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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA

Lukas Trixl, Alexandra Lusser
It is a well-known fact that RNA is the target of a plethora of modifications which currently amount to over a hundred. The vast majority of these modifications was observed in the two most abundant classes of RNA, rRNA and tRNA. With the recent advance in mapping technologies, modifications have been discovered also in mRNA and in less abundant non-coding RNA species. These developments have sparked renewed interest in elucidating the nature and functions of those "epitransciptomic" modifications in RNA...
October 11, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Nikita Vasilyev, Ang Gao, Alexander Serganov
Although many eukaryotic transcripts contain cap structures, it has been long thought that bacterial RNAs do not carry any special modifications on their 5'-ends. In bacteria, primary transcripts are produced by transcription initiated with a nucleoside triphosphate and are therefore triphosphorylated on 5'-ends. Some transcripts are then processed by nucleases that yield monophosphorylated RNAs for specific cellular activities. Many primary transcripts are also converted to monophosphorylated species by removal of the terminal pyrophosphate for 5'-end-dependent degradation...
October 1, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Toshimichi Yamada, Nobuyoshi Akimitsu
Organisms have acquired sophisticated regulatory networks that control gene expression in response to cellular perturbations. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying the coordinated changes in gene expression in response to external and internal stimuli is a fundamental issue in biology. Recent advances in high-throughput technologies have enabled the measurement of diverse biological information, including gene expression levels, kinetics of gene expression, and interactions among gene expression regulatory molecules...
October 1, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Hong-Chao Duan, Ye Wang, Guifang Jia
N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) is the most abundant internal chemical modification in eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The discovery in 2011 that m6 A is reversed by the fat mass and obesity-associated protein stimulated extensive worldwide research efforts on the regulatory biological functions of dynamic m6 A and other RNA modifications. The epitranscriptomic mark m6 A is written, read, and erased through the activities of a complicated network of enzymes and other proteins. m6 A-binding proteins read m6 A marks and transduce their downstream regulatory effects by altering RNA metabolic processes...
September 25, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Lauren R Walling, J Scott Butler
Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are composed of a protein toxin and its cognate antitoxin. These systems are abundant in bacteria and archaea and play an important role in growth regulation. During favorable growth conditions, the antitoxin neutralizes the toxin's activity. However, during conditions of stress or starvation, the antitoxin is inactivated, freeing the toxin to inhibit growth and resulting in dormancy. One mechanism of growth inhibition used by several TA systems results from targeting transfer RNAs (tRNAs), either through preventing aminoacylation, acetylating the primary amino group, or endonucleolytic cleavage...
September 16, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Athma A Pai, Francesca Luca
RNA processing has emerged as a key mechanistic step in the regulation of the cellular response to environmental perturbation. Recent work has uncovered extensive remodeling of transcriptome composition upon environmental perturbation and linked the impacts of this molecular plasticity to health and disease outcomes. These isoform changes and their underlying mechanisms are varied-involving alternative sites of transcription initiation, alternative splicing, and alternative cleavage at the 3' end of the mRNA...
September 14, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Jackson B Trotman, Daniel R Schoenberg
The N7-methylguanosine cap is a hallmark of the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs and is required for gene expression. Loss of the cap was believed to lead irreversibly to decay. However, nearly a decade ago, it was discovered that mammalian cells contain enzymes in the cytoplasm that are capable of restoring caps onto uncapped RNAs. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of cytoplasmic RNA recapping and discuss the biochemistry of this process and its impact on regulating and diversifying the transcriptome...
September 5, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Benjamin P Towler, Sarah F Newbury
The process of RNA degradation is a critical level of regulation contributing to the control of gene expression. In the last two decades a number of studies have shown the specific and targeted nature of RNA decay and its importance in maintaining homeostasis. The key players within the pathways of RNA decay are well conserved with their mutation or disruption resulting in distinct phenotypes as well as human disease. Model organisms including Drosophila melanogaster have played a substantial role in elucidating the mechanisms conferring control over RNA stability...
August 15, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Manuel Garcia-Moreno, Aino I Järvelin, Alfredo Castello
The crucial participation of cellular RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in virtually all steps of virus infection has been known for decades. However, most of the studies characterizing this phenomenon have focused on well-established RBPs harboring classical RNA-binding domains (RBDs). Recent proteome-wide approaches have greatly expanded the census of RBPs, discovering hundreds of proteins that interact with RNA through unconventional RBDs. These domains include protein-protein interaction platforms, enzymatic cores, and intrinsically disordered regions...
August 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Radoslaw Pluta, Manuel Espinosa
Bacterial plasmids constitute a wealth of shared DNA amounting to about 20% of the total prokaryotic pangenome. Plasmids replicate autonomously and control their replication by maintaining a fairly constant number of copies within a given host. Plasmids should acquire a good fitness to their hosts so that they do not constitute a genetic load. Here we review some basic concepts in plasmid biology, pertaining to the control of replication and distribution of plasmid copies among daughter cells. A particular class of plasmids is constituted by those that replicate by the rolling circle mode (rolling circle-replicating [RCR]-plasmids)...
August 3, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Xiaolei Liu, Peter S Klein
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a highly conserved negative regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase, cytokine, and Wnt signaling pathways. Stimulation of these pathways inhibits GSK-3 to modulate diverse downstream effectors that include transcription factors, nutrient sensors, glycogen synthesis, mitochondrial function, circadian rhythm, and cell fate. GSK-3 also regulates alternative splicing in response to T-cell receptor activation, and recent phosphoproteomic studies have revealed that multiple splicing factors and regulators of RNA biosynthesis are phosphorylated in a GSK-3-dependent manner...
November 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Jorge Cruz-Reyes, Blaine H M Mooers, Pawan K Doharey, Joshua Meehan, Shelly Gulati
RNA editing causes massive remodeling of the mitochondrial mRNA transcriptome in trypanosomes and related kinetoplastid protozoa. This type of editing involves the specific insertion or deletion of uridylates (U) directed by small noncoding guide RNAs (gRNAs). Because U-insertion exceeds U-deletion by a factor of 10, editing increases the nascent mRNA size by up to 55%. In Trypanosoma brucei, the editing apparatus uses ~40 proteins and >1,200 gRNAs to create the functional open reading frame in 12 mRNAs...
November 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Graham D Pavitt
Phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2 is one of the most widely used and well-studied mechanisms cells use to respond to diverse cellular stresses. Known as the integrated stress response (ISR), the control pathway uses modulation of protein synthesis to reprogram gene expression and restore homeostasis. Here the current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of eIF2 activation and its control by phosphorylation at a single-conserved phosphorylation site, serine 51 are discussed with a major focus on the regulatory roles of eIF2B and eIF5 where a current molecular view of ISR control of eIF2B activity is presented...
July 10, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Anita Donlic, Amanda E Hargrove
The recognition of RNA functions beyond canonical protein synthesis has challenged the central dogma of molecular biology. Indeed, RNA is now known to directly regulate many important cellular processes, including transcription, splicing, translation, and epigenetic modifications. The misregulation of these processes in disease has led to an appreciation of RNA as a therapeutic target. This potential was first recognized in bacteria and viruses, but discoveries of new RNA classes following the sequencing of the human genome have invigorated exploration of its disease-related functions in mammals...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Laura M Urbanski, Nathan Leclair, Olga Anczuków
Defects in alternative splicing are frequently found in human tumors and result either from mutations in splicing-regulatory elements of specific cancer genes or from changes in the regulatory splicing machinery. RNA splicing regulators have emerged as a new class of oncoproteins and tumor suppressors, and contribute to disease progression by modulating RNA isoforms involved in the hallmark cancer pathways. Thus, dysregulation of alternative RNA splicing is fundamental to cancer and provides a potentially rich source of novel therapeutic targets...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Jeremy E Wilusz
The first circular RNA (circRNA) was identified more than 40 years ago, but it was only recently appreciated that circRNAs are common outputs of many eukaryotic protein-coding genes. Some circRNAs accumulate to higher levels than their associated linear mRNAs, especially in the nervous system, and have clear regulatory functions that result in organismal phenotypes. The pre-mRNA splicing machinery generates circRNAs via backsplicing reactions, which are often facilitated by intronic repeat sequences that base pair to one another and bring the intervening splice sites into close proximity...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Andrew Santiago-Frangos, Sarah A Woodson
Hfq is a ubiquitous, Sm-like RNA binding protein found in most bacteria and some archaea. Hfq binds small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs), facilitates base pairing between sRNAs and their mRNA targets, and directly binds and regulates translation of certain mRNAs. Because sRNAs regulate many stress response pathways in bacteria, Hfq is essential for adaptation to different environments and growth conditions. The chaperone activities of Hfq arise from multipronged RNA binding by three different surfaces of the Hfq hexamer...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Nikolay E Shirokikh, Thomas Preiss
Gene expression universally relies on protein synthesis, where ribosomes recognize and decode the messenger RNA template by cycling through translation initiation, elongation, and termination phases. All aspects of translation have been studied for decades using the tools of biochemistry and molecular biology available at the time. Here, we focus on the mechanism of translation initiation in eukaryotes, which is remarkably more complex than prokaryotic initiation and is the target of multiple types of regulatory intervention...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Maristella Steri, M Laura Idda, Michael B Whalen, Valeria Orrù
Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have mapped thousands of genetic variants associated with complex disease risk and regulating quantitative traits, thus exploiting an unprecedented high-resolution genetic characterization of the human genome. A small fraction (3.7%) of the identified associations is located in untranslated regions (UTRs), and the molecular mechanism has been elucidated for few of them. Genetic variations at UTRs may modify regulatory elements affecting the interaction of the UTRs with proteins and microRNAs...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Helena Covelo-Molares, Marek Bartosovic, Stepanka Vanacova
Eukaryotic RNA can carry more than 100 different types of chemical modifications. Early studies have been focused on modifications of highly abundant RNA, such as ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA, but recent technical advances have made it possible to also study messenger RNA (mRNA). Subsequently, mRNA modifications, namely methylation, have emerged as key players in eukaryotic gene expression regulation. The most abundant and widely studied internal mRNA modification is N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A), but the list of mRNA chemical modifications continues to grow as fast as interest in this field...
June 19, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
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