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AoB Plants

Arne Mertens, Rein Brys, Dorien Schouppe, Hans Jacquemyn
The genetic diversity and structure of plant populations are determined by the interaction of three distinct processes: gene flow, genetic drift and natural selection. These processes are to some extent dependent on the mating system of plants, which in turn is largely determined by floral morphology and the level of herkogamy in particular. In this study, we used molecular markers to investigate the impact of floral morphology on genetic differentiation and structure in two closely related Centaurium species that display large variation in floral morphology across two distinct geographic regions in Europe (mainland Europe and the UK)...
October 2018: AoB Plants
Jingru Wang, Minghao Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Shan Sun, Aiping Zhang, Ning Chen, Changming Zhao
Homoploid hybrid speciation (HHS), characterized by hybrid speciation without a change in chromosome number and facilitated by ecological divergence, is well known in angiosperms but rare in gymnosperms. Picea purpurea as one of two demonstrably conifer diploid hybrid species in gymnosperms has been found to occupy colder alpine habitats than its parents. However, studies on whether leaf frost tolerance and hydraulic safety exhibit transgressive segregation and thus play a role in conifer HHS are still lacking...
October 2018: AoB Plants
Christopher Krieg, James E Watkins, Sally Chambers, Chad E Husby
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/aobpla/plx013.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/aobpla/plx013.].
October 2018: AoB Plants
Ganesh K Jaganathan, Kirsty J Yule, Matthew Biddick
Dormancy caused by impermeable seed coats, i.e. physical dormancy (PY), regulates the timing of seed germination in species of several genera belonging to 18 angiosperm families. Physical dormancy also occurs in some mimetic species whose seeds mimic brightly coloured, fleshy fruits or arilled seeds. However, the conditions that break dormancy, as well as the location of water gaps in mimetic seeds, remain unclear. Here, we investigated the adaptive role of impermeable coats in the mimetic seeds of Adenanthera pavonina (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae)...
October 2018: AoB Plants
Javier Bobo-Pinilla, Julio Peñas de Giles, Noemí López-González, Sonia Mediavilla, M Montserrat Martínez-Ortega
Quaternary glacial cycles appear to have had a consistent role in shaping the genetic diversity and structure of plant species. Despite the unusual combination of the characteristics of the western Mediterranean-Macaronesian area, there are no studies that have specifically examined the effects of palaeoclimatic and palaeogeographic factors on the genetic composition and structure of annual herbs. Astragalus edulis is a disjunct endemic found in the easternmost Canary Islands and the semi-arid areas of north-eastern Africa and south-eastern Iberian Peninsula...
October 2018: AoB Plants
Bruno Francisco Sant'Anna-Santos, Samuel Alves Dos Santos, Elaine L P Nunes, Dayana Maria Teodoro Francino, Wellington Geraldo Oliveira Carvalho Júnior
Butia is a neotropical genus whose identification is based mostly on characters from external morphology, which are sometimes variable or inadequate for species differentiation. We aimed to verify if leaf anatomy of 18 Butia species brings new characters suitable for species identification and if it corroborates the phylogenetic relationship within the genus. Moreover, we propose an anatomical key to assist in species identification. Pinnae were collected and subjected to the usual techniques for light and scanning electron microscopies...
August 2018: AoB Plants
Fabien Buissart, Michel Vennetier, Sylvain Delagrange, François Girard, Yves Caraglio, Sylvie-Annabel Sabatier, Alison D Munson, Eric-André Nicolini
Knowledge of plant architecture allows retrospective study of plant development, hence provides powerful tools, through modelling and simulation, to link this development with environmental constraints, and then predict its response to global change. The present study aims to determine some of the main endogenous and exogenous variables driving the architectural development of three North American conifers. We measured architectural traits retrospectively on the trunk, branches and twigs of whole tree crowns for each species: annual shoot length (ASL), needle length, branching patterns and reproduction organs (male and female)...
August 2018: AoB Plants
J F Scheepens, Ying Deng, Oliver Bossdorf
Under current climate change, increasing mean temperatures are not only causing hotter summers, but temperature variability is increasing as well. Phenotypic plasticity can help plants to overcome negative effects of temperature variability and allow them to rapidly adjust traits to adverse conditions. Moreover, genetic variation in such plasticity could provide potential for adaptive evolution in response to changing climate variability. Here, we conducted an experiment with 11 Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes to investigate intraspecific variation in plant responses to two aspects of variable temperature stress: timing and frequency...
August 2018: AoB Plants
Margarete A Dettlaff, Valerie Marshall, Nadir Erbilgin, James F Cahill
Although the negative effects of root herbivores on plant fitness are expected to be similar to those of above-ground herbivores, the study of below-ground plant defences is limited compared to the rich literature on above-ground defences. Current theory predicts that concentrations of defensive chemicals above- and below-ground should be correlated, as the evolutionary drivers that shape plant defence are similar across the whole plant. We conducted a field study to measure root condensed tannin concentrations in Populus tremuloides , and determine how they related to leaf condensed tannin concentrations, tree position within the stand (edge vs...
August 2018: AoB Plants
Hongyuan Ma, Todd E Erickson, David J Merritt
Seed dormancy status regulates the response of seeds to environmental cues that can trigger germination. Anigozanthos flavidus (Haemodoraceae) produces seeds with morphophysiological dormancy (MPD) that are known to germinate in response to smoke, but embryo growth dynamics and germination traits in response to temperatures and after-ripening have not been well characterized. Seeds of A. flavidus , after-ripened for 28 months at 15 °C/15 % relative humidity, were incubated on water agar, water agar containing 1 μM karrikinolide (KAR1 ) or 50 μM glyceronitrile at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 20/10 and 25/15 °C for 28 days...
August 2018: AoB Plants
Rachael L Olliff-Yang, Michael R Mesler
Climate change may alter the timing of flowering and pollinator activity to differing degrees, resulting in phenological mismatches between mutualistic partners. Assessing the potential for such mismatches requires an understanding of the environmental factors that cue flowering and pollinator activity. Biological context is key to determining specific impacts of climate change, and therefore it is important to study mutualisms with pollinators of different nesting biologies. Our study focused on the phenology of two mutualists native to the coastal dunes of northwestern California: the silky beach pea ( Lathyrus littoralis ) and its main pollinator, the ground-nesting solitary silver bee ( Habropoda miserabilis )...
August 2018: AoB Plants
Martin A Nuñez, Juan Paritsis
Invasive plant species can produce many impacts on native communities. Impacts can be especially important when the non-natives reach high densities, producing monospecific stands where little grows besides the non-native species. We propose three basic pathways by which monospecific stands of invasive tree species are formed: (i) gradually from the propagule source, (ii) via synchronous establishment and (iii) following several pulses of synchronous establishment. Different patterns can produce different impacts through time and may require different management techniques...
August 2018: AoB Plants
Roberto Sáyago, Mauricio Quesada, Ramiro Aguilar, Lorena Ashworth, Martha Lopezaraiza-Mikel, Silvana Martén-Rodríguez
Fragmentation of natural habitats generally has negative effects on the reproductive success of many plant species; however, little is known about epiphytic plants. We assessed the impact of forest fragmentation on plant-pollinator interactions and female reproductive success in two epiphytic Tillandsia species with contrasting life history strategies (polycarpic and monocarpic) in Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico, over three consecutive years. Hummingbirds were the major pollinators of both species and pollinator visitation rates were similar between habitat conditions...
August 2018: AoB Plants
Gordon G McNickle, Wesley D Evans
Damage to plants from natural enemies is a ubiquitous feature of the natural world. Accordingly, plants have evolved a variety of strategies to deal with attack from enemies including the ability to simply tolerate attack. Tolerance often involves some form of compensatory response, such as the regrowth of tissues following damage. While ecological models of defence are common, there has been less effort to make predictions about the evolutionary stability of tolerance. Here, we present and experimentally test a game theoretic model of tolerance to herbivory...
August 2018: AoB Plants
Isidore O Amahowe, Orou G Gaoue, Armand K Natta, Camille Piponiot, Irié C Zobi, Bruno Hérault
Understanding how trees mediate the effects of chronic anthropogenic disturbance is fundamental to developing forest sustainable management strategies. The role that intraspecific functional diversity plays in such process is poorly understood. Several tree species are repeatedly defoliated at large scale by cattle breeders in Africa to feed livestock. In addition, these tree species are also debarked for medicinal purposes. These human-induced disturbances lead to biomass loss and subsequent decline in the tree growth...
June 2018: AoB Plants
Zhe Wang, Maaike Y Bader
In vascular plants, there is a clear coupling between traits related to water and traits related to carbon economics. For bryophytes this coupling has been little studied but is expected to be strong, because in these poikilohydric plants photosynthesis varies strongly with water availability. We hypothesized that there is a trade-off between water-holding and photosynthetic capacities for mosses, resulting in a limited spectrum of possible trait combinations. At one end of this spectrum, mosses would tend to stay wet and active for long periods but would have slow photosynthetic rates...
June 2018: AoB Plants
Galini V Papadopoulou, Anne Maedicke, Katharina Grosser, Nicole M van Dam, Ainhoa Martínez-Medina
Phytohormones such as jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET) and abscisic acid (ABA) play a key role in regulation of plant immune responses to different attackers. Extensive research over recent years has led to the identification of molecular markers for specific hormonal-regulated defence pathways. However, most of our current knowledge on the regulation of plant immunity derives from studies focused on above-ground organs, mainly on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . Therefore, it is unclear whether the paradigms based on experiments on above-ground organs are entirely transferable to roots...
June 2018: AoB Plants
Heta Mattila, Dimitar Valev, Vesa Havurinne, Sergey Khorobrykh, Olli Virtanen, Mikko Antinluoma, Kumud B Mishra, Esa Tyystjärvi
Autumn senescence of deciduous trees is characterized by chlorophyll degradation and flavonoid synthesis. In the present study, chlorophyll and flavonol contents were measured every morning and evening during the whole autumn with a non-destructive method from individual leaves of Sorbus aucuparia , Acer platanoides , Betula pendula and Prunus padus . In most of the studied trees, the chlorophyll content of each individual leaf remained constant until a phase of rapid degradation commenced. The fast phase lasted only ~1 week and ended with abscission...
June 2018: AoB Plants
Qian Wang, Jianguo Gao, Ping Zhao, Liwei Zhu, Lei Ouyang, Guangyan Ni, Xiuhua Zhao
Although several studies on the night-time water use of different plant species have been reported, comparative studies under the same climatic conditions of a region are scarce. This study aimed to analyse the inter- and intraspecific variations in night-time water use in relation to environmental factors and to tree morphological features to understand and elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. The sap flow of three co-occurring tree species in a low subtropical secondary broadleaf forest in South China was monitored using Granier-style sap flux sensors...
June 2018: AoB Plants
Shivani Jadeja, Brigitte Tenhumberg
Both intrinsic and extrinsic plant processes affect the fate of flowers along an inflorescence in sequentially flowering plants. We investigated whether the intrinsic process of competition for limited resource between fruits and flowers owing to resource preemption or sink strength of basal fruits, or architectural effects due to positional differences in the probability of retaining flowers, explains a lower probability of retaining distal flowers in Yucca glauca . Further, we investigated how the extrinsic process of seed herbivory interacts with the plant's intrinsic processes of flower retention...
June 2018: AoB Plants
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