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World Journal of Radiology

Kevin P Murphy, Liam J Healy, Lee Crush, Maria Twomey, Fiachra Moloney, Sylvia Sexton, Owen J O'Connor, Michael M Maher
AIM: To assess the effect of neutral (NC) and positive (PC) oral contrast use on patient dose in low-dose abdominal computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Low-dose clinically indicated CTs were performed on 79 Crohn's patients (35 = PC, 1 L 2% gastrografin; 44 = NC, 1.5 L polyethylene glycol). Scanner settings for both acquisitions were identical apart from 25 s difference in intravenous contrast timing. Body mass index (BMI), scan-ranges, dose-length product and size-specific dose estimated were recorded...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Jun Toyohara
In the cancer research field, the preferred method for evaluating the proliferative activity of cancer cells in vivo is to measure DNA synthesis rates. The cellular proliferation rate is one of the most important cancer characteristics, and represents the gold standard of pathological diagnosis. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to evaluate in vivo DNA synthetic activity through visualization of enhanced nucleoside metabolism. However, methods for the quantitative measurement of DNA synthesis rates have not been fully clarified...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Vinit Baliyan, Chandan J Das, Raju Sharma, Arun Kumar Gupta
Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a method of signal contrast generation based on the differences in Brownian motion. DWI is a method to evaluate the molecular function and micro-architecture of the human body. DWI signal contrast can be quantified by apparent diffusion coefficient maps and it acts as a tool for treatment response evaluation and assessment of disease progression. Ability to detect and quantify the anisotropy of diffusion leads to a new paradigm called diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTI is a tool for assessment of the organs with highly organised fibre structure...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Francesca M Trovato, Daniela Catalano, Guglielmo M Trovato
Imaging workup of patients referred for elective assessment of chest disease requires an articulated approach: Imaging is asked for achieving timely diagnosis. The concurrent or subsequent use of thoracic ultrasound (TUS) with conventional (chest X-rays-) and more advanced imaging procedures (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) implies advantages, limitations and actual problems. Indeed, despite TUS may provide useful imaging of pleura, lung and heart disease, emergency scenarios are currently the most warranted field of application of TUS: Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, lung consolidation...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Junfeng Li, Johann Karunananthan, Bradley Pelham, Fouad Kandeel
It was estimated that every year more than 30000 persons in the United States - approximately 80 people per day - are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D). T1D is caused by autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic islet (β cells) cells. Islet transplantation has become a promising therapy option for T1D patients, while the lack of suitable tools is difficult to directly evaluate of the viability of the grafted islet over time. Positron emission tomography (PET) as an important non-invasive methodology providing high sensitivity and good resolution, is able to accurate detection of the disturbed biochemical processes and physiological abnormality in living organism...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Archana George Vallonthaiel, Asit Ranjan Mridha, Shivanand Gamanagatti, Manisha Jana, Mehar Chand Sharma, Shah Alam Khan, Sameer Bakhshi
Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is an uncommon, non-familial, non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, which involves skeletal system and soft tissue usually in middle aged and elderly patients. The characteristic radiologic features include bilateral, symmetric cortical osteosclerosis of the diaphyseal and metaphyseal parts of the long bones, or bilateral symmetrically abnormal intense (99m)Technetium labelling of the metaphyseal-diaphyseal region of the long bones, and computed tomography scan findings of "coated aorta" or "hairy kidneys"...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Davide Ippolito, Alessandro Masetto, Cammillo Talei Franzesi, Pietro A Bonaffini, Alessandra Casiraghi, Sandro Sironi
AIM: To assess the potential value of femoral head (FH) volume measurements to predict joint collapse, as compared to articular surface involvement, in post-treatment osteonecrosis (ON) in pediatric patients affected by lymphoproliferative diseases. METHODS: Considering 114 young patients with lymphoproliferative diseases undergone a lower-limbs magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination between November 2006 and August 2012 for a suspected post-treatment ON, we finally considered a total of 13 cases (7 males, mean age 15...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Tomoyuki Fujioka, Kazunori Kubota, Akira Toriihara, Youichi Machida, Kaori Okazawa, Tsuyoshi Nakagawa, Yukihisa Saida, Ukihide Tateishi
AIM: To clarify clinicopathological features of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) visualized on [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed 52 consecutive tumors in 50 patients with pathologically proven pure DCIS who underwent [F-18] FDG-PET/CT before surgery. [F-18] FDG-PET/CT was performed after biopsy in all patients. The mean interval from biopsy to [F-18] FDG-PET/CT was 29...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Olivier Lauche, Youlia M Kirova, Pascal Fenoglietto, Emilie Costa, Claire Lemanski, Celine Bourgier, Olivier Riou, David Tiberi, Francois Campana, Alain Fourquet, David Azria
AIM: To analyse clinical and dosimetric results of helical tomotherapy (HT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in complex adjuvant breast and nodes irradiation. METHODS: Seventy-three patients were included (31 HT and 42 VMAT). Dose were 63.8 Gy (HT) and 63.2 Gy (VMAT) in the tumour bed, 52.2 Gy in the breast, 50.4 Gy in supraclavicular nodes (SCN) and internal mammary chain (IMC) with HT and 52.2 Gy and 49.3 Gy in IMC and SCN with VMAT in 29 fractions...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Simone Perandini, Gian Alberto Soardi, Massimiliano Motton, Raffaele Augelli, Chiara Dallaserra, Gino Puntel, Arianna Rossi, Giuseppe Sala, Manuel Signorini, Laura Spezia, Federico Zamboni, Stefania Montemezzi
The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the accuracy gain of Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) vs human judgment alone in characterizing solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) at computed tomography (CT). The study included 100 randomly selected SPNs with a definitive diagnosis. Nodule features at first and follow-up CT scans as well as clinical data were evaluated individually on a 1 to 5 points risk chart by 7 radiologists, firstly blinded then aware of Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) model predictions...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Alberto Stefano Tagliafico
Peripheral nerve imaging is recognized as a complement to clinical and neurophysiological assessment in the evaluation of peripheral nerves with the ability to impact patient management, even for small and difficult nerves. The European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology, suggest to use ultrasound (US) for nerve evaluation due to the fact that, in sever anatomical area, magnetic resonance imaging is not able to give additional informations. US could be considered the first-choice approach for the assessment of peripheral nerves...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Funda Yılmaz, Kıvanç Kamburoglu, Naz Yakar Yeta, Meltem Dartar Öztan
Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, non-diagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information...
July 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Sireesha Yedururi, HyunSeon C Kang, Wei Wei, Nicolaus A Wagner-Bartak, Leonardo P Marcal, R Jason Stafford, Brandy J Willis, Janio Szklaruk
AIM: To compare breath-hold cartesian volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (cVIBE) and free-breathing radial VIBE (rVIBE) and determine whether rVIBE could replace cVIBE in routine liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: In this prospective study, 15 consecutive patients scheduled for routine MRI of the abdomen underwent pre- and post-contrast breath-hold cVIBE imaging (19 s acquisition time) and free-breathing rVIBE imaging (111 s acquisition time) on a 1...
July 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Avneesh Chhabra, Courtney A McKenna, Vibhor Wadhwa, Gaurav K Thawait, John A Carrino, Gary P Lees, A Lee Dellon
AIM: To evaluate the pudendal nerve segments that could be identified on magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) before and after surgical marking of different nerve segments. METHODS: The hypothesis for this study was that pudendal nerve and its branches would be more easily seen after the surgical nerve marking. Institutional board approval was obtained. One male and one female cadaver pelvis were obtained from the anatomy board and were scanned using 3 Tesla MRI scanner using MR neurography sequences...
July 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Diomidis Botsikas, Isabelle Barnaure, Sylvain Terraz, Christoph D Becker, Anastasia Kalovidouri, Xavier Montet
AIM: To evaluate the image quality of hepatic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with dynamic contrast enhancement. METHODS: It uses iodixanol 270 mg/mL (Visipaque 270) and 80 kVp acquisitions reconstructed with sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE(®)) in comparison with a standard MDCT protocol. Fifty-three consecutive patients with known or suspected hepatocellular carcinoma underwent 55 CT examinations, with two different four-phase CT protocols...
July 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Gerd Grözinger, Michael Bitzer, Roland Syha, Dominik Ketelsen, Konstantin Nikolaou, Ulrich Lauer, Marius Horger
AIM: To find out if magnetic resonance (MR)-signal characteristics of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) correlate with perfusion parameters assessed by volume perfusion computed tomography (VPCT). METHODS: From October 2009 to January 2014, 26 (mean age, 69.3 years) patients with 36 HCC lesions who underwent both VPCT and MR liver imaging were analysed. We compared signal intensity in the T1w- and T2w-images and wash-in/wash-out kinetics on post-contrast MR images with mean values of blood flow (BF, mL/100 mL per minute), blood volume (BV, mL/100 mL), k-trans (mL/100 mL per minute), arterial liver perfusion (mL/100 mL per minute), portal venous perfusion and hepatic perfusion index (HPI, %) obtained by VPCT...
July 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Gabriele Masselli, Ilaria Mastroiacovo, Emidio De Marco, Giulia Francione, Emanuele Casciani, Elisabetta Polettini, Gianfranco Gualdi
Crohn's disease affects more than 500000 individuals in the United States, and about 25% of cases are diagnosed during the pediatric period. Imaging of the bowel has undergone dramatic changes in the past two decades. The endoscopy with biopsy is generally considered the diagnostic reference standard, this combination can evaluates only the mucosa, not inflammation or fibrosis in the mucosa. Actually, the only modalities that can visualize submucosal tissues throughout the small bowel are the computed tomography (CT) enterography (CTE) with the magnetic resonance enterography (MRE)...
July 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Heather I Gale, Michael S Gee, Sjirk J Westra, Katherine Nimkin
Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology...
July 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Ka-Kit Wong, Arpit Gandhi, Benjamin L Viglianti, Lorraine M Fig, Domenico Rubello, Milton D Gross
AIM: To review the benefits of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) hybrid imaging for diagnosis of various endocrine disorders. METHODS: We performed MEDLINE and PubMed searches using the terms: "SPECT/CT"; "functional anatomic mapping"; "transmission emission tomography"; "parathyroid adenoma"; "thyroid cancer"; "neuroendocrine tumor"; "adrenal"; "pheochromocytoma"; "paraganglioma"; in order to identify relevant articles published in English during the years 2003 to 2015...
June 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Marcus Middendorp, Konstantinos Kollias, Hanns Ackermann, Annina Splettstößer, Thomas J Vogl, M Fawad Khan, Adel Maataoui
AIM: To investigate if the clinical outcome of intra-articular lumbar facet joint injections is affected by the therapist's attitude. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with facet joint-associated chronic low back pain were randomly divided into two groups. All patients received computed tomography-guided, monosegmental intra-articular facet joint injections. Following the therapeutic procedure, the patients of the experimental group (EG) held a conversation with the radiologist in a comfortable atmosphere...
June 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
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