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AoB Plants

Nicolas Carton, Christophe Naudin, Guillaume Piva, Rim Baccar, Guénaëlle Corre-Hellou
Early strategies of crop growth and N acquisition can be critical for determining competitive interactions between weeds and crops. Grain legumes and especially lupins are known to be poor competitors against weeds. Grain legumes are known to have low mineral soil N uptake abilities. However, inter- and intraspecific differences in N uptake ability in relation to below-ground traits have received little attention. Our objectives were (i) to measure differences among lupins for a set of traits associated with early growth and N acquisition; (ii) to examine how this variation compares to differences between lupin and a cereal, triticale, and (iii) to assess if mixing lupin with triticale provides a higher potential than does pure lupin regarding plant biomass and mineral soil N acquisition early in the crop cycle...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Giovanni Scopece, Lucia Campese, Karl J Duffy, Salvatore Cozzolino
Plants involved in specialized pollinator interactions, such as nursery pollination, may experience trade-offs in their female fitness, as the larvae of their pollinators may also consume seeds produced by the flowers they pollinate. These interactions could potentially shift between mutualism and parasitism, depending on the presence and abundance of both the nursery pollinator and of other pollinators. We investigated the fitness trade-off in a Mediterranean plant (Silene latifolia), which has a specialist nocturnal nursery pollinator moth (Hadena bicruris) and is also visited by several diurnal pollinators...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Addisie Geremew, Melkamu G Woldemariam, Alemayehu Kefalew, Iris Stiers, Ludwig Triest
Limited seed or pollen dispersal enhances spatial genetic relatedness between individuals (fine-scale spatial genetic structure, FSGS), which usually decreases as a function of physical distance. However, such isotropic pattern of FSGS may not always occur when spatially asymmetric processes, for instance, wind direction during dispersal, are considered in wind-pollinated and -dispersed plants. This study assessed the pattern of FSGS in the keystone tropical wetland plant Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) as a function of these isotropic and anisotropic processes...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Kelley L Flaherty, James S Rentch, James T Anderson
Mechanisms of long-distance dispersal are important in establishing and maintaining plant populations in isolated wetland habitats. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been cited as long-distance dispersers of both native and exotic plant species in North America; however, knowledge regarding their influence in wetlands is limited. Given traditional classification methods for seed dispersal, white-tailed deer are not likely viewed as important dispersal mechanism for wetland plants. We collected naturally deposited white-tailed deer faecal pellet piles from wetlands in Canaan Valley, West Virginia, USA...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Jonathan T Bauer, Liz Koziol, James D Bever
Many plant species are limited to habitats relatively unaffected by anthropogenic disturbance, so protecting these undisturbed habitats is essential for plant conservation. Coefficients of conservatism (C values) were developed as indicators of a species' sensitivity to anthropogenic disturbance, and these values are used in Floristic Quality Assessment as a means of assessing natural areas and ecological restoration. However, assigning of these values is subjective and improved quantitative validation of C values is needed...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Friederike Gallenmüller, Max Langer, Simon Poppinga, Hanns-Heinz Kassemeyer, Thomas Speck
The ability to perform hygroscopic movements has evolved in many plant lineages and relates to a multitude of different functions such as seed burial, flower protection or regulation of diaspore release. In most mosses, spore release is controlled by hygroscopic movements of the peristome teeth and also of the spore capsule. Our study presents, for the first time, temporally and spatially well-resolved kinematic analyses of these complex shape changes in response to humidity conditions and provides insights into the sophisticated functional morphology and anatomy of the peristome teeth...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Yongxin Dai, Lin Wang, Xianchong Wan
Drought-induced tree mortality has been observed worldwide. Nevertheless, the physiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still being debated. Potted Robinia pseudoacacia and Platycladus orientalis saplings were subjected to drought and their hydraulic failure and carbon starvation responses were studied. They underwent simulated fast drought (FD) and slow drought (SD) until death. The dynamics of their growth, photosynthesis, water relations and carbohydrate concentration were measured. The results showed that during drought, growth and photosynthesis of all saplings were significantly reduced in both species...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Aniruddh Sastry, Anirban Guha, Deepak Barua
Understanding how tropical trees will respond to extreme temperatures and drought is essential to predict how future increases in the severity, frequency and duration of extreme climatic events will affect tropical systems. In this study, we investigated leaf thermotolerance by quantifying the temperatures that resulted in a 50 % decrease in photosystem II function (T50) in experimentally grown saplings of 12 tree species from a seasonally dry tropical forest. We examined the relationship of thermotolerance with leaf functional traits and photosynthetic rates...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Shanty Paul, Henning Wildhagen, Dennis Janz, Andrea Polle
Climate change with increasing periods of drought is expected to reduce the yield of biomass crops such as poplars. To combat yield loss, it is important to better understand the molecular mechanisms that control growth under drought. Here, the goal was to resolve the drought-induced changes of active cytokinins, a main growth hormone in plants, at the tissue level in different cell types and organs of poplars (Populus × canescens) in comparison with growth, biomass, leaf shedding, photosynthesis and water potential...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Colin M Orians, Sara Gomez, Timothy Korpita
Both mycorrhizae and herbivore damage cause rapid changes in source-sink dynamics within a plant. Mycorrhizae create long-term sinks for carbon within the roots while damage by leaf-chewing herbivores causes temporary whole-plant shifts in carbon and nitrogen allocation. Thus, induced responses to herbivory might depend on the presence or absence of mycorrhizae. We examined the effects of mycorrhizal presence on induced resource partitioning in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) in response to cues from a specialist herbivore Manduca sexta...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Kristine M Averill, David A Mortensen, Erica A H Smithwick, Susan Kalisz, William J McShea, Norman A Bourg, John D Parker, Alejandro A Royo, Marc D Abrams, David K Apsley, Bernd Blossey, Douglas H Boucher, Kai L Caraher, Antonio DiTommaso, Sarah E Johnson, Robert Masson, Victoria A Nuzzo
Herbivores can profoundly influence plant species assembly, including plant invasion, and resulting community composition. Population increases of native herbivores, e.g. white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), combined with burgeoning plant invasions raise concerns for native plant diversity and forest regeneration. While individual researchers typically test for the impact of deer on plant invasion at a few sites, the overarching influence of deer on plant invasion across regional scales is unclear. We tested the effects of deer on the abundance and diversity of introduced and native herbaceous and woody plants across 23 white-tailed deer research sites distributed across the east-central and north-eastern USA and representing a wide range of deer densities and invasive plant abundance and identity...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Charlotte C Dietrich, Juergen Kreyling, Anke Jentsch, Andrey V Malyshev
Winter warming and its accompanying predicted decrease in snow pack for northern temperate regions may increase frost damage to plants induced by an increase in freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) due to reduced insulation. FTC frequency, minimum temperature during freezing and pre-existing local adaptations potentially all influence site-specific plant responses to future climatic changes. Within a chamber experiment, frost sensitivity towards recurrent FTCs was determined in 12 Dactylis glomerata populations from various European sampling sites differing in temperature and precipitation...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Tanya H Hevroy, Michael L Moody, Siegfried L Krauss
Landscape features and life-history traits affect gene flow, migration and drift to impact on spatial genetic structure of species. Understanding this is important for managing genetic diversity of threatened species. This study assessed the spatial genetic structure of the rare riparian Grevillea sp. Cooljarloo (Proteaceae), which is restricted to a 20 km2 region impacted by mining in the northern sandplains of the Southwest Australian Floristic Region, an international biodiversity hotspot. Within creek lines and floodplains, the distribution is largely continuous...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Jordana Neri, Tânia Wendt, Clarisse Palma-Silva
Reproductive isolation is of fundamental importance for maintaining species boundaries in sympatry. Here, we examine the genetic and morphological differences between two closely related bromeliad species: Vriesea simplex and Vriesea scalaris. Furthermore, we examined the occurrence of natural hybridization and discuss the action of reproductive isolation barriers. Nuclear genomic admixture suggests hybridization in sympatric populations, although interspecific gene flow is low among species in all sympatric zones (Nem < 0...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Xin Jin, Yu Chen, Ping Liu, Chen Li, Xingxing Cai, Jun Rong, Bao-Rong Lu
Maintaining genetic integrity is essential for in situ and ex situ conservation of crop wild relative (CWR) species. However, introgression of crop alleles into CWR species/populations may change their genetic structure and diversity, resulting in more invasive weeds or, in contrast, the extinction of endangered populations. To determine crop-wild introgression and its consequences, we examined the genetic structure and diversity of six wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) populations under in situ conservation in China...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Pushp S Shukla, Katy Shotton, Erin Norman, Will Neily, Alan T Critchley, Balakrishnan Prithiviraj
There is an increasing global concern about the availability of water for agricultural use. Drought stress negatively impacts plant physiology and crop productivity. Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the important oilseed crops, and its productivity is often reduced by drought. In this study, a commercial extract of Ascophyllum nodosum (ANE) was evaluated for its potential to alleviate drought stress in soybean. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ANE on the response of soybean plants to drought stress by monitoring stomatal conductance, relative leaf water content, antioxidant activity and expression of stress-responsive genes...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Zhi-Huan Huang, Yun-Peng Song, Shuang-Quan Huang
When insect activity is limited at low temperature, birds may be comparatively more important pollinators than insects for flowering plants. It has been thought that many large-flowered Rhododendron species are pollinated by local birds in the Himalayan regions because most of these species flower in spring at high elevation with cool atmospheric temperature. However, experimental evidence for the role of bird pollination in this hyperdiverse genus remains scarce. To examine the role of birds and insects in pollination, we observed floral visitors to 15 Rhododendron species with different floral sizes and abundant flowering individuals in the eastern Himalayas, Southwest China...
November 2017: AoB Plants
Stephanie M Koontz, Carl W Weekley, Sarah J Haller Crate, Eric S Menges
Cleistogamy (CL) in angiosperms historically has been understudied; however, its co-occurrence with chasmogamy (CH) across many plant species suggests a fitness advantage to maintaining this mixed-mating strategy. Maintenance of mixed-mating has been attributed to reproductive assurance, resource allocation or genetic trade-offs. Our goals were to explore patterns of CH and CL, quantify reproductive contributions measured by fruit production and determine how CL is maintained in the endangered perennial Polygala lewtonii...
November 2017: AoB Plants
Shou-Cheng Huang, Shu-Juan Chu, Yu-Min Guo, Ya-Jing Ji, Dong-Qing Hu, Jing Cheng, Gui-Hua Lu, Rong-Wu Yang, Cheng-Yi Tang, Jin-Liang Qi, Yong-Hua Yang
Aluminium (Al) toxicity is one of the most important limiting factors for crop yield in acidic soils. However, the mechanisms that confer Al tolerance still remain largely unknown. To understand the molecular mechanism that confers different tolerance to Al, we performed global transcriptome analysis to the roots and leaves of two contrasting soybean genotypes, BX10 (Al-tolerant) and BD2 (Al-sensitive) under 0 and 50 μM Al3+ treatments, respectively. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that the expression levels of the genes involved in lipid/carbohydrate metabolism and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated signalling pathway were highly induced in the roots and leaves of both soybean genotypes...
November 2017: AoB Plants
Bernd Blossey, David L Gorchov
White-tailed deer are emblematic ungulates that, due to anthropogenic modification of landscapes, currently occur at elevated densities. Elevated deer densities often co-occur with non-native plants, but it is not known if plant invasions are a consequence of deer impacts or occur independent of deer impacts on ecosystems, or whether these two stressors are synergistic. A colloquium on 'Interactions of white-tailed deer and invasive plants in forests of eastern North America' explored these topics at the 2016 annual meeting of the Botanical Society of America...
November 2017: AoB Plants
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