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AoB Plants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218140/effects-of-white-tailed-deer-and-invasive-plants-on-the-herb-layer-of-suburban-forests
#1
Janet A Morrison
Lack of hunting and predators and proximity to human communities make suburban forests prone to high deer abundance and non-native plant invasions. I investigated these likely drivers of community structure in the herb layers of six suburban forests in one region of New Jersey, USA. In 223 plots I assessed the herb layer response to 2.5 years with or without deer fencing and the early stage of invasion from seed additions of Microstegium vimineum, an invasive, annual grass. Non-native plants and herbaceous native plants were affected very little by fencing or M...
November 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218139/herbivory-by-leaf-cutter-ants-changes-the-glandular-trichomes-density-and-the-volatile-components-in-an-aromatic-plant-model
#2
Luiz Ricardo Dos Santos Tozin, Marcia Ortiz Mayo Marques, Tatiane Maria Rodrigues
Herbivory can induce several structural and functional alterations in the plant secretory system. Glandular trichomes are the main sites of production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with several chemical properties in Lamiaceae species. Ocimum species usually have three morphotypes of glandular trichomes (morphotype I is peltate and has a wide four-celled head; morphotype II is capitate and has a unicellular head; and morphotype III is capitate with a bicellular head) which produce a great amount of terpenes, although other chemical categories of substances are also produced...
November 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218138/conspecific-plants-are-better-nurses-than-rocks-consistent-results-revealing-intraspecific-facilitation-as-a-process-that-promotes-establishment-in-a-hyper-arid-environment
#3
Andrea P Loayza, Marisol A Herrera-Madariaga, Danny E Carvajal, Patricio García-Guzmán, Francisco A Squeo
Harsh environmental conditions in arid ecosystems limit seedling recruitment to microhabitats under nurse structures, such as shrubs or rocks. These structures, however, do not necessarily afford the same benefits to plants because nurse rocks provide only physical nurse effects, whereas nurse plants can provide both physical and biological nurse effects. Nevertheless, if the nurse plant is a conspecific, the benefits it provides may be outweighed by higher mortality due to negative density-dependent processes; consequently, negative density-dependence is expected to limit plants from acting as nurses to their own seedlings...
November 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218137/low-temperature-limits-for-root-growth-in-alpine-species-are-set-by-cell-differentiation
#4
Sebastian Nagelmüller, Erika Hiltbrunner, Christian Körner
Plant growth in cold climates is not limited by carbon assimilation (source activity) but rather by reduced carbon investment into new tissues (sink limitation). It has been hypothesized that all cold-adapted plants face similar growth constraints at low temperature mainly associated with the formation of new tissues. To explore the thermal limitation of plant tissue formation, we studied root growth and anatomical root tissue characteristics in four cold-adapted alpine species (Ranunculus glacialis, Rumex alpinus, Tussilago farfara, Poa alpina), grown in thermostated soils with a vertical temperature gradient approaching 1 °C...
November 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071064/reducing-shade-avoidance-responses-in-a-cereal-crop
#5
Wibke Wille, Christian B Pipper, Eva Rosenqvist, Sven B Andersen, Jacob Weiner
Several researchers have hypothesized that shade avoidance behaviour is favoured by natural selection because it increases the fitness of individuals. Shade avoidance can be disadvantageous for crops, however, because it reduces allocation of resources to reproductive yield, increases the risk of lodging and reduces weed suppression. One approach to develop varieties with reduced shade avoidance and enhanced agronomic performance is by inducing mutations followed by phenotypic screening. We treated spring wheat seeds with ethyl methanesulfonate and screened the seedlings repeatedly under green filters for plants showing reduced elongation of the first leaf sheath and second leaf lamina...
September 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026513/quantification-of-monoterpene-emission-sources-of-a-conifer-species-in-response-to-experimental-drought
#6
Marvin Lüpke, Michael Leuchner, Rainer Steinbrecher, Annette Menzel
Monoterpene (MT) emissions of conifer tree species, emitted from de novo synthesis and storage pools, play an important role in plant ecology and physiology. During drought stress both emission sources are affected differently and with conventional measuring techniques they are difficult to separate. We investigated (13)C labelled MT emission of eight 3-year-old Scots pine seedlings in a drought stress experiment using a dynamic gas exchange chamber system (Tree DEMON). Monoterpene, water vapour and CO2 gas exchange were measured for a 2-day normal watering, a 11-day treatment and a 3-day re-watering period...
September 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026512/the-phyllochron-of-well-watered-and-water-deficit-mature-peach-trees-varies-with-shoot-type-and-vigour
#7
Anna Davidson, David Da Silva, Theodore M DeJong
The branch construction of trees is based on phytomers, repetitive subunits defined as node + leaf + axillary meristem + internode. The rate at which phytomers are added to a shoot is termed the phyllochron, which is determined by genetics, endogenous regulation and environmental conditions. The phyllochron is fundamental to understanding the growth of plants. Most phyllochron studies on woody species are of young plants under controlled conditions without consideration for different types of shoots that are present in mature trees...
September 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026511/both-seed-germination-and-seedling-mortality-increase-with-experimental-warming-and-fertilization-in-a-subarctic-tundra
#8
Ann Milbau, Nicolas Vandeplas, Fred Kockelbergh, Ivan Nijs
Climate change is expected to force many species in arctic regions to migrate and track their climatic niche. This requires recruitment from seed, which currently shows very low rates in arctic regions, where long-lived and vegetatively reproducing plants dominate. Therefore, we pose the question whether recruitment (germination and seedling establishment) in arctic regions will significantly improve in a warmer world, and thus allow species to follow their climatic niche. We used a full factorial experiment to examine if realistic warmer temperatures (+3 °C; infrared radiation) and increased nitrogen availability (+1...
September 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948010/changing-soil-legacies-to-direct-restoration-of-plant-communities
#9
E Pernilla Brinkman, Ciska E Raaijmakers, Wietse de Boer, Wim H van der Putten
It is increasingly acknowledged that soil biota may influence interactions among plant species; however, little is known about how to change historical influences of previous land management on soil biota, the so-called 'biotic soil legacy effect'. We used a two-phase plant community-soil feedback approach to study how plant species typical to original (i.e. undisturbed) and degraded fen meadows may influence effects of the soil community on Carex species that are dominant in fen meadows. In phase 1, soil from original, degraded, successfully and unsuccessfully restored fen meadows was conditioned by growing plants typical to original or to degraded fen meadows...
September 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948009/inter-and-intrapopulation-variation-in-the-response-of-tree-seedlings-to-drought-physiological-adjustments-based-on-geographical-origin-water-supply-and-species
#10
Felipe S Carevic, José Delatorre-Herrera, José Delatorre-Castillo
Initiatives to restore natural ecosystems have had little success in arid and hyperarid ecosystems. In this context, the natural seedling establishment is particularly affected by drought patterns and climatic variability. Likewise, the effect of plant provenance on forest restoration success remains unclear, although previous studies have concluded that some seed locations might be better able to tolerate water stress. In this study, we examined the physiological mechanisms involved in the drought stress resistance of Prosopis tamarugo and Prosopis alba seedlings from different arid and hyperarid locations of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile...
September 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948008/defining-the-role-of-fire-in-alleviating-seed-dormancy-in-a-rare-mediterranean-endemic-subshrub
#11
Adam T Cross, Maria Paniw, Fernando Ojeda, Shane R Turner, Kingsley W Dixon, David J Merritt
Fire is a topical issue in the management of many ecosystems globally that face a drying climate. Understanding the role of fire in such ecosystems is critical to inform appropriate management practices, particularly in the case of rare and ecologically specialized species. The Mediterranean heathlands are highly fire-prone and occur in a biodiversity hotspot increasingly threatened by human activities, and determining the reproductive thresholds of at-risk heathland species is critical to ensuring the success of future conservation initiatives...
September 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894568/perspectives-on-non-target-site-mechanisms-of-herbicide-resistance-in-weedy-plant-species-using-evolutionary-physiology
#12
REVIEW
Hossein Ghanizadeh, Kerry C Harrington
Evolutionary physiology merges the disciplines of evolution and physiology, and it is a research approach that has not received much attention for studying the development of herbicide resistance. This paper makes a case for using evolutionary physiology more frequently when studying herbicide resistance, and illustrates this using three areas where more work would be useful: (i) the interaction among major and minor alleles over many generations during the evolution of physiological responses that lead to specific mechanisms of resistance; (ii) the role of epigenetic factors, especially at an early stage of evolution, on the physiological modifications that result in phenotypes that become insensitive to herbicides; and (iii) the interaction between fitness and physiological performance over time, with emphasis on understanding mechanisms that improve the fitness of herbicide-resistant phenotypes during selection...
September 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894567/an-indicator-approach-to-capture-impacts-of-white-tailed-deer-and-other-ungulates-in-the-presence-of-multiple-associated-stressors
#13
Bernd Blossey, Andrea Dávalos, Victoria Nuzzo
Management of ungulates is contested ground that lacks stakeholder agreement on desirable population sizes and management approaches. Unfortunately, we often miss information about extent of local impacts, for example on plant communities, to guide management decisions. Typical vegetation impact assessments like the woody browse index do not assess herbaceous plants, and differences in browse severity can be a function of deer density, deer legacy effects, localized deer feeding preferences and/or differences in plant community composition...
September 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894566/methyl-jasmonate-induction-of-cotton-a-field-test-of-the-attract-and-reward-strategy-of-conservation-biological-control
#14
Livy Williams, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Sandra C Castle Del Conte
Natural or synthetic elicitors can affect plant physiology by stimulating direct and indirect defence responses to herbivores. For example, increased production of plant secondary metabolites, a direct response, can negatively affect herbivore survival, development and fecundity. Indirect responses include increased emission of plant volatiles that influence herbivore and natural enemy behaviour, and production of extrafloral nectar that serves as a food source for natural enemies after their arrival on induced plants...
September 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798864/temporal-variations-in-methane-emissions-from-emergent-aquatic-macrophytes-in-two-boreonemoral-lakes
#15
Per Milberg, Lina Törnqvist, Lars M Westerberg, David Bastviken
Methane (CH4) emissions via emergent aquatic macrophytes can contribute substantially to the global CH4 balance. We addressed temporal variability in CH4 flux by using the static chamber approach to quantify fluxes from plots dominated by two species considered to differ in flux transport mechanisms (Phragmites australis, Carex rostrata). Temporal variability in daily mean emissions from early June to early October was substantial. The variable that best explained this variation was air temperature. Regular and consistent diel changes were absent and therefore less relevant to include when estimating or modelling CH4 emissions...
July 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721188/trait-variation-along-elevation-gradients-in-a-dominant-woody-shrub-is-population-specific-and-driven-by-plasticity
#16
Alix A Pfennigwerth, Joseph K Bailey, Jennifer A Schweitzer
Elevation gradients are frequently used as space-for-time substitutions to infer species' trait responses to climate change. However, studies rarely investigate whether trait responses to elevation are widespread or population-specific within a species, and the relative genetic and plastic contributions to such trait responses may not be well understood. Here, we examine plant trait variation in the dominant woody shrub, Rhododendron maximum, along elevation gradients in three populations in the South Central Appalachian Mountains, USA, in both field and common garden environments...
July 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721187/individual-and-interactive-effects-of-white-tailed-deer-and-an-exotic-shrub-on-artificial-and-natural-regeneration-in-mixed-hardwood-forests
#17
Charlotte F Owings, Douglass F Jacobs, Joshua M Shields, Michael R Saunders, Michael A Jenkins
Underplanting tree seedlings in areas where natural regeneration is limited may offer a tool by which desired overstory composition can be maintained or restored in forests. However, invasive plant species and ungulate browsing may limit the effectiveness of underplanting, and in-turn, the successful restoration of forest ecosystems. Individually, the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii and browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been found to negatively affect the regeneration of native tree species in the Midwestern United States, but few studies have examined their interactive or cumulative effects...
July 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721186/factors-driving-the-global-decline-of-cycad-diversity
#18
Ledile T Mankga, Kowiyou Yessoufou
Mounting evidence indicates that we are witnessing the sixth mass extinction period. Given the important goods and services biodiversity delivers to humans, there is a need for a continued commitment to investigate what pre-disposes some taxa to greater risk of extinction. Here, we investigate this question using a phylogenetic comparative method and fitting a cumulative link mixed effect model on biological, ecological and evolutionary data of cycads, the most threatened lineage in the plant kingdom. We identified nine groups of threats to cycads, with habitat loss, over-collection, fire and reproduction failure being the most prominent, but only four of these threats (habitat loss, over-collection, medicinal uses and reproduction failure) clustered on the cycad tree of life...
July 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717440/stigmatic-limitations-on-reproductive-success-in-a-paleotropical-tree-causes-and-consequences
#19
Madhu Raina, Raman Kumar, Veenu Kaul
Success in reproduction is subject to the successful initiation as well as successful completion of a chain of consecutive events starting from flower formation and ending with viable seed production. A pivotal role in this chain is played by the stigma which is the seat of pollen recognition and initiation of pollen-pistil interaction. An interesting feature of the family Bignoniaceae is the presence of thigmosensitive stigmas which open, close and re-open in response to touch. Kigelia pinnata bears a touch sensitive stigma and is a low fruit setter in Jammu and Kashmir (India)...
July 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702163/slow-stamen-movement-in-a-perennial-herb-decreases-male-male-and-male-female-interference
#20
Lingyan Wang, Yu Bao, Hanxi Wang, Chunguang He, Ping Wang, Lianxi Sheng, Zhanhui Tang
Approximately 80 % of angiosperm species produce hermaphroditic flowers, which face the problem of male-male sexual interference (one or more anthers gets in the way of disseminating pollen from other anthers) or male-female sexual interference (the pistil interferes with disseminating pollen from the anthers by preventing the anther from touching a pollinator, or the anther prevents pollinator from depositing outcross pollen on the stigma). Slow stamen movement in hermaphrodite flowers has been interpreted as an adaptation for reducing male-male sexual interference...
July 2017: AoB Plants
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