Read by QxMD icon Read

AoB Plants

Kylie L Martinod, David L Gorchov
It has been hypothesized that invasive plant species with extended leaf phenology (ELP) elevate generalist herbivore populations, increasing herbivory on native plants (apparent competition). This hypothesis assumes that consumption of the invasive is associated with periods of ELP, the invasive is a major component of the herbivore's diet, and that it is more nutritious than native plants during periods of ELP. We tested these assumptions by estimating the proportion of the white-tailed deer diet comprised of Lonicera maackii, an invasive shrub with ELP, quantifying the seasonal pattern of deer browse on this invasive shrub, and comparing its nutritional quality to leafless woody stems...
March 2017: AoB Plants
Kai Uwe Nierbauer, Juraj Paule, Georg Zizka
Reticulate evolution is considered to be among the main mechanisms of plant evolution, often leading to the establishment of new species. However, complex evolutionary scenarios result in a challenging definition of evolutionary and taxonomic units. In the present study, we aimed to examine the evolutionary origin and revise the species status of Campanula baumgartenii, a rare endemic species from the polyploid complex Campanula section Heterophylla. Morphometry, flow cytometric ploidy estimation, AFLPs, as well as chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequence markers were used to assess the morphological and genetic differentiation among C...
January 24, 2017: AoB Plants
W Gaya Shivega, Laura Aldrich-Wolfe
While the soil environment is generally acknowledged as playing a role in plant competition, the relative importance of soil resources and soil microbes in determining outcomes of competition between native and exotic plants has rarely been tested. Resilience of plant communities to invasion by exotic species may depend on the extent to which native and exotic plant performance are mediated by abiotic and biotic components of the soil. We used a greenhouse experiment to compare performance of two native prairie plant species and one exotic species, when grown in intraspecific competition and when each native was grown in interspecific competition with the exotic species, in the presence and absence of a native prairie soil community, and when nitrogen availability was elevated or was maintained at native prairie levels...
January 24, 2017: AoB Plants
Huiliang Liu, Buhailiqiemu Abudureheman, Lingwei Zhang, Jerry M Baskin, Carol C Baskin, Daoyuan Zhang
Seasonal periodicity of seed germination and its relationship to seasonal changes in temperature and soil moisture have been well studied in seeds of species with physiological dormancy. However, relatively little information is available on the role of these environmental factors in controlling germination of seeds with physical dormancy (PY). Our primary aim was to determine if seeds of the cold desert sand dune semi-shrub Eremosparton songoricum exhibits seasonal periodicity of seed germination and the relationship between seed dormancy break and soil temperature and moisture...
January 24, 2017: AoB Plants
Siri Birkeland, Idunn Elisabeth Borgen Skjetne, Anne Krag Brysting, Reidar Elven, Inger Greve Alsos
Small, isolated, and/or peripheral populations are expected to harbour low levels of genetic variation and may therefore have reduced adaptability to environmental change, including climate warming. In the Arctic, global warming has already caused vegetation change across the region and is acting as a significant stressor on Arctic biodiversity. Many of the rare plants in the Arctic are relicts from early Holocene warm periods, but their ability to benefit from the current warming is dependent on the viability of their populations...
January 20, 2017: AoB Plants
Nicholas C Collins, Boris Parent
There is a growing consensus in the literature that rising temperatures influence the rate of biomass accumulation by shortening the development of plant organs and the whole plant and by altering rates of respiration and photosynthesis. A model describing the net effects of these processes on biomass would be useful, but would need to reconcile reported differences in the effects of night and day temperature on plant productivity. In this study, the working hypothesis was that the temperature responses of CO2 assimilation and plant development rates were divergent, and that their net effects could explain observed differences in biomass accumulation...
January 9, 2017: AoB Plants
Jaume Seguí, Marta López-Darias, Antonio J Pérez, Manuel Nogales, Anna Traveset
Summit areas of oceanic islands constitute some of the most isolated ecosystems on earth, highly vulnerable to climate change and introduced species. Within the unique high-elevation communities of Tenerife (Canary Islands), reproductive success and thus long-term survival of species may depend on environmental suitability as well as threat by introduced herbivores. By experimentally modifying the endemic and vulnerable species Viola cheiranthifolia along its entire altitudinal occurrence range, we studied plant performance, autofertility, pollen limitation and visitation rate and the interactive effect of grazing by non-native rabbits on them...
January 5, 2017: AoB Plants
S J Snodgrass, J Jareczek, J F Wendel
Nucleotypic effects are phenotypic changes related to the total nuclear DNA amount per cell. These effects are commonly observed among and within genera for certain cell types, and the generality of the positive correlation between genome size and cell size has been well established. However, there are few studies of nucleotypic effects which incorporate into the analysis both ploidy level and genome size (given as Mbp determined by 2C values). To test the hypothesis that cell size scales with genome size and ploidy, we measured the guard cell length, epidermal pavement cell surface area, and pollen grain diameter using individuals of multiple species and accessions of the cotton genus (Gossypium), in which different species exhibit three-fold variation in genome size...
January 2017: AoB Plants
Rafael Dudeque Zenni, Ian A Dickie, Michael J Wingfield, Heidi Hirsch, Casparus J Crous, Laura A Meyerson, Treena I Burgess, Thalita G Zimmermann, Metha M Klock, Evan Siemann, Alexandra Erfmeier, Roxana Aragon, Lia Montti, Johannes J Le Roux
Evolutionary processes greatly impact the outcomes of biological invasions. An extensive body of research suggests that invasive populations often undergo phenotypic and ecological divergence from their native sources. Evolution also operates at different and distinct stages during the invasion process. Thus, it is important to incorporate evolutionary change into frameworks of biological invasions because it allows us to conceptualize how these processes may facilitate or hinder invasion success. Here, we review such processes, with an emphasis on tree invasions, and place them in the context of the unified framework for biological invasions...
December 30, 2016: AoB Plants
Akari Shibata, Gaku Kudo
In sexually dimorphic plants, resource allocation to reproduction often differs between sex morphs. In gynodioecious species, i.e. coexisting hermaphrodite and female plants within a population, females often produce more fruits than hermaphrodites. Since fruit production is costlier than flower production, hermaphrodites and females may regulate flower and fruit production differently in response to resource availability. To clarify the gender-specific strategies of reproductive allocation, we assessed sexual dimorphism in reproductive traits, size-dependent resource allocation, morphological traits, and photosynthetic capacity in a natural population of a gynodioecious shrub, Daphne jezoensis Hermaphrodites had larger flowers and increased flower number with plant size at a rate greater than females, but showed consistently smaller fruit production...
December 30, 2016: AoB Plants
Ian A Dickie, Jerry A Cooper, Jennifer L Bufford, Philip E Hulme, Scott T Bates
The introduction of alien plants into a new range can result in the loss of co-evolved symbiotic organisms, such as mycorrhizal fungi, that are essential for normal plant physiological functions. Prior studies of mycorrhizal associations in alien plants have tended to focus on individual plant species on a case-by-case basis. This approach limits broad scale understanding of functional shifts and changes in interaction network structure that may occur following introduction. Here we use two extensive datasets of plant-fungal interactions derived from fungal sporocarp observations and recorded plant hosts in two island archipelago nations: New Zealand (NZ) and the United Kingdom (UK)...
December 30, 2016: AoB Plants
Joseph T Miller, Cang Hui, Andrew Thornhill, Laure Gallien, Johannes J Le Roux, David M Richardson
For a plant species to become invasive it has to progress along the introduction-naturalization-invasion (INI) continuum which reflects the joint direction of niche breadth. Identification of traits that correlate with and drive species invasiveness along the continuum is a major focus of invasion biology. If invasiveness is underlain by heritable traits, and if such traits are phylogenetically conserved, then we would expect non-native species with different introduction status (i.e. position along the INI continuum) to show phylogenetic signal...
December 30, 2016: AoB Plants
Wang Lei, Lu Bao-Rong
The potential social-economic and environmental impacts caused by transgene flow from genetically engineered (GE) crops have stimulated worldwide biosafety concerns. To determine transgene flow frequencies resulted from pollination is the first critical step for assessing such impacts, in addition to the determination of transgene expression and fitness in crop-wild hybrid descendants. Two methods are commonly used to estimate pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) frequencies: field experimenting and mathematical modeling...
December 30, 2016: AoB Plants
Evan Siemann, Saara J DeWalt, Jianwen Zou, William E Rogers
The success of invasive plants may reflect environmental differences in their native and introduced ranges including both abiotic and biotic conditions, such as release from aboveground herbivory. However, in response to these novel conditions, plants from invasive populations may have higher growth rates and lower defense levels compared to those in the native range. This may contribute to their success in the introduced range but perhaps not in the native range. Here, we grew 1000 Triadica sebifera plants from 14 native and introduced populations in seven common gardens with unmanaged background vegetation for three growing seasons in three geographic venues that varied in T...
December 30, 2016: AoB Plants
John F Gaskin
Hybridization events can generate additional genetic diversity upon which natural selection can act and at times enhance invasiveness of the species. Invasive tree species are a growing ecological concern worldwide, and some of these invasions involve hybridization events pre- or post-introduction. There are 20 hybrid invasive tree taxa in 15 genera (11 plant families) discussed here. When reported, abundance of hybrids comprised 10-100% of an invasion, the remainder being parental taxa. In seven hybrid taxa researchers identified phenotypes that may make hybrids better invaders...
December 26, 2016: AoB Plants
Zuzana MÜnzbergová, Jiří Skuhrovec
Previous studies demonstrated the effects of polyploidy on various aspects of plant life. It is, however, difficult to determine which plant characteristics are responsible for fitness differences between cytotypes. We assessed the relationship between polyploidy and seed production. To separate the effects of flowering phenology, flower head size and herbivores from other possible causes, we collected data on these characteristics in single flower heads of diploid and tetraploid Centaurea phrygia in an experimental garden...
December 23, 2016: AoB Plants
Casparus J Crous, Treena I Burgess, Johannes J Le Roux, David M Richardson, Bernard Slippers, Michael J Wingfield
Non-native trees have become dominant components of many landscapes, including urban ecosystems, commercial forestry plantations, fruit orchards, and as invasives in natural ecosystems. Often, these trees have been separated from their natural enemies (i.e. insects and pathogens) leading to ecological disequilibrium, that is, the immediate breakdown of historically co-evolved interactions once introduced into novel environments. Long-established, non-native tree plantations provide useful experiments to explore the dimensions of such ecological disequilibria...
December 23, 2016: AoB Plants
Susan Canavan, David M Richardson, Vernon Visser, Johannes J Le Roux, Maria S Vorontsova, John R U Wilson
There is a long history of species being moved around the world by humans. These introduced species can provide substantial benefits, but they can also have undesirable consequences. We explore the importance of human activities on the processes of species dissemination and potential invasions using the grass subfamily Bambusoideae ("bamboos"), a group that contains taxa that are widely utilised and that are often perceived as weedy. We (1) compiled an inventory of bamboo species and their current distributions; (2) determined which species have been introduced and become invasive outside their native ranges; and (3) explored correlates of introduction and invasion...
December 23, 2016: AoB Plants
Tania Jogesh, Rick P Overson, Robert A Raguso, Krissa A Skogen
Floral trait evolution is frequently attributed to pollinator-mediated selection but herbivores can play a key role in shaping plant reproductive biology. Here we examine the role of florivores in driving floral trait evolution and pollinator shifts in a recently radiated clade of flowering plants, Oenothera sect. Calylophus We compare florivory by a specialist, internal feeder, Mompha, on closely related hawkmoth- and bee-pollinated species and document variation in damage based on floral traits within sites, species and among species...
December 22, 2016: AoB Plants
Honglang Duan, Jianping Wu, Guomin Huang, Shuangxi Zhou, Wenfei Liu, Yingchun Liao, Xue Yang, Zufei Xiao, Houbao Fan
Heat waves in combination with drought are predicted to occur more frequently with climate warming, yet their interactive effects on crop carbon and water balance are still poorly understood. Hence, research on the capacity of crops to withstand and recover from the combined stress is urgently needed. This study investigated the effects of drought and heat wave on a crop species as well as the recovery from the combined stress. Seedlings were grown in growth chambers under two soil water conditions (i.e. well watered and drought stress) at ambient temperature (26°C) for 10 days...
December 22, 2016: AoB Plants
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"