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Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation

Francesca Colonese, Valentina Lucia La Rosa, Antonio Simone Laganà, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Diego Cortinovis, Paolo Bidoli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Claudia Harper, Andrea L Pattinson, Hamish A Fernando, Jessica Zibellini, Radhika V Seimon, Amanda Sainsbury
BACKGROUND: New evidence suggests that obesity is deleterious for bone health, and obesity treatments could potentially exacerbate this. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This narrative review, largely based on recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses, synthesizes the effects on bone of bariatric surgery, weight loss pharmaceuticals and dietary restriction. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: All three obesity treatments result in statistically significant reductions in hip bone mineral density (BMD) and increases in bone turnover relative to pre-treatment values, with the reductions in hip BMD being strongest for bariatric surgery, notably Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB, 8%-11% of pre-surgical values) and weakest for dietary restriction (1%-1...
September 26, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Audrey Rousseaud, Stephanie Moriceau, Mariana Ramos-Brossier, Franck Oury
Reciprocal relationships between organs are essential to maintain whole body homeostasis. An exciting interplay between two apparently unrelated organs, the bone and the brain, has emerged recently. Indeed, it is now well established that the brain is a powerful regulator of skeletal homeostasis via a complex network of numerous players and pathways. In turn, bone via a bone-derived molecule, osteocalcin, appears as an important factor influencing the central nervous system by regulating brain development and several cognitive functions...
September 2, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Albert Pérez-Martí, Viviana Sandoval, Pedro F Marrero, Diego Haro, Joana Relat
Obesity is a worldwide health problem mainly due to its associated comorbidities. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a peptide hormone involved in metabolic homeostasis in healthy individuals and considered a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity. FGF21 is predominantly produced by the liver but also by other tissues, such as white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), skeletal muscle, and pancreas in response to different stimuli such as cold and different nutritional challenges that include fasting, high-fat diets (HFDs), ketogenic diets, some amino acid-deficient diets, low protein diets, high carbohydrate diets or specific dietary bioactive compounds...
September 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Chenthuran Deivaraju, H Thomas Temple, Norman Block, Philip Robinson, Andrew V Schally
AIM: Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) is a neurohormone, secreted by the hypothalamus, which regulates the secretion of gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary. LHRH acts by binding to receptors located in the pituitary gland. These receptors (LHRH receptors) have also been found in the cytoplasm of many tumor cells that involve both the reproductive and non-reproductive organs. These receptors have been demonstrated in prostate and breast cancers, endometrial carcinomas, renal cell carcinoma, lymphoma, carcinoma of liver, pancreas and skin...
August 17, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Mone Zaidi, Li Sun, Peng Liu, Terry F Davies, Maria New, Alberta Zallone, Tony Yuen
Pituitary hormones have traditionally been thought to exert specific, but limited function on target tissues. More recently, the discovery of these hormones and their receptors in organs such as the skeleton suggests that pituitary hormones have more ubiquitous functions. Here, we discuss the interaction of growth hormone (GH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), prolactin, oxytocin and arginine vasopressin (AVP) with bone. The direct skeletal action of pituitary hormones therefore provides new insights and therapeutic opportunities for metabolic bone diseases, prominently osteoporosis...
August 10, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Ozlem Gun Eryilmaz, Hatice Kansu-Celik, Ozcan Erel, Serpil Erdogan
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the alterations in thiol levels among mothers and neonates who were prone to medical oxytocin induction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 pregnant women who underwent medical labor induction with oxytocin (Group A) were compared with 53 women whose labor progressed spontaneously without any kind of induction (Group B). We measured the thiol/disulfide homeostasis parameters (native thiol, total thiol, disulfide, disulfide/total thiol, disulfide/native thiol) of maternal and cord blood...
August 9, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Vitaly B Tskhay, Natalya M Kovtun, Adolf E Schindler
The presented clinical example convincingly demonstrates the efficacy of dydrogesterone (30 mg) in the prevention of severe preeclampsia in a high-risk patient (early development of preeclampsia and preterm Cesarean section in her first pregnancy, arterial hypertension). This case suggests using dydrogesterone as an option to prevent preeclampsia, as previously shown in a prospective randomized study.
September 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Anizah Bt Ali, Mohd Faizal B Ahmad, Ng Beng Kwang, Lim Pei Shan, Nasir Mohamed Shafie, Mohd Hashim Omar
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia (PE) contributes to poor maternal morbidity and mortality. Progesterone is hypothesised to reduce the risk of PE. AIM: To determine the effect of progestogen supplementation during assisted reproductive technique (ART) in reducing the incidence of PE. METHOD: A retrospective comparative analysis among 1140 pregnancies between January 2006 and March 2015 conducted in a tertiary centre. A total of 570 pregnancies who conceived following ART with progesterone supplementation (study group) and an age-matched spontaneous pregnancies, without progesterone supplementation (control group, n=570) were included in the analysis...
September 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Igor Hudic, Adolf E Schindler, Julia Szekeres-Bartho, Babill Stray-Pedersen
Progestin supplementation appears to be a promising approach to both preventing initiation of pre-term labor and treating it once it is already established. Successful pregnancy depends on maternal tolerance of the fetal "semi-allograft". A protein called progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF), by inducing a Th2 dominant cytokine production mediates the immunological effects of progesterone. Over time, various attempts have been made to clarify the question, whether progestogens can contribute positively to either prevention or treatment of pre-term labor and birth...
September 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Jia Ying Goh, Song He, John Carson Allen, Rahul Malhotra, Thiam Chye Tan
BACKGROUND: Progesterone is an important biomarker of early pregnancy failure. However, literature is limited regarding factors that influence progesterone levels in early pregnancy. Maternal obesity has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and serum progesterone level in first trimester singleton pregnancies for 194 women at a tertiary maternity hospital in Singapore, from January 2012 to February 2014...
September 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Keat Sim Ng, Beng Kwang Ng, Pei Shan Lim, Mohd Nasir Shafiee, Abdul Kadir Abdul Karim, Mohd Hashim Omar
Congenital uterine anomalies have been associated with poor reproductive outcome, which include recurrent miscarriage, abruptio placenta, intra-uterine growth restriction and preterm delivery. Here, we report a case: 36 years old, G3P2, known case of uterine didelphys, with history of preterm birth, who successfully carried her pregnancy till term with weekly intramuscular injection of 250 mg hydroxyprogesterone caproate (®Proluton Depot, Zuellig Pharma).
September 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Adolf E Schindler
Over time, it became evident that with the use of micronized progesterone and dydrogesterone prevention or treatment of pregnancy disorders such as threatened miscarriage, recurrent (habitual) miscarriage, preterm labor or preeclampsia appears to be possible. The results so far obtained will be delineated and concepts of prevention or treatment are suggested with the aim to further explore these pregnancy disorders either by prevention or treatment concepts to obtain not only benefits to the mother and the fetus, but furthermore this results in benefits for lifetime for the individual, for the family and last but not least for society...
August 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Zainul Rashid Mohamad Razi, Adolf E Schindler
INTRODUCTION: Gestational hypertension remains one of the main causes of maternal deaths all over the world. Attempts to reduce/prevent the incidence had failed due to lack of understanding of the disease's aetiology. One of the early roles of natural progesterone in the first trimester of pregnancy is to promote formation of wide-calibre spiral vessels that invade into the myometrial layer of the gravid uterus. Theoretically, this will prevent or reduce the incidence of gestational hypertension in the latter half of the pregnancy...
August 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Raj Raghupathy, Julia Szekeres-Bartho
Progesterone is indispensable for the maintenance of pregnancy, both via its endocrine effects and its role in creating a favorable immunological environment for the fetus. This review focuses on the immunological effects of progesterone. Progestogens have been shown to have very interesting effects on cytokine production and decidual natural killer (NK) cell activity. The orally-administered progestogen, dydrogesterone, has the ability to modulate cytokine production patterns in a manner that could be conducive to successful pregnancy...
August 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Rima Anggrena Dasrilsyah, Lim Pei Shan, Ng Beng Kwang, Mohamad Nasir Shafiee, Mohd Hashim Omar
Adenomyosis is a common gynaecological disorder that is associated with infertility and miscarriage. We report a case of adenomyosis presented with urinary retention and infertility. The patient successfully conceived spontaneously following GnRHa followed by progestogen therapy. This treatment option might provide a synergistic effect in improving fertility and pregnancy outcome for women with adenomyosis. This modality has no potential surgical risk; it minimises the long-term side effects of GnRHa and also provides luteal support...
August 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Howard J A Carp
Progestational agents are often prescribed to prevent threatened miscarriage progressing to miscarriage, and subsequent miscarriages in recurrent pregnancy loss. Progestogens affect implantation, cytokine balance, natural killer cell activity, arachidonic acid release and myometrial contractility. A recent Cochrane review reported that progestogens were effective for treating threatened miscarriage with no harmful effects on mother or fetus. The results were not statistically different when vaginal progesterone was compared to placebo, (RR=0...
August 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Sonny Bherwani, Srushtee Bipin Jibhkate, A S Saumya, Sitendu Kumar Patel, Ritu Singh, L H Ghotekar
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous disease characterised by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin and insulin resistance. Diabetes is occurring at younger age in India. It is estimated that 20% of the type 2 DM patients reach end-stage renal disease (ESRD) during their lifetime. Recently, it has been proposed that hypomagnesaemia is a novel factor implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Considering this, a study was designed to estimate the prevalence and association of hypomagnesaemia with diabetic nephropathy in North Indian population...
July 14, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Gian Carlo Di Renzo, Irene Giardina, Graziano Clerici, Eleonora Brillo, Sandro Gerli
Progesterone is an essential hormone in the process of reproduction. It is involved in the menstrual cycle, implantation and is essential for pregnancy maintenance. It has been proposed and extensively used in the treatment of different gynecological pathologies as well as in assisted reproductive technologies and in the maintenance of pregnancy. Called "the pregnancy hormone", natural progesterone is essential before pregnancy and has a crucial role in its maintenance based on different mechanisms such as: modulation of maternal immune response and suppression of inflammatory response (the presence of progesterone and its interaction with progesterone receptors at the decidua level appears to play a major role in the maternal defense strategy), reduction of uterine contractility (adequate progesterone concentrations in myometrium are able to counteract prostaglandin stimulatory activity as well as oxytocin), improvement of utero-placental circulation and luteal phase support (it has been demonstrated that progesterone may promote the invasion of extravillous trophoblasts to the decidua by inhibiting apoptosis of extravillous trophoblasts)...
July 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Adolf E Schindler, Jorge R Pasqualini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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