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World Journal of Stem Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928465/gene-expression-and-pathway-analysis-of-ctnnb1-in-cancer-and-stem-cells
#1
Shihori Tanabe, Takeshi Kawabata, Kazuhiko Aoyagi, Hiroshi Yokozaki, Hiroki Sasaki
AIM: To investigate β-catenin (CTNNB1) signaling in cancer and stem cells, the gene expression and pathway were analyzed using bioinformatics. METHODS: The expression of the catenin β 1 (CTNNB1) gene, which codes for β-catenin, was analyzed in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and gastric cancer (GC) cells. Beta-catenin signaling and the mutation of related proteins were also analyzed using the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics and HOMology modeling of Complex Structure (HOMCOS) databases...
November 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928464/mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-in-retinal-and-optic-nerve-diseases-an-update-of-clinical-trials
#2
REVIEW
Sonia Labrador-Velandia, María Luz Alonso-Alonso, Sara Alvarez-Sanchez, Jorge González-Zamora, Irene Carretero-Barrio, José Carlos Pastor, Iván Fernandez-Bueno, Girish Kumar Srivastava
Retinal and optic nerve diseases are degenerative ocular pathologies which lead to irreversible visual loss. Since the advanced therapies availability, cell-based therapies offer a new all-encompassing approach. Advances in the knowledge of neuroprotection, immunomodulation and regenerative properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been obtained by several preclinical studies of various neurodegenerative diseases. It has provided the opportunity to perform the translation of this knowledge to prospective treatment approaches for clinical practice...
November 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928463/renal-progenitors-roles-in-kidney-disease-and-regeneration
#3
REVIEW
Brooke E Chambers, Rebecca A Wingert
Kidney disease is a devastating condition that affects millions of people worldwide, and its prevalence is predicted to significantly increase. The kidney is a complex organ encompassing many diverse cell types organized in a elaborate tissue architecture, making regeneration a challenging feat. In recent years, there has been a surge in the field of stem cell research to develop regenerative therapies for various organ systems. Here, we review some recent progressions in characterizing the role of renal progenitors in development, regeneration, and kidney disease in mammals...
November 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822342/characterization-and-genetic-manipulation-of-primed-stem-cells-into-a-functional-na%C3%A3-ve-state-with-esrrb
#4
Ricardo Antonio Rossello, Andreas Pfenning, Jason T Howard, Ute Hochgeschwender
AIM: To identify differences between primed mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and fully functional naive ESCs; to manipulate primed cells into a naive state. METHODS: We have cultured 3 lines of cells from different mouse strains that have been shown to be naive or primed as determined by generating germline-transmitting chimeras. Cells were put through a battery of tests to measure the different features. RNA from cells was analyzed using microarrays, to determine a priority list of the differentially expressed genes...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822341/model-acupuncture-point-bone-marrow-derived-stromal-stem-cells-are-moved-by-a-weak-electromagnetic-field
#5
Artem N Emelyanov, Marina V Borisova, Vera V Kiryanova
AIM: To show the existence of a structural formative role of magnetic fields (MFs) with respect to biological objects by using our proposed model of an acupoint. METHODS: We introduced a magnetised 10-100 μT metal rod (needle) into culture dishes with a negatively charged working surface and observed during 24 h how cells were arranged by MFs and by electrical fields (EFs) when attached. Rat and human bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells (rBMSCs and hBMSCs), human nonadherent mononuclear blood cells, NCTCs and A172 cells, and Escherichia coli (E...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822340/stem-progenitor-cells-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-new-insights-for-clinical-applications
#6
REVIEW
Miruna Mihaela Micheu, Ana-Maria Rosca, Oana-Claudia Deleanu
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a widespread disorder, characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep, mostly as a result of complete or partial pharyngeal obstruction. Due to the occurrence of frequent and regular hypoxic events, patients with OSAS are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic disorders, occupational errors, motor vehicle accidents and even death. Thus, OSAS has severe consequences and represents a significant economic burden. However, some of the consequences, as well as their costs can be reduced with appropriate detection and treatment...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822339/update-on-acute-myeloid-leukemia-stem-cells-new-discoveries-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#7
REVIEW
Maximilian Stahl, Tae Kon Kim, Amer M Zeidan
The existence of cancer stem cells has been well established in acute myeloid leukemia. Initial proof of the existence of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) was accomplished by functional studies in xenograft models making use of the key features shared with normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) such as the capacity of self-renewal and the ability to initiate and sustain growth of progenitors in vivo. Significant progress has also been made in identifying the phenotype and signaling pathways specific for LSCs. Therapeutically, a multitude of drugs targeting LSCs are in different phases of preclinical and clinical development...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822338/stem-cell-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-leydig-cell-dysfunction-in-primary-hypogonadism
#8
REVIEW
Taylor C Peak, Nora M Haney, William Wang, Kenneth J DeLay, Wayne J Hellstrom
The production of testosterone occurs within the Leydig cells of the testes. When production fails at this level from either congenital, acquired, or systemic disorders, the result is primary hypogonadism. While numerous testosterone formulations have been developed, none are yet fully capable of replicating the physiological patterns of testosterone secretion. Multiple stem cell therapies to restore androgenic function of the testes are under investigation. Leydig cells derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord, and the testes have shown promise for future therapy for primary hypogonadism...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679686/stem-cell-derived-exosomes-as-a-therapeutic-tool-for-cardiovascular-disease
#9
REVIEW
Etsu Suzuki, Daishi Fujita, Masao Takahashi, Shigeyoshi Oba, Hiroaki Nishimatsu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used to treat patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and subsequent heart failure. Although it was originally assumed that MSCs differentiated into heart cells such as cardiomyocytes, recent evidence suggests that the differentiation capacity of MSCs is minimal and that injected MSCs restore cardiac function via the secretion of paracrine factors. MSCs secrete paracrine factors in not only naked forms but also membrane vesicles including exosomes containing bioactive substances such as proteins, messenger RNAs, and microRNAs...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679685/roles-and-regulation-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-7-in-kidney-development-and-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Taro Tsujimura, Mana Idei, Masahiro Yoshikawa, Osamu Takase, Keiichi Hishikawa
The gene encoding bone morphogenetic protein-7 (Bmp7) is expressed in the developing kidney in embryos and also in the mature organ in adults. During kidney development, expression of Bmp7 is essential to determine the final number of nephrons in and proper size of the organ. The secreted BMP7 acts on the nephron progenitor cells to exert its dual functions: To maintain and expand the progenitor population and to provide them with competence to respond to differentiation cues, each relying on distinct signaling pathways...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679684/racial-disparity-in-colorectal-cancer-gut-microbiome-and-cancer-stem-cells
#11
REVIEW
Sachin Goyal, Pratima Nangia-Makker, Lulu Farhana, Yingjie Yu, Adhip Pn Majumdar
Over the past two decades there has been remarkable progress in cancer diagnosis, treatment and screening. The basic mechanisms leading to pathogenesis of various types of cancers are also understood better and some patients, if diagnosed at a particular stage go on to lead a normal pre-diagnosis life. Despite these achievements, racial disparity in some cancers remains a mystery. The higher incidence, aggressiveness and mortality of breast, prostate and colorectal cancers (CRCs) in African-Americans as compared to Caucasian-Americans are now well documented...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679683/immunomodulation-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-interplay-between-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-regulatory-lymphocytes
#12
EDITORIAL
Oscar Ka-Fai Ma, Koon Ho Chan
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties, which confer enormous potential for clinical application. Considerable evidence revealed their efficacy on various animal models of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and uveitis. MSCs elicit their immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting lymphocyte activation and proliferation, forbidding the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, limiting the function of antigen presenting cells, and inducing regulatory T (Treg) and B (Breg) cells...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621760/epithelial-plasticity-in-urothelial-carcinoma-current-advancements-and-future-challenges
#13
REVIEW
Minal Garg
Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder is characterized by high recurrence rate where a subset of these cells undergoes transition to deadly muscle invasive disease and later metastasizes. Urothelial cancer stem cells (UroCSCs), a tumor subpopulation derived from transformation of urothelial stem cells, are responsible for heterogeneous tumor formation and resistance to systemic treatment in UC of the bladder. Although the precise reason for pathophysiologic spread of tumor is not clear, transcriptome analysis of microdissected cancer cells expressing multiple progenitor/stem cell markers validates the upregulation of genes that derive epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition...
August 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621759/reprogramming-of-germ-cells-into-pluripotency
#14
REVIEW
Yoichi Sekita, Toshinobu Nakamura, Tohru Kimura
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are precursors of all gametes, and represent the founder cells of the germline. Although developmental potency is restricted to germ-lineage cells, PGCs can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state. Specifically, PGCs give rise to germ cell tumors, such as testicular teratomas, in vivo, and to pluripotent stem cells known as embryonic germ cells in vitro. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge on signaling pathways, transcriptional controls, and post-transcriptional controls that govern germ cell differentiation and de-differentiation...
August 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621758/targeting-stem-cells-by-radiation-from-the-biological-angle-to-clinical-aspects
#15
REVIEW
Alexis Vallard, Sophie Espenel, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Peng Diao, Yaoxiong Xia, Anis El Meddeb Hamrouni, Majed Ben Mrad, Alexander Tuan Falk, Claire Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Chloé Rancoule, Nicolas Magné
Radiotherapy is a cornerstone of anticancer treatment. However in spite of technical evolutions, important rates of failure and of toxicity are still reported. Although numerous pre-clinical data have been published, we address the subject of radiotherapy-stem cells interaction from the clinical efficacy and toxicity perspective. On one side, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been recently evidenced in most of solid tumor primary locations and are thought to drive radio-resistance phenomena. It is particularly suggested in glioblastoma, where CSCs were showed to be housed in the subventricular zone (SVZ)...
August 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621757/therapy-related-myeloid-neoplasms-what-have-we-learned-so-far
#16
REVIEW
Mohammad Faizan Zahid, Aric Parnes, Bipin N Savani, Mark R Litzow, Shahrukh K Hashmi
Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms are neoplastic processes arising as a result of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these modalities given for a primary condition. The disease biology varies based on the etiology and treatment modalities patients receive for their primary condition. Topoisomerase II inhibitor therapy results in balanced translocations. Alkylating agents, characteristically, give rise to more complex karyotypes and mutations in p53. Other etiologies include radiation therapy, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation and telomere dysfunction...
August 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468331/therapeutic-potential-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Geeta Shroff
AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Patients with a previous history of diabetes and its associated complications were enrolled and injected with hESC lines as per the defined protocol. The patients were assessed using Nutech functional score (NFS), a numeric scoring scale to evaluate the patients for 11 diagnostic parameters. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at the end of treatment period 1 (T1)...
July 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354891/aneuploidy-in-stem-cells
#18
REVIEW
Jorge Garcia-Martinez, Bjorn Bakker, Klaske M Schukken, Judith E Simon, Floris Foijer
Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to reality. However, as somatic cells might have accumulated various chromosomal abnormalities, including aneuploidies throughout their lives, the resulting IPSCs might no longer carry the perfect blueprint for the tissue to be generated, or worse, become at risk of adopting a malignant fate...
June 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27247705/endometrial-mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-a-cell-based-therapy-for-pelvic-organ-prolapse
#19
REVIEW
Stuart J Emmerson, Caroline E Gargett
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs when the pelvic organs (bladder, bowel or uterus) herniate into the vagina, causing incontinence, voiding, bowel and sexual dysfunction, negatively impacting upon a woman's quality of life. POP affects 25% of all women and results from childbirth injury. For 19% of all women, surgical reconstructive surgery is required for treatment, often augmented with surgical mesh. The surgical treatment fails in up to 30% of cases or results in adverse effects, such as pain and mesh erosion into the bladder, bowel or vagina...
May 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27247704/stem-cells-sources-for-intervertebral-disc-regeneration
#20
REVIEW
Gianluca Vadalà, Fabrizio Russo, Luca Ambrosio, Mattia Loppini, Vincenzo Denaro
Intervertebral disc regeneration field is rapidly growing since disc disorders represent a major health problem in industrialized countries with very few possible treatments. Indeed, current available therapies are symptomatic, and surgical procedures consist in disc removal and spinal fusion, which is not immune to regardable concerns about possible comorbidities, cost-effectiveness, secondary risks and long-lasting outcomes. This review paper aims to share recent advances in stem cell therapy for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration...
May 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
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