong, Limin Liu, Xiaomin Wang
The mitochondrion is susceptible to neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondrial dysfunction has been considered to play an important role in the dopaminergic degeneration in PD. However, there are no effective drugs to protect mitochondria from dysfunction during the disease development. In the present study, fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide derived from Laminaria japonica , was investigated and characterized for its protective effect on the dopamine system and mitochondrial function of dopaminergic neurons in a rotenone-induced rat model of PD...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090648/synergistically-induced-hypothermia-and-enhanced-neuroprotection-by-pharmacological-and-physical-approaches-in-stroke
#17
Jun Zhang, Kaiyin Liu, Omar Elmadhoun, Xunming Ji, Yunxia Duan, Jingfei Shi, Xiaoduo He, Xiangrong Liu, Di Wu, Ruiwen Che, Xiaokun Geng, Yuchuan Ding
Hypothermia is considered as a promising neuroprotective treatment for ischemic stroke but with many limitations. To expand its clinical relevance, this study evaluated the combination of physical (ice pad) and pharmacological [transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV1) receptor agonist, dihydrocapsaicin (DHC)] approaches for faster cooling and stronger neuroprotection. A total of 144 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to 7 groups: sham (n=16), stroke only (n=24), stroke with physical hypothermia at 31ºC for 3 h after the onset of reperfusion (n=24), high-dose DHC (H-DHC)(1...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090647/effect-of-aging-and-glucagon-like-peptide-2-on-intestinal-microbiota-in-sd-rats
#18
Jiayu Wu, Weiying Ren, Li Li, Man Luo, Kan Xu, Jiping Shen, Jia Wang, Guilin Chang, Yi Lu, Yiming Qi, Binger Xu, Yuting He, Yu Hu
Recent research suggests that intestinal microbiota affect the aging process. Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), a growth factor found in the intestinal mucosal epithelium, reduces intestinal permeability and affects intestinal microbiota. The relationship between aging, GLP-2, and intestinal microbiota are still not well understood. The current study examined the influence of aging and GLP-2 on the intestinal microbiota of rats. Twelve 3-month old male SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: a young control group (group C) and a young GLP-2 treatment group (group G)...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090646/the-role-of-pulmonary-and-systemic-immunosenescence-in-acute-lung-injury
#19
Christina Brandenberger, Katharina Maria Kling, Marius Vital, Mühlfeld Christian
Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly (> 65 years), but the knowledge about origin and effects of immunosenescence in ALI is limited. Here, we investigated the immune response at pulmonary, systemic and cellular level in young (2-3 months) and old (18-19 months) C57BL/6J mice to localize and characterize effects of immunosenescence in ALI. ALI was induced by intranasal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application and the animals were sacrificed 24 or 72 h later...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896440/mammalian-sterile20-like-kinases-signalings-and-roles-in-central-nervous-system
#20
REVIEW
Sheng Chen, Yuanjian Fang, Shenbin Xu, Cesar Reis, Jianmin Zhang
Mammalian Sterile20-like (MST) kinases are located upstream in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and play an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, renewal, polarization and migration. Generally, five MST kinases exist in mammalian signal transduction pathways, including MST1, MST2, MST3, MST4 and YSK1. The central nervous system (CNS) is a sophisticated entity that takes charge of information reception, integration and response. Recently, accumulating evidence proposes that MST kinases are critical in the development of disease in different systems involving the CNS...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
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