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Annual Review of Marine Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751736/a-conversation-with-walter-munk
#1
Walter Munk, Carl Wunsch
In this interview, Carl Wunsch talks with Walter Munk about his career in oceanography; his relationships with scientists such as Harald Sverdrup, Roger Revelle, Walfrid Ekman, Carl Rossby, Carl Ekart, Henry Stommel, and G.I. Taylor; technological advances over the decades; and his thoughts on the future of the field. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science Volume 11 is January 3, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates...
May 11, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298140/improving-marine-ecosystem-models-with-biochemical-tracers
#2
Heidi R Pethybridge, C Anela Choy, Jeffrey J Polovina, Elizabeth A Fulton
Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298139/the-bottom-boundary-layer
#3
John H Trowbridge, Steven J Lentz
The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298138/the-ecology-biogeochemistry-and-optical-properties-of-coccolithophores
#4
William M Balch
Coccolithophores are major contributors to phytoplankton communities and ocean biogeochemistry and are strong modulators of the optical field in the sea. New discoveries are changing paradigms about these calcifiers. A new role for silicon in coccolithophore calcification is coupling carbonate and silicon cycles. Phosphorus and iron play key roles in regulating coccolithophore growth. Comparing molecular phylogenies with coccolith morphometrics is forcing the reconciliation of biological and geological observations...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298137/how-do-marine-pelagic-species-respond-to-climate-change-theories-and-observations
#5
Grégory Beaugrand, Richard R Kirby
In this review, we show how climate affects species, communities, and ecosystems, and why many responses from the species to the biome level originate from the interaction between the species' ecological niche and changes in the environmental regime in both space and time. We describe a theory that allows us to understand and predict how marine species react to climate-induced changes in ecological conditions, how communities form and are reconfigured, and so how biodiversity is arranged and may respond to climate change...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298136/a-biogeochemical-oceanographer-at-sea-my-life-with-nitrogen-and-a-nod-to-silica
#6
Richard C Dugdale
My evolution from electrical engineering student to limnologist and then to oceanographer was a consequence of generous mentoring, which led to my use of the15 N tracer technique to measure nitrogen fixation in aquatic systems. The concept of new and regenerated production arose when I applied this method to measure nitrate and ammonium uptake in marine ecosystems. I then showed that enzyme kinetics could be applied to algal nitrogen uptake and used a silicate pump to explain silicate limitation of diatoms in coastal and equatorial upwelling systems...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298135/introduction
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029576/marine-aerosols-and-clouds
#8
Sarah D Brooks, Daniel C O Thornton
The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gas-phase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977760/sediment-trapping-in-estuaries
#9
Hans Burchard, Henk M Schuttelaars, David K Ralston
Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) are generated by a large suite of hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic processes, leading to longitudinal convergence of cross-sectionally integrated and tidally averaged transport of cohesive and noncohesive suspended particulate matter (SPM). The relative importance of these processes for SPM trapping varies substantially among estuaries depending on topography, fluvial and tidal forcing, and SPM composition. The high-frequency dynamics of ETMs are constrained by interactions with the low-frequency dynamics of the bottom pool of easily erodible sediments...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961073/manifestation-drivers-and-emergence-of-open-ocean-deoxygenation
#10
Lisa A Levin
Oxygen loss in the ocean, termed deoxygenation, is a major consequence of climate change and is exacerbated by other aspects of global change. An average global loss of 2% or more has been recorded in the open ocean over the past 50-100 years, but with greater oxygen declines in intermediate waters (100-600 m) of the North Pacific, the East Pacific, tropical waters, and the Southern Ocean. Although ocean warming contributions to oxygen declines through a reduction in oxygen solubility and stratification effects on ventilation are reasonably well understood, it has been a major challenge to identify drivers and modifying factors that explain different regional patterns, especially in the tropical oceans...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961072/a-satellite-based-lagrangian-view-on-phytoplankton-dynamics
#11
Yoav Lehahn, Francesco d'Ovidio, Ilan Koren
The well-lit upper layer of the open ocean is a dynamical environment that hosts approximately half of global primary production. In the remote parts of this environment, distant from the coast and from the seabed, there is no obvious spatially fixed reference frame for describing the dynamics of the microscopic drifting organisms responsible for this immense production of organic matter-the phytoplankton. Thus, a natural perspective for studying phytoplankton dynamics is to follow the trajectories of water parcels in which the organisms are embedded...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961071/spaceborne-lidar-in-the-study-of-marine-systems
#12
Chris A Hostetler, Michael J Behrenfeld, Yongxiang Hu, Johnathan W Hair, Jennifer A Schulien
Satellite passive ocean color instruments have provided an unbroken ∼20-year record of global ocean plankton properties, but this measurement approach has inherent limitations in terms of spatial-temporal sampling and ability to resolve vertical structure within the water column. These limitations can be addressed by coupling ocean color data with measurements from a spaceborne lidar. Airborne lidars have been used for decades to study ocean subsurface properties, but recent breakthroughs have now demonstrated that plankton properties can be measured with a satellite lidar...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938079/comparing-climate-sensitivity-past-and-present
#13
Eelco J Rohling, Gianluca Marino, Gavin L Foster, Philip A Goodwin, Anna S von der Heydt, Peter Köhler
Climate sensitivity represents the global mean temperature change caused by changes in the radiative balance of climate; it is studied for both present/future (actuo) and past (paleo) climate variations, with the former based on instrumental records and/or various types of model simulations. Paleo-estimates are often considered informative for assessments of actuo-climate change caused by anthropogenic greenhouse forcing, but this utility remains debated because of concerns about the impacts of uncertainties, assumptions, and incomplete knowledge about controlling mechanisms in the dynamic climate system, with its multiple interacting feedbacks and their potential dependence on the climate background state...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934598/mixing-efficiency-in-the-ocean
#14
M C Gregg, E A D'Asaro, J J Riley, E Kunze
Mixing efficiency is the ratio of the net change in potential energy to the energy expended in producing the mixing. Parameterizations of efficiency and of related mixing coefficients are needed to estimate diapycnal diffusivity from measurements of the turbulent dissipation rate. Comparing diffusivities from microstructure profiling with those inferred from the thickening rate of four simultaneous tracer releases has verified, within observational accuracy, 0.2 as the mixing coefficient over a 30-fold range of diapycnal diffusivities...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934597/the-recent-atlantic-cold-anomaly-causes-consequences-and-related-phenomena
#15
Simon A Josey, Joel J-M Hirschi, Bablu Sinha, Aurélie Duchez, Jeremy P Grist, Robert Marsh
Cold ocean temperature anomalies have been observed in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic on interannual to centennial timescales. Most notably, a large region of persistently low surface temperatures accompanied by a sharp reduction in ocean heat content was evident in the subpolar gyre from the winter of 2013-2014 to 2016, and the presence of this feature at a time of pervasive warming elsewhere has stimulated considerable debate. Here, we review the role of air-sea interaction and ocean processes in generating this cold anomaly and place it in a longer-term context...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877009/a-synoptic-view-of-the-ventilation-and-circulation-of-antarctic-bottom-water-from-chlorofluorocarbons-and-natural-tracers
#16
Sarah G Purkey, William M Smethie, Geoffrey Gebbie, Arnold L Gordon, Rolf E Sonnerup, Mark J Warner, John L Bullister
Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is the coldest, densest, most prolific water mass in the global ocean. AABW forms at several distinct regions along the Antarctic coast and feeds into the bottom limb of the meridional overturning circulation, filling most of the global deep ocean. AABW has warmed, freshened, and declined in volume around the globe in recent decades, which has implications for the global heat and sea level rise budgets. Over the past three decades, the use of tracers, especially time-varying tracers such as chlorofluorocarbons, has been essential to our understanding of the formation, circulation, and variability of AABW...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853998/ecological-stoichiometry-of-ocean-plankton
#17
Allison R Moreno, Adam C Martiny
Marine plankton elemental stoichiometric ratios can deviate from the Redfield ratio (106C:16N:1P); here, we examine physiological and biogeochemical mechanisms that lead to the observed variation across lineages, regions, and seasons. Many models of ecological stoichiometry blend together acclimative and adaptive responses to environmental conditions. These two pathways can have unique molecular mechanisms and stoichiometric outcomes, and we attempt to disentangle the two processes. We find that interactions between environmental conditions and cellular growth are key to understanding stoichiometric regulation, but the growth rates of most marine plankton populations are poorly constrained...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853997/progress-in-deciphering-the-controls-on-the-geochemistry-of-fluids-in-seafloor-hydrothermal-systems
#18
Susan E Humphris, Frieder Klein
Over the last four decades, more than 500 sites of seafloor hydrothermal venting have been identified in a range of tectonic environments. These vents represent the seafloor manifestation of hydrothermal convection of seawater through the permeable oceanic basement that is driven by a subsurface heat source. Hydrothermal circulation has fundamental effects on the transfer of heat and mass from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, the composition of seawater, the physical and chemical properties of the oceanic basement, and vent ecosystems at and below the seafloor...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846492/planktonic-subsidies-to-surf-zone-and-intertidal-communities
#19
Steven G Morgan, Alan L Shanks, Jamie H MacMahan, Ad J H M Reniers, Falk Feddersen
Plankton are transported onshore, providing subsidies of food and new recruits to surf-zone and intertidal communities. The transport of plankton to the surf zone is influenced by wind, wave, and tidal forcing, and whether they enter the surf zone depends on alongshore variation in surf-zone hydrodynamics caused by the interaction of breaking waves with coastal morphology. Areas with gently sloping shores and wide surf zones typically have orders-of-magnitude-higher concentrations of plankton in the surf zone and dense larval settlement in intertidal communities because of the presence of bathymetric rip currents, which are absent in areas with steep shores and narrow surf zones...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813201/applying-movement-ecology-to-marine-animals-with-complex-life-cycles
#20
Richard M Allen, Anna Metaxas, Paul V R Snelgrove
Marine animals with complex life cycles may move passively or actively for fertilization, dispersal, predator avoidance, resource acquisition, and migration, and over scales from micrometers to thousands of kilometers. This diversity has catalyzed idiosyncratic and unfocused research, creating unsound paradigms regarding the role of movement in ecology and evolution. The emerging movement ecology paradigm offers a framework to consolidate movement research independent of taxon, life-history stage, scale, or discipline...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
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