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Stem Cells International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642794/adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-have-a-heterogenic-cytokine-secretion-profile
#1
Yongkang Wu, Martin J Hoogduijn, Carla C Baan, Sander S Korevaar, Ronella de Kuiper, Lin Yan, Lanlan Wang, Nicole M van Besouw
Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (ASC) have immune regulatory function, which makes them interesting candidates for cellular therapy. ASC cultures are however heterogeneous in phenotype. It is unclear whether all ASC contribute equally to immunomodulatory processes. ASC are also responsive to cytokine stimulation, which may affect the ratio between more and less potent ASC populations. In the present study, we determined IL-6 receptor (CD126 and CD130 subunits) and IFN-γ receptor (CD119) expression on ASC by flow cytometry...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638414/an-examination-of-the-role-of-transcriptional-and-posttranscriptional-regulation-in-rhabdomyosarcoma
#2
REVIEW
Alexander J Hron, Atsushi Asakura
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive family of soft tissue tumors that most commonly manifests in children. RMS variants express several skeletal muscle markers, suggesting myogenic stem or progenitor cell origin of RMS. In this review, the roles of both recently identified and well-established microRNAs in RMS are discussed and summarized in a succinct, tabulated format. Additionally, the subtypes of RMS are reviewed along with the involvement of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins, Pax proteins, and microRNAs in normal and pathologic myogenesis...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630630/roles-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-spinal-cord-injury
#3
REVIEW
Jing Qu, Huanxiang Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) represents one of the most complicated and heterogeneous pathological processes of central nervous system (CNS) impairments, which is still beyond functional regeneration. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to promote the repair of the injured spinal cord tissues in animal models, and therefore, there is much interest in the clinical use of these cells. However, many questions which are essential to improve the therapy effects remain unanswered. For instance, the functional roles and related molecular regulatory mechanisms of MSCs in vivo are not yet completely determined...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611846/safety-of-allogeneic-canine-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-intraspinal-transplantation-in-dogs-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Cláudia Cardoso Maciel Escalhão, Isalira Peroba Ramos, Camila Hochman-Mendez, Tais Hanae Kasai Brunswick, Sergio Augusto Lopes Souza, Bianca Gutfilen, Regina Coeli Dos Santos Goldenberg, Tatiana Coelho-Sampaio
This is a pilot clinical study primarily designed to assess the feasibility and safety of X-ray-guided percutaneous intraspinal injection of allogeneic canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in dogs with chronic spinal cord injury. Six dogs with chronic paraplegia (≥six months) were intraparenchymally injected with allogeneic cells in the site of lesion. Cells were obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue of a healthy dog, cultured to passage 3, labeled with (99m)Technetium, and transplanted into the lesion by percutaneous X-ray-guided injection...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607562/cellular-reprogramming-genome-editing-and-alternative-crispr-cas9-technologies-for-precise-gene-therapy-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#5
REVIEW
Peter Gee, Huaigeng Xu, Akitsu Hotta
In the past decade, the development of two innovative technologies, namely, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the CRISPR Cas9 system, has enabled researchers to model diseases derived from patient cells and precisely edit DNA sequences of interest, respectively. In particular, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has been an exemplary monogenic disease model for combining these technologies to demonstrate that genome editing can correct genetic mutations in DMD patient-derived iPSCs. DMD is an X-linked genetic disorder caused by mutations that disrupt the open reading frame of the dystrophin gene, which plays a critical role in stabilizing muscle cells during contraction and relaxation...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607561/the-transcription-factor-nrf2-protects-angiogenic-capacity-of-endothelial-colony-forming-cells-in-high-oxygen-radical-stress-conditions
#6
Hendrik Gremmels, Olivier G de Jong, Diënty H Hazenbrink, Joost O Fledderus, Marianne C Verhaar
BACKGROUND: Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) have shown a promise in tissue engineering of vascular constructs, where they act as endothelial progenitor cells. After implantation, ECFCs are likely to be subjected to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS). The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes in response to ROS. METHODS: Stable knockdown of Nrf2 and Keap1 was achieved by transduction with lentiviral shRNAs; activation of Nrf2 was induced by incubation with sulforaphane (SFN)...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607560/characterization-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-like-cells-derived-from-human-ipscs-via-neural-crest-development-and-their-application-for-osteochondral-repair
#7
Ryota Chijimatsu, Makoto Ikeya, Yukihiko Yasui, Yasutoshi Ikeda, Kosuke Ebina, Yu Moriguchi, Kazunori Shimomura, David A Hart, Yoshikawa Hideki, Nakamura Norimasa
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising cell source for the repair of skeletal disorders. Recently, neural crest cells (NCCs) were reported to be effective for inducing mesenchymal progenitors, which have potential to differentiate into osteochondral lineages. Our aim was to investigate the feasibility of MSC-like cells originated from iPSCs via NCCs for osteochondral repair. Initially, MSC-like cells derived from iPSC-NCCs (iNCCs) were generated and characterized in vitro...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607559/bone-marrow-aspirate-concentrate-enhanced-marrow-stimulation-of-chondral-defects
#8
REVIEW
Henning Madry, Liang Gao, Hermann Eichler, Patrick Orth, Magali Cucchiarini
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow play a critical role in osteochondral repair. A bone marrow clot forms within the cartilage defect either as a result of marrow stimulation or during the course of the spontaneous repair of osteochondral defects. Mobilized pluripotent MSCs from the subchondral bone migrate into the defect filled with the clot, differentiate into chondrocytes and osteoblasts, and form a repair tissue over time. The additional application of a bone marrow aspirate (BMA) to the procedure of marrow stimulation is thought to enhance cartilage repair as it may provide both an additional cell population capable of chondrogenesis and a source of growth factors stimulating cartilage repair...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596791/in-utero-stem-cell-transplantation-potential-therapeutic-application-for-muscle-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Neeladri Chowdhury, Atsushi Asakura
Muscular dystrophies, myopathies, and traumatic muscle injury and loss encompass a large group of conditions that currently have no cure. Myoblast transplantations have been investigated as potential cures for these conditions for decades. However, current techniques lack the ability to generate cell numbers required to produce any therapeutic benefit. In utero stem cell transplantation into embryos has been studied for many years mainly in the context of hematopoietic cells and has shown to have experimental advantages and therapeutic applications...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588623/angiogenic-capacity-of-dental-pulp-stem-cell-regulated-by-sdf-1%C3%AE-cxcr4-axis
#10
Hyun Nam, Gee-Hye Kim, Yoon-Kyung Bae, Da-Eun Jeong, Kyeung-Min Joo, Kyunghoon Lee, Sun-Ho Lee
Previously, the perivascular characteristics of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were reported, which suggested the potential application of DPSCs as perivascular cell source. In this study, we investigated whether DPSCs had angiogenic capacity by coinjection with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vivo; in addition, we determined the role of stromal cell-derived factor 1-α (SDF-1α) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) axis in the mutual interaction between DPSCs and HUVECs. Primarily isolated DPSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell- (MSC-) like characteristics...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588622/delayed-mesoderm-and-erythroid-differentiation-of-murine-embryonic-stem-cells-in-the-absence-of-the-transcriptional-regulator-fubp1
#11
Josephine Wesely, Marlene Steiner, Frank Schnütgen, Manuel Kaulich, Michael A Rieger, Martin Zörnig
The transcriptional regulator far upstream binding protein 1 (FUBP1) is essential for fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal, and the constitutive absence of FUBP1 activity during early development leads to embryonic lethality in homozygous mutant mice. To investigate the role of FUBP1 in murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in particular during differentiation into hematopoietic lineages, we generated Fubp1 knockout (KO) ESC clones using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Although FUBP1 is expressed in undifferentiated ESCs and during spontaneous differentiation following aggregation into embryoid bodies (EBs), absence of FUBP1 did not affect ESC maintenance...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588621/environmental-factors-that-influence-stem-cell-migration-an-electric-field
#12
REVIEW
Stephanie N Iwasa, Robart Babona-Pilipos, Cindi M Morshead
Environmental Stimulus of Electric Fields on Stem Cell Migration. The movement of cells in response to electric potential gradients is called galvanotaxis. In vivo galvanotaxis, powered by endogenous electric fields (EFs), plays a critical role during development and wound healing. This review aims to provide a perspective on how stem cells transduce EFs into directed migration and an understanding of the current literature relating to the mechanisms by which cells sense and transduce EFs. We will comment on potential EF-based regenerative medicine therapeutics...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588620/human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-preserve-their-immunomodulatory-and-chemotactic-properties-when-expanded-in-a-human-plasma-derived-xeno-free-medium
#13
A Blázquez-Prunera, C R Almeida, M A Barbosa
Due to their immunomodulatory and chemotactic properties, hMSC are being explored to treat immune-related diseases. For their use in human therapies, it is necessary to culture hMSC in xeno-free conditions. In this study, the impact that a xeno-free medium based on a human plasma derivate has on these properties was analysed. Bone marrow-derived hMSC preserved their immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory properties, as observed with in vitro assays with hMSC cocultured with mixed leukocyte reactions or with mitogen-stimulated leukocytes...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584529/htert-immortalized-bone-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-expressing-rat-galanin-via-a-single-tetracycline-inducible-lentivirus-system
#14
Ke An, Hui-Ping Liu, Xiao-Long Zhong, David Y B Deng, Jing-Jun Zhang, Zhi-Heng Liu
The use of human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hTERT-BMSCs) as vehicles to deliver antinociceptive galanin (GAL) molecules into pain-processing centers represents a novel cell therapy strategy for pain management. Here, an hTERT-BMSCs/Tet-on/GAL cell line was constructed using a single Tet-on-inducible lentivirus system, and subsequent experiments demonstrated that the secretion of rat GAL from hTERT-BMSCs/Tet-on/GAL was switched on and off under the control of an inducer in a dose-dependent manner...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572824/cytokine-chemokine-and-growth-factor-profile-characterization-of-undifferentiated-and-osteoinduced-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#15
F Mussano, T Genova, M Corsalini, G Schierano, F Pettini, D Di Venere, S Carossa
Bone is the second most manipulated tissue after blood. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) may become a convenient source of MSC for bone regenerative protocols. Surprisingly, little is known about the most significant biomolecules these cells produce and release after being osteoinduced. Therefore, the present study aimed at dosing 13 candidates chosen among the most representative cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors within the conditioned media of osteodifferentiated and undifferentiated ASCs. Two acknowledged osteoblastic cell models, that is, MG-63 and SaOs-2 cells, were compared...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553360/in-vivo-immunogenic-response-to-allogeneic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-the-role-of-preactivated-mesenchymal-stem-cells-cotransplanted-with-allogeneic-islets
#16
Régis Linhares Oliveira, Pedro Cesar Chagastelles, Patrícia Sesterheim, Patricia Pranke
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into cells from the mesenchymal lineage. The hypoimmunogenic characteristic of MSCs has encouraged studies using allogeneic MSCs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and inflammatory conditions. Promising preclinical results and the safety of allogeneic MSC transplantation have created the possibility of "off-the-shelf" clinical application of allogeneic cells. This study has aimed to evaluate the survival of untreated and IFN-γ- and TNF-α-treated (preactivated) allogeneic MSCs transplanted under the kidney capsule of immunocompetent mice together with the role of preactivated MSCs after cotransplantation with allogeneic islets...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553359/bone-regeneration-induced-by-bone-porcine-block-with-bone-marrow-stromal-stem-cells-in-a-minipig-model-of-mandibular-critical-size-defect
#17
Antonio Scarano, Vito Crincoli, Adriana Di Benedetto, Valerio Cozzolino, Felice Lorusso, Michele Podaliri Vulpiani, Maria Grano, Zamira Kalemaj, Giorgio Mori, Felice Roberto Grassi
Introduction. Adding stem cells to biodegradable scaffolds to enhance bone regeneration is a valuable option. Different kinds of stem cells with osteoblastic activity were tested, such as bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSSCs). Aim. To assess a correct protocol for osteogenic stem cell differentiation, so BMSSCs were seeded on a bone porcine block (BPB). Materials and Methods. Bone marrow from six minipigs was extracted from tibiae and humeri and treated to isolate BMSSCs. After seeding on BPB, critical-size defects were created on each mandible of the minipigs and implanted with BPB and BPB/BMSSCs...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553358/inhibition-of-lysyl-oxidases-impairs-migration-and-angiogenic-properties-of-tumor-associated-pericytes
#18
Aline Lopes Ribeiro, Carolini Kaid, Patrícia B G Silva, Beatriz A Cortez, Oswaldo Keith Okamoto
Pericytes are important cellular components of the tumor microenviroment with established roles in angiogenesis and metastasis. These two cancer hallmarks are modulated by enzymes of the LOX family, but thus far, information about LOX relevance in tumor-associated pericytes is lacking. Here, we performed a comparative characterization of normal and tumoral pericytes and report for the first time the modulatory effects of LOX enzymes on activated pericyte properties. Tumoral pericytes isolated from childhood ependymoma and neuroblastoma specimens displayed angiogenic properties in vitro and expressed typical markers, including CD146, NG2, and PDGFRβ...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553357/human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-exhibit-enhanced-proliferative-capacity-and-retain-multipotency-longer-than-donor-matched-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-during-expansion-in-vitro
#19
Kimberley L Burrow, Judith A Hoyland, Stephen M Richardson
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and adipose-derived multipotent/mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have been proposed as the ideal cell types for a range of musculoskeletal tissue engineering and regenerative medicine therapies. However, extensive in vitro expansion is required to generate sufficient cells for clinical application and previous studies have demonstrated differences in the proliferative capacity and the impact of expansion on differentiation capacity of both MSCs and ASCs. Significantly, these studies routinely use cells from different donors, making direct comparisons difficult...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539939/quantitative-assessment-of-optimal-bone-marrow-site-for-the-isolation-of-porcine-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#20
J S McDaniel, B Antebi, M Pilia, B J Hurtgen, S Belenkiy, C Necsoiu, L C Cancio, C R Rathbone, A I Batchinsky
Background. One of the most plentiful sources for MSCs is the bone marrow; however, it is unknown whether MSC yield differs among different bone marrow sites. In this study, we quantified cellular yield and evaluated resident MSC population from five bone marrow sites in the porcine model. In addition, we assessed the feasibility of a commercially available platelet concentrator (Magellan® MAR01™ Arteriocyte Medical Systems, Hopkinton, MA) as a bedside stem cell concentration device. Methods. Analyses of bone marrow aspirate (BMA) and concentrated bone marrow aspirate (cBMA) included bone marrow volume, platelet and nucleated cell yield, colony-forming unit fibroblast (CFU-F) number, flow cytometry, and assessment of differentiation potential...
2017: Stem Cells International
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