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Enzyme Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589038/inhibition-of-%C3%AE-amylases-by-condensed-and-hydrolysable-tannins-focus-on-kinetics-and-hypoglycemic-actions
#1
Camila Gabriel Kato, Geferson de Almeida Gonçalves, Rosely Aparecida Peralta, Flavio Augusto Vicente Seixas, Anacharis Babeto de Sá-Nakanishi, Lívia Bracht, Jurandir Fernando Comar, Adelar Bracht, Rosane Marina Peralta
The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro inhibitory effects on the salivary and pancreatic α-amylases and the in vivo hypoglycemic actions of the hydrolysable tannin from Chinese natural gall and the condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii. The human salivary α-amylase was more strongly inhibited by the hydrolysable than by the condensed tannin, with the concentrations for 50% inhibition (IC50) being 47.0 and 285.4 μM, respectively. The inhibitory capacities of both tannins on the pancreatic α-amylase were also different, with IC50 values being 141...
2017: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465836/recycle-of-immobilized-endocellulases-in-different-conditions-for-cellulose-hydrolysis
#2
D F Silva, A F A Carvalho, T Y Shinya, G S Mazali, R D Herculano, P Oliva-Neto
The immobilization of cellulases could be an economical alternative for cost reduction of enzyme application. The derivatives obtained in the immobilization derivatives were evaluated in recycles of paper filter hydrolysis. The immobilization process showed that the enzyme recycles were influenced by the shape (drop or sheet) and type of the mixture. The enzyme was recycled 28 times for sheets E' and 13 times for drops B'. The derivative E' showed the highest stability in the recycle obtaining 0.05 FPU/g, RA of 10%, and FPU Yield of 1...
2017: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421142/plackett-burman-design-for-rgilcc1-laccase-activity-enhancement-in-pichia-pastoris-concentrated-enzyme-kinetic-characterization
#3
Edwin D Morales-Álvarez, Claudia M Rivera-Hoyos, Ángela M Cardozo-Bernal, Raúl A Poutou-Piñales, Aura M Pedroza-Rodríguez, Dennis J Díaz-Rincón, Alexander Rodríguez-López, Carlos J Alméciga-Díaz, Claudia L Cuervo-Patiño
Laccases are multicopper oxidases that catalyze aromatic and nonaromatic compounds with concomitant reduction of molecular oxygen to water. They are of great interest due to their potential biotechnological applications. In this work we statistically improved culture media for recombinant GILCC1 (rGILCC1) laccase production at low scale from Ganoderma lucidum containing the construct pGAPZαA-GlucPost-Stop in Pichia pastoris. Temperature, pH stability, and kinetic parameter characterizations were determined by monitoring concentrate enzyme oxidation at different ABTS substrate concentrations...
2017: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050278/diagnostic-value-of-adenosine-deaminase-and-its-isoforms-in-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Bagher Larijani, Ramin Heshmat, Mina Ebrahimi-Rad, Shohreh Khatami, Shirin Valadbeigi, Reza Saghiri
Background and Aims. In the present study, we have investigated the activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA) as a diagnostic marker in type 2 (or II) diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design and Methods. The deaminase activity of ADA1 and ADA2 was determined in serum from 33 patients with type 2 (or II) diabetes mellitus and 35 healthy controls. We also determined the proportion of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Results. Our results showed significant differences between total serum ADA (tADA) and ADA2 activities in the diabetic groups with HbA1c < 8 (%) and HbA1c ≥ 8 (%) with respect to the values in healthy individuals (p < 0...
2016: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777794/molecular-analysis-of-cyp21a2-gene-mutations-among-iraqi-patients-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#5
Ruqayah G Y Al-Obaidi, Bassam M S Al-Musawi, Munib Ahmed K Al-Zubaidi, Christian Oberkanins, Stefan Németh, Yusra G Y Al-Obaidi
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of autosomal recessive disorders. The most frequent one is 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Analyzing CYP21A2 gene mutations was so far not reported in Iraq. This work aims to analyze the spectrum and frequency of CYP21A2 mutations among Iraqi CAH patients. Sixty-two children were recruited from the Pediatric Endocrine Consultation Clinic, Children Welfare Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, from September 2014 till June 2015. Their ages ranged between one day and 15 years...
2016: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725884/agroindustrial-wastes-as-alternative-for-lipase-production-by-candida-viswanathii-under-solid-state-cultivation-purification-biochemical-properties-and-its-potential-for-poultry-fat-hydrolysis
#6
Alex Fernando de Almeida, Kleydiane Braga Dias, Ana Carolina Cerri da Silva, César Rafael Fanchini Terrasan, Sâmia Maria Tauk-Tornisielo, Eleonora Cano Carmona
The aims of this work were to establish improved conditions for lipase production by Candida viswanathii using agroindustrial wastes in solid-state cultivation and to purify and evaluate the application of this enzyme for poultry fat hydrolysis. Mixed wheat bran plus spent barley grain (1 : 1, w/w) supplemented with 25.0% (w/w) olive oil increased the lipase production to 322.4%, compared to the initial conditions. When olive oil was replaced by poultry fat, the highest lipase production found at 40% (w/w) was 31...
2016: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274868/salivary-myeloperoxidase-assessed-by-3-3-diaminobenzidine-colorimetry-can-differentiate-periodontal-patients-from-nonperiodontal-subjects
#7
Supaporn Klangprapan, Ponlatham Chaiyarit, Doosadee Hormdee, Amonrujee Kampichai, Tueanjit Khampitak, Jureerut Daduang, Ratree Tavichakorntrakool, Bhinyo Panijpan, Patcharee Boonsiri
Periodontal diseases, which result from inflammation of tooth supporting tissues, are highly prevalent worldwide. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), from certain white blood cells in saliva, is a biomarker for inflammation. We report our study on the salivary MPO activity and its association with severity of periodontal diseases among Thai patients. Periodontally healthy subjects (n = 11) and gingivitis (n = 32) and periodontitis patients (n = 19) were enrolled. Assessments of clinically periodontal parameters were reported as percentages for gingival bleeding index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP), whereas pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured in millimeters and then made to index scores...
2016: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27057351/highly-active-and-stable-large-catalase-isolated-from-a-hydrocarbon-degrading-aspergillus-terreus-mtcc-6324
#8
Preety Vatsyayan, Pranab Goswami
A hydrocarbon degrading Aspergillus terreus MTCC 6324 produces a high level of extremely active and stable cellular large catalase (CAT) during growth on n-hexadecane to combat the oxidative stress caused by the hydrocarbon degrading metabolic machinery inside the cell. A 160-fold purification with specific activity of around 66 × 10(5) U mg(-1) protein was achieved. The native protein molecular mass was 368 ± 5 kDa with subunit molecular mass of nearly 90 kDa, which indicates that the native CAT protein is a homotetramer...
2016: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989505/a-comparative-study-of-new-aspergillus-strains-for-proteolytic-enzymes-production-by-solid-state-fermentation
#9
Gastón Ezequiel Ortiz, Diego Gabriel Noseda, María Clara Ponce Mora, Matías Nicolás Recupero, Martín Blasco, Edgardo Albertó
A comparative study of the proteolytic enzymes production using twelve Aspergillus strains previously unused for this purpose was performed by solid state fermentation. A semiquantitative and quantitative evaluation of proteolytic activity were carried out using crude enzymatic extracts obtained from the fermentation cultures, finding seven strains with high and intermediate level of protease activity. Biochemical, thermodynamics, and kinetics features such as optimum pH and temperature values, thermal stability, activation energy (E a), quotient energy (Q 10), K m , and V max were studied in four enzymatic extracts from the selected strains that showed the highest productivity...
2016: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26942005/overexpression-of-soluble-recombinant-human-lysyl-oxidase-by-using-solubility-tags-effects-on-activity-and-solubility
#10
Madison A Smith, Jesica Gonzalez, Anjum Hussain, Rachel N Oldfield, Kathryn A Johnston, Karlo M Lopez
Lysyl oxidase is an important extracellular matrix enzyme that has not been fully characterized due to its low solubility. In order to circumvent the low solubility of this enzyme, three solubility tags (Nus-A, Thioredoxin (Trx), and Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST)) were engineered on the N-terminus of mature lysyl oxidase. Total enzyme yields were determined to be 1.5 mg for the Nus-A tagged enzyme (0.75 mg/L of media), 7.84 mg for the Trx tagged enzyme (3.92 mg/L of media), and 9.33 mg for the GST tagged enzyme (4...
2016: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26904276/characterization-of-a-hyperthermostable-alkaline-lipase-from-bacillus-sonorensis-4r
#11
Hemlata Bhosale, Uzma Shaheen, Tukaram Kadam
Hyperthermostable alkaline lipase from Bacillus sonorensis 4R was purified and characterized. The enzyme production was carried out at 80°C and 9.0 pH in glucose-tween inorganic salt broth under static conditions for 96 h. Lipase was purified by anion exchange chromatography by 12.15 fold with a yield of 1.98%. The molecular weight of lipase was found to be 21.87 KDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme activity was optimal at 80°C with t 1/2 of 150 min and at 90°C, 100°C, 110°C, and 120°C; the respective values were 121...
2016: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26881066/production-of-thermoalkaliphilic-lipase-from-geobacillus-thermoleovorans-da2-and-application-in-leather-industry
#12
Deyaa M Abol Fotouh, Reda A Bayoumi, Mohamed A Hassan
Thermophilic and alkaliphilic lipases are meeting a growing global attention as their increased importance in several industrial fields. Over 23 bacterial strains, novel strain with high lipolytic activity was isolated from Southern Sinai, Egypt, and it was identified as Geobacillus thermoleovorans DA2 using 16S rRNA as well as morphological and biochemical features. The lipase was produced in presence of fatty restaurant wastes as an inducing substrate. The optimized conditions for lipase production were recorded to be temperature 60°C, pH 10, and incubation time for 48 hrs...
2016: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26881065/immunomodulatory-effects-of-chitotriosidase-enzyme
#13
REVIEW
Mohamed A Elmonem, Lambertus P van den Heuvel, Elena N Levtchenko
Chitotriosidase enzyme (EC: 3.2.1.14) is the major active chitinase in the human body. It is produced mainly by activated macrophages, in which its expression is regulated by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Chitotriosidase was confirmed as essential element in the innate immunity against chitin containing organisms such as fungi and protozoa; however, its immunomodulatory effects extend far beyond innate immunity. In the current review, we will try to explore the expanding spectrum of immunological roles played by chitotriosidase enzyme in human health and disease and will discuss its up-to-date clinical value...
2016: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26798508/modulation-of-aromatase-by-phytoestrogens
#14
REVIEW
Edwin D Lephart
The aromatase enzyme catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens in many human tissues. Estrogens are known to stimulate cellular proliferation associated with certain cancers and protect against adverse symptoms during the peri- and postmenopausal intervals. Phytoestrogens are a group of plant derived naturally occurring compounds that have chemical structures similar to estrogen. Since phytoestrogens are known to be constituents of animal/human food sources, these compounds have received increased research attention...
2015: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26793393/actinomycetes-a-source-of-lignocellulolytic-enzymes
#15
REVIEW
Anita Saini, Neeraj K Aggarwal, Anuja Sharma, Anita Yadav
Lignocellulose is the most abundant biomass on earth. Agricultural, forest, and agroindustrial activities generate tons of lignocellulosic wastes annually, which present readily procurable, economically affordable, and renewable feedstock for various lignocelluloses based applications. Lignocelluloses are the focus of present decade researchers globally, in an attempt to develop technologies based on natural biomass for reducing dependence on expensive and exhaustible substrates. Lignocellulolytic enzymes, that is, cellulases, hemicellulases, and lignolytic enzymes, play very important role in the processing of lignocelluloses which is prerequisite for their utilization in various processes...
2015: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26788364/estimation-of-inhibitory-effect-against-tyrosinase-activity-through-homology-modeling-and-molecular-docking
#16
Daungkamon Nokinsee, Lalida Shank, Vannajan Sanghiran Lee, Piyarat Nimmanpipug
Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanogenesis. Generally, mushroom tyrosinase from A. bisporus had been used as a model in skin-whitening agent tests employed in the cosmetic industry. The recently obtained crystal structure of bacterial tyrosinase from B. megaterium has high similarity (33.5%) to the human enzyme and thus it was used as a template for constructing of the human model. Binding of tyrosinase to a series of its inhibitors was simulated by automated docking calculations. Docking and MD simulation results suggested that N81, N260, H263, and M280 are involved in the binding of inhibitors to mushroom tyrosinase...
2015: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26664744/chitinases-from-bacteria-to-human-properties-applications-and-future-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Abhishek Singh Rathore, Rinkoo D Gupta
Chitin is the second most plenteous polysaccharide in nature after cellulose, present in cell walls of several fungi, exoskeletons of insects, and crustacean shells. Chitin does not accumulate in the environment due to presence of bacterial chitinases, despite its abundance. These enzymes are able to degrade chitin present in the cell walls of fungi as well as the exoskeletons of insect. They have shown being the potential agents for biological control of the plant diseases caused by various pathogenic fungi and insect pests and thus can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides...
2015: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26664741/extracellular-polyhydroxyalkanoate-depolymerase-by-acidovorax-sp-dp5
#18
S Vigneswari, T S Lee, Kesaven Bhubalan, A A Amirul
Bacteria capable of degrading polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by secreting extracellular depolymerase enzymes were isolated from water and soil samples collected from various environments in Malaysia. A total of 8 potential degraders exhibited clear zones on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] based agar, indicating the presence of extracellular PHA depolymerase. Among the isolates, DP5 exhibited the largest clearing zone with a degradation index of 6.0. The highest degradation activity of P(3HB) was also observed with depolymerase enzyme of DP5 in mineral salt medium containing P(3HB)...
2015: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26635974/determining-the-ic-50-values-for-vorozole-and-letrozole-on-a-series-of-human-liver-cytochrome-p450s-to-help-determine-the-binding-site-of-vorozole-in-the-liver
#19
Lendelle Raymond, Nikita Rayani, Grace Polson, Kylie Sikorski, Ailin Lian, Melissa A VanAlstine-Parris
Vorozole and letrozole are third-generation aromatase (cytochrome P450 19A1) inhibitors. [(11)C]-Vorozole can be used as a radiotracer for aromatase in living animals but when administered by IV, it collects in the liver. Pretreatment with letrozole does not affect the binding of vorozole in the liver. In search of finding the protein responsible for the accumulation of vorozole in the liver, fluorometric high-throughput screening assays were used to test the inhibitory capability of vorozole and letrozole on a series of liver cytochrome P450s (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP3A4)...
2015: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26600946/acetylcholinesterase-from-human-erythrocytes-as-a-surrogate-biomarker-of-lead-induced-neurotoxicity
#20
Vivek Kumar Gupta, Rajnish Pal, Nikhat Jamal Siddiqi, Bechan Sharma
Lead induced neurotoxicity in the people engaged in different occupations has received wide attention but very little studies have been carried out to monitor occupational neurotoxicity directly due to lead exposure using biochemical methods. In the present paper an endeavour has been made in order to assess the lead mediated neurotoxicity by in vitro assay of the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from human erythrocytes in presence of different concentrations of lead. The results suggested that the activity of this enzyme was localized in membrane bound fraction and it was found to be highly stable up to 30 days when stored at -20°C in phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7...
2015: Enzyme Research
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