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AoB Plants

Treena I Burgess, Casparus J Crous, Bernard Slippers, Jarkko Hantula, Michael J Wingfield
When non-native plants reach novel environments, they typically arrive with hidden microbiomes. In general, most of these hitchhikers remain on their co-evolved hosts, some contribute to the invasiveness of their hosts, and a small number can undergo host shifts and move onto native hosts. Invasion success can vary depending upon the different categories of fungal associates. When an invader tree relies on a fungal mutualism to survive in the new environment, there is a fundamentally lower likelihood of either the tree, or the fungus, establishing novel associations...
November 7, 2016: AoB Plants
Weiqin Wang, Shaobing Peng, Qian Chen, Junhao Mei, Huanglin Dong, Lixiao Nie
Mechanization and simplification are inevitable trends in agriculture production to decrease input demands and simultaneously improve resource use efficiency. Dry direct-seeded rice is a resource-saving cropping system and has been considered as a replacement for traditional transplanted rice. However, the poor establishment of dry direct-seeded early rice, primarily induced by chilling stress, has limited the wide adoption of this system. To examine the effects of pre-sowing seed treatments on rice germination, seedling growth and associated metabolic events under chilling stress, two seed coating treatments (Hanyubaomu coating and Miaoboshi coating) and two seed priming treatments (selenium priming and salicylic acid priming) were tested in field and growth chamber experiments...
November 7, 2016: AoB Plants
Fang Yang, Xiao Ying Gong, Hai Tao Liu, Rudi Schäufele, Hans Schnyder
Phytomers are basic morphological units of plants. Knowledge of phytomer development is essential for understanding morphological plasticity, functional-structural modelling of plant growth, and the usage of leaf characteristics to indicate growth conditions at the time of production (e.g. stable isotope signals). Yet, systematic analysis on the process of phytomer development is unavailable for wild or perennial C4 grasses. Also, effects of environmental factors, such as nitrogen nutrition or vapour pressure deficit (VPD), on coordination events of developmental processes of C4 grasses have not been studied...
November 3, 2016: AoB Plants
Renata Kurtyka, Wojciech Pokora, Zbigniew Tukaj, Waldemar Karcz
Naphthoquinones are secondary metabolites widely distributed in nature and produced by bacteria, fungi and higher plants. Their biological activity may result from induction of oxidative stress, caused by redox cycling, or direct interaction with cellular macromolecules, in which quinones act as electrophiles. The redox homeostasis is known as one of factors involved in auxin-mediated plant growth regulation. To date, however, little is known about the crosstalk between reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by quinones and the plant growth hormone auxin (IAA)...
October 19, 2016: AoB Plants
Elisabete F Dias, M Moura, H Schaefer, Luís Silva
Island plants are frequently used as model systems in evolutionary biology to understand factors that might explain genetic diversity and population differentiation levels. Theory suggests that island plants should have lower levels of genetic diversity than their continental relatives, but this hypothesis has been rejected in several recent studies. In the Azores, the population level genetic diversity is generally low. But, like in most island systems, there are high levels of genetic differentiation between different islands...
October 13, 2016: AoB Plants
Heidi Hirsch, Isabell Hensen, Karsten Wesche, Daniel Renison, Catherina Wypior, Matthias Hartmann, Henrik von Wehrden
Introduced plants often face new environmental conditions in their non-native ranges. To become invasive, they need to overcome several biotic and abiotic filters that may trigger adaptive changes in life-history traits, like post-germination processes. Such early life cycle traits may play a crucial role in the colonization and establishment success of invasive plants. As a previous study revealed that seeds of non-native populations of the woody Siberian elm, Ulmus pumila germinated faster than those of native populations, we expected growth performance of seedlings to mirror this finding...
October 13, 2016: AoB Plants
Tobias Marczewski, Yong-Peng Ma, Xue-Mei Zhang, Wei-Bang Sun, A Jane Marczewski
Hybridisation has become a focal topic in evolutionary biology, and many taxonomists are aware that the process occurs more frequently than previously assumed. Nonetheless many species and varieties are still described without explicitly considering the possibility of hybridisation, especially in countries that have relatively short scientific histories, but which often possess the highest species diversities. Furthermore, new taxa are often described based only on herbarium specimens, not taking into account information from wild populations, significantly decreasing the potential to detect morphologies arising from hybridisation at this crucial descriptive stage...
October 6, 2016: AoB Plants
Santiago Trueba, Sandrine Isnard, Daniel Barthélémy, Mark E Olson
Understanding the distribution of traits across the angiosperm phylogeny helps map the nested hierarchy of features that characterize key nodes. Finding that Amborella is sister to the rest of the angiosperms has raised the question of whether it shares certain key functional trait characteristics, and plastic responses apparently widespread within the angiosperms at large. With this in mind, we test the hypothesis that local canopy openness induces plastic responses. We used this variation in morphological and functional traits to estimate the pervasiveness of trait scaling, and leaf and stem economics...
September 26, 2016: AoB Plants
Hui Wang, Michinari Matsushita, Nobuhiro Tomaru, Michiko Nakagawa
Female reproductive success in females versus hermaphrodites has been well documented. However, documenting a potential advantage in male fertility of male versus hermaphrodite individuals in subdioecious species is also essential for understanding the evolutionary pathway toward dioecy from hermaphroditism via gynodioecy. Siring success in terms of fruit set, fruit mass, number of seeds, and mean seed mass was compared by hand-pollinated crosses in the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica The pollen was from male and hermaphrodite individuals, and the pollen recipients were females and hermaphrodites...
September 22, 2016: AoB Plants
Desale Y Okubamichael, Megan E Griffiths, David Ward
Host specificity has been investigated for centuries in mistletoes, viruses, insects, parasitoids, lice and flukes, yet it is poorly understood. Reviewing the numerous studies on mistletoe host specificity may contribute to our understanding of these plants and put into context the dynamics at work in root parasitic plants and animal parasites. The mechanisms that determine host specificity in mistletoes are not as well documented and understood as those in other groups of parasites. To rectify this we synthesised the available literature and analysed data compiled from herbaria, published monographs and our own field studies in South Africa...
September 22, 2016: AoB Plants
Nicholas G Smith, Grace Pold, Carol Goranson, Jeffrey S Dukes
Anthropogenic forces are projected to lead to warmer temperatures and altered precipitation patterns globally. The impact of these climatic changes on the uptake of carbon by the land surface will, in part, determine the rate and magnitude of these changes. However, there is a great deal of uncertainty in how terrestrial ecosystems will respond to climate in the future. Here, we used a fully factorial warming (four levels) by precipitation (three levels) manipulation experiment in an old-field ecosystem in the northeastern United States to examine the impact of climatic changes on leaf carbon exchange in five species of deciduous tree seedlings...
September 22, 2016: AoB Plants
Marco Schmitt, Toshihiro Watanabe, Steven Jansen
Aluminium (Al) is a phytotoxic element affecting the growth and yield of many crop plants, especially in the tropics. Yet, some plants are able to accumulate high levels of Al. The monogeneric family Symplocaceae represents an Al accumulating family including many tropical and evergreen species with high Al levels in their above ground plant tissues. It is unclear, however, whether Al accumulation also characterises temperate species of Symplocos, and whether or not the uptake has a beneficial growth effect...
September 9, 2016: AoB Plants
Marco A Molina-Montenegro, Rómulo Oses, Cristian Torres-Díaz, Cristian Atala, Andrés Zurita-Silva, Simón Ruiz-Lara
Throughout many regions of the world, climate change has limited the availability of water for irrigating crops. Indeed, current models of climate change predict that arid and semi-arid zones will be places where precipitation will drastically decrease. In this context plant root-associated fungi appear as a new strategy to improve ecophysiological performance and yield of crops under abiotic stress. Thus, use of fungal endophytes from ecosystems currently subjected to severe drought conditions could improve the ecophysiological performance and quantum yield of crops exposed to drought...
September 9, 2016: AoB Plants
Christoph C F Schinkel, Bernhard Kirchheimer, Agnes S Dellinger, Simone Klatt, Manuela Winkler, Stefan Dullinger, Elvira Hörandl
Apomictic plants expand their geographical distributions more to higher elevations compared to their sexual progenitors. It was so far unclear whether this tendency is related to mode of reproduction itself or represents a side effect of polyploidy. Apomixis is advantageous for range expansions as no mating partners and pollinators are needed (Baker's rule). Polyploidy is thought to infer fitness advantages and a higher vigor that would enable plants to adjust better to more extreme climatic conditions. However, little is known about actual performance of plants at higher elevations...
September 4, 2016: AoB Plants
John C Benedict, Selena Y Smith, Chelsea D Specht, Margaret E Collinson, Jana Leong-Škorničková, Dilworth Y Parkinson, Federica Marone
Phenotypic variation can be attributed to genetic heritability as well as biotic and abiotic factors. Across Zingiberales, there is a high variation in the number of species per clade and in phenotypic diversity. Factors contributing to this phenotypic variation have never been studied in a phylogenetic or ecological context. Seeds of 166 species from all eight families in Zingiberales were analyzed for 51 characters using synchrotron based 3D X-ray tomographic microscopy to determine phylogenetically informative characters and to understand the distribution of morphological disparity within the order...
September 4, 2016: AoB Plants
Charfeddine Gharsallah, Hatem Fakhfakh, Douglas Grubb, Faten Gorsane
Salinity is a constraint limiting plant growth and productivity of crops throughout the world. Understanding the mechanism underlying plant response to salinity provides new insights into the improvement of salt tolerance-crops of importance. In the present study, we report on the responses of twenty cultivars of tomato. We have clustered genotypes into scale classes according to their response to increased NaCl levels. Three local tomato genotypes, representative of different saline scale classes, were selected for further investigation...
August 18, 2016: AoB Plants
Tiphaine Maurice, Diethart Matthies, Serge Muller, Guy Colling
Due to land-use intensification, lowland and colline populations of many plants of nutrient-poor grasslands have been strongly fragmented in the last decades, with potentially negative consequences for their genetic diversity and persistence. Populations in mountains might represent a genetic reservoir for grassland plants, because they have been less affected by land-use changes. We studied the genetic structure and diversity of colline and montane Vosges populations of the threatened perennial plant Arnica montana in western central Europe using AFLP markers...
August 12, 2016: AoB Plants
Åsa Lankinen, Maria Strandh
Sexual conflict and its evolutionary consequences are understudied in plants, but the theory of sexual conflict may help explain how selection generates and maintains variability. Here, we investigated selection on pollen and pistil traits when pollen arrives sequentially to partially receptive pistils in relation to pollen competition and a sexual conflict over timing of stigma receptivity in the mixed-mating annual Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae). In this species the conflict is generated by early fertilizing pollen that reduces seed production, which is counteracted by delaying receptivity in the recipient...
2016: AoB Plants
Metha M Klock, Luke G Barrett, Peter H Thrall, Kyle E Harms
Identification of mechanisms that allow some species to outcompete others is a fundamental goal in ecology and invasive species management. One useful approach is to examine congeners varying in invasiveness in a comparative framework across native and invaded ranges. Acacia species have been widely introduced outside their native range of Australia, and a subset of these species have become invasive in multiple parts of the world. Within specific regions, the invasive status of these species varies. Our study examined whether a key mechanism in the life history of Acacia species, the legume-rhizobia symbiosis, influences acacia invasiveness on a regional scale...
2016: AoB Plants
Guillaume Besnard, Peter Cuneo
Invasive trees are generally seen as ecosystem-transforming plants that can have significant impacts on native vegetation, and often require management and control. Understanding their history and biology is essential to guide actions of land managers. Here, we present a summary of recent research into the ecology, phylogeography and management of invasive olives, which are now established outside of their native range as high ecological impact invasive trees. The parallel invasion of European and African olive in different climatic zones of Australia provides an interesting case study of invasion, characterized by early genetic admixture between domesticated and wild taxa...
2016: AoB Plants
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