journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Annual Review of Marine Science

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29996063/mechanisms-and-pathways-of-small-phytoplankton-export-from-the-surface-ocean
#1
Tammi L Richardson
Carbon fixation by phytoplankton near the surface and the sinking of this particulate material to deeper waters are key components of the biological carbon pump. The efficiency of the biological pump is influenced by the size and taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton community. Large, heavily ballasted taxa such as diatoms sink quickly and thus efficiently remove fixed carbon from the upper ocean. Smaller, nonballasted species such as picoplanktonic cyanobacteria are usually thought to contribute little to export production...
July 11, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958066/marine-environmental-epigenetics
#2
Jose M Eirin-Lopez, Hollie M Putnam
Marine organisms' persistence hinges on the capacity for acclimatization and adaptation to the myriad of interacting environmental stressors associated with global climate change. In this context, epigenetics-mechanisms that facilitate phenotypic variation through genotype-environment interactions-are of great interest ecologically and evolutionarily. Our comprehensive review of marine environmental epigenetics guides our recommendations of four key areas for future research: the dynamics of wash-in and wash-out of epigenetic effects, the mechanistic understanding of the interplay of different epigenetic marks and the interaction with the microbiome, the capacity for and mechanisms of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, and the evolutionary implications of the interaction of genetic and epigenetic features...
June 29, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924690/partnering-with-fishing-fleets-to-monitor-ocean-conditions
#3
Glen Gawarkiewicz, Anna Malek Mercer
Engaging ocean users, including fishing fleets, in oceanographic and ecological research is a valuable method for collecting high-quality data, improving cost efficiency, and increasing societal appreciation for scientific research. As research partners, fishing fleets provide broad access to and knowledge of the ocean, and fishers are highly motivated to use the data collected to better understand the ecosystems in which they harvest. Here, we discuss recent trends in collaborative research that have increased the capacity of and access to scientific data collection...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889612/biogeochemical-controls-on-coastal-hypoxia
#4
Katja Fennel, Jeremy M Testa
Aquatic environments experiencing low-oxygen conditions have been described as hypoxic, suboxic, or anoxic zones; oxygen minimum zones; and, in the popular media, the misnomer "dead zones." This review aims to elucidate important aspects underlying oxygen depletion in diverse coastal systems and provides a synthesis of general relationships between hypoxia and its controlling factors. After presenting a generic overview of the first-order processes, we review system-specific characteristics for selected estuaries where adjacent human settlements contribute to high nutrient loads, river-dominated shelves that receive large inputs of fresh water and anthropogenic nutrients, and upwelling regions where a supply of nutrient-rich, low-oxygen waters generates oxygen minimum zones without direct anthropogenic influence...
June 11, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889611/the-scientific-legacy-of-the-cariaco-ocean-time-series-program
#5
Frank E Muller-Karger, Yrene M Astor, Claudia R Benitez-Nelson, Kristen N Buck, Kent A Fanning, Laura Lorenzoni, Enrique Montes, Digna T Rueda-Roa, Mary I Scranton, Eric Tappa, Gordon T Taylor, Robert C Thunell, Luis Troccoli, Ramon Varela
TheCARIACO(Carbon Retention in a Colored Ocean) Ocean Time-Series Program station, located at 10.50°N, 64.66°W, observed biogeochemical and ecological processes in the Cariaco Basin of the southwestern Caribbean Sea from November 1995 to January 2017. The program completed 232 monthly core cruises, 40 sediment trap deployment cruises, and 40 microbiogeochemical process cruises. Upwelling along the southern Caribbean Sea occurs from approximately November to August. High biological productivity (320-628 g C m-2 y-1 ) leads to large vertical fluxes of particulate organic matter, but only approximately 9-10 g C m-2 y-1 fall to the bottom sediments (∼1-3% of primary production)...
June 11, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852088/passing-the-baton-to-the-next-generation-a-few-problems-that-need-solving
#6
Cindy Lee
This is a personal account of some of the people and factors that were important in my career in chemical oceanography. I also discuss two areas of oceanographic research and training that I think need more attention. The first is how the difficulty in getting appropriate samples hampers our ability to fully understand biogeochemical processes in the sea. I have worked on dissolved materials, suspended and sinking particles, and sediments in lakes, oceans, rivers, and aerosols. Sample collection problems affect all those areas, although to different degrees...
May 31, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751736/a-conversation-with-walter-munk
#7
Walter Munk, Carl Wunsch
In this interview, Carl Wunsch talks with Walter Munk about his career in oceanography; his relationships with scientists such as Harald Sverdrup, Roger Revelle, Walfrid Ekman, Carl Rossby, Carl Ekart, Henry Stommel, and G.I. Taylor; technological advances over the decades; and his thoughts on the future of the field. Watch video of the interview at: https://www.annualreviews.org/do/10.1146/do.multimedia.2017.11.20.01/abs/ Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science Volume 11 is January 3, 2019...
May 11, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298140/improving-marine-ecosystem-models-with-biochemical-tracers
#8
Heidi R Pethybridge, C Anela Choy, Jeffrey J Polovina, Elizabeth A Fulton
Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298139/the-bottom-boundary-layer
#9
John H Trowbridge, Steven J Lentz
The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298138/the-ecology-biogeochemistry-and-optical-properties-of-coccolithophores
#10
William M Balch
Coccolithophores are major contributors to phytoplankton communities and ocean biogeochemistry and are strong modulators of the optical field in the sea. New discoveries are changing paradigms about these calcifiers. A new role for silicon in coccolithophore calcification is coupling carbonate and silicon cycles. Phosphorus and iron play key roles in regulating coccolithophore growth. Comparing molecular phylogenies with coccolith morphometrics is forcing the reconciliation of biological and geological observations...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298137/how-do-marine-pelagic-species-respond-to-climate-change-theories-and-observations
#11
Grégory Beaugrand, Richard R Kirby
In this review, we show how climate affects species, communities, and ecosystems, and why many responses from the species to the biome level originate from the interaction between the species' ecological niche and changes in the environmental regime in both space and time. We describe a theory that allows us to understand and predict how marine species react to climate-induced changes in ecological conditions, how communities form and are reconfigured, and so how biodiversity is arranged and may respond to climate change...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298136/a-biogeochemical-oceanographer-at-sea-my-life-with-nitrogen-and-a-nod-to-silica
#12
Richard C Dugdale
My evolution from electrical engineering student to limnologist and then to oceanographer was a consequence of generous mentoring, which led to my use of the15 N tracer technique to measure nitrogen fixation in aquatic systems. The concept of new and regenerated production arose when I applied this method to measure nitrate and ammonium uptake in marine ecosystems. I then showed that enzyme kinetics could be applied to algal nitrogen uptake and used a silicate pump to explain silicate limitation of diatoms in coastal and equatorial upwelling systems...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298135/introduction
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029576/marine-aerosols-and-clouds
#14
Sarah D Brooks, Daniel C O Thornton
The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gas-phase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977760/sediment-trapping-in-estuaries
#15
Hans Burchard, Henk M Schuttelaars, David K Ralston
Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) are generated by a large suite of hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic processes, leading to longitudinal convergence of cross-sectionally integrated and tidally averaged transport of cohesive and noncohesive suspended particulate matter (SPM). The relative importance of these processes for SPM trapping varies substantially among estuaries depending on topography, fluvial and tidal forcing, and SPM composition. The high-frequency dynamics of ETMs are constrained by interactions with the low-frequency dynamics of the bottom pool of easily erodible sediments...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961073/manifestation-drivers-and-emergence-of-open-ocean-deoxygenation
#16
Lisa A Levin
Oxygen loss in the ocean, termed deoxygenation, is a major consequence of climate change and is exacerbated by other aspects of global change. An average global loss of 2% or more has been recorded in the open ocean over the past 50-100 years, but with greater oxygen declines in intermediate waters (100-600 m) of the North Pacific, the East Pacific, tropical waters, and the Southern Ocean. Although ocean warming contributions to oxygen declines through a reduction in oxygen solubility and stratification effects on ventilation are reasonably well understood, it has been a major challenge to identify drivers and modifying factors that explain different regional patterns, especially in the tropical oceans...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961072/a-satellite-based-lagrangian-view-on-phytoplankton-dynamics
#17
Yoav Lehahn, Francesco d'Ovidio, Ilan Koren
The well-lit upper layer of the open ocean is a dynamical environment that hosts approximately half of global primary production. In the remote parts of this environment, distant from the coast and from the seabed, there is no obvious spatially fixed reference frame for describing the dynamics of the microscopic drifting organisms responsible for this immense production of organic matter-the phytoplankton. Thus, a natural perspective for studying phytoplankton dynamics is to follow the trajectories of water parcels in which the organisms are embedded...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961071/spaceborne-lidar-in-the-study-of-marine-systems
#18
Chris A Hostetler, Michael J Behrenfeld, Yongxiang Hu, Johnathan W Hair, Jennifer A Schulien
Satellite passive ocean color instruments have provided an unbroken ∼20-year record of global ocean plankton properties, but this measurement approach has inherent limitations in terms of spatial-temporal sampling and ability to resolve vertical structure within the water column. These limitations can be addressed by coupling ocean color data with measurements from a spaceborne lidar. Airborne lidars have been used for decades to study ocean subsurface properties, but recent breakthroughs have now demonstrated that plankton properties can be measured with a satellite lidar...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938079/comparing-climate-sensitivity-past-and-present
#19
Eelco J Rohling, Gianluca Marino, Gavin L Foster, Philip A Goodwin, Anna S von der Heydt, Peter Köhler
Climate sensitivity represents the global mean temperature change caused by changes in the radiative balance of climate; it is studied for both present/future (actuo) and past (paleo) climate variations, with the former based on instrumental records and/or various types of model simulations. Paleo-estimates are often considered informative for assessments of actuo-climate change caused by anthropogenic greenhouse forcing, but this utility remains debated because of concerns about the impacts of uncertainties, assumptions, and incomplete knowledge about controlling mechanisms in the dynamic climate system, with its multiple interacting feedbacks and their potential dependence on the climate background state...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934598/mixing-efficiency-in-the-ocean
#20
M C Gregg, E A D'Asaro, J J Riley, E Kunze
Mixing efficiency is the ratio of the net change in potential energy to the energy expended in producing the mixing. Parameterizations of efficiency and of related mixing coefficients are needed to estimate diapycnal diffusivity from measurements of the turbulent dissipation rate. Comparing diffusivities from microstructure profiling with those inferred from the thickening rate of four simultaneous tracer releases has verified, within observational accuracy, 0.2 as the mixing coefficient over a 30-fold range of diapycnal diffusivities...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
journal
journal
43162
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"