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AoB Plants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869642/corrigendum-geographic-population-structure-in-an-outcrossing-plant-invasion-after-centuries-of-cultivation-and-recent-founding-events
#1
John F Gaskin, Mark Schwarzländer, Robert D Gibson, Heather Simpson, Diane L Marshall, Esther Gerber, Hariet Hinz
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/aobpla/ply020.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/aobpla/ply020.].
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868168/inherent-variation-of-functional-traits-in-winter-and-summer-leaves-of-mediterranean-seasonal-dimorphic-species-evidence-of-a-within-leaf-cohort-spectrum
#2
Giacomo Puglielli, Laura Varone
The covariation pattern among leaf functional traits involved in resource acquisition has been successfully provided by the leaf economic spectrum (LES). Nevertheless, some aspects such as how the leaf trait variation sources affect LES predictions are still little investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to test whether leaf trait variations within different leaf cohorts could alter LES. Improving this knowledge can extend the potential of trait-based approaches in simulating future climate effects on ecosystems...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770181/within-and-trans-generational-plasticity-seed-germination-responses-to-light-quantity-and-quality
#3
Katherine Vayda, Kathleen Donohue, Gabriela Alejandra Auge
Plants respond not only to the environment in which they find themselves, but also to that of their parents. The combination of within- and trans-generational phenotypic plasticity regulates plant development. Plants use light as source of energy and also as a cue of competitive conditions, since the quality of light (ratio of red to far-red light, R:FR) indicates the presence of neighbouring plants. Light regulates many aspects of plant development, including seed germination. To understand how seeds integrate environmental cues experienced at different times, we quantified germination responses to changes in light quantity (irradiance) and quality (R:FR) experienced during seed maturation and seed imbibition in Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes that differ in their innate dormancy levels and after treatments that break or reinduce dormancy...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765588/dna-barcoding-a-taxonomically-complex-hemiparasitic-genus-reveals-deep-divergence-between-ploidy-levels-but-lack-of-species-level-resolution
#4
Xumei Wang, Galina Gussarova, Markus Ruhsam, Natasha de Vere, Chris Metherell, Peter M Hollingsworth, Alex D Twyford
DNA barcoding is emerging as a useful tool not only for species identification but also for studying evolutionary and ecological processes. Although plant DNA barcodes do not always provide species-level resolution, the generation of large DNA barcode data sets can provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the generation of species diversity. Here, we study evolutionary processes in taxonomically complex British Euphrasia (Orobanchaceae), a group with multiple ploidy levels, frequent self-fertilization, young species divergence and widespread hybridization...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765587/variation-in-the-degree-of-reciprocal-herkogamy-affects-the-degree-of-legitimate-pollination-in-a-distylous-species
#5
Xian-Feng Jiang, Xing-Fu Zhu, Qing-Jun Li
Distyly is a widespread floral polymorphism characterized by the flowers within a population showing reciprocal placement of the anthers and stigma. Darwin hypothesizes that distyly evolves to promote precise pollen transfer between morphs. Primula chungensis exhibits two types of anther heights, and these two types of anthers show pollen of two different size classes. To understand whether the stigma could capture more pollen grains from the anthers of the pollen donor as the separation between the stigma of pollen receiver and the anther of pollen donor decreased, the present research assessed the source of the pollen load in a series of open-pollinated flowers with continuous variation of style lengths...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692882/genetic-diversity-and-structure-of-an-endangered-medicinal-herb-implications-for-conservation
#6
Soo-Rang Lee, Ji-Eun Choi, Byoung-Yoon Lee, Jeong-Nam Yu, Chae Eun Lim
Human-driven habitat fragmentation leads to spatial isolation of endangered plant species increasing extinction risk. Understanding genetic variability and population structure of rare and isolated plant species is of great importance for assessing extinction risk and setting up conservation plans. Aconitum austrokoreense , an endangered and endemic species in Korea, is a perennial herb commonly used for medicinal purposes. We used five nuclear microsatellites and one chloroplast marker to investigate genetic diversity and population structure for 479 individuals of A ...
April 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644028/relative-contribution-of-reproductive-attributes-to-the-density-dependent-effects-on-fruit-set
#7
Vineet Kumar Singh, Chandan Barman, Divya Mohanty, Rajesh Tandon
Reproductive success of a plant species can be affected by the distribution pattern of its conspecifics in a small population. Besides the low mate availability, the dynamics of breeding system and pollination mechanism may also contribute to low fruit-set in such populations. We examined the relative contribution of these reproductive attributes on fruit-set across the contrasting distribution pattern (denser vs. sparser plots) in two isolated natural populations of a near-threatened tree species, Anogeissus sericea var...
April 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644027/facilitation-influences-patterns-of-perennial-species-abundance-and-richness-in-a-subtropical-dune-system
#8
Cecilia E S Dalotto, Rafael B Sühs, Michele S Dechoum, Francisco I Pugnaire, Nivaldo Peroni, Tânia T Castellani
Positive interactions in plant communities are under-reported in subtropical systems most likely because they are not identified as stressful environments. However, environmental factors or disturbance can limit plant growth in any system and lead to stressful conditions. For instance, salinity and low nutrient and water availability generate a gradient of stressful conditions in coastal systems depending on distance to shore. In a tropical coastal system in SE Brazil, we aimed to assess whether Guapira opposita , a shrub common in restinga environments, acted as nurse involved in ecological succession and which factors influenced its facilitation process...
April 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623183/geographic-population-structure-in-an-outcrossing-plant-invasion-after-centuries-of-cultivation-and-recent-founding-events
#9
John F Gaskin, Mark Schwarzländer, Robert D Gibson, Heather Simpson, Diane L Marshall, Esther Gerber, Hariet Hinz
Population structure and genetic diversity of invasions are the result of evolutionary processes such as natural selection, drift and founding events. Some invasions are also molded by specific human activities such as selection for cultivars and intentional introduction of desired phenotypes, which can lead to low genetic diversity in the resulting invasion. We investigated the population structure, diversity and origins of a species with both accidental and intentional introduction histories, as well as long-term selection as a cultivar...
April 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623182/metabolic-responses-to-drought-stress-in-the-tissues-of-drought-tolerant-and-drought-sensitive-wheat-genotype-seedlings
#10
Rui Guo, LianXuan Shi, Yang Jiao, MingXia Li, XiuLi Zhong, FengXue Gu, Qi Liu, Xu Xia, HaoRu Li
An in-depth understanding of the effects of drought stress on plant metabolism is necessary to improve the drought tolerance of wheat and to utilize genetic resources for the development of drought stress-tolerant wheat varieties. In this study, the profiles of 58 key metabolites produced by wheat seedlings in response to drought stress were investigated to determine various physiological processes related to drought tolerance between drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive wheat genotypes. Results showed that the wheat metabolome was dominated by sugars, organic acids and amino acids; the wheat metabolome played important roles to enhance the drought tolerance of shoots...
April 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593856/seed-dormancy-and-germination-vary-within-and-among-species-of-milkweeds
#11
Thomas N Kaye, Isaac J Sandlin, Matt A Bahm
Pollinators in general and monarch butterflies in particular are in decline due to habitat loss. Efforts to restore habitats for insects that rely on specific plant groups as larvae or adults depend on the ability of practitioners to grow and produce these plants. Monarch larvae feed exclusively on milkweed species, primarily in the genus Asclepias , making propagation and restoration of these plants crucial for habitat restoration. Seed germination protocols for milkweeds are not well established, in part due to the large number of milkweed species and conflicting reports of seed dormancy in the genus...
March 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593855/novel-3d-geometry-and-models-of-the-lower-regions-of-large-trees-for-use-in-carbon-accounting-of-primary-forests
#12
Christopher Dean, Jamie B Kirkpatrick, Jon Osborn, Richard B Doyle, Nicholas B Fitzgerald, Stephen H Roxburgh
There is high uncertainty in the contribution of land-use change to anthropogenic climate change, especially pertaining to below-ground carbon loss resulting from conversion of primary-to-secondary forest. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and coarse roots are concentrated close to tree trunks, a region usually unmeasured during soil carbon sampling. Soil carbon estimates and their variation with land-use change have not been correspondingly adjusted. Our aim was to deduce allometric equations that will allow improvement of SOC estimates and tree trunk carbon estimates, for primary forest stands that include large trees in rugged terrain...
March 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593854/expansive-reed-populations-alien-invasion-or-disturbed-wetlands
#13
Kim Canavan, Iain D Paterson, Carla Lambertini, Martin P Hill
The tall-statured grasses in the genus Phragmites are dominant vegetation in wetlands worldwide and thus play a vital role in ecosystem functioning. As a result, Phragmites spp. are some of the most widely studied plants; particularly in areas where changes to their abundances have occurred, most notably in Europe and North America. In southern Africa a pattern of reed expansion has occurred in recent decades that has shown a similar trend to cryptic invasions reported in North America. This study used molecular techniques to explore the phylogeography of P...
March 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593853/complex-cytogeographical-patterns-reveal-a-dynamic-tetraploid-octoploid-contact-zone
#14
Mariana Castro, Sílvia Castro, Albano Figueiredo, Brian Husband, João Loureiro
The distribution of cytotypes in mixed-ploidy species is crucial for evaluating ecological processes involved in the establishment and evolution of polyploid taxa. Here, we use flow cytometry and chromosome counts to explore cytotype diversity and distributions within a tetraploid-octoploid contact zone. We then use niche modelling and ploidy seed screening to assess the roles of niche differentiation among cytotypes and reproductive interactions, respectively, in promoting cytotype coexistence. Two cytotypes, tetraploids and octoploids, were dominant within the contact zone...
March 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564081/patterns-of-alternative-splicing-vary-between-species-during-heat-stress
#15
Sumetha Kannan, Gillian Halter, Tanya Renner, Elizabeth R Waters
Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms to respond and adapt to abiotic stress. High temperature stress induces the heat shock response. During the heat shock response a large number of genes are up-regulated, many of which code for chaperone proteins that prevent irreversible protein aggregation and cell death. However, it is clear that heat shock is not the only mechanism involved in the plant heat stress response. Alternative splicing (AS) is also important during heat stress since this post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism can produce significant transcriptome and proteome variation...
March 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497480/differentiation-in-native-as-well-as-introduced-ranges-germination-reflects-mean-and-variance-in-cover-of-surrounding-vegetation
#16
Tina Heger, Gabriele Nikles, Brooke S Jacobs
Germination, a crucial phase in the life cycle of a plant, can be significantly influenced by competition and facilitation. The aim of this study was to test whether differences in cover of surrounding vegetation can lead to population differentiation in germination behaviour of an annual grassland species, and if so, whether such a differentiation can be found in the native as well as in the introduced range. We used maternal progeny of Erodium cicutarium previously propagated under uniform conditions that had been collected in multiple populations in the native and two introduced ranges, in populations representing extremes in terms of mean and variability of the cover of surrounding vegetation...
February 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492242/molecular-evidence-for-asymmetric-hybridization-in-three-closely-related-sympatric-species
#17
Ning-Ning Zhang, Jiao-Jun Yu, Yue-Hua Wang, Xun Gong
Natural hybridization is common in plants and results in different evolutionary consequences to hybridizing species. Pre- and post-zygotic reproductive isolating barriers can impede hybridization between closely related species to maintain their species integrity. In Northwest Yunnan, three Ligularia species ( Ligularia cyathiceps , L. duciformis and L. yunnanensis ) and four types of morphologically intermediate individuals were discovered growing together in an area subject to human disturbance. In this study, we used three low-copy nuclear loci to test the natural hybridization hypothesis and the hybridization direction was ascertained by three chloroplast DNA fragments...
February 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484152/inter-and-intraspecific-variation-in-leaf-economic-traits-in-wheat-and-maize
#18
Adam R Martin, Christine E Hale, Bruno E L Cerabolini, Johannes H C Cornelissen, Joseph Craine, William A Gough, Jens Kattge, Cairan K F Tirona
Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES) trait variation underpins multiple agroecological processes and many prominent crop yield models. While there are numerous independent studies assessing trait variation in crops, to date there have been no comprehensive assessments of intraspecific trait variation (ITV) in LES traits for wheat and maize: the world's most widespread crops. Using trait databases and peer-reviewed literature, we compiled over 700 records of specific leaf area (SLA), maximum photosynthetic rates ( A max ) and leaf nitrogen (N) concentrations, for wheat and maize...
February 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484151/warming-increases-the-sensitivity-of-seedling-growth-capacity-to-rainfall-in-six-temperate-deciduous-tree-species
#19
Vikki L Rodgers, Nicholas G Smith, Susanne S Hoeppner, Jeffrey S Dukes
Predicting the effects of climate change on tree species and communities is critical for understanding the future state of our forested ecosystems. We used a fully factorial precipitation (three levels; ambient, -50 % ambient, +50 % ambient) by warming (four levels; up to +4 °C) experiment in an old-field ecosystem in the northeastern USA to study the climatic sensitivity of seedlings of six native tree species. We measured whole plant-level responses: survival, total leaf area (TLA), seedling insect herbivory damage, as well as leaf-level responses: specific leaf area (SLA), leaf-level water content (LWC), foliar nitrogen (N) concentration, foliar carbon (C) concentration and C:N ratio of each of these deciduous species in each treatment across a single growing season...
February 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479410/intercropping-with-wheat-lowers-nutrient-uptake-and-biomass-accumulation-of-maize-but-increases-photosynthetic-rate-of-the-ear-leaf
#20
Fang Gou, Martin K van Ittersum, Antoine Couëdel, Yue Zhang, Yajun Wang, Peter E L van der Putten, Lizhen Zhang, Wopke van der Werf
Intercropping is an ancient agricultural practice that provides a possible pathway for sustainable increases in crop yields. Here, we determine how competition with wheat affects nutrient uptake (nitrogen and phosphorus) and leaf traits, such as photosynthetic rate, in maize. In a field experiment, maize was planted as a sole crop, in three different intercrop configurations with wheat (a replacement intercrop and two add-row intercrops), and as a skip-row system with one out of each three maize rows omitted...
February 2018: AoB Plants
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