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AoB Plants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090221/root-condensed-tannins-vary-over-time-but-are-unrelated-to-leaf-tannins
#1
Margarete A Dettlaff, Valerie Marshall, Nadir Erbilgin, James F Cahill
Although the negative effects of root herbivores on plant fitness are expected to be similar to those of above-ground herbivores, the study of below-ground plant defences is limited compared to the rich literature on above-ground defences. Current theory predicts that concentrations of defensive chemicals above- and below-ground should be correlated, as the evolutionary drivers that shape plant defence are similar across the whole plant. We conducted a field study to measure root condensed tannin concentrations in Populus tremuloides , and determine how they related to leaf condensed tannin concentrations, tree position within the stand (edge vs...
August 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057736/seed-dormancy-regulates-germination-response-to-smoke-and-temperature-in-a-rhizomatous-evergreen-perennial
#2
Hongyuan Ma, Todd E Erickson, David J Merritt
Seed dormancy status regulates the response of seeds to environmental cues that can trigger germination. Anigozanthos flavidus (Haemodoraceae) produces seeds with morphophysiological dormancy (MPD) that are known to germinate in response to smoke, but embryo growth dynamics and germination traits in response to temperatures and after-ripening have not been well characterized. Seeds of A. flavidus , after-ripened for 28 months at 15 °C/15 % relative humidity, were incubated on water agar, water agar containing 1 μM karrikinolide (KAR1 ) or 50 μM glyceronitrile at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 20/10 and 25/15 °C for 28 days...
August 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046417/the-potential-for-phenological-mismatch-between-a-perennial-herb-and-its-ground-nesting-bee-pollinator
#3
Rachael L Olliff-Yang, Michael R Mesler
Climate change may alter the timing of flowering and pollinator activity to differing degrees, resulting in phenological mismatches between mutualistic partners. Assessing the potential for such mismatches requires an understanding of the environmental factors that cue flowering and pollinator activity. Biological context is key to determining specific impacts of climate change, and therefore it is important to study mutualisms with pollinators of different nesting biologies. Our study focused on the phenology of two mutualists native to the coastal dunes of northwestern California: the silky beach pea ( Lathyrus littoralis ) and its main pollinator, the ground-nesting solitary silver bee ( Habropoda miserabilis )...
August 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034679/how-are-monospecific-stands-of-invasive-trees-formed-spatio-temporal-evidence-from-douglas-fir-invasions
#4
Martin A Nuñez, Juan Paritsis
Invasive plant species can produce many impacts on native communities. Impacts can be especially important when the non-natives reach high densities, producing monospecific stands where little grows besides the non-native species. We propose three basic pathways by which monospecific stands of invasive tree species are formed: (i) gradually from the propagule source, (ii) via synchronous establishment and (iii) following several pulses of synchronous establishment. Different patterns can produce different impacts through time and may require different management techniques...
August 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018757/consequences-of-habitat-fragmentation-on-the-reproductive-success-of-two-tillandsia-species-with-contrasting-life-history-strategies
#5
Roberto Sáyago, Mauricio Quesada, Ramiro Aguilar, Lorena Ashworth, Martha Lopezaraiza-Mikel, Silvana Martén-Rodríguez
Fragmentation of natural habitats generally has negative effects on the reproductive success of many plant species; however, little is known about epiphytic plants. We assessed the impact of forest fragmentation on plant-pollinator interactions and female reproductive success in two epiphytic Tillandsia species with contrasting life history strategies (polycarpic and monocarpic) in Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico, over three consecutive years. Hummingbirds were the major pollinators of both species and pollinator visitation rates were similar between habitat conditions...
August 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018756/toleration-games-compensatory-growth-by-plants-in-response-to-enemy-attack-is-an-evolutionarily-stable-strategy
#6
Gordon G McNickle, Wesley D Evans
Damage to plants from natural enemies is a ubiquitous feature of the natural world. Accordingly, plants have evolved a variety of strategies to deal with attack from enemies including the ability to simply tolerate attack. Tolerance often involves some form of compensatory response, such as the regrowth of tissues following damage. While ecological models of defence are common, there has been less effort to make predictions about the evolutionary stability of tolerance. Here, we present and experimentally test a game theoretic model of tolerance to herbivory...
August 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991997/functional-traits-partially-mediate-the-effects-of-chronic-anthropogenic-disturbance-on-the-growth-of-a-tropical-tree
#7
Isidore O Amahowe, Orou G Gaoue, Armand K Natta, Camille Piponiot, Irié C Zobi, Bruno Hérault
Understanding how trees mediate the effects of chronic anthropogenic disturbance is fundamental to developing forest sustainable management strategies. The role that intraspecific functional diversity plays in such process is poorly understood. Several tree species are repeatedly defoliated at large scale by cattle breeders in Africa to feed livestock. In addition, these tree species are also debarked for medicinal purposes. These human-induced disturbances lead to biomass loss and subsequent decline in the tree growth...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977488/associations-between-shoot-level-water-relations-and-photosynthetic-responses-to-water-and-light-in-12-moss-species
#8
Zhe Wang, Maaike Y Bader
In vascular plants, there is a clear coupling between traits related to water and traits related to carbon economics. For bryophytes this coupling has been little studied but is expected to be strong, because in these poikilohydric plants photosynthesis varies strongly with water availability. We hypothesized that there is a trade-off between water-holding and photosynthetic capacities for mosses, resulting in a limited spectrum of possible trait combinations. At one end of this spectrum, mosses would tend to stay wet and active for long periods but would have slow photosynthetic rates...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977487/defence-signalling-marker-gene-responses-to-hormonal-elicitation-differ-between-roots-and-shoots
#9
Galini V Papadopoulou, Anne Maedicke, Katharina Grosser, Nicole M van Dam, Ainhoa Martínez-Medina
Phytohormones such as jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET) and abscisic acid (ABA) play a key role in regulation of plant immune responses to different attackers. Extensive research over recent years has led to the identification of molecular markers for specific hormonal-regulated defence pathways. However, most of our current knowledge on the regulation of plant immunity derives from studies focused on above-ground organs, mainly on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . Therefore, it is unclear whether the paradigms based on experiments on above-ground organs are entirely transferable to roots...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977486/degradation-of-chlorophyll-and-synthesis-of-flavonols-during-autumn-senescence-the-story-told-by-individual-leaves
#10
Heta Mattila, Dimitar Valev, Vesa Havurinne, Sergey Khorobrykh, Olli Virtanen, Mikko Antinluoma, Kumud B Mishra, Esa Tyystjärvi
Autumn senescence of deciduous trees is characterized by chlorophyll degradation and flavonoid synthesis. In the present study, chlorophyll and flavonol contents were measured every morning and evening during the whole autumn with a non-destructive method from individual leaves of Sorbus aucuparia , Acer platanoides , Betula pendula and Prunus padus . In most of the studied trees, the chlorophyll content of each individual leaf remained constant until a phase of rapid degradation commenced. The fast phase lasted only ~1 week and ended with abscission...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977485/biotic-and-abiotic-driven-variations-of-the-night-time-sap-flux-of-three-co-occurring-tree-species-in-a-low-subtropical-secondary-broadleaf-forest
#11
Qian Wang, Jianguo Gao, Ping Zhao, Liwei Zhu, Lei Ouyang, Guangyan Ni, Xiuhua Zhao
Although several studies on the night-time water use of different plant species have been reported, comparative studies under the same climatic conditions of a region are scarce. This study aimed to analyse the inter- and intraspecific variations in night-time water use in relation to environmental factors and to tree morphological features to understand and elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. The sap flow of three co-occurring tree species in a low subtropical secondary broadleaf forest in South China was monitored using Granier-style sap flux sensors...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942460/presence-of-fruits-decreases-probability-of-retaining-flowers-in-a-sequentially-flowering-plant
#12
Shivani Jadeja, Brigitte Tenhumberg
Both intrinsic and extrinsic plant processes affect the fate of flowers along an inflorescence in sequentially flowering plants. We investigated whether the intrinsic process of competition for limited resource between fruits and flowers owing to resource preemption or sink strength of basal fruits, or architectural effects due to positional differences in the probability of retaining flowers, explains a lower probability of retaining distal flowers in Yucca glauca . Further, we investigated how the extrinsic process of seed herbivory interacts with the plant's intrinsic processes of flower retention...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942459/rarity-and-nutrient-acquisition-relationships-before-and-after-prescribed-burning-in-an-australian-box-ironbark-forest
#13
John Patykowski, Matt Dell, Tricia Wevill, Maria Gibson
Nutrient cycling is greatly influenced by dominant plants that contribute high amounts of leaf litter to soils; however, less-dominant and rare species can play keystone roles in nutrient cycling if they have unique nutrient acquisition traits and provide high-quality litter. In many parts of the world, wildfire is likely to become more frequent and intense under a changing climate. The effect this will have on plant rarity and on species with unique nutrient acquisition traits, and thus nutrient cycling, remains poorly understood...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942458/functional-acclimation-across-microgeographic-scales-in-dodonaea-viscosa
#14
Zdravko Baruch, Alice R Jones, Kathryn E Hill, Francesca A McInerney, Colette Blyth, Stefan Caddy-Retalic, Matthew J Christmas, Nicholas J C Gellie, Andrew J Lowe, Irene Martin-Fores, Kristine E Nielson, Martin F Breed
Intraspecific plant functional trait variation provides mechanistic insight into persistence and can infer population adaptive capacity. However, most studies explore intraspecific trait variation in systems where geographic and environmental distances co-vary. Such a design reduces the certainty of trait-environment associations, and it is imperative for studies that make trait-environment associations be conducted in systems where environmental distance varies independently of geographic distance. Here we explored trait variation in such a system, and aimed to: (i) quantify trait variation of parent and offspring generations, and associate this variation to parental environments; (ii) determine the traits which best explain population differences; (iii) compare parent and offspring trait-trait relationships...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869642/corrigendum-geographic-population-structure-in-an-outcrossing-plant-invasion-after-centuries-of-cultivation-and-recent-founding-events
#15
John F Gaskin, Mark Schwarzländer, Robert D Gibson, Heather Simpson, Diane L Marshall, Esther Gerber, Hariet Hinz
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/aobpla/ply020.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/aobpla/ply020.].
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868168/inherent-variation-of-functional-traits-in-winter-and-summer-leaves-of-mediterranean-seasonal-dimorphic-species-evidence-of-a-within-leaf-cohort-spectrum
#16
Giacomo Puglielli, Laura Varone
The covariation pattern among leaf functional traits involved in resource acquisition has been successfully provided by the leaf economic spectrum (LES). Nevertheless, some aspects such as how the leaf trait variation sources affect LES predictions are still little investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to test whether leaf trait variations within different leaf cohorts could alter LES. Improving this knowledge can extend the potential of trait-based approaches in simulating future climate effects on ecosystems...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770181/within-and-trans-generational-plasticity-seed-germination-responses-to-light-quantity-and-quality
#17
Katherine Vayda, Kathleen Donohue, Gabriela Alejandra Auge
Plants respond not only to the environment in which they find themselves, but also to that of their parents. The combination of within- and trans-generational phenotypic plasticity regulates plant development. Plants use light as source of energy and also as a cue of competitive conditions, since the quality of light (ratio of red to far-red light, R:FR) indicates the presence of neighbouring plants. Light regulates many aspects of plant development, including seed germination. To understand how seeds integrate environmental cues experienced at different times, we quantified germination responses to changes in light quantity (irradiance) and quality (R:FR) experienced during seed maturation and seed imbibition in Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes that differ in their innate dormancy levels and after treatments that break or reinduce dormancy...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765588/dna-barcoding-a-taxonomically-complex-hemiparasitic-genus-reveals-deep-divergence-between-ploidy-levels-but-lack-of-species-level-resolution
#18
Xumei Wang, Galina Gussarova, Markus Ruhsam, Natasha de Vere, Chris Metherell, Peter M Hollingsworth, Alex D Twyford
DNA barcoding is emerging as a useful tool not only for species identification but also for studying evolutionary and ecological processes. Although plant DNA barcodes do not always provide species-level resolution, the generation of large DNA barcode data sets can provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the generation of species diversity. Here, we study evolutionary processes in taxonomically complex British Euphrasia (Orobanchaceae), a group with multiple ploidy levels, frequent self-fertilization, young species divergence and widespread hybridization...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765587/variation-in-the-degree-of-reciprocal-herkogamy-affects-the-degree-of-legitimate-pollination-in-a-distylous-species
#19
Xian-Feng Jiang, Xing-Fu Zhu, Qing-Jun Li
Distyly is a widespread floral polymorphism characterized by the flowers within a population showing reciprocal placement of the anthers and stigma. Darwin hypothesizes that distyly evolves to promote precise pollen transfer between morphs. Primula chungensis exhibits two types of anther heights, and these two types of anthers show pollen of two different size classes. To understand whether the stigma could capture more pollen grains from the anthers of the pollen donor as the separation between the stigma of pollen receiver and the anther of pollen donor decreased, the present research assessed the source of the pollen load in a series of open-pollinated flowers with continuous variation of style lengths...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692882/genetic-diversity-and-structure-of-an-endangered-medicinal-herb-implications-for-conservation
#20
Soo-Rang Lee, Ji-Eun Choi, Byoung-Yoon Lee, Jeong-Nam Yu, Chae Eun Lim
Human-driven habitat fragmentation leads to spatial isolation of endangered plant species increasing extinction risk. Understanding genetic variability and population structure of rare and isolated plant species is of great importance for assessing extinction risk and setting up conservation plans. Aconitum austrokoreense , an endangered and endemic species in Korea, is a perennial herb commonly used for medicinal purposes. We used five nuclear microsatellites and one chloroplast marker to investigate genetic diversity and population structure for 479 individuals of A ...
April 2018: AoB Plants
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