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Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620266/mechanistic-evaluation-of-the-impact-of-smoking-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-on-the-nasal-epithelium
#1
Marja Talikka, Florian Martin, Alain Sewer, Grégory Vuillaume, Patrice Leroy, Karsta Luettich, Nveed Chaudhary, Michael J Peck, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the major causes of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development of markers of COPD onset is hampered by the lack of accessibility to the primary target tissue, and there is a need to consider other sample sources as surrogates for biomarker research. Airborne toxicants pass through the nasal epithelium before reaching the lower airways, and the similarity with bronchial histology makes it an attractive surrogate for lower airways. In this work, we describe the transcriptomics findings from the nasal epithelia of subjects enrolled in a clinical study focusing on the identification of COPD biomarkers...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615983/legionnaires-disease-clinicoradiological-comparison-of-sporadic-versus-outbreak-cases
#2
Hafiz Rizwan Talib Hashmi, Lakshmi Saladi, Frances Petersen, Misbahuddin Khaja, Gilda Diaz-Fuentes
BACKGROUND: In 2015, New York City experienced the worst outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in the history of the city. We compare patients seen during the 2015 outbreak with sporadic cases of Legionella during the past 5 years. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 90 patients with Legionnaires' disease, including sporadic cases of Legionella infection admitted from 2010 to 2015 (n = 55) and cases admitted during the 2015 outbreak (n = 35). RESULTS: We saw no significant differences between the 2 groups regarding demographics, smoking habits, alcohol intake, underlying medical disease, or residence type...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469504/nodular-sarcoidosis-masquerading-as-cancer
#3
Alexander J Sweidan, Navneet K Singh, Alexander Stein, Maged Tanios
Nodular lung disease is a rare pulmonary manifestation of sarcoidosis and resembles metastatic neoplasm disease. Nodular sarcoidosis is rare, varying from 1.6% to 4% of patients with sarcoidosis. Radiographic nodules measure from 1 to 5 cm in diameter that typically consist of coalescent granulomas. There is limited data on this form of sarcoidosis and its presentation can mimic primary or metastatic pulmonary neoplasms. Nodular sarcoidosis has a favorable prognosis, and resolution can be seen with oral corticosteroids...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469503/use-of-aminocaproic-acid-in-combination-with-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-a-case-of-leptospirosis-pulmonary-hemorrhage-syndrome
#4
Miguel Pardinas, Rodrigo Mendirichaga, Gaurav Budhrani, Rajan Garg, Luis Rosario, Rene Rico, Anthony Panos, Horst Baier, Stefanie Krick
A 32-year-old man presented with a 10-day history of fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, myalgia, nonproductive cough, and worsening dyspnea after freshwater swimming in the Caribbean 1 week prior to presentation. Shortly after arrival at the hospital, the patient developed severe respiratory distress with massive hemoptysis. Based on serologic workup, he was diagnosed with leptospirosis pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome leading to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, and multiorgan failure...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980444/natriuretic-peptide-and-high-sensitive-troponin-t-concentrations-correlate-with-effectiveness-of-short-term-cpap-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-coronary-artery-disease
#5
Ralf Strehmel, Misa Valo, Claudius Teupe
The risk of cardiovascular complications is increased in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective way to treat clinically significant OSA. We hypothesized that the concentrations of the cardiac risk markers N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitive troponin T (hs-TropT) correlate with the effectiveness of CPAP therapy in patients with OSA and coexisting coronary artery disease (CAD). Twenty-one patients with severe OSA and coexisting CAD (group 1) and 20 control patients with severe OSA alone (group 2) were treated with CPAP and monitored by laboratory-based polysomnography...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812295/the-copd-assessment-test-as-a-prognostic-marker-in-interstitial-lung-disease
#6
Fujiko Someya, Takao Nakagawa, Naoki Mugii
The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Assessment Test (CAT), which was developed to measure the health status of patients with COPD, was applied to patients with interstitial lung disease, aiming to examine the CAT as a predictor of outcome. Over a follow-up period of more than one year, 101 consecutive patients with interstitial lung disease were evaluated by the CAT. The CAT scores of 40 in total were categorized into four subsets according to the severity. Patients with higher (more severe) scores exhibited lower forced vital capacity and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773996/albuterol-improves-alveolar-capillary-membrane-conductance-in-healthy-humans
#7
Natalie E Taylor, Sarah E Baker, Thomas P Olson, Sophie Lalande, Bruce D Johnson, Eric M Snyder
BACKGROUND: Beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) are located throughout the body including airway and alveolar cells. The β2ARs regulate lung fluid clearance through a variety of mechanisms including ion transport on alveolar cells and relaxation of the pulmonary lymphatics. We examined the effect of an inhaled β2-agonist (albuterol) on alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DM) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC) in healthy humans. METHODS: We assessed the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO) at baseline, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes following nebulized albuterol (2...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721661/short-term-pulmonary-rehabilitation-for-a-female-patient-with-chronic-scleroderma-under-a-single-case-research-design
#8
Jirakrit Leelarungrayub, Decha Pinkaew, Khanittha Wonglangka, Wichai Eungpinichpong, Jakkrit Klaphajone
Although previously proposed that chronic scleroderma should be cared for clinically and early rehabilitation should be performed in hospital by a chest physical therapist, little evidence is currently available on its benefits. Therefore, this study demonstrated the benefits of short-term pulmonary rehabilitation during hospitalization in a female patient with chronic scleroderma. The aim of rehabilitation was to improve ventilation and gas exchange by using airway clearance, chest mobilization, and breathing-relearning techniques, including strengthening the respiratory system and the muscles of the limbs by using the BreathMax(®) device and elastic bands...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398039/ultrasound-for-the-pulmonary-consultant
#9
REVIEW
Astha Chichra, Mina Makaryus, Parag Chaudhri, Mangala Narasimhan
Bedside ultrasonographic assessment of the lung and pleura provides rapid, noninvasive, and essential information in diagnosis and management of various pulmonary conditions. Ultrasonography helps in diagnosing common conditions, including consolidation, interstitial syndrome, pleural effusions and masses, pneumothorax, and diaphragmatic dysfunction. It provides procedural guidance for various pulmonary procedures, including thoracentesis, chest tube insertion, transthoracic aspiration, and biopsies. This article describes major applications of ultrasonography for the pulmonary consultant along with illustrative figures and videos...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980445/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-treatment-and-prognosis
#10
REVIEW
Hajime Fujimoto, Tetsu Kobayashi, Arata Azuma
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive lung disease with a prognosis that can be worse than for many cancers. The initial stages of the condition were thought to mainly involve chronic inflammation; therefore, corticosteroids and other drugs that have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions were used. However, recently, agents targeting persistent fibrosis resulting from aberrant repair of alveolar epithelial injury have been in the spotlight. There has also been an increase in the number of available antifibrotic treatment options, starting with pirfenidone and nintedanib...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656093/current-developments-in-interstitial-lung-disease
#11
EDITORIAL
Shunsuke Mori, Hiroshi Furukawa, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Takafumi Suda, Sadatomo Tasaka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625576/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-diagnosis-and-clinical-manifestations
#12
REVIEW
Yutaro Nakamura, Takafumi Suda
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a parenchymal lung disease characterized by progressive interstitial fibrosis. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute exacerbations. Although much progress is being made in unraveling the mechanisms underlying IPF, effective therapy for improving survival remains elusive. Longitudinal disease profiling, especially in terms of clinical manifestations in a large cohort of patients, should lead to proper management of the patients and development of new treatments for IPF...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279757/up-to-date-information-on-rheumatoid-arthritis-associated-interstitial-lung-disease
#13
REVIEW
Takafumi Suda
Pulmonary involvement is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and affects all the components of the lung. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most predominant pulmonary manifestation and has been identified as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in RA. Clinically significant RA-ILD occurs in approximately 10% of RA patients. Several risk factors, such as old age, male gender, and smoking, have been reported to date. Histologically, the proportion of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern is higher in RA-ILD than in ILD associated with other connective tissue diseases, and RA-ILD also shows nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and organizing pneumonia patterns...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147899/levels-of-soluble-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-in-patients-with-various-inflammatory-lung-diseases
#14
Tetsuro Kamo, Sadatomo Tasaka, Yuriko Tokuda, Shoji Suzuki, Takanori Asakura, Kazuma Yagi, Ho Namkoong, Makoto Ishii, Naoki Hasegawa, Tomoko Betsuyaku
Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of S100/calgranulins, high-mobility group box 1, and others, and it is associated with the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and circulatory diseases. The soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) is a decoy receptor and competitively inhibits membrane-bound RAGE activation. In this study, we measured sRAGE levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 78 patients, including 41 with interstitial pneumonia, 11 with sarcoidosis, 9 with respiratory infection, 7 with ARDS, 5 with lung cancer, and 5 with vasculitis...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081322/biomarkers-and-autoantibodies-of-interstitial-lung-disease-with-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies
#15
REVIEW
Hajime Yoshifuji
Various autoantibodies are seen in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Among myositis-specific antibodies, anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and anti-melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) antibodies are associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Anti-MDA5 antibodies are associated with dermatomyositis (DM) or clinically amyopathic DM complicated with rapidly progressive ILD. In anti-MDA5-positive patients, a random ground-glass attenuation pattern is a characteristic finding of ILD in chest high-resolution computed tomography...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997879/genetic-susceptibility-to-interstitial-lung-disease-associated-with-systemic-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Akiko Tochimoto, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Hisashi Yamanaka
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease that is characterized by tissue fibrosis, microvasculopathy, and autoimmunity. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of SSc and is one of the frequent causes of mortality in SSc. Although the exact etiology of SSc remains unknown, clinical and experimental investigations have suggested that genetic and environmental factors are relevant to the pathogenesis of SSc and SSc-ILD. More than 30 genes have been identified as susceptibility loci for SSc, most of which are involved in immune regulation and inflammation...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949346/pathology-of-idiopathic-interstitial-pneumonias
#17
REVIEW
Mikiko Hashisako, Junya Fukuoka
The updated classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) in 2013 by American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society included several important revisions to the categories described in the 2002 classification. In the updated classification, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) was moved from major to rare IIPs, pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) was newly included in the rare IIPs, acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) and interstitial pneumonias with a bronchiolocentric distribution are recognized as rare histologic patterns, and unclassifiable IIP (UCIP) was classified as an IIP...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26823655/lymphangiogenesis-and-lesion-heterogeneity-in-interstitial-lung-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamashita
The lymphatic system has several physiological roles, including fluid homeostasis and the activation of adaptive immunity by fluid drainage and cell transport. Lymphangiogenesis occurs in adult tissues during various pathologic conditions. In addition, lymphangiogenesis is closely linked to capillary angiogenesis, and the balanced interrelationship between capillary angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis is essential for maintaining homeostasis in tissues. Recently, an increasing body of information regarding the biology of lymphatic endothelial cells has allowed us to immunohistochemically characterize lymphangiogenesis in several lung diseases...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26819563/recent-treatments-of-interstitial-lung-disease-with-systemic-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Hidekata Yasuoka
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a disorder characterized by immune dysfunction, microvascular injury, and fibrosis. Organ involvement in patients with SSc is variable; however, pulmonary involvement occurs in up to 90% of patients with SSc. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a major cause of mortality and, thus, a major determinant in the prognosis of patients with SSc. This review summarizes current findings about the characteristics of ILD in patients with SSc, selection of patients with SSc-ILD who are candidates for the treatment, and current treatment options...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26740747/myriad-functions-of-stanniocalcin-1-stc1-cover-multiple-therapeutic-targets-in-the-complicated-pathogenesis-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-ipf
#20
REVIEW
Shinya Ohkouchi, Manabu Ono, Makoto Kobayashi, Taizou Hirano, Yutaka Tojo, Shu Hisata, Masakazu Ichinose, Toshiya Irokawa, Hiromasa Ogawa, Hajime Kurosawa
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an intractable disease for which the pathological findings are characterized by temporal and spatial heterogeneity. The pathogenesis is composed of myriad factors, including repetitive injuries to epithelial cells, alterations in immunity, the formation of vascular leakage and coagulation, abnormal wound healing, fibrogenesis, and collagen accumulation. Therefore, the molecular target drugs that are used or attempted for treatment or clinical trials may not cover the myriad therapeutic targets of IPF...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
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