journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Annual Review of Marine Science

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029576/marine-aerosols-and-clouds
#1
Sarah D Brooks, Daniel C O Thornton
The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gasphase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean...
October 13, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977760/sediment-trapping-in-estuaries
#2
Hans Burchard, Henk M Schuttelaars, David K Ralston
Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) are generated by a large suite of hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic processes, leading to longitudinal convergence of cross-sectionally integrated and tidally averaged transport of cohesive and noncohesive suspended particulate matter (SPM). The relative importance of these processes for SPM trapping varies substantially among estuaries depending on topography, fluvial and tidal forcing, and SPM composition. The high-frequency dynamics of ETMs are constrained by interactions with the low-frequency dynamics of the bottom pool of easily erodible sediments...
October 4, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961073/manifestation-drivers-and-emergence-of-open-ocean-deoxygenation
#3
Lisa A Levin
Oxygen loss in the ocean, termed deoxygenation, is a major consequence of climate change and is exacerbated by other aspects of global change. An average global loss of 2% or more has been recorded in the open ocean over the past 50-100 years, but with greater oxygen declines in intermediate waters (100-600 m) of the North Pacific, the East Pacific, tropical waters, and the Southern Ocean. Although ocean warming contributions to oxygen declines through a reduction in oxygen solubility and stratification effects on ventilation are reasonably well understood, it has been a major challenge to identify drivers and modifying factors that explain different regional patterns, especially in the tropical oceans...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961072/a-satellite-based-lagrangian-view-on-phytoplankton-dynamics
#4
Yoav Lehahn, Francesco d'Ovidio, Ilan Koren
The well-lit upper layer of the open ocean is a dynamical environment that hosts approximately half of global primary production. In the remote parts of this environment, distant from the coast and from the seabed, there is no obvious spatially fixed reference frame for describing the dynamics of the microscopic drifting organisms responsible for this immense production of organic matter-the phytoplankton. Thus, a natural perspective for studying phytoplankton dynamics is to follow the trajectories of water parcels in which the organisms are embedded...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961071/spaceborne-lidar-in-the-study-of-marine-systems
#5
Chris A Hostetler, Michael J Behrenfeld, Yongxiang Hu, Johnathan W Hair, Jennifer A Schulien
Satellite passive ocean color instruments have provided an unbroken ∼20-year record of global ocean plankton properties, but this measurement approach has inherent limitations in terms of spatial-temporal sampling and ability to resolve vertical structure within the water column. These limitations can be addressed by coupling ocean color data with measurements from a spaceborne lidar. Airborne lidars have been used for decades to study ocean subsurface properties, but recent breakthroughs have now demonstrated that plankton properties can be measured with a satellite lidar...
September 27, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938079/comparing-climate-sensitivity-past-and-present
#6
Eelco J Rohling, Gianluca Marino, Gavin L Foster, Philip A Goodwin, Anna S von der Heydt, Peter Köhler
Climate sensitivity represents the global mean temperature change caused by changes in the radiative balance of climate; it is studied for both present/future (actuo) and past (paleo) climate variations, with the former based on instrumental records and/or various types of model simulations. Paleo-estimates are often considered informative for assessments of actuo-climate change caused by anthropogenic greenhouse forcing, but this utility remains debated because of concerns about the impacts of uncertainties, assumptions, and incomplete knowledge about controlling mechanisms in the dynamic climate system, with its multiple interacting feedbacks and their potential dependence on the climate background state...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934597/the-recent-atlantic-cold-anomaly-causes-consequences-and-related-phenomena
#7
Simon A Josey, Joel J-M Hirschi, Bablu Sinha, Aurélie Duchez, Jeremy P Grist, Robert Marsh
Cold ocean temperature anomalies have been observed in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic on interannual to centennial timescales. Most notably, a large region of persistently low surface temperatures accompanied by a sharp reduction in ocean heat content was evident in the subpolar gyre from the winter of 2013-2014 to 2016, and the presence of this feature at a time of pervasive warming elsewhere has stimulated considerable debate. Here, we review the role of air-sea interaction and ocean processes in generating this cold anomaly and place it in a longer-term context...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934598/mixing-efficiency-in-the-ocean
#8
M C Gregg, E A D'Asaro, J J Riley, E Kunze
Mixing efficiency is the ratio of the net change in potential energy to the energy expended in producing the mixing. Parameterizations of efficiency and of related mixing coefficients are needed to estimate diapycnal diffusivity from measurements of the turbulent dissipation rate. Comparing diffusivities from microstructure profilingwith those inferred from the thickening rate of four simultaneous tracer releases has verified, within observational accuracy, 0.2 as the mixing coefficient over a 30-fold range of diapycnal diffusivities...
September 13, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877009/a-synoptic-view-of-the-ventilation-and-circulation-of-antarctic-bottom-water-from-chlorofluorocarbons-and-natural-tracers
#9
Sarah G Purkey, William M Smethie, Geoffrey Gebbie, Arnold L Gordon, Rolf E Sonnerup, Mark J Warner, John L Bullister
Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is the coldest, densest, most prolific water mass in the global ocean. AABW forms at several distinct regions along the Antarctic coast and feeds into the bottom limb of the meridional overturning circulation, filling most of the global deep ocean. AABW has warmed, freshened, and declined in volume around the globe in recent decades, which has implications for the global heat and sea level rise budgets. Over the past three decades, the use of tracers, especially time-varying tracers such as chlorofluorocarbons, has been essential to our understanding of the formation, circulation, and variability of AABW...
September 6, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853998/ecological-stoichiometry-of-ocean-plankton
#10
Allison R Moreno, Adam C Martiny
Marine plankton elemental stoichiometric ratios can deviate from the Redfield ratio (106C:16N:1P); here, we examine physiological and biogeochemical mechanisms that lead to the observed variation across lineages, regions, and seasons. Many models of ecological stoichiometry blend together acclimative and adaptive responses to environmental conditions. These two pathways can have unique molecular mechanisms and stoichiometric outcomes, and we attempt to disentangle the two processes. We find that interactions between environmental conditions and cellular growth are key to understanding stoichiometric regulation, but the growth rates of most marine plankton populations are poorly constrained...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853997/progress-in-deciphering-the-controls-on-the-geochemistry-of-fluids-in-seafloor-hydrothermal-systems
#11
Susan E Humphris, Frieder Klein
Over the last four decades, more than 500 sites of seafloor hydrothermal venting have been identified in a range of tectonic environments. These vents represent the seafloor manifestation of hydrothermal convection of seawater through the permeable oceanic basement that is driven by a subsurface heat source. Hydrothermal circulation has fundamental effects on the transfer of heat and mass from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, the composition of seawater, the physical and chemical properties of the oceanic basement, and vent ecosystems at and below the seafloor...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846492/planktonic-subsidies-to-surf-zone-and-intertidal-communities
#12
Steven G Morgan, Alan L Shanks, Jamie H MacMahan, Ad J H M Reniers, Falk Feddersen
Plankton are transported onshore, providing subsidies of food and new recruits to surf-zone and intertidal communities. The transport of plankton to the surf zone is influenced by wind, wave, and tidal forcing, and whether they enter the surf zone depends on alongshore variation in surf-zone hydrodynamics caused by the interaction of breaking waves with coastal morphology. Areas with gently sloping shores and wide surf zones typically have orders-of-magnitude-higher concentrations of plankton in the surf zone and dense larval settlement in intertidal communities because of the presence of bathymetric rip currents, which are absent in areas with steep shores and narrow surf zones...
August 28, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813201/applying-movement-ecology-to-marine-animals-with-complex-life-cycles
#13
Richard M Allen, Anna Metaxas, Paul V R Snelgrove
Marine animals with complex life cycles may move passively or actively for fertilization, dispersal, predator avoidance, resource acquisition, and migration, and over scales from micrometers to thousands of kilometers. This diversity has catalyzed idiosyncratic and unfocused research, creating unsound paradigms regarding the role of movement in ecology and evolution. The emerging movement ecology paradigm offers a framework to consolidate movement research independent of taxon, life-history stage, scale, or discipline...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796571/the-fate-and-impact-of-internal-waves-in-nearshore-ecosystems
#14
C B Woodson
Internal waves are widespread features of global oceans that play critical roles in mixing and thermohaline circulation. Similarly to surface waves, internal waves can travel long distances, ultimately breaking along continental margins. These breaking waves can transport deep ocean water and associated constituents (nutrients, larvae, and acidic low-oxygen waters) onto the shelf and locally enhance turbulence and mixing, with important effects on nearshore ecosystems. We are only beginning to understand the role internal waves play in shaping nearshore ecosystems...
August 10, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793810/remote-sensing-tropical-coral-reefs-the-view-from-above
#15
Sam J Purkis
Carbonate precipitation has been a common life strategy for marine organisms for 3.7 billion years, as, therefore, has their construction of reefs. As favored by modern corals, reef-forming organisms have typically adopted a niche in warm, shallow, well-lit, tropical marine waters, where they are capable of building vast carbonate edifices. Because fossil reefs form water aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs, considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding their anatomy and morphology. Remote sensing has a particular role to play here...
August 9, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045355/climate-anchovy-and-sardine
#16
David M Checkley, Rebecca G Asch, Ryan R Rykaczewski
Anchovy and sardine populated productive ocean regions over hundreds of thousands of years under a naturally varying climate, and are now subject to climate change of equal or greater magnitude occurring over decades to centuries. We hypothesize that anchovy and sardine populations are limited in size by the supply of nitrogen from outside their habitats originating from upwelling, mixing, and rivers. Projections of the responses of anchovy and sardine to climate change rely on a range of model types and consideration of the effects of climate on lower trophic levels, the effects of fishing on higher trophic levels, and the traits of these two types of fish...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045354/introduction
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814034/dining-in-the-deep-the-feeding-ecology-of-deep-sea-fishes
#18
Jeffrey C Drazen, Tracey T Sutton
Deep-sea fishes inhabit ∼75% of the biosphere and are a critical part of deep-sea food webs. Diet analysis and more recent trophic biomarker approaches, such as stable isotopes and fatty-acid profiles, have enabled the description of feeding guilds and an increased recognition of the vertical connectivity in food webs in a whole-water-column sense, including benthic-pelagic coupling. Ecosystem modeling requires data on feeding rates; the available estimates indicate that deep-sea fishes have lower per-individual feeding rates than coastal and epipelagic fishes, but the overall predation impact may be high...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814033/zooplankton-and-the-ocean-carbon-cycle
#19
Deborah K Steinberg, Michael R Landry
Marine zooplankton comprise a phylogenetically and functionally diverse assemblage of protistan and metazoan consumers that occupy multiple trophic levels in pelagic food webs. Within this complex network, carbon flows via alternative zooplankton pathways drive temporal and spatial variability in production-grazing coupling, nutrient cycling, export, and transfer efficiency to higher trophic levels. We explore current knowledge of the processing of zooplankton food ingestion by absorption, egestion, respiration, excretion, and growth (production) processes...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814032/quorum-sensing-in-marine-microbial-environments
#20
Laura R Hmelo
Quorum sensing (QS) is a form of chemical communication used by certain bacteria that regulates a wide range of biogeochemically important bacterial behaviors. Although QS was first observed in a marine bacterium nearly four decades ago, only in the past decade has there been a rise in interest in the role that QS plays in the ocean. It has become clear that QS, regulated by signals such as acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) or furanosyl-borate diesters [autoinducer-2 (AI-2) molecules], is involved in important processes within the marine carbon cycle, in the health of coral reef ecosystems, and in trophic interactions between a range of eukaryotes and their bacterial associates...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
journal
journal
43162
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"