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World Journal of Radiology

Yu-Ting Wang, Xiong Yan, Hong Pu, Long-Lin Yin
AIM: To investigate the utility of renal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to detect early renal damage in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Twenty-six diabetic patients (12 with microalbuminuria (MAU), and 14 with normoalbuminuria) and fourteen healthy volunteers were prospectively included in this study. Renal DTI on 3.0 T MR was performed, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was recorded for each subject. Mean cortical and medullary fractional anisotropy (FA) values were calculated by placing multiple representative regions of interest...
August 28, 2018: World Journal of Radiology
Fabio Spanu, Luca Saba
Emery dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is a rare genetic syndrome consisting of tendon retractions, progressive muscle atrophy and cardiac involvement. We report a case of an obese patient affected by the familial X-linked form in which a pericallosal lipoma was found during investigation for a suspected acute vasculopathy. To date, EDMD has never been associated with cerebral lipomas and the X-linked form was never considered to be involved in lipodystrophic syndromes or non-muscular conditions. Our case confirms the variable expressivity of the disease and suggests a possible role of Emerin in the intranuclear regulation of signals for adipocyte cell differentiation...
July 28, 2018: World Journal of Radiology
Erkan Gokce, Murat Beyhan
AIM: To evaluate radiological imaging findings of patients who had been found to have pineal cyst (PC) in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: A total of 9546 patients who had brain MRI examination in March 2010-January 2018 period were studied. Fifty-six patients (44 female and 12 male) found to have PC were evaluated. Eighteen of the patients had had follow-up examinations of 2-94 mo (mean 30.50 ± 28.83). PC dimensions and volume, radiological imaging features (signal intensities, contours, internal septation-loculation and contrast-enhancement features) and natural history in cases who had been followed-up were evaluated by two radiologists...
July 28, 2018: World Journal of Radiology
Nanae Tsuchiya, Edwin Jr van Beek, Yoshiharu Ohno, Hiroto Hatabu, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Andrew Swift, Jens Vogel-Claussen, Jürgen Biederer, James Wild, Mark O Wielpütz, Mark L Schiebler
Pulmonary contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) is useful for the primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). Many sites have chosen not to use CE-MRA as a first line of diagnostic tool for PE because of the speed and higher efficacy of computerized tomographic angiography (CTA). In this review, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of CE-MRA and the appropriate imaging scenarios for the primary diagnosis of PE derived from our unique multi-institutional experience in this area. The optimal patient for this test has a low to intermediate suspicion for PE based on clinical decision rules...
June 28, 2018: World Journal of Radiology
Aldo Fischetti, Jeries P Zawaideh, Davide Orlandi, Stefano Belfiore, Enzo SIlvestri
Tears of peroneus brevis tendon represent a cause of underdiagnosed lateral ankle pain and instability. The typical clinical presentation is retro-malleolar pain, in some cases associated with palpable swelling around the fibular malleolus, pain during activities and difficulty in walking. We present a case of peroneus brevis split lesion with superior peroneal retinaculum avulsion in a young athlete who referred to the emergency ward of our hospital for left ankle pain after an inversion injury. An early diagnosis allowed treating the injury and promptly resuming sport activity, after rehabilitation training...
May 28, 2018: World Journal of Radiology
Ahmet Mesrur Halefoglu, David Mark Yousem
Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a recently developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that is increasingly being used to narrow the differential diagnosis of many neurologic disorders. It exploits the magnetic susceptibility differences of various compounds including deoxygenated blood, blood products, iron and calcium, thus enabling a new source of contrast in MR. In this review, we illustrate its basic clinical applications in neuroimaging. SWI is based on a fully velocity-compensated, high-resolution, three dimensional gradient-echo sequence using magnitude and phase images either separately or in combination with each other, in order to characterize brain tissue...
April 28, 2018: World Journal of Radiology
Audrey E Kaufman, Alison N Pruzan, Ching Hsu, Sarayu Ramachandran, Adam Jacobi, Zahi A Fayad, Venkatesh Mani
AIM: To examine effects of computed tomography (CT) image acquisition/reconstruction parameters on clot volume quantification in vitro for research method validation purposes. METHODS: This study was performed in conformance with HIPAA and IRB Regulations (March 2015-November 2016). A ten blood clot phantom was designed and scanned on a dual-energy CT scanner (SOMATOM Force, Siemens Healthcare GmBH, Erlangen, Germany) with varying pitch, iterative reconstruction, energy level and slice thickness...
March 28, 2018: World Journal of Radiology
David Campos-Correia, João Cruz, António P Matos, Filipa Figueiredo, Miguel Ramalho
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually develops in the setting of chronic liver disease. In the adequate clinical context, both multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT and magnetic resonance imaging are non-invasive modalities that allow accurate diagnosis and staging of HCC, although the latter demonstrates greater sensitivity and specificity. Imaging criteria for HCC diagnosis rely on hemodynamic features such as hyperenhancement in the arterial phase and washout in the portal or equilibrium phase. However, imaging performance drops considerably for small (< 20 mm) nodules because their tendency to exhibit atypical enhancement patterns...
February 28, 2018: World Journal of Radiology
Ulf Jensen-Kondering, Ruwen Böhm
[This corrects the article on p. 4 in vol. 5, PMID: 23671751.].
January 28, 2018: World Journal of Radiology
Tarik Delko, Diana Mattiello, Thomas Koestler, Urs Zingg, Silke Potthast
AIM: To evaluate upper abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan as primary follow-up after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the State of Zurich, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Sixty-one patients who underwent LRYGB received upper abdominal CT on postoperative day 1, with the following scan parameters: 0.6 mm collimation, 1.2 mm pitch, CareKV with reference 120 mAs and 120 kV, and 0...
January 28, 2018: World Journal of Radiology
Abhishek Mahajan, G V Santhoshkumar, Ameya Shirish Kawthalkar, Richa Vaish, Nilesh Sable, Supreeta Arya, Subhash Desai
We present a case of tubercular arthritis who underwent numerous unnecessary investigations what is known as "victims of modern imaging technology" or VOMIT. Today there is an exponential rise in the volume of the medical imaging, part of which is contributed by unnecessary and unjustified indications. We discuss about the untoward effects of the uninhibited and careless use of modern imaging modalities and possible ways to avoid. Skeletal manifestation of the tuberculosis is still common in the endemic countries like India...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
Jose Gavito-Higuera, Rakesh Khatri, Ihtesham A Qureshi, Alberto Maud, Gustavo J Rodriguez
Hypoperfusion injury related to blood pressure decrease in acute hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage continues to be a controversial topic. Aggressive treatment is provided with the intent to stop the ongoing bleeding. However, there may be additional factors, including autoregulation and increased intracranial pressure, that may limit this approach. We present here a case of acute hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, in which aggressive blood pressure management to levels within the normal range led to global cerebral ischemia within multiple border zones...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
Elisa Chia, Simeon Niyi Babawale
Lung transplantation has been a method for treating end stage lung disease for decades. Despite improvements in the preoperative assessment of recipients and donors as well as improved surgical techniques, lung transplant recipients are still at a high risk of developing post-operative complications which tend to impact negatively the patients' outcome if not recognised early. The recognised complications post lung transplantation can be broadly categorised into acute and chronic complications. Recognising the radiological features of these complications has a significant positive impact on patients' survival post transplantation...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
John L Nosher, Arjun Patel, Sugeet Jagpal, Christopher Gribbin, Vyacheslav Gendel
Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most common cause of death in hospitalized patients. The development of sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for PE, including endovascular therapy, affords a certain level of complexity to the treatment of patients with this important clinical entity. Furthermore, the lack of level I evidence for the safety and effectiveness of catheter directed therapy brings controversy to a promising treatment approach. In this review paper, we discuss the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of PE, review the medical and surgical treatment of the condition, and describe in detail the tools that are available for the endovascular therapy of PE, including mechanical thrombectomy, suction thrombectomy, and fibrinolytic therapy...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
Yousef Mazaheri, Oguz Akin, Hedvig Hricak
In many areas of oncology, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has proven to be a clinically useful, non-invasive functional imaging technique to quantify tumor vasculature and tumor perfusion characteristics. Tumor angiogenesis is an essential process for tumor growth, proliferation, and metastasis. Malignant lesions demonstrate rapid extravasation of contrast from the intravascular space to the capillary bed due to leaky capillaries associated with tumor neovascularity. DCE-MRI has the potential to provide information regarding blood flow, areas of hypoperfusion, and variations in endothelial permeability and microvessel density to aid treatment selection, enable frequent monitoring during treatment and assess response to targeted therapy following treatment...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
Naomi Riddel, Mo Hameed Thoufeeq
A survey was performed to identify the practice associated with endoscopic placement of naso-jejunal (NJ) tubes. We had a total of 236 responses, of which 228 responded to the frequency of requesting X-ray after placing NJ tubes. The responses suggested that there was a strong variation in the practice. The practice was independent on clinicians' area of interest, hospital setting or experience in endoscopy. Currently there are no accepted guidelines on this. Hence, we advise hospitals to have robust local guidelines until there is internationally agreed consensus...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
Hilal Gülsüm Turan, Mustafa Özdemir, Ruşen Acu, Fahrettin Küçükay, Fatma Ayça Edis Özdemir, Baki Hekimoğlu, Utku Mahir Yıldırım
AIM: To comparatively evaluate Seldinger and Trocar techniques in the percutaneous treatment of hydatid disease. METHODS: Trocar and Seldinger techniques were used for 49 and 56 cysts, respectively, among 106 hydatid cysts in 88 patients. The number of males and females were 22 and 66, respectively with a mean age of 44.9 years (range, 15-87). Follow-up studies included cyst diameter, cyst contents, and morphological changes in the cyst wall, local recurrence, and secondary invasion, using ultrasound, computerized tomography and chest X-rays...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
Ankita Aggarwal, Manisha Jana, Vijay Kumar, Deep Narayan Srivastava, Kanwaljeet Garg
Intraosseous entrapment of the median nerve is an uncommon complication of elbow dislocation and fractures. The condition is seen to occur in adolescent age group with a remote history of trauma. We report two rare cases of type 2 intraosseous median nerve entrapment. Though the diagnosis of median neuropathy is made with clinical tests and neurophysiological studies, however exact site of entrapment and presurgical mapping of nerve is done accurately with MR neurography. Imaging thus plays a pivotal role in management of this condition...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
Jessica G Zarzour, Sam Galgano, Jonathan McConathy, John V Thomas, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
Accurate nodal staging at the time of diagnosis of prostate cancer is crucial in determining a treatment plan for the patient. Pelvic lymph node dissection is the most reliable method, but is less than perfect and has increased morbidity. Cross sectional imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are non-invasive tools that rely on morphologic characteristics such as shape and size of the lymph nodes. However, lymph nodes harboring metastatic disease may be normal sized and non-metastatic lymph nodes may be enlarged due to reactive hyperplasia...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
Enricomaria Mormina, Maria Petracca, Giulia Bommarito, Niccolò Piaggio, Sirio Cocozza, Matilde Inglese
The cerebellum plays a key role in movement control and in cognition and cerebellar involvement is described in several neurodegenerative diseases. While conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used for brain and cerebellar morphologic evaluation, advanced MRI techniques allow the investigation of cerebellar microstructural and functional characteristics. Volumetry, voxel-based morphometry, diffusion MRI based fiber tractography, resting state and task related functional MRI, perfusion, and proton MR spectroscopy are among the most common techniques applied to the study of cerebellum...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
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