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Stem Cells International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147115/effects-of-aminoglycoside-antibiotics-on-human-embryonic-stem-cell-viability-during-differentiation-in-vitro
#1
Divya S Varghese, Shama Parween, Mustafa T Ardah, Bright Starling Emerald, Suraiya A Ansari
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are being used extensively in array of studies to understand different mechanisms such as early human embryogenesis, drug toxicity testing, disease modeling, and cell replacement therapy. The protocols for the directed differentiation of hESCs towards specific cell types often require long-term cell cultures. To avoid bacterial contamination, these protocols include addition of antibiotics such as pen-strep and gentamicin. Although aminoglycosides, streptomycin, and gentamicin have been shown to cause cytotoxicity in various animal models, the effect of these antibiotics on hESCs is not clear...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138639/involvement-of-wnt-signaling-in-the-regulation-of-gestational-age-dependent-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-proliferation
#2
Sota Iwatani, Akemi Shono, Makiko Yoshida, Keiji Yamana, Khin Kyae Mon Thwin, Jumpei Kuroda, Daisuke Kurokawa, Tsubasa Koda, Kosuke Nishida, Toshihiko Ikuta, Kazumichi Fujioka, Masami Mizobuchi, Mariko Taniguchi-Ikeda, Ichiro Morioka, Kazumoto Iijima, Noriyuki Nishimura
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous cell population that is isolated initially from the bone marrow (BM) and subsequently almost all tissues including umbilical cord (UC). UC-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) have attracted an increasing attention as a source for cell therapy against various degenerative diseases due to their vigorous proliferation and differentiation. Although the cell proliferation and differentiation of BM-derived MSCs is known to decline with age, the functional difference between preterm and term UC-MSCs is poorly characterized...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138638/tissue-source-and-cell-expansion-condition-influence-phenotypic-changes-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#3
Lauren H Mangum, Shanmugasundaram Natesan, Randolph Stone, Nicole L Wrice, David A Larson, Kyle F Florell, Barbara A Christy, Maryanne C Herzig, Andrew P Cap, Robert J Christy
Stem cells derived from the subcutaneous adipose tissue of debrided burned skin represent an appealing source of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for regenerative medicine. Traditional tissue culture uses fetal bovine serum (FBS), which complicates utilization of ASCs in human medicine. Human platelet lysate (hPL) is one potential xeno-free, alternative supplement for use in ASC culture. In this study, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in media supplemented with 10% FBS or 10% hPL was compared in human ASCs derived from abdominoplasty (HAP) or from adipose associated with debrided burned skin (BH)...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138637/regulation-of-osteogenic-differentiation-of-placental-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-insulin-like-growth-factors-and-low-oxygen-tension
#4
Amer Youssef, Victor K M Han
Placental mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate in vitro to multiple lineages, including bone. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs, IGF-1 and IGF-2) participate in maintaining growth, survival, and differentiation of many stem cells, including osteoprogenitors. Low oxygen tension (PO2) can maintain stem cell multipotency and impede osteogenic differentiation. In this study, we investigated whether PMSC osteogenic differentiation is influenced by low PO2 and by IGFs. Our results indicated that low PO2 decreased osteogenic markers RUNX2 and OPN; however, re-exposure to higher oxygen tension (room air) restored differentiation...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138636/stem-cell-tracking-technologies-for-neurological-regenerative-medicine-purposes
#5
REVIEW
Yongtao Zheng, Jiongwei Huang, Tongming Zhu, Ronggang Li, Zhifu Wang, Fukai Ma, Jianhong Zhu
The growing field of stem cell therapy is moving toward clinical trials in a variety of applications, particularly for neurological diseases. However, this translation of cell therapies into humans has prompted a need to create innovative and breakthrough methods for stem cell tracing, to explore the migration routes and its reciprocity with microenvironment targets in the body, to monitor and track the outcome after stem cell transplantation therapy, and to track the distribution and cell viability of transplanted cells noninvasively and longitudinally...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129979/hair-germ-model-in-vitro-via-human-postnatal-keratinocyte-dermal-papilla-interactions-impact-of-hyaluronic-acid
#6
Ekaterina Kalabusheva, Vasily Terskikh, Ekaterina Vorotelyak
Hair follicle (HF) reconstruction in vitro is a promising field in alopecia treatment and human HF development research. Here, we combined postnatal human dermal papilla (DP) cells and skin epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) in a hanging drop culture to develop an artificial HF germ. The method is based on DP cell hair-inducing properties and KC self-organization. We evaluated two protocols of aggregate assembling. Mixed HF germ-like structures demonstrated the initiation of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction, including WNT pathway activation and expression of follicular markers...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123550/mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-cartilage-regeneration-of-tmj-osteoarthritis
#7
REVIEW
Dixin Cui, Hongyu Li, Xin Xu, Ling Ye, Xuedong Zhou, Liwei Zheng, Yachuan Zhou
Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA) is a degenerative disease, characterized by progressive cartilage degradation, subchondral bone remodeling, synovitis, and chronic pain. Due to the limited self-healing capacity in condylar cartilage, traditional clinical treatments have limited symptom-modifying and structure-modifying effects to restore impaired cartilage as well as other TMJ tissues. In recent years, stem cell-based therapy has raised much attention as an alternative approach towards tissue repair and regeneration...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118813/the-leukemic-stem-cell-niche-adaptation-to-hypoxia-versus-oncogene-addiction
#8
Giulia Cheloni, Martina Poteti, Silvia Bono, Erico Masala, Nathalie M Mazure, Elisabetta Rovida, Matteo Lulli, Persio Dello Sbarba
Previous studies based on low oxygen concentrations in the incubation atmosphere revealed that metabolic factors govern the maintenance of normal hematopoietic or leukemic stem cells (HSC and LSC). The physiological oxygen concentration in tissues ranges between 0.1 and 5.0%. Stem cell niches (SCN) are placed in tissue areas at the lower end of this range ("hypoxic" SCN), to which stem cells are metabolically adapted and where they are selectively hosted. The data reported here indicated that driver oncogenic proteins of several leukemias are suppressed following cell incubation at oxygen concentration compatible with SCN physiology...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109742/effects-of-neuropeptide-y-on-stem-cells-and-their-potential-applications-in-disease-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Song Peng, You-Li Zhou, Zhi-Yuan Song, Shu Lin
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36-amino acid peptide, is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and other peripheral tissues. It takes part in regulating various biological processes including food intake, circadian rhythm, energy metabolism, and neuroendocrine secretion. Increasing evidence indicates that NPY exerts multiple regulatory effects on stem cells. As a kind of primitive and undifferentiated cells, stem cells have the therapeutic potential to replace damaged cells, secret paracrine molecules, promote angiogenesis, and modulate immunity...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109741/functional-test-scales-for-evaluating-cell-based-therapies-in-animal-models-of-spinal-cord-injury
#10
REVIEW
Woon Ryoung Kim, Minjin Kang, Heejoo Park, Hyun-Joo Ham, Hyunji Lee, Dongho Geum
Recently, spinal cord researchers have focused on multifaceted approaches for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, as there is no cure for the deficits produced by SCI, various therapeutic strategies have been examined using animal models. Due to the lack of standardized functional assessment tools for use in such models, it is important to choose a suitable animal model and precise behavioral test when evaluating the efficacy of potential SCI treatments. In the present review, we discuss recent evidence regarding functional recovery in various animal models of SCI, summarize the representative models currently used, evaluate recent cell-based therapeutic approaches, and aim to identify the most precise and appropriate scales for functional assessment in such research...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109740/simple-meets-single-the-application-of-crispr-cas9-in-haploid-embryonic-stem-cells
#11
REVIEW
Zixi Yin, Lingyi Chen
The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides a powerful method for the genetic manipulation of the mammalian genome, allowing knockout of individual genes as well as the generation of genome-wide knockout cell libraries for genetic screening. However, the diploid status of most mammalian cells restricts the application of CRISPR/Cas9 in genetic screening. Mammalian haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) have only one set of chromosomes per cell, avoiding the issue of heterozygous recessive mutations in diploid cells. Thus, the combination of haESCs and CRISPR/Cas9 facilitates the generation of genome-wide knockout cell libraries for genetic screening...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104595/structure-and-functions-of-blood-vessels-and-vascular-niches-in-bone
#12
REVIEW
Saravana K Ramasamy
Bone provides nurturing microenvironments for an array of cell types that coordinate important physiological functions of the skeleton, such as energy metabolism, mineral homeostasis, osteogenesis, and haematopoiesis. Endothelial cells form an intricate network of blood vessels that organises and sustains various microenvironments in bone. The recent identification of heterogeneity in the bone vasculature supports the existence of multiple vascular niches within the bone marrow compartment. A unique combination of cells and factors defining a particular microenvironment, supply regulatory signals to mediate a specific function...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104594/sex-differences-of-human-cardiac-progenitor-cells-in-the-biological-response-to-tnf-%C3%AE-treatment
#13
Elisabetta Straface, Lucrezia Gambardella, Francesca Pagano, Francesco Angelini, Barbara Ascione, Rosa Vona, Elena De Falco, Elena Cavarretta, Raffaele La Russa, Walter Malorni, Giacomo Frati, Isotta Chimenti
Adult cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), isolated as cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), represent promising candidates for cardiac regenerative therapy. CDCs can be expanded in vitro manyfolds without losing their differentiation potential, reaching numbers that are appropriate for clinical applications. Since mechanisms of successful CDC survival and engraftment in the damaged myocardium are still critical and unresolved issues, we aimed at deciphering possible key factors capable of bolstering CDC function...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104593/optogenetic-inhibition-of-striatal-neuronal-activity-improves-the-survival-of-transplanted-neural-stem-cells-and-neurological-outcomes-after-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#14
Yifan Lu, Lu Jiang, Wanlu Li, Meijie Qu, Yaying Song, Xiaosong He, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is a promising treatment to improve the recovery after brain ischemia. However, how the survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of implanted NSC are influenced by endogenous neuronal activity remains unclear. In this work, we used optogenetic techniques to control the activity of striatal neurons and investigated how their activity affected the survival and migration of transplanted NSCs and overall neurological outcome after ischemic stroke. NSCs cultured from transgenic mice expressing fluorescent protein were transplanted into the peri-infarct region of the striatum after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) surgery...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098011/skeletal-muscle-cells-generated-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
EDITORIAL
Yuko Miyagoe-Suzuki, Atsushi Asakura, Masatoshi Suzuki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098010/mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-sepsis-and-associated-organ-dysfunction-a-promising-future-or-blind-alley
#16
REVIEW
Jan Horák, Lukáš Nalos, Vendula Martínková, Jan Beneš, Milan Štengl, Martin Matějovič
Sepsis, newly defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is the most common cause of death in ICUs and one of the principal causes of death worldwide. Although substantial progress has been made in the understanding of fundamental mechanisms of sepsis, translation of these advances into clinically effective therapies has been disappointing. Given the extreme complexity of sepsis pathogenesis, the paradigm "one disease, one drug" is obviously flawed and combinations of multiple targets that involve early immunomodulation and cellular protection are needed...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098009/maternal-sevoflurane-exposure-causes-abnormal-development-of-fetal-prefrontal-cortex-and-induces-cognitive-dysfunction-in-offspring
#17
Ruixue Song, Xiaomin Ling, Mengyuan Peng, Zhanggang Xue, Jing Cang, Fang Fang
Maternal sevoflurane exposure during pregnancy is associated with increased risk for behavioral deficits in offspring. Several studies indicated that neurogenesis abnormality may be responsible for the sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity, but the concrete impact of sevoflurane on fetal brain development remains poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether maternal sevoflurane exposure caused learning and memory impairment in offspring through inducing abnormal development of the fetal prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098008/corrigendum-to-wnt5a-signaling-in-normal-and-cancer-stem-cells
#18
Yan Zhou, Thomas J Kipps, Suping Zhang
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2017/5295286.].
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090011/remodeling-the-human-adult-stem-cell-niche-for-regenerative-medicine-applications
#19
REVIEW
Silvana Bardelli, Marco Moccetti
The interactions between stem cells and their surrounding microenvironment are pivotal to determine tissue homeostasis and stem cell renewal or differentiation and regeneration in vivo. Ever since they were postulated in 1978, stem cell niches have been identified and characterized in many germline and adult tissues. Comprehensive studies over the last decades helped to clarify the critical components of stem cell niches that include cellular, extracellular, biochemical, molecular, and physical regulators. This knowledge has direct impact on their inherent regenerative potential...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090010/stem-cell-research-and-clinical-translation-a-roadmap-about-good-clinical-practice-and-patient-care
#20
REVIEW
Paola Frati, Matteo Scopetti, Alessandro Santurro, Vittorio Gatto, Vittorio Fineschi
The latest research achievements in the field of stem cells led in 2016 to the publication of "Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation" by the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR). Updating the topics covered in previous publications, the new recommendations offer interesting ethical and scientific insights. Under the common principles of research integrity, protection of patient's welfare, respect for the research subjects, transparency and social justice, the centrality of good clinical practice, and informed consent in research and translational medicine is supported...
2017: Stem Cells International
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