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Annual Review of Marine Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814028/anthropogenic-forcing-of-carbonate-and-organic-carbon-preservation-in-marine-sediments
#1
Richard Keil
Carbon preservation in marine sediments, supplemented by that in large lakes, is the primary mechanism that moves carbon from the active surficial carbon cycle to the slower geologic carbon cycle. Preservation rates are low relative to the rates at which carbon moves between surface pools, which has led to the preservation term largely being ignored when evaluating anthropogenic forcing of the global carbon cycle. However, a variety of anthropogenic drivers-including ocean warming, deoxygenation, and acidification, as well as human-induced changes in sediment delivery to the ocean and mixing and irrigation of continental margin sediments-all work to decrease the already small carbon preservation term...
November 2, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814031/coccolithophore-cell-biology-chalking-up-progress
#2
Alison R Taylor, Colin Brownlee, Glen Wheeler
Coccolithophores occupy a special position within the marine phytoplankton because of their production of intricate calcite scales, or coccoliths. Coccolithophores are major contributors to global ocean calcification and long-term carbon fluxes. The intracellular production of coccoliths requires modifications to cellular ultrastructure and metabolism that are surveyed here. In addition to calcification, which appears to have evolved with a diverse range of functions, several other remarkable features that likely underpin the ecological and evolutionary success of coccolithophores have recently been uncovered...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814030/the-physiology-and-ecology-of-diapause-in-marine-copepods
#3
Mark F Baumgartner, Ann M Tarrant
Diapause is a type of dormancy that requires preparation, typically precedes the onset of unfavorable conditions, and necessitates a period of arrest before development can proceed. Two ecologically important groups of copepods have incorporated diapausing stages into their life histories. In freshwater, estuarine, and coastal environments, species within the Centropagoidea superfamily can produce resting eggs containing embryos that may be quiescent, diapausing, or in some intermediate state. Resting eggs sink into the sediments, remain viable over months to years, and form a reservoir from which the planktonic population is reestablished...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814029/the-atlantic-meridional-overturning-circulation-and-abrupt-climate-change
#4
Jean Lynch-Stieglitz
Abrupt changes in climate have occurred in many locations around the globe over the last glacial cycle, with pronounced temperature swings on timescales of decades or less in the North Atlantic. The global pattern of these changes suggests that they reflect variability in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). This review examines the evidence from ocean sediments for ocean circulation change over these abrupt events. The evidence for changes in the strength and structure of the AMOC associated with the Younger Dryas and many of the Heinrich events is strong...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814032/quorum-sensing-in-marine-microbial-environments
#5
Laura R Hmelo
Quorum sensing (QS) is a form of chemical communication used by certain bacteria that regulates a wide range of biogeochemically important bacterial behaviors. Although QS was first observed in a marine bacterium nearly four decades ago, only in the past decade has there been a rise in interest in the role that QS plays in the ocean. It has become clear that QS, regulated by signals such as acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) or furanosyl-borate diesters [autoinducer-2 (AI-2) molecules], is involved in important processes within the marine carbon cycle, in the health of coral reef ecosystems, and in trophic interactions between a range of eukaryotes and their bacterial associates...
October 21, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814033/zooplankton-and-the-ocean-carbon-cycle
#6
Deborah K Steinberg, Michael R Landry
Marine zooplankton comprise a phylogenetically and functionally diverse assemblage of protistan and metazoan consumers that occupy multiple trophic levels in pelagic food webs. Within this complex network, carbon flows via alternative zooplankton pathways drive temporal and spatial variability in production-grazing coupling, nutrient cycling, export, and transfer efficiency to higher trophic levels. We explore current knowledge of the processing of zooplankton food ingestion by absorption, egestion, respiration, excretion, and growth (production) processes...
October 17, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814034/dining-in-the-deep-the-feeding-ecology-of-deep-sea-fishes
#7
Jeffrey C Drazen, Tracey T Sutton
Deep-sea fishes inhabit ∼75% of the biosphere and are a critical part of deep-sea food webs. Diet analysis and more recent trophic biomarker approaches, such as stable isotopes and fatty-acid profiles, have enabled the description of feeding guilds and an increased recognition of the vertical connectivity in food webs in a whole-water-column sense, including benthic-pelagic coupling. Ecosystem modeling requires data on feeding rates; the available estimates indicate that deep-sea fishes have lower per-individual feeding rates than coastal and epipelagic fishes, but the overall predation impact may be high...
October 13, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687974/sar11-bacteria-the-most-abundant-plankton-in-the-oceans
#8
Stephen J Giovannoni
SAR11 is a group of small, carbon-oxidizing cells that reach a global estimated population size of 2.4 × 10(28) cells-approximately 25% of all plankton. They are found throughout the oceans but reach their largest numbers in stratified, oligotrophic gyres, which are an expanding habitat in the warming oceans. SAR11 likely had a Precambrian origin and, over geological time, evolved into the niche of harvesting labile, low-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (DOM). SAR11 cells are minimal in size and complexity, a phenomenon known as streamlining that is thought to benefit them by lowering the material costs of replication and maximizing transport functions that are essential to competition at ultralow nutrient concentrations...
September 28, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620830/how-baleen-whales-feed-the-biomechanics-of-engulfment-and-filtration
#9
J A Goldbogen, D Cade, J Calambokidis, A S Friedlaender, J Potvin, P S Segre, A J Werth
Baleen whales are gigantic obligate filter feeders that exploit aggregations of small-bodied prey in littoral, epipelagic, and mesopelagic ecosystems. At the extreme of maximum body size observed among mammals, baleen whales exhibit a unique combination of high overall energetic demands and low mass-specific metabolic rates. As a result, most baleen whale species have evolved filter-feeding mechanisms and foraging strategies that take advantage of seasonally abundant yet patchily and ephemerally distributed prey resources...
September 7, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620829/plastics-in-the-marine-environment
#10
Kara Lavender Law
Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment...
September 7, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620831/natural-variability-and-anthropogenic-trends-in-the-ocean-carbon-sink
#11
Galen A McKinley, Amanda R Fay, Nicole S Lovenduski, Darren J Pilcher
Since preindustrial times, the ocean has removed from the atmosphere 41% of the carbon emitted by human industrial activities. Despite significant uncertainties, the balance of evidence indicates that the globally integrated rate of ocean carbon uptake is increasing in response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the equatorial Pacific dominates interannual variability of the globally integrated sink. Modes of climate variability in high latitudes are correlated with variability in regional carbon sinks, but mechanistic understanding is incomplete...
August 31, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575737/marine-hydrokinetic-energy-from-western-boundary-currents
#12
John M Bane, Ruoying He, Michael Muglia, Caroline F Lowcher, Yanlin Gong, Sara M Haines
The kinetic energy in ocean currents, or marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy, is a renewable energy resource that can help meet global energy requirements. An ocean circulation model-based census shows that subtropical surface western boundary currents (WBCs) are the only nearshore, large-scale currents swift enough to drive large electricity-generating ocean turbines envisioned for future use. We review several WBCs in the context of kinetic energy extraction. The power density in the Gulf Stream off North Carolina at times reaches several thousand watts per square meter at 75 m below the surface, and the annual average power is approximately 500-1,000 W m(-2)...
August 24, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575740/biogeochemical-transformations-in-the-history-of-the-ocean
#13
Timothy M Lenton, Stuart J Daines
The ocean has undergone several profound biogeochemical transformations in its 4-billion-year history, and these were an integral part of the coevolution of life and the planet. This review focuses on changes in ocean redox state as controlled by changes in biological activity, nutrient concentrations, and atmospheric O2. Motivated by disparate interpretations of available geochemical data, we aim to show how quantitative modeling-spanning microbial mats, shelf seas, and the open ocean-can help constrain past ocean biogeochemical redox states and show what caused transformations between them...
August 19, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575739/advances-in-the-application-of-surface-drifters
#14
Rick Lumpkin, Tamay Özgökmen, Luca Centurioni
Surface drifting buoys, or drifters, are used in oceanographic and climate research, oil spill tracking, weather forecasting, search and rescue operations, calibration and validation of velocities from high-frequency radar and from altimeters, iceberg tracking, and support of offshore drilling operations. In this review, we present a brief history of drifters, from the message in a bottle to the latest satellite-tracked, multisensor drifters. We discuss the different types of drifters currently used for research and operations as well as drifter designs in development...
August 19, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575738/multiple-stressors-and-the-functioning-of-coral-reefs
#15
Alastair R Harborne, Alice Rogers, Yves-Marie Bozec, Peter J Mumby
Coral reefs provide critical services to coastal communities, and these services rely on ecosystem functions threatened by stressors. By summarizing the threats to the functioning of reefs from fishing, climate change, and decreasing water quality, we highlight that these stressors have multiple, conflicting effects on functionally similar groups of species and their interactions, and that the overall effects are often uncertain because of a lack of data or variability among taxa. The direct effects of stressors on links among functional groups, such as predator-prey interactions, are particularly uncertain...
August 19, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575741/venice-and-i-how-a-city-can-determine-the-fate-of-a-career
#16
Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli
Quoting the ancient Romans: Audentes Fortuna iuvat. Being in the right place at the right time is useless if you do not grasp your Fortuna and build upon it. In this article, I expound on the milestones of my multiform research career, which over more than 40 years brought me from Venice to California to MIT; from the Venice problem to highly nonlinear, coherent structures in the ocean and atmosphere; and from the mare nostrum (the Mediterranean Sea), a laboratory for global processes, to the tropical ocean-atmosphere systems and regional coupled climate models of the Maritime Continent...
August 8, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27483121/mixotrophy-in-the-marine-plankton
#17
Diane K Stoecker, Per Juel Hansen, David A Caron, Aditee Mitra
Mixotrophs are important components of the bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, microzooplankton, and (sometimes) zooplankton in coastal and oceanic waters. Bacterivory among the phytoplankton may be important for alleviating inorganic nutrient stress and may increase primary production in oligotrophic waters. Mixotrophic phytoflagellates and dinoflagellates are often dominant components of the plankton during seasonal stratification. Many of the microzooplankton grazers, including ciliates and Rhizaria, are mixotrophic owing to their retention of functional algal organelles or maintenance of algal endosymbionts...
July 6, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359052/fukushima-daiichi-derived-radionuclides-in-the-ocean-transport-fate-and-impacts
#18
Ken Buesseler, Minhan Dai, Michio Aoyama, Claudia Benitez-Nelson, Sabine Charmasson, Kathryn Higley, Vladimir Maderich, Pere Masqué, Deborah Oughton, John N Smith
The events that followed the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011, included the loss of power and overheating at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants, which led to extensive releases of radioactive gases, volatiles, and liquids, particularly to the coastal ocean. The fate of these radionuclides depends in large part on their oceanic geochemistry, physical processes, and biological uptake. Whereas radioactivity on land can be resampled and its distribution mapped, releases to the marine environment are harder to characterize owing to variability in ocean currents and the general challenges of sampling at sea...
June 30, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26747521/nitrogen-and-oxygen-isotopic-studies-of-the-marine-nitrogen-cycle
#19
REVIEW
Karen L Casciotti
The marine nitrogen cycle is a complex web of microbially mediated reactions that control the inventory, distribution, and speciation of nitrogen in the marine environment. Because nitrogen is a major nutrient that is required by all life, its availability can control biological productivity and ecosystem structure in both surface and deep-ocean communities. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate and nitrite have provided new insights into the rates and distributions of marine nitrogen cycle processes, especially when analyzed in combination with numerical simulations of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry...
2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26747520/cross-shelf-exchange
#20
REVIEW
K H Brink
Cross-shelf exchange dominates the pathways and rates by which nutrients, biota, and materials on the continental shelf are delivered and removed. This follows because cross-shelf gradients of most properties are usually far greater than those in the alongshore direction. The resulting transports are limited by Earth's rotation, which inhibits flow from crossing isobaths. Thus, cross-shelf flows are generally weak compared with alongshore flows, and this leads to interesting observational issues. Cross-shelf flows are enabled by turbulent mixing processes, nonlinear processes (such as momentum advection), and time dependence...
2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
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