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Aging and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966810/molecular-connections-of-aging-and-cancer
#1
EDITORIAL
William C Cho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966809/ovarian-cancer-management-in-the-oldest-old-improving-outcomes-and-tailoring-treatments
#2
REVIEW
Lucia Tortorella, Giuseppe Vizzielli, Domenico Fusco, William C Cho, Roberto Bernabei, Giovanni Scambia, Giuseppe Colloca
Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death from gynecological cancers in developed countries. It is a common disease of older women at or above 63 years upon diagnosis. Thanks to advance in new treatments, mortality from ovarian cancer has declined in developed countries in the last decade. This decline in mortality rate is unevenly distributed across the age-spectrum. While mortality in younger women has decreased 21.7%, for elderly women it has declined only 2.2%. Even if ovarian cancer is clearly a disease of the elderly, older women are underrepresented in clinical trials, and scant evidence exists for the treatment of women older than 80 years...
October 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966808/aging-metabolism-and-cancer-development-from-peto-s-paradox-to-the-warburg-effect
#3
REVIEW
Tia R Tidwell, Kjetil Søreide, Hanne R Hagland
Medical advances made over the last century have increased our lifespan, but age-related diseases are a fundamental health burden worldwide. Aging is therefore a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative diseases, all increasing in prevalence. However, huge inter-individual variations in aging and disease risk exist, which cannot be explained by chronological age, but rather physiological age decline initiated even at young age due to lifestyle. At the heart of this lies the metabolic system and how this is regulated in each individual...
October 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966807/skin-cancer-epidemics-in-the-elderly-as-an-emerging-issue-in-geriatric-oncology
#4
REVIEW
Simone Garcovich, Giuseppe Colloca, Pietro Sollena, Bellieni Andrea, Lodovico Balducci, William C Cho, Roberto Bernabei, Ketty Peris
Skin cancer is a worldwide, emerging clinical need in the elderly white population, with a steady increase in incidence rates, morbidity and related medical costs. Skin cancer is a heterogeneous group of cancers comprising cutaneous melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC), which predominantly affect elderly patients, aged older than 65 years. Melanoma has distinct clinical presentations in the elderly patient and represents a challenging question in terms of clinical management. NMSC includes the basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and presents a wide disease spectrum in the elderly population, ranging from low-risk to high-risk tumours, advanced and inoperable disease...
October 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966806/the-biology-of-aging-and-cancer-a-brief-overview-of-shared-and-divergent-molecular-hallmarks
#5
REVIEW
Jan R Aunan, William C Cho, Kjetil Søreide
Aging is the inevitable time-dependent decline in physiological organ function and is a major risk factor for cancer development. Due to advances in health care, hygiene control and food availability, life expectancy is increasing and the population in most developed countries is shifting to an increasing proportion of people at a cancer susceptible age. Mechanisms of aging are also found to occur in carcinogenesis, albeit with shared or divergent end-results. It is now clear that aging and cancer development either share or diverge in several disease mechanisms...
October 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966805/cancer-and-aging-the-inflammatory-connection
#6
REVIEW
Adar Zinger, William C Cho, Arie Ben-Yehuda
Aging and cancer are highly correlated biological phenomena. Various cellular processes such as DNA damage responses and cellular senescence that serve as tumor suppressing mechanisms throughout life result in degenerative changes and contribute to the aging phenotype. In turn, aging is considered a pro-tumorigenic state, and constitutes the single most important risk factor for cancer development. However, the causative relations between aging and cancer is not straight forward, as these processes carry contradictory hallmarks; While aging is characterized by tissue degeneration and organ loss of function, cancer is a state of sustained cellular proliferation and gain of new functions...
October 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966804/age-related-impairment-of-vascular-structure-and-functions
#7
REVIEW
Xianglai Xu, Brian Wang, Changhong Ren, Jiangnan Hu, David A Greenberg, Tianxiang Chen, Liping Xie, Kunlin Jin
Among age-related diseases, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are major causes of death. Vascular dysfunction is a key characteristic of these diseases wherein age is an independent and essential risk factor. The present work will review morphological alterations of aging vessels in-depth, which includes the discussion of age-related microvessel loss and changes to vasculature involving the capillary basement membrane, intima, media, and adventitia as well as the accompanying vascular dysfunctions arising from these alterations...
October 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966803/recognizing-degenerative-aging-as-a-treatable-medical-condition-methodology-and-policy
#8
REVIEW
Ilia Stambler
It is becoming increasingly clear that in order to accomplish healthy longevity for the population, there is an urgent need for the research and development of effective therapies against degenerative aging processes underlying major aging-related diseases, including heart disease, neurodegenerative diseases, type 2 diabetes, cancer, pulmonary obstructive diseases, as well as aging-related complications and susceptibilities of infectious communicable diseases. Yet, an important incentive for the research and development of such therapies appears to be the development of clinically applicable and scientifically grounded definitions and criteria for the multifactorial degenerative aging process (or "senility" using the existing ICD category), underlying those diseases, as well as for the safety and effectiveness of interventions against it...
October 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966802/the-pathogenesis-of-ossification-of-the-posterior-longitudinal-ligament
#9
REVIEW
Liang Yan, Rui Gao, Yang Liu, Baorong He, Shemin Lv, Dingjun Hao
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a multi-factorial disease involving an ectopic bone formation of spinal ligaments. It affects 0.8-3.0% aging Asian and 0.1-1.7% aging European Caucasian. The ossified ligament compresses nerve roots in the spinal cord and causes serious neurological problems such as myelopathy and radiculopathy. Research in understanding pathogenesis of OPLL over the past several decades have revealed many genetic and non-genetic factors contributing to the development and progress of OPLL...
October 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966801/uncontrolled-hypertension-increases-with-age-in-an-older-community-dwelling-chinese-population-in-shanghai
#10
Sheng Peng, Ting Shen, Jie Liu, Brian Tomlinson, Huimin Sun, Xiaoli Chen, Paul Chan, YaShu Kuang, Liang Zheng, Hong Wu, Xugang Ding, Dingguang Qian, Yixin Shen, Pingjin Gao, Huimin Fan, Zhongmin Liu, Yuzhen Zhang
We determined the prevalence of hypertension, medication usage and attainment of blood pressure goals in older (≥65 to <80 years and ≥80 years) urban community-dwelling Chinese subjects. Data were obtained in 3950 subjects (mean age 72.0 years, 1745 male) including 609 subjects aged ≥80 years in the Shanghai Elderly Cardiovascular Health Study (SHECHS). Established cardiovascular disease was present in 7.7% of participants. The prevalence of hypertension was 74.8% overall and it was more than 80% in individuals considered to be in moderate and higher cardiovascular disease risk categories...
October 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966800/parity-history-determines-a-systemic-inflammatory-response-to-spread-of-ovarian-cancer-in-naturally-aged-mice
#11
Ulises Urzua, Carlos Chacon, Luis Lizama, Sebastián Sarmiento, Pía Villalobos, Belén Kroxato, Katherine Marcelain, María-Julieta Gonzalez
Aging intersects with reproductive senescence in women by promoting a systemic low-grade chronic inflammation that predisposes women to several diseases including ovarian cancer (OC). OC risk at menopause is significantly modified by parity records during prior fertile life. To date, the combined effects of age and parity on the systemic inflammation markers that are particularly relevant to OC initiation and progression at menopause remain largely unknown. Herein, we profiled a panel of circulating cytokines in multiparous versus virgin C57BL/6 female mice at peri-estropausal age and investigated how cytokine levels were modulated by intraperitoneal tumor induction in a syngeneic immunocompetent OC mouse model...
October 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966799/promoting-neurovascular-recovery-in-aged-mice-after-ischemic-stroke-prophylactic-effect-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#12
Mengfei Cai, Wenting Zhang, Zhongfang Weng, R Anne Stetler, Xiaoyan Jiang, Yejie Shi, Yanqin Gao, Jun Chen
The aged population is among the highest at risk for ischemic stroke, yet most stroke patients of advanced ages (>80 years) are excluded from access to thrombolytic treatment by tissue plasminogen activator, the only FDA approved pharmacological therapy for stroke victims. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) robustly alleviate ischemic brain injury in young adult rodents, but have not yet been studied in aged animals. This study investigated whether chronic dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFAs protects aging brain against cerebral ischemia and improves long-term neurological outcomes...
October 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966798/aging-systemic-milieu-impairs-outcome-after-ischemic-stroke-in-rats
#13
Mengxiong Pan, Peng Wang, Chengcai Zheng, Hongxia Zhang, Siyang Lin, Bei Shao, Qichuan Zhuge, Kunlin Jin
Compelling evidence indicates that factors in the blood can profoundly reverse aging-related impairments, as exposure of aged mice to young blood rejuvenates adult stem cell function, improves cognition, and ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy. Systemic factors from mice can also extend the life span of a partner exposed to a lethal treatment or disease. These findings suggest that the systemic milieu of a healthy young partner may be beneficial for an aged organism. However, it is unknown whether a healthy young systemic milieu can improve functional recovery after ischemic stroke...
October 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840063/p53-dysfunction-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-the-cause-or-effect-of-pathological-changes
#14
REVIEW
Aleksandra Szybińska, Wiesława Leśniak
Neurodegenerative diseases are a heterogeneous, mostly age-associated group of disorders characterized by progressive neuronal loss, the most prevalent being Alzheimer disease. It is anticipated that, with continuously increasing life expectancy, these diseases will pose a serious social and health problem in the near feature. Meanwhile, however, their etiology remains largely obscure even though all possible novel clues are being thoroughly examined. In this regard, a concept has been proposed that p53, as a transcription factor controlling many vital cellular pathways including apoptosis, may contribute to neuronal death common to all neurodegenerative disorders...
July 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840062/recent-progress-in-vascular-aging-mechanisms-and-its-role-in-age-related-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Xianglai Xu, Brian Wang, Changhong Ren, Jiangnan Hu, David A Greenberg, Tianxiang Chen, Liping Xie, Kunlin Jin
As with many age-related diseases including vascular dysfunction, age is considered an independent and crucial risk factor. Complicated alterations of structure and function in the vasculature are linked with aging hence, understanding the underlying mechanisms of age-induced vascular pathophysiological changes holds possibilities for developing clinical diagnostic methods and new therapeutic strategies. Here, we discuss the underlying molecular mediators that could be involved in vascular aging, e.g., the renin-angiotensin system and pro-inflammatory factors, metalloproteinases, calpain-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and TGFβ-1 as well as the potential roles of testosterone and estrogen...
July 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840061/aging-airways-between-normal-and-disease-a-multidimensional-diagnostic-approach-by-combining-clinical-functional-and-imaging-data
#16
REVIEW
Mariaelena Occhipinti, Anna Rita Larici, Lorenzo Bonomo, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi
The lack of data on lung function decline in the aging process as well as the lack of gold standards to define obstructive and restrictive respiratory disease in older people point out the need for a multidimensional assessment and interpretation of the aging airways. By integrating clinical data together with morphologic and morphometric findings clinicians can assess the airways with a more comprehensive perspective, helpful in the interpretation of the "grey zone" between normal aging and disease. This review focuses on the value of a multidimensional approach in the study of the aging airways, including clinical findings, respiratory function tests, and imaging as parts of a whole...
July 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840060/mitochondrial-ferritin-protects-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-neuronal-cell-damage
#17
Guofen Gao, Nan Zhang, Yue-Qi Wang, Qiong Wu, Peng Yu, Zhen-Hua Shi, Xiang-Lin Duan, Bao-Lu Zhao, Wen-Shuang Wu, Yan-Zhong Chang
Oxidative stress and iron accumulation are tightly associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) is identified as an iron-storage protein located in the mitochondria, and its role in regulation of iron hemeostasis in neurodegenerative diseases has been reported. However, the role of FtMt in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and iron accumulation in neuronal cells has not been studied. Here, we overexpressed FtMt in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and induced oxidative stress by treating with extracellular H2O2...
July 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840059/dopamine-burden-induced-the-inactivation-of-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-to-cognitive-decline-in-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#18
Saidan Ding, Jianjing Yang, Xueli Huang, Leping Liu, Jiangnan Hu, Zhu Xu, Qichuan Zhuge
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is induced by elevated intracranial dopamine (DA). The relationship of the Shh pathway with memory loss in MHE, however, is elusive. In the current study, rats with MHE induced with DA displayed downregulation of the Shh pathway. Additionally, injection of Shh into MHE/DA-treated rats reversed downregulation of BDNF/NT3, whereas administration of cyclopamine (Cyc) enhanced the inhibition of expression of BDNF/NT3. Furthermore, naringin (Nrg) substantially prevented cognitive impairment in MHE/DA-treated rats and upregulated the Shh pathway, paralleling the elevated expression of BDNF/NT3...
July 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840058/p2x7-receptor-and-apoe-polymorphisms-and-survival-from-heart-failure-a-prospective-study-in-frail-patients-in-a-geriatric-unit
#19
Giuseppe Pasqualetti, Marta Seghieri, Eleonora Santini, Chiara Rossi, Edoardo Vitolo, Livia Giannini, Maria Giovanna Malatesta, Valeria Calsolaro, Fabio Monzani, Anna Solini
Heart failure (HF) is one of the most frequent cause of hospitalization in elderly and often coexists with concurrent geriatric syndromes, like cognitive disturbances; various pathophysiological mechanisms are shared by HF and cognitive decline, notably a substrate of low-grade inflammation. We investigated whether SNPs in the purinergic receptor (P2X7R) and apolipoprotein (APO) E genes, both involved in a series of inflammatory responses, are associated to HF or cognitive impairment and are able to predict post-discharge mortality in the elderly...
July 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840057/evaluation-of-the-mann-assessment-of-swallowing-ability-in-elderly-patients-with-pneumonia
#20
Yasuo Chojin, Tatsuji Kato, Mariko Rikihisa, Masami Omori, Shingo Noguchi, Kentaro Akata, Takaaki Ogoshi, Kazuhiro Yatera, Hiroshi Mukae
Elderly pneumonia patients have various underlying diseases and social backgrounds, and it is difficult to predict their mortality using the current severity assessment tools. However, aspiration is a risk factor for mortality in pneumonia patients. In the evaluation of aspiration, endoscopic and video fluoroscopic methods are reliable but cannot be performed in all pneumonia patients. We evaluated the significance of the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MASA) in these patients. This study was prospectively performed between December 2014 and June 2015, and all adult hospitalized patients with pneumonia were consecutively enrolled...
July 2017: Aging and Disease
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