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Parkinson's Disease

Wei Zhang, Hong He, Hujie Song, Junjie Zhao, Tao Li, Leitao Wu, Xiaojun Zhang, Jianzong Chen
The degenerative loss through apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta plays a primary role in the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Our in vitro experiments suggested that salidroside (Sal) could protect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine-induced cell apoptosis in part by regulating the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway. The current study aims to increase our understanding of the protective mechanisms of Sal in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropypridine- (MPTP-) induced PD mouse model...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Koji Hori, Kimiko Konishi, Misa Hosoi, Hiroi Tomioka, Masayuki Tani, Yuka Kitajima, Mitsugu Hachisu
Given the relationship between anticholinergic activity (AA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we rereview our hypothesis of the endogenous appearance of AA in AD. Briefly, because acetylcholine (ACh) regulates not only cognitive function but also the inflammatory system, when ACh downregulation reaches a critical level, inflammation increases, triggering the appearance of cytokines with AA. Moreover, based on a case report of a patient with mild AD and slightly deteriorated ACh, we also speculate that AA can appear endogenously in Lewy body disease due to the dual action of the downregulation of ACh and hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Daniel Glizer, Penny A MacDonald
Cognitive deficits are prevalent among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), in both early and late stages of the disease. These deficits are associated with lower quality of life, loss of independence, and institutionalization. To date, there is no effective pharmacological treatment for the range of cognitive impairments presented in PD. Cognitive training (CT) has been explored as an alternative approach to remediating cognition in PD. In this review we present a detailed summary of 13 studies of CT that have been conducted between 2000 and 2014 and a critical examination of the evidence for the effectiveness and applicability of CT in PD...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Jie Fang, Kehui Yi, Mingwei Guo, Xingkai An, Hongli Qu, Qing Lin, Min Bi, Qilin Ma
Background. Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors. We performed a case-control study on candidate gene to scrutinize whether genetic variants in LRRK2, SNCA, and ITGA8 genes could be associated with sporadic PD in Chinese Han population. Methods. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LRRK2 (rs1491942), SNCA (rs2301134, rs2301135, and rs356221), and ITGA8 (rs7077361) were selected and genotyped among 583 unrelated PD patients and 558 healthy controls...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Zhang Wei, Wang Tiandong, Li Yang, Meng Huaxing, Min Guowen, Fang Yalan, Niu Xiaoyuan
Background. Homocysteine (Hcy) levels were higher in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This could be partially explained by levodopa treatment. Whether untreated PD patients have higher Hcy levels is contradictory. Methods. A community-based study was conducted using a two-stage approach for subjects ≥ 55 years to find PD patients in 3 towns of Lüliang City. Blood samples were collected. Serum Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12 concentrations were measured. For each untreated PD patient, 5 controls were selected matched with age and sex to evaluate the relationship between Hcy levels and PD...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Tommaso Schirinzi, Giuseppina Martella, Alessio D'Elia, Giulia Di Lazzaro, Paola Imbriani, Graziella Madeo, Leonardo Monaco, Marta Maltese, Antonio Pisani
The multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease (PD) requires a careful identification of populations "at risk" of developing the disease. In this case-control study we analyzed a large Italian population, in an attempt to outline general criteria to define a population "at risk" of PD. We enrolled 300 PD patients and 300 controls, gender and age matched, from the same urban geographical area. All subjects were interviewed on demographics, family history of PD, occupational and environmental toxicants exposure, smoking status, and alcohol consumption...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Francescaelena De Rose, Valentina Corda, Paolo Solari, Patrizia Sacchetti, Antonio Belcari, Simone Poddighe, Sanjay Kasture, Paolo Solla, Francesco Marrosu, Anna Liscia
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the clinical triad: tremor, akinesia, and rigidity. Several studies have suggested that PD patients show disturbances in olfaction as one of the earliest, nonspecific nonmotor symptoms of disease onset. We sought to use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to explore olfactory function in LRRK loss-of-function mutants, which was previously demonstrated to be a useful model for PD. Surprisingly, our results showed that the LRRK mutant, compared to the wild flies, presents a dramatic increase in the amplitude of the electroantennogram responses and this is coupled with a higher number of olfactory sensilla...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Bilge Kocer, Hayat Guven, Isik Conkbayir, Selim Selcuk Comoglu, Sennur Delibas
Factors related with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and the impact of HHcy in Parkinson's disease (PD) are not well understood. We investigated the factors associated with increased levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and the relationship between HHcy and motor symptoms, cognitive status, and vascular risk in patients with Parkinson's disease. Among 60 patients (29 males, 48.3%) with PD, the stage of the disease, the severity of clinical symptoms, and the patients' cognitive status were measured using a modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale (mHY), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II and III, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Lingjia Xu, Jiali Pu
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease/synucleinopathy that develops slowly; however, there is no efficient method of early diagnosis, nor is there a cure. Progressive dopaminergic neuronal cell loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta and widespread aggregation of the α-synuclein protein (encoded by the SNCA gene) in the form of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites are the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. The SNCA gene has undergone gene duplications, triplications, and point mutations...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Satoru Otsuki, Masanori Nagaoka
This study aimed to investigate whether the cognition of spatial distance in reaching movements was decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether this cognition was associated with various symptoms of PD. Estimated and actual maximal reaching distances were measured in three directions in PD patients and healthy elderly volunteers. Differences between estimated and actual measurements were compared within each group. In the PD patients, the associations between "error in cognition" of reaching distance and "clinical findings" were also examined...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Rubén Gómez-Sánchez, José M Bravo-San Pedro, Matthew E Gegg, Rosa A González-Polo, José M Fuentes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Nadja Bredo Rasmussen, Mikkel Vestergaard Olesen, Tomasz Brudek, Per Plenge, Anders Bue Klein, Jenny E Westin, Karina Fog, Gitta Wörtwein, Susana Aznar
The 5-HT2A receptor is highly involved in aspects of cognition and executive function and seen to be affected in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and related to the disease pathology. Even though Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder, reports of impaired executive function are also steadily being associated with this disease. Not much is known about the pathophysiology behind this. The aim of this study was thereby twofold: (1) to investigate 5-HT2A receptor binding levels in Parkinson's brains and (2) to investigate whether PD associated pathology, alpha-synuclein (AS) overexpression, could be associated with 5-HT2A alterations...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Emily J Henderson, Howard Chu, Daisy M Gaunt, Alan L Whone, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Veronica Lyell
Background. MoCA is widely used in Parkinson's disease (PD) to assess cognition. The Test Your Memory (TYM) test is a cognitive screening tool that is self-administered. Objectives. We sought to determine (a) the optimal value of TYM to discriminate between PD patients with and without cognitive deficits on MoCA testing, (b) equivalent MoCA and TYM scores, and (c) interrater reliability in TYM testing. Methods. We assessed the discriminant ability of TYM and the equivalence between TYM and MoCA scores and measured the interrater reliability between three raters...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Tamlyn J Watermeyer, John V Hindle, Julie Roberts, Catherine L Lawrence, Anthony Martyr, Huw Lloyd-Williams, Andrew Brand, Petra Gutting, Zoe Hoare, Rhiannon Tudor Edwards, Linda Clare
Alongside the physical symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, health services must also address the cognitive impairments that accompany these conditions. There is growing interest in the use of nonpharmacological approaches to managing the consequences of cognitive disorder. Cognitive rehabilitation is a goal-orientated behavioural intervention which aims to enhance functional independence through the use of strategies specific to the individual's needs and abilities...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Vincenza Frisardi, Andrea Santamato, Binith Cheeran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Jie Xiang, Xiuqin Jia, Huizhuo Li, Jiawei Qin, Peipeng Liang, Kuncheng Li
Purpose. The present study aimed to explore the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) at rest in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Twenty-four PD patients and 22 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. ALFF was measured on the whole brain of all participants. A two-sample t-test was then performed to detect the group differences with age, gender, education level, head motion, and gray matter volume as covariates. Results. It was showed that PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the left thalamus/caudate and right insula/inferior prefrontal gyrus, whereas they had increased ALFF in the right medial prefrontal cortex (BA 8/6) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10)...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Ruixin Yang, Guodong Gao, Zixu Mao, Qian Yang
Parkinson's disease (PD), a complex neurodegenerative disorder, is pathologically characterized by the formation of Lewy bodies and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered to be one of the most important causative mechanisms. In addition, dysfunction of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), one of the lysosomal proteolytic pathways, has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. An exciting and important development is recent finding that CMA and mitochondrial quality control may be linked...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Andrew H Evans, Chiun-Hian Chai
Background. Nonmotor symptoms particularly olfactory dysfunction, RBD, depression, hallucinations, and constipation are currently not included in the typical clinical criteria for diagnosing Lewy body Parkinsonian disorders (LBPD). The aim of this study is to determine the diagnostic value of nonmotor symptoms in patients presenting with Parkinsonism and tremor. Methods. All new patients seen between January 2007 and May 2013 in the Movement Disorders Specialist Clinics of the Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH), who were referred with a possible neurodegenerative syndrome or concerns of Parkinsonism and/or tremor, were included...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Li Shu, Qiying Sun, Yuan Zhang, Qian Xu, Jifeng Guo, Xinxiang Yan, Beisha Tang
C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in Caucasian populations. However, the relationship between C9orf72 repeats and Alzheimer's disease (AD) was not clear. Additionally, there were few articles assessing C9orf72 in other ethnicities with ALS. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to investigate the relationship between C9orf72 repeat expansions (≥30 repeats) and intermediate repeat copies (20-29 repeats) and AD or ALS. The results suggested positive correlations between C9orf72 repeat expansions and the risk of Alzheimer's disease (OR = 6...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Francesca Magrinelli, Alessandro Picelli, Pierluigi Tocco, Angela Federico, Laura Roncari, Nicola Smania, Giampietro Zanette, Stefano Tamburin
Cardinal motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD) include bradykinesia, rest tremor, and rigidity, which appear in the early stages of the disease and largely depend on dopaminergic nigrostriatal denervation. Intermediate and advanced PD stages are characterized by motor fluctuations and dyskinesia, which depend on complex mechanisms secondary to severe nigrostriatal loss and to the problems related to oral levodopa absorption, and motor and nonmotor symptoms and signs that are secondary to marked dopaminergic loss and multisystem neurodegeneration with damage to nondopaminergic pathways...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
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