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Annual Review of Marine Science

Sjoerd Groeskamp, Stephen M Griffies, Daniele Iudicone, Robert Marsh, A J George Nurser, Jan D Zika
The water mass transformation (WMT) framework weaves together circulation, thermodynamics, and biogeochemistry into a description of the ocean that complements traditional Eulerian and Lagrangian methods. In so doing, a WMT analysis renders novel insights and predictive capabilities for studies of ocean physics and biogeochemistry. In this review, we describe fundamentals of the WMT framework and illustrate its practical analysis capabilities. We show how it provides a robust methodology to characterize and quantify the impact of physical processes on buoyancy and other thermodynamic fields...
September 19, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Ted Maksym
Arctic sea ice has declined precipitously in both extent and thickness over the past four decades; by contrast, Antarctic sea ice has shown little overall change, but this masks large regional variability. Climate models have not captured these changes. But these differences do not represent a paradox.The processes governing, and impacts of, natural variability and human-induced changes differ markedly at the poles largely because of the ways in which differences in geography control the properties of and interactions among the atmosphere, ice, and ocean...
September 14, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Piero Calosi, Hollie M Putnam, Richard J Twitchett, Fanny Vermandele
Evolution, extinction, and dispersion are fundamental processes affecting marine biodiversity. Until recently, studies of extant marine systems focused mainly on evolution and dispersion, with extinction receiving less attention. Past extinction events have, however, shaped the evolutionary history of marine ecosystems, with ecological and evolutionary legacies still evident in modern seas. Current anthropogenic global changes increase extinction risk and pose a significant threat to marine ecosystems, which are critical for human use and sustenance...
September 14, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Roberta C Hamme, David P Nicholson, William J Jenkins, Steven R Emerson
Natural mechanisms in the ocean, both physical and biological, concentrate carbon in the deep ocean, resulting in lower atmospheric carbon dioxide. The signals of these carbon pumps overlap to create the observed carbon distribution in the ocean, making the individual impact of each pump difficult to disentangle. Noble gases have the potential to directly quantify the physical carbon solubility pump and to indirectly improve estimates of the biological organic carbon pump. Noble gases are biologically inert, can be precisely measured, and span a range of physical properties...
September 14, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Alyson E Santoro, R Alexander Richter, Christopher L Dupont
Archaea are ubiquitous and abundant members of the marine plankton. Once thought of as rare organisms found in exotic extremes of temperature, pressure, or salinity, archaea are now known in nearly every marine environment. Though frequently referred to collectively, the planktonic archaea actually comprise four major phylogenetic groups, each with its own distinct physiology and ecology. Only one group-the marine Thaumarchaeota-has cultivated representatives, making marine archaea an attractive focus point for the latest developments in cultivation-independent molecular methods...
September 13, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Nicolas Gruber, Peter Landschützer, Nicole S Lovenduski
The CO2 uptake by the Southern Ocean (<35°S) varies substantially on all timescales and is a major determinant of the variations of the global ocean carbon sink. Particularly strong are the decadal changes characterized by a weakening period of the Southern Ocean carbon sink in the 1990s and a rebound after 2000. The weakening in the 1990s resulted primarily from a southward shift of the westerlies that enhanced the upwelling and outgassing of respired (i.e., natural) CO2 . The concurrent reduction in the storage rate of anthropogenic CO2 in the mode and intermediate waters south of 35°S suggests that this shift also decreased the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 ...
September 13, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Lisan Yu
The ocean interacts with the atmosphere via interfacial exchanges of momentum, heat (via radiation and convection), and fresh water (via evaporation and precipitation). These fluxes, or exchanges, constitute the oceansurface energy and water budgets and define the ocean's role in Earth's climate and its variability on both short and long timescales. However, direct flux measurements are available only at limited locations. Air-sea fluxes are commonly estimated from bulk flux parameterization using flux-related near-surface meteorological variables (winds, sea and air temperatures, and humidity) that are available from buoys, ships, satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction models, and/or a combination of any of these sources...
August 29, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Gordon T Taylor
Geochemical cycles of all nonconservative elements are mediated by microorganisms over nanometer spatial scales. The pelagic seascape is known to possess microstructure imposed by heterogeneous distributions of particles, polymeric gels, biologically important chemicals, and microbes. While indispensable, most traditional oceanographic observational approaches overlook this heterogeneity and ignore subtleties, such as activity hot spots, symbioses, niche partitioning, and intrapopulation phenotypic variations, that can provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of planktonic ecosystem function...
August 22, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Paul Mitch Harris, Mara R Diaz, Gregor P Eberli
Great Bahama Bank (GBB) is the principal location of the formation and accumulation of ooids (concentrically coated, sand-size carbonate grains) in the world today, and as such has been the focus of studies on all aspects of ooids for more than half a century. Our view from a close look at this vast body of literature coupled with our continuing interests stresses that biological mechanisms (microbially mediated organomineralization) are very important in the formation of ooids, whereas the controlling factor for the distribution and size of ooid sand bodies is the physical energy...
August 8, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Hilary G Close
Compound-specific isotope analysis encompasses a variety of methods for examining the naturally occurring isotope ratios of individual organic molecules. In marine environments, these methods have revealed heterogeneous sources and alteration processes that underlie the more commonly measured isotope ratios of bulk materials, as well as revealing signatures of marine metabolisms that may otherwise be impossible to isolate. Recently, compound-specific isotopic techniques have improved the reconstruction of metazoan diets and revealed a new potential of metazoan biomass as an archive of paleoecological information...
July 25, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
David W Johnston
The use of unoccupied aircraft systems (UASs, also known as drones) in science is growing rapidly. Recent advances in microelectronics and battery technology have resulted in the rapid development of low-cost UASs that are transforming many industries. Drones are poised to revolutionize marine science and conservation, as they provide essentially on-demand remote sensing capabilities at low cost and with reduced human risk. A variety of multirotor, fixed-wing, and transitional UAS platforms are capable of carrying various optical and physical sampling payloads and are being employed in almost every subdiscipline of marine science and conservation...
July 18, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Tammi L Richardson
Carbon fixation by phytoplankton near the surface and the sinking of this particulate material to deeper waters are key components of the biological carbon pump. The efficiency of the biological pump is influenced by the size and taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton community. Large, heavily ballasted taxa such as diatoms sink quickly and thus efficiently remove fixed carbon from the upper ocean. Smaller, nonballasted species such as picoplanktonic cyanobacteria are usually thought to contribute little to export production...
July 11, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Jose M Eirin-Lopez, Hollie M Putnam
Marine organisms' persistence hinges on the capacity for acclimatization and adaptation to the myriad of interacting environmental stressors associated with global climate change. In this context, epigenetics-mechanisms that facilitate phenotypic variation through genotype-environment interactions-are of great interest ecologically and evolutionarily. Our comprehensive review of marine environmental epigenetics guides our recommendations of four key areas for future research: the dynamics of wash-in and wash-out of epigenetic effects, the mechanistic understanding of the interplay of different epigenetic marks and the interaction with the microbiome, the capacity for and mechanisms of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, and the evolutionary implications of the interaction of genetic and epigenetic features...
June 29, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Glen Gawarkiewicz, Anna Malek Mercer
Engaging ocean users, including fishing fleets, in oceanographic and ecological research is a valuable method for collecting high-quality data, improving cost efficiency, and increasing societal appreciation for scientific research. As research partners, fishing fleets provide broad access to and knowledge of the ocean, and fishers are highly motivated to use the data collected to better understand the ecosystems in which they harvest. Here, we discuss recent trends in collaborative research that have increased the capacity of and access to scientific data collection...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Katja Fennel, Jeremy M Testa
Aquatic environments experiencing low-oxygen conditions have been described as hypoxic, suboxic, or anoxic zones; oxygen minimum zones; and, in the popular media, the misnomer "dead zones." This review aims to elucidate important aspects underlying oxygen depletion in diverse coastal systems and provides a synthesis of general relationships between hypoxia and its controlling factors. After presenting a generic overview of the first-order processes, we review system-specific characteristics for selected estuaries where adjacent human settlements contribute to high nutrient loads, river-dominated shelves that receive large inputs of fresh water and anthropogenic nutrients, and upwelling regions where a supply of nutrient-rich, low-oxygen waters generates oxygen minimum zones without direct anthropogenic influence...
June 11, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Frank E Muller-Karger, Yrene M Astor, Claudia R Benitez-Nelson, Kristen N Buck, Kent A Fanning, Laura Lorenzoni, Enrique Montes, Digna T Rueda-Roa, Mary I Scranton, Eric Tappa, Gordon T Taylor, Robert C Thunell, Luis Troccoli, Ramon Varela
TheCARIACO(Carbon Retention in a Colored Ocean) Ocean Time-Series Program station, located at 10.50°N, 64.66°W, observed biogeochemical and ecological processes in the Cariaco Basin of the southwestern Caribbean Sea from November 1995 to January 2017. The program completed 232 monthly core cruises, 40 sediment trap deployment cruises, and 40 microbiogeochemical process cruises. Upwelling along the southern Caribbean Sea occurs from approximately November to August. High biological productivity (320-628 g C m-2 y-1 ) leads to large vertical fluxes of particulate organic matter, but only approximately 9-10 g C m-2 y-1 fall to the bottom sediments (∼1-3% of primary production)...
June 11, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Cindy Lee
This is a personal account of some of the people and factors that were important in my career in chemical oceanography. I also discuss two areas of oceanographic research and training that I think need more attention. The first is how the difficulty in getting appropriate samples hampers our ability to fully understand biogeochemical processes in the sea. I have worked on dissolved materials, suspended and sinking particles, and sediments in lakes, oceans, rivers, and aerosols. Sample collection problems affect all those areas, although to different degrees...
May 31, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Walter Munk, Carl Wunsch
In this interview, Carl Wunsch talks with Walter Munk about his career in oceanography; his relationships with scientists such as Harald Sverdrup, Roger Revelle, Walfrid Ekman, Carl Rossby, Carl Ekart, Henry Stommel, and G.I. Taylor; technological advances over the decades; and his thoughts on the future of the field. Watch video of the interview at: Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science Volume 11 is January 3, 2019...
May 11, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Heidi R Pethybridge, C Anela Choy, Jeffrey J Polovina, Elizabeth A Fulton
Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
John H Trowbridge, Steven J Lentz
The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
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