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Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812295/the-copd-assessment-test-as-a-prognostic-marker-in-interstitial-lung-disease
#1
Fujiko Someya, Takao Nakagawa, Naoki Mugii
The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Assessment Test (CAT), which was developed to measure the health status of patients with COPD, was applied to patients with interstitial lung disease, aiming to examine the CAT as a predictor of outcome. Over a follow-up period of more than one year, 101 consecutive patients with interstitial lung disease were evaluated by the CAT. The CAT scores of 40 in total were categorized into four subsets according to the severity. Patients with higher (more severe) scores exhibited lower forced vital capacity and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773996/albuterol-improves-alveolar-capillary-membrane-conductance-in-healthy-humans
#2
Natalie E Taylor, Sarah E Baker, Thomas P Olson, Sophie Lalande, Bruce D Johnson, Eric M Snyder
BACKGROUND: Beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) are located throughout the body including airway and alveolar cells. The β2ARs regulate lung fluid clearance through a variety of mechanisms including ion transport on alveolar cells and relaxation of the pulmonary lymphatics. We examined the effect of an inhaled β2-agonist (albuterol) on alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DM) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC) in healthy humans. METHODS: We assessed the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO) at baseline, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes following nebulized albuterol (2...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721661/short-term-pulmonary-rehabilitation-for-a-female-patient-with-chronic-scleroderma-under-a-single-case-research-design
#3
Jirakrit Leelarungrayub, Decha Pinkaew, Khanittha Wonglangka, Wichai Eungpinichpong, Jakkrit Klaphajone
Although previously proposed that chronic scleroderma should be cared for clinically and early rehabilitation should be performed in hospital by a chest physical therapist, little evidence is currently available on its benefits. Therefore, this study demonstrated the benefits of short-term pulmonary rehabilitation during hospitalization in a female patient with chronic scleroderma. The aim of rehabilitation was to improve ventilation and gas exchange by using airway clearance, chest mobilization, and breathing-relearning techniques, including strengthening the respiratory system and the muscles of the limbs by using the BreathMax(®) device and elastic bands...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398039/ultrasound-for-the-pulmonary-consultant
#4
REVIEW
Astha Chichra, Mina Makaryus, Parag Chaudhri, Mangala Narasimhan
Bedside ultrasonographic assessment of the lung and pleura provides rapid, noninvasive, and essential information in diagnosis and management of various pulmonary conditions. Ultrasonography helps in diagnosing common conditions, including consolidation, interstitial syndrome, pleural effusions and masses, pneumothorax, and diaphragmatic dysfunction. It provides procedural guidance for various pulmonary procedures, including thoracentesis, chest tube insertion, transthoracic aspiration, and biopsies. This article describes major applications of ultrasonography for the pulmonary consultant along with illustrative figures and videos...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656093/current-developments-in-interstitial-lung-disease
#5
EDITORIAL
Shunsuke Mori, Hiroshi Furukawa, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Takafumi Suda, Sadatomo Tasaka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625576/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-diagnosis-and-clinical-manifestations
#6
REVIEW
Yutaro Nakamura, Takafumi Suda
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a parenchymal lung disease characterized by progressive interstitial fibrosis. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute exacerbations. Although much progress is being made in unraveling the mechanisms underlying IPF, effective therapy for improving survival remains elusive. Longitudinal disease profiling, especially in terms of clinical manifestations in a large cohort of patients, should lead to proper management of the patients and development of new treatments for IPF...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279757/up-to-date-information-on-rheumatoid-arthritis-associated-interstitial-lung-disease
#7
REVIEW
Takafumi Suda
Pulmonary involvement is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and affects all the components of the lung. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most predominant pulmonary manifestation and has been identified as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in RA. Clinically significant RA-ILD occurs in approximately 10% of RA patients. Several risk factors, such as old age, male gender, and smoking, have been reported to date. Histologically, the proportion of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern is higher in RA-ILD than in ILD associated with other connective tissue diseases, and RA-ILD also shows nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and organizing pneumonia patterns...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147899/levels-of-soluble-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-in-patients-with-various-inflammatory-lung-diseases
#8
Tetsuro Kamo, Sadatomo Tasaka, Yuriko Tokuda, Shoji Suzuki, Takanori Asakura, Kazuma Yagi, Ho Namkoong, Makoto Ishii, Naoki Hasegawa, Tomoko Betsuyaku
Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of S100/calgranulins, high-mobility group box 1, and others, and it is associated with the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and circulatory diseases. The soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) is a decoy receptor and competitively inhibits membrane-bound RAGE activation. In this study, we measured sRAGE levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 78 patients, including 41 with interstitial pneumonia, 11 with sarcoidosis, 9 with respiratory infection, 7 with ARDS, 5 with lung cancer, and 5 with vasculitis...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081322/biomarkers-and-autoantibodies-of-interstitial-lung-disease-with-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies
#9
REVIEW
Hajime Yoshifuji
Various autoantibodies are seen in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Among myositis-specific antibodies, anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and anti-melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) antibodies are associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Anti-MDA5 antibodies are associated with dermatomyositis (DM) or clinically amyopathic DM complicated with rapidly progressive ILD. In anti-MDA5-positive patients, a random ground-glass attenuation pattern is a characteristic finding of ILD in chest high-resolution computed tomography...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997879/genetic-susceptibility-to-interstitial-lung-disease-associated-with-systemic-sclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Akiko Tochimoto, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Hisashi Yamanaka
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease that is characterized by tissue fibrosis, microvasculopathy, and autoimmunity. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of SSc and is one of the frequent causes of mortality in SSc. Although the exact etiology of SSc remains unknown, clinical and experimental investigations have suggested that genetic and environmental factors are relevant to the pathogenesis of SSc and SSc-ILD. More than 30 genes have been identified as susceptibility loci for SSc, most of which are involved in immune regulation and inflammation...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949346/pathology-of-idiopathic-interstitial-pneumonias
#11
REVIEW
Mikiko Hashisako, Junya Fukuoka
The updated classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) in 2013 by American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society included several important revisions to the categories described in the 2002 classification. In the updated classification, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) was moved from major to rare IIPs, pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) was newly included in the rare IIPs, acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) and interstitial pneumonias with a bronchiolocentric distribution are recognized as rare histologic patterns, and unclassifiable IIP (UCIP) was classified as an IIP...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26823655/lymphangiogenesis-and-lesion-heterogeneity-in-interstitial-lung-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamashita
The lymphatic system has several physiological roles, including fluid homeostasis and the activation of adaptive immunity by fluid drainage and cell transport. Lymphangiogenesis occurs in adult tissues during various pathologic conditions. In addition, lymphangiogenesis is closely linked to capillary angiogenesis, and the balanced interrelationship between capillary angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis is essential for maintaining homeostasis in tissues. Recently, an increasing body of information regarding the biology of lymphatic endothelial cells has allowed us to immunohistochemically characterize lymphangiogenesis in several lung diseases...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26819563/recent-treatments-of-interstitial-lung-disease-with-systemic-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Hidekata Yasuoka
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a disorder characterized by immune dysfunction, microvascular injury, and fibrosis. Organ involvement in patients with SSc is variable; however, pulmonary involvement occurs in up to 90% of patients with SSc. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a major cause of mortality and, thus, a major determinant in the prognosis of patients with SSc. This review summarizes current findings about the characteristics of ILD in patients with SSc, selection of patients with SSc-ILD who are candidates for the treatment, and current treatment options...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26740747/myriad-functions-of-stanniocalcin-1-stc1-cover-multiple-therapeutic-targets-in-the-complicated-pathogenesis-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-ipf
#14
REVIEW
Shinya Ohkouchi, Manabu Ono, Makoto Kobayashi, Taizou Hirano, Yutaka Tojo, Shu Hisata, Masakazu Ichinose, Toshiya Irokawa, Hiromasa Ogawa, Hajime Kurosawa
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an intractable disease for which the pathological findings are characterized by temporal and spatial heterogeneity. The pathogenesis is composed of myriad factors, including repetitive injuries to epithelial cells, alterations in immunity, the formation of vascular leakage and coagulation, abnormal wound healing, fibrogenesis, and collagen accumulation. Therefore, the molecular target drugs that are used or attempted for treatment or clinical trials may not cover the myriad therapeutic targets of IPF...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26609250/management-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-kidney-transplantation-to-prevent-further-outbreak
#15
REVIEW
Norihiko Goto, Kenta Futamura, Manabu Okada, Takayuki Yamamoto, Makoto Tsujita, Takahisa Hiramitsu, Shunji Narumi, Yoshihiko Watarai
The outbreak of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) among kidney transplant recipients is emerging worldwide. It is important to control nosocomial PJP infection. A delay in diagnosis and treatment increases the number of reservoir patients and the number of cases of respiratory failure and death. Owing to the large number of kidney transplant recipients compared to other types of organ transplantation, there are greater opportunities for them to share the same time and space. Although the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) as first choice in PJP prophylaxis is valuable for PJP that develops from infections by trophic forms, it cannot prevent or clear colonization, in which cysts are dominant...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26543387/organizing-pneumonia-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-a-case-based-review
#16
REVIEW
Shunsuke Mori, Yukinori Koga, Mineharu Sugimoto
We treated 21 patients with organizing pneumonia (OP) associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or related to biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) at our institution between 2006 and 2014. Among these cases, 3 (14.3%) preceded articular symptoms of RA, 4 (19.0%) developed simultaneously with RA onset, and 14 (66.7%) occurred during follow-up periods for RA. In the case of OP preceding RA, increased levels of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factor were observed at the OP onset...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26512209/interstitial-lung-disease-in-childhood-clinical-and-genetic-aspects
#17
REVIEW
Hiroshi Kitazawa, Shigeo Kure
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in childhood is a heterogeneous group of rare pulmonary conditions presenting chronic respiratory disorders. Many clinical features of ILD still remain unclear, making the treatment strategies mainly investigative. Guidelines may provide physicians with an overview on the diagnosis and therapeutic directions. However, the criteria used in different clinical studies for the classification and diagnosis of ILDs are not always the same, making the development of guidelines difficult...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448696/interstitial-lung-disease-with-anca-associated-vasculitis
#18
REVIEW
Yasuhiro Katsumata, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Hisashi Yamanaka
The association between interstitial lung disease (ILD) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), particularly microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), has been described in a number of case reports and case series reports in the last 2 decades. In addition, patients with pulmonary fibrosis and ANCA positivity but without other manifestations of systemic vasculitis have also been reported. Pulmonary fibrosis was clinically manifested at the time of diagnosis in the majority of AAV patients that developed this condition...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26401101/management-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-with-interstitial-lung-disease-safety-of-biological-antirheumatic-drugs-and-assessment-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#19
REVIEW
Shunsuke Mori
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Accompanying the increased number of reports on the development or exacerbation of ILD in RA patients following therapy with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), RA-associated ILD (RA-ILD) has aroused renewed interest. Although such cases have been reported mainly in association with the use of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, the use of other biological DMARDs has also become a matter of concern...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26396551/pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-risks-and-prophylaxis-recommendations
#20
REVIEW
Shunsuke Mori, Mineharu Sugimoto
Pneumocystis jirovecii infection causes fulminant interstitial pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia, PCP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who are receiving biological and/or nonbiological antirheumatic drugs. Recently, we encountered a PCP outbreak among RA outpatients at our institution. Hospital-acquired, person-to-person transmission appears to be the most likely mode of this cluster of P. jirovecii infection. Carriage of P. jirovecii seems a time-limited phenomenon in immunocompetent hosts, but in RA patients receiving antirheumatic therapy, clearance of this organism from the lungs is delayed...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
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