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International Journal of Inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795867/the-role-of-tlr2-tlr4-and-tlr9-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#1
REVIEW
Mohsin H K Roshan, Amos Tambo, Nikolai P Pace
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key players in the pathogenesis of inflammatory conditions including coronary arterial disease (CAD). They are expressed by a variety of immune cells where they recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLRs recruit adaptor molecules, including myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MYD88) and TIRF-related adaptor protein (TRAM), to mediate activation of MAPKs and NF-kappa B pathways. They are associated with the development of CAD through various mechanisms...
2016: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293953/inflammatory-serum-protein-profiling-of-patients-with-lumbar-radicular-pain-one-year-after-disc-herniation
#2
Aurora Moen, Anne-Li Lind, Måns Thulin, Masood Kamali-Moghaddam, Cecilie Røe, Johannes Gjerstad, Torsten Gordh
Earlier studies suggest that lumbar radicular pain following disc herniation may be associated with a local or systemic inflammatory process. In the present study, we investigated the serum inflammatory protein profile of such patients. All 45 patients were recruited from Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, during the period 2007-2009. The new multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) technology was used to analyze the levels of 92 proteins. Interestingly, the present data showed that patients with radicular pain 12 months after disc herniation may be different from other patients with regard to many measurable serum cytokines...
2016: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26998377/the-effect-of-periodontitis-on-expression-of-interleukin-21-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Archana Mootha, Sankari Malaiappan, N D Jayakumar, Sheeja S Varghese, Julie Toby Thomas
Purpose. Inflammation and tissue breakdown are led by an array of inflammatory destructive mediators associated with initiation and progression of inflammatory diseases like periodontitis. Current evidence shows that these inflammatory mediators have a definitive role in the pathogenesis of various systemic diseases with an inflammatory component. Interleukin-21 (IL-21) has been associated with systemic diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease that follow a chronic inflammatory cascade. Similarly recent studies have associated Interleukin-21 levels with periodontitis...
2016: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26981311/association-of-alanine-aminotransferase-and-periodontitis-a-cross-sectional-analysis-nhanes-2009-2012
#4
R Constance Wiener, Usha Sambamoorthi, Richard J Jurevic
Objective. Alanine Aminotransferase is an enzyme associated with not only liver diseases, liver conditions, and metabolic syndrome, but also inflammation. Periodontitis is associated with increased cytokines and other markers of inflammation. The purpose of this study is to determine if an independent association between Alanine Aminotransferase and periodontitis exists. Methods. Data from the 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) were combined. Data concerning periodontitis and Alanine Aminotransferase were extracted and analyzed with Rao Scott Chi-square and logistic regressions...
2016: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26966610/the-pattern-of-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-in-a-single-tertiary-center-in-saudi-arabia
#5
Mohammad H Al-Hemairi, Shatha M Albokhari, Mohammed A Muzaffer
Introduction. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic arthritis in children. Our aim is to describe demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics and treatment of JIA patients followed up in Pediatric Rheumatology clinic in a tertiary center in Saudi Arabia. Methods. Medical records of all patients who are followed up between January 2007 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected about demographic, clinical, and laboratory features and treatment. Results...
2016: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26925290/investigation-of-the-anti-inflammatory-and-analgesic-activities-of-ethanol-extract-of-stem-bark-of-sonapatha-oroxylum-indicum-in-vivo
#6
K Lalrinzuali, M Vabeiryureilai, Ganesh Chandra Jagetia
Inflammation is all a pervasive phenomenon, which is elicited by the body in response to obnoxious stimuli as a protective measure. However, sustained inflammation leads to several diseases including cancer. Therefore it is necessary to neutralize inflammation. Sonapatha (Oroxylum indicum), a medicinal plant, is traditionally used as a medicine in Ayurveda and other folk systems of medicine. It is commonly used to treat inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and asthma. Despite this fact its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects are not evaluated scientifically...
2016: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26885437/intravenous-immunoglobulins-mode-of-action-and-indications-in-autoimmune-and-inflammatory-dermatoses
#7
REVIEW
Lyubomir A Dourmishev, Dimitrina V Guleva, Ljubka G Miteva
Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs), a mixture of variable amounts of proteins (albumin, IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE antibodies), as well as salt, sugar, solvents, and detergents, are successfully used to treat a variety of dermatological disorders. For decades, IVIGs have been administered for treatment of infectious diseases and immune deficiencies, since they contain natural antibodies that represent a first-line defense against pathogens. Today their indication has expanded, including the off-label therapy for a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases...
2016: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26881175/nicotine-inhibits-clostridium-difficile-toxin-a-induced-colitis-but-not-ileitis-in-rats
#8
Steven R Vigna
Nicotine is protective in ulcerative colitis but not Crohn's disease of the small intestine, but little is known about the effects of nicotine on Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis. Isolated ileal or colonic segments in anesthetized rats were pretreated with nicotine bitartrate or other pharmacological agents before intraluminal injection of toxin A. After 3 hours, the treated segments were removed and inflammation was assessed. Nicotine biphasically inhibited toxin A colitis but not ileitis. Pretreatment with the nicotinic receptor antagonist, hexamethonium, blocked the effects of nicotine...
2016: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26881174/eola1-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-vascular-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-expression-by-association-with-mt2a-in-ecv304-cells
#9
Weiling Leng, Xiaotian Lei, Hao Meng, Xinshou Ouyang, Ziwen Liang
Our research group firstly discovered endothelial-overexpressed lipopolysaccharide-associated factor 1 (EOLA1, GenBank number AY074889) as a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsive gene in ECV304 cells. The previous studies have further demonstrated the association of EOLA1 with metallothionein 2A (MT2A), while the role of EOLA1 during LPS-induced inflammatory response in ECV304 cells is unknown. In this report, we determined the subcellular localization of EOLA1 and the regulatory capacity of EOLA1 on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in response to LPS in ECV304 cells...
2015: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26839731/angiogenesis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
REVIEW
Canan Alkim, Huseyin Alkim, Ali Riza Koksal, Salih Boga, Ilker Sen
Angiogenesis is an important component of pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Chronic inflammation and angiogenesis are two closely related processes. Chronic intestinal inflammation is dependent on angiogenesis and this angiogenesis is modulated by immune system in IBD. Angiogenesis is a very complex process which includes multiple cell types, growth factors, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and signal transduction. Lymphangiogenesis is a new research area in the pathogenesis of IBD. While angiogenesis supports inflammation via leukocyte migration, carrying oxygen and nutrients, on the other hand, it has a major role in wound healing...
2015: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26798546/vegfr-2-expression-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-depends-on-inflammatory-tumor-microenvironment
#11
Jana Jaal, Marju Kase, Ave Minajeva, Mikk Saretok, Aidi Adamson, Jelizaveta Junninen, Tõnis Metsaots, Tõnu Jõgi, Madis Joonsalu, Markus Vardja, Toomas Asser
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most angiogenic tumors. However, antiangiogenic therapy has not shown significant clinical efficacy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of inflammatory tumor microenvironment on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). Surgically excised primary GBM tissues were histologically examined for overall extent of inflammation (score 1-3). After immunohistochemistry, the tissue expression of ICAM-1 (optical density), the number of VEGFR-2 positive (VEGFR-2+) blood vessels (per microscopic field), and the endothelial staining intensity of VEGFR-2 (score 0-3) were determined...
2015: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26770865/ccr7-receptor-expression-in-mono-mac-1-cells-modulation-by-liver-x-receptor-%C3%AE-activation-and-prostaglandin-e-2
#12
Bérengère Tanné, Stéphane Bernier, Nancy Dumais
Cell migration via chemokine receptor CCR7 expression is an essential function of the immune system. We previously showed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an important immunomodulatory molecule, increases CCR7 expression and function in monocytes. Here, we explore the role of the liver X receptor α (LXRα) activation on CCR7 expression in Mono-Mac-1 (MM-1) cells in the presence of PGE2. To do this, MM-1 cells were stimulated with the LXRα synthetic agonist T0901317 in the presence or absence of PGE2. CCR7 mRNA transcription was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and protein expression was examined using flow cytometry...
2015: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26550518/curbing-inflammation-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-endometriosis-should-mast-cells-be-targeted
#13
REVIEW
David A Hart
Inflammatory diseases and conditions can arise due to responses to a variety of external and internal stimuli. They can occur acutely in response to some stimuli and then become chronic leading to tissue damage and loss of function. While a number of cell types can be involved, mast cells are often present and can be involved in the acute and chronic processes. Recent studies in porcine and rabbit models have supported the concept of a central role for mast cells in a "nerve-mast cell-myofibroblast axis" in some inflammatory processes leading to fibrogenic outcomes...
2015: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457222/lipopolysaccharide-from-rhodobacter-sphaeroides-attenuates-microglia-mediated-inflammation-and-phagocytosis-and-directs-regulatory-t-cell-response
#14
Sagar Gaikwad, Reena Agrawal-Rajput
Microglia activation and neuroinflammation are key events during the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Microglia exhibits toll-like receptors (TLRs), with predominant expression of TLR4, inducing aberrant neuroinflammation and exacerbated neurotoxicity. Studies suggest that microglia initiate infiltration of T cells into the brain that critically influence disease conditions. We report that LPS-Rs, through TLR4 antagonism, significantly inhibit TLR4 mediated inflammatory molecules like IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, iNOS, and NO...
2015: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26366318/smoking-status-effect-on-inflammatory-markers-in-a-randomized-trial-of-current-and-former-heavy-smokers
#15
Sami Aldaham, Janet A Foote, H-H Sherry Chow, Iman A Hakim
Background. The level of systemic inflammation as measured by circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) is linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer. Methods. We recruited 154 current and former smokers between 40 and 80 years of age with 25 or more pack-years of smoking history to study the relationship between inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6) and smoking status. Results. Our results show that male smokers had significantly higher levels of serum IL-6 compared to male former smokers...
2015: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26356299/curbing-inflammation-in-skin-wound-healing-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Rodrigo G Rosique, Marina J Rosique, Jayme A Farina Junior
Wound healing is a complex regulated process that results in skin scar formation in postnatal mammals. Chronic wounds are major medical problems that can confer devastating consequences. Currently, there are no treatments to prevent scarring. In the early fetus wounds heal without scarring and the healing process is characterized by relatively less inflammation compared to adults; therefore, research aimed at reducing the inflammatory process related to wound healing might speed healing and improve the final scar appearance...
2015: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26346739/deciphering-asthma-biomarkers-with-protein-profiling-technology
#17
REVIEW
Zhizhou Kuang, Jarad J Wilson, Shuhong Luo, Si-Wei Zhu, Ruo-Pan Huang
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, resulting in bronchial hyperresponsiveness with every allergen exposure. It is now clear that asthma is not a single disease, but rather a multifaceted syndrome that results from a variety of biologic mechanisms. Asthma is further problematic given that the disease consists of many variants, each with its own etiologic and pathophysiologic factors, including different cellular responses and inflammatory phenotypes. These facets make the rapid and accurate diagnosis (not to mention treatments) of asthma extremely difficult...
2015: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26078911/erratum-to-adaptive-immunity-and-inflammation
#18
Vincenzo Brancaleone, Asif Jilani Iqbal, Nikolaos Paschalidis, Francesco Maione
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2015/575406.].
2015: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26064774/influence-of-body-mass-index-on-inflammatory-profile-at-admission-in-critically-ill-septic-patients
#19
Fernando G Zampieri, Vanessa Jacob, Hermes V Barbeiro, Fabiano Pinheiro da Silva, Heraldo P de Souza
Introduction. Inflammation is ubiquitous during sepsis and may be influenced by body mass index (BMI). We sought to evaluate if BMI was associated with serum levels of several cytokines measured at intensive care unit admission due to sepsis. Methods. 33 septic patients were included. An array of thirty-two cytokines and chemokines was measured using Milliplex technology. We assessed the association between cytokine levels and BMI by generalized additive model that also included illness severity (measured by SAPS 3 score); one model was built for each cytokine measured...
2015: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26064773/role-of-micrornas-in-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-mediated-cardiovascular-inflammation-and-remodeling
#20
REVIEW
Maricica Pacurari, Paul B Tchounwou
MicroRNAs are endogenous regulators of gene expression either by inhibiting translation or protein degradation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs play a role in cardiovascular disease and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system- (RAAS-) mediated cardiovascular inflammation, either as mediators or being targeted by RAAS pharmacological inhibitors. The exact role(s) of microRNAs in RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling is/are still in early stage of investigation. However, few microRNAs have been shown to play a role in RAAS signaling, particularly miR-155, miR-146a/b, miR-132/122, and miR-483-3p...
2015: International Journal of Inflammation
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