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World Journal of Stem Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289507/impact-of-t-cells-on-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cell-function-good-guys-or-bad-guys
#1
REVIEW
Sulima Geerman, Martijn A Nolte
When hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) are harvested for transplantation, either from the bone marrow or from mobilized blood, the graft contains a significant number of T cells. It is these T cells that are the major drivers of graft-vs-host disease (GvHD). The risk for GvHD can simply be reduced by the removal of these T cells from the graft. However, this is not always desirable, as this procedure also decreases the engraftment of the transplanted HSPCs and, if applicable, a graft-vs-tumor effect...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289506/regulation-of-mitochondrial-function-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-by-nitric-oxide-in-pluripotent-stem-cells
#2
REVIEW
Estefania Caballano-Infantes, José Terron-Bautista, Amparo Beltrán-Povea, Gladys M Cahuana, Bernat Soria, Hajji Nabil, Francisco J Bedoya, Juan R Tejedo
Mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) are global processes that are interrelated and regulated by several stress factors. Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional biomolecule with many varieties of physiological and pathological functions, such as the regulation of cytochrome c inhibition and activation of the immune response, ERS and DNA damage; these actions are dose-dependent. It has been reported that in embryonic stem cells, NO has a dual role, controlling differentiation, survival and pluripotency, but the molecular mechanisms by which it modulates these functions are not yet known...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154736/optimizing-stem-cells-for-cardiac-repair-current-status-and-new-frontiers-in-regenerative-cardiology
#3
REVIEW
Shant Der Sarkissian, Thierry Lévesque, Nicolas Noiseux
Cell therapy has the potential to improve healing of ischemic heart, repopulate injured myocardium and restore cardiac function. The tremendous hope and potential of stem cell therapy is well understood, yet recent trials involving cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases have yielded mixed results with inconsistent data thereby readdressing controversies and unresolved questions regarding stem cell efficacy for ischemic cardiac disease treatment. These controversies are believed to arise by the lack of uniformity of the clinical trial methodologies, uncertainty regarding the underlying reparative mechanisms of stem cells, questions concerning the most appropriate cell population to use, the proper delivery method and timing in relation to the moment of infarction, as well as the poor stem cell survival and engraftment especially in a diseased microenvironment which is collectively acknowledged as a major hindrance to any form of cell therapy...
January 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154735/preventing-aging-with-stem-cell-rejuvenation-feasible-or-infeasible
#4
EDITORIAL
Kanya Honoki
Characterized by dysfunction of tissues, organs, organ systems and the whole organism, aging results from the reduced function of effective stem cell populations. Recent advances in aging research have demonstrated that old tissue stem cells can be rejuvenated for the purpose of maintaining the old-organ function by youthful re-calibration of the environment where stem cells reside. Biochemical cues regulating tissue stem cell function include molecular signaling pathways that interact between stem cells themselves and their niches...
January 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074124/involvement-of-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-the-infertility-age-associated-diseases-and-cancer-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Antonin Bukovsky
Blood mononuclear cells consist of T cells and monocyte derived cells. Beside immunity, the blood mononuclear cells belong to the complex tissue control system (TCS), where they exhibit morphostatic function by stimulating proliferation of tissue stem cells followed by cellular differentiation, that is stopped after attaining the proper functional stage, which differs among various tissue types. Therefore, the term immune and morphostatic system (IMS) should be implied. The TCS-mediated morphostasis also consists of vascular pericytes controlled by autonomic innervation, which is regulating the quantity of distinct tissues in vivo...
December 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074123/role-of-autophagy-in-bone-and-muscle-biology
#6
EDITORIAL
Maria Teresa Valenti, Luca Dalle Carbonare, Monica Mottes
Autophagy in eukaryotic cells is a constitutive process and functions as a homeostatic mechanism; it is upregulated in response to specific stress stimuli such as starvation, hypoxia and as oxidative stress. In addition to playing a crucial role in adaptive responses to different stimuli, autophagy is also required for intracellular quality control. This second aspect is important to prevent the activation of pathological processes. Autophagy also plays a central role in cellular development and differentiation because it is involved in the regulation of energetic balance...
December 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928465/gene-expression-and-pathway-analysis-of-ctnnb1-in-cancer-and-stem-cells
#7
Shihori Tanabe, Takeshi Kawabata, Kazuhiko Aoyagi, Hiroshi Yokozaki, Hiroki Sasaki
AIM: To investigate β-catenin (CTNNB1) signaling in cancer and stem cells, the gene expression and pathway were analyzed using bioinformatics. METHODS: The expression of the catenin β 1 (CTNNB1) gene, which codes for β-catenin, was analyzed in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and gastric cancer (GC) cells. Beta-catenin signaling and the mutation of related proteins were also analyzed using the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics and HOMology modeling of Complex Structure (HOMCOS) databases...
November 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928464/mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-in-retinal-and-optic-nerve-diseases-an-update-of-clinical-trials
#8
REVIEW
Sonia Labrador-Velandia, María Luz Alonso-Alonso, Sara Alvarez-Sanchez, Jorge González-Zamora, Irene Carretero-Barrio, José Carlos Pastor, Iván Fernandez-Bueno, Girish Kumar Srivastava
Retinal and optic nerve diseases are degenerative ocular pathologies which lead to irreversible visual loss. Since the advanced therapies availability, cell-based therapies offer a new all-encompassing approach. Advances in the knowledge of neuroprotection, immunomodulation and regenerative properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been obtained by several preclinical studies of various neurodegenerative diseases. It has provided the opportunity to perform the translation of this knowledge to prospective treatment approaches for clinical practice...
November 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928463/renal-progenitors-roles-in-kidney-disease-and-regeneration
#9
REVIEW
Brooke E Chambers, Rebecca A Wingert
Kidney disease is a devastating condition that affects millions of people worldwide, and its prevalence is predicted to significantly increase. The kidney is a complex organ encompassing many diverse cell types organized in a elaborate tissue architecture, making regeneration a challenging feat. In recent years, there has been a surge in the field of stem cell research to develop regenerative therapies for various organ systems. Here, we review some recent progressions in characterizing the role of renal progenitors in development, regeneration, and kidney disease in mammals...
November 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822342/characterization-and-genetic-manipulation-of-primed-stem-cells-into-a-functional-na%C3%A3-ve-state-with-esrrb
#10
Ricardo Antonio Rossello, Andreas Pfenning, Jason T Howard, Ute Hochgeschwender
AIM: To identify differences between primed mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and fully functional naive ESCs; to manipulate primed cells into a naive state. METHODS: We have cultured 3 lines of cells from different mouse strains that have been shown to be naive or primed as determined by generating germline-transmitting chimeras. Cells were put through a battery of tests to measure the different features. RNA from cells was analyzed using microarrays, to determine a priority list of the differentially expressed genes...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822341/model-acupuncture-point-bone-marrow-derived-stromal-stem-cells-are-moved-by-a-weak-electromagnetic-field
#11
Artem N Emelyanov, Marina V Borisova, Vera V Kiryanova
AIM: To show the existence of a structural formative role of magnetic fields (MFs) with respect to biological objects by using our proposed model of an acupoint. METHODS: We introduced a magnetised 10-100 μT metal rod (needle) into culture dishes with a negatively charged working surface and observed during 24 h how cells were arranged by MFs and by electrical fields (EFs) when attached. Rat and human bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells (rBMSCs and hBMSCs), human nonadherent mononuclear blood cells, NCTCs and A172 cells, and Escherichia coli (E...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822340/stem-progenitor-cells-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-new-insights-for-clinical-applications
#12
REVIEW
Miruna Mihaela Micheu, Ana-Maria Rosca, Oana-Claudia Deleanu
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a widespread disorder, characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep, mostly as a result of complete or partial pharyngeal obstruction. Due to the occurrence of frequent and regular hypoxic events, patients with OSAS are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic disorders, occupational errors, motor vehicle accidents and even death. Thus, OSAS has severe consequences and represents a significant economic burden. However, some of the consequences, as well as their costs can be reduced with appropriate detection and treatment...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822339/update-on-acute-myeloid-leukemia-stem-cells-new-discoveries-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#13
REVIEW
Maximilian Stahl, Tae Kon Kim, Amer M Zeidan
The existence of cancer stem cells has been well established in acute myeloid leukemia. Initial proof of the existence of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) was accomplished by functional studies in xenograft models making use of the key features shared with normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) such as the capacity of self-renewal and the ability to initiate and sustain growth of progenitors in vivo. Significant progress has also been made in identifying the phenotype and signaling pathways specific for LSCs. Therapeutically, a multitude of drugs targeting LSCs are in different phases of preclinical and clinical development...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822338/stem-cell-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-leydig-cell-dysfunction-in-primary-hypogonadism
#14
REVIEW
Taylor C Peak, Nora M Haney, William Wang, Kenneth J DeLay, Wayne J Hellstrom
The production of testosterone occurs within the Leydig cells of the testes. When production fails at this level from either congenital, acquired, or systemic disorders, the result is primary hypogonadism. While numerous testosterone formulations have been developed, none are yet fully capable of replicating the physiological patterns of testosterone secretion. Multiple stem cell therapies to restore androgenic function of the testes are under investigation. Leydig cells derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord, and the testes have shown promise for future therapy for primary hypogonadism...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679686/stem-cell-derived-exosomes-as-a-therapeutic-tool-for-cardiovascular-disease
#15
REVIEW
Etsu Suzuki, Daishi Fujita, Masao Takahashi, Shigeyoshi Oba, Hiroaki Nishimatsu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used to treat patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and subsequent heart failure. Although it was originally assumed that MSCs differentiated into heart cells such as cardiomyocytes, recent evidence suggests that the differentiation capacity of MSCs is minimal and that injected MSCs restore cardiac function via the secretion of paracrine factors. MSCs secrete paracrine factors in not only naked forms but also membrane vesicles including exosomes containing bioactive substances such as proteins, messenger RNAs, and microRNAs...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679685/roles-and-regulation-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-7-in-kidney-development-and-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Taro Tsujimura, Mana Idei, Masahiro Yoshikawa, Osamu Takase, Keiichi Hishikawa
The gene encoding bone morphogenetic protein-7 (Bmp7) is expressed in the developing kidney in embryos and also in the mature organ in adults. During kidney development, expression of Bmp7 is essential to determine the final number of nephrons in and proper size of the organ. The secreted BMP7 acts on the nephron progenitor cells to exert its dual functions: To maintain and expand the progenitor population and to provide them with competence to respond to differentiation cues, each relying on distinct signaling pathways...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679684/racial-disparity-in-colorectal-cancer-gut-microbiome-and-cancer-stem-cells
#17
REVIEW
Sachin Goyal, Pratima Nangia-Makker, Lulu Farhana, Yingjie Yu, Adhip Pn Majumdar
Over the past two decades there has been remarkable progress in cancer diagnosis, treatment and screening. The basic mechanisms leading to pathogenesis of various types of cancers are also understood better and some patients, if diagnosed at a particular stage go on to lead a normal pre-diagnosis life. Despite these achievements, racial disparity in some cancers remains a mystery. The higher incidence, aggressiveness and mortality of breast, prostate and colorectal cancers (CRCs) in African-Americans as compared to Caucasian-Americans are now well documented...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679683/immunomodulation-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-interplay-between-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-regulatory-lymphocytes
#18
EDITORIAL
Oscar Ka-Fai Ma, Koon Ho Chan
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties, which confer enormous potential for clinical application. Considerable evidence revealed their efficacy on various animal models of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and uveitis. MSCs elicit their immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting lymphocyte activation and proliferation, forbidding the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, limiting the function of antigen presenting cells, and inducing regulatory T (Treg) and B (Breg) cells...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621760/epithelial-plasticity-in-urothelial-carcinoma-current-advancements-and-future-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Minal Garg
Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder is characterized by high recurrence rate where a subset of these cells undergoes transition to deadly muscle invasive disease and later metastasizes. Urothelial cancer stem cells (UroCSCs), a tumor subpopulation derived from transformation of urothelial stem cells, are responsible for heterogeneous tumor formation and resistance to systemic treatment in UC of the bladder. Although the precise reason for pathophysiologic spread of tumor is not clear, transcriptome analysis of microdissected cancer cells expressing multiple progenitor/stem cell markers validates the upregulation of genes that derive epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition...
August 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621759/reprogramming-of-germ-cells-into-pluripotency
#20
REVIEW
Yoichi Sekita, Toshinobu Nakamura, Tohru Kimura
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are precursors of all gametes, and represent the founder cells of the germline. Although developmental potency is restricted to germ-lineage cells, PGCs can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state. Specifically, PGCs give rise to germ cell tumors, such as testicular teratomas, in vivo, and to pluripotent stem cells known as embryonic germ cells in vitro. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge on signaling pathways, transcriptional controls, and post-transcriptional controls that govern germ cell differentiation and de-differentiation...
August 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
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