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Stem Cells International

Xiaoshi Jia, Hudi Xu, Richard J Miron, Chengcheng Yin, Xiaoxin Zhang, Min Wu, Yufeng Zhang
Macrophages have been found to regulate the effects of biomaterials throughout the entire tissue repair process as an antigen-presenting cell. As a well-defined osteoconductive biomaterial for bone defect regeneration, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) has been found to facilitate a favourable osteoimmunomodulatory response that can shift macrophage polarization towards the M2 phenotype. In the present study, our group discovered that a histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste1 (EZH1) was drastically downregulated in Thp1 cells stimulated by TCP, indicating that EZH1 may participate in the macrophage phenotype shifting...
2018: Stem Cells International
Di Liu, Xinyan Xu, Junmiao Wen, Liyi Xie, Junhua Zhang, Yuxin Shen, Guoliang Jiang, Jiayan Chen, Min Fan
Purpose / Objectives . Primary small cell esophageal carcinoma (SCEC) represents a rare and aggressive malignancy without any prospective clinical trial or established treatment strategy at present. Although previous studies have indicated similarities between SCEC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in terms of their clinical manifestations, pathology, and morphology, very little genetic information is available on this highly malignant tumor. At present, patients with SCEC are staged and treated according to the guidelines established for SCLC...
2018: Stem Cells International
Guan Qun Zhu, Seung Hwan Jeon, Woong Jin Bae, Sae Woong Choi, Hyun Cheol Jeong, Kang Sup Kim, Su Jin Kim, Hyuk Jin Cho, U Syn Ha, Sung Hoo Hong, Ji Youl Lee, Eun Bi Kwon, Sae Woong Kim
Background: Mesenchymal stem cell therapy (MSCT) and defocused low-energy shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been shown to ameliorate erectile dysfunction (ED). However, the interactions and effects of action between MSCT and ESWT remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of combination therapy with MSCT and ESWT in a rat model of diabetic ED. Materials and Methods: Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 parts...
2018: Stem Cells International
Faisal A Alzahrani, Mohammed A El-Magd, Ahmed Abdelfattah-Hassan, Ayman A Saleh, Islam M Saadeldin, Eman S El-Shetry, Abdelnaser A Badawy, Saleh Alkarim
Cross talk, mediated by exosomes, between normal stem cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the tumor microenvironment has been given less attention so far. In addition, no publications are available in the literature that address the in vivo impact of exosomes derived from CSCs and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on progression of long-term hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Herein, we hypothesized that transfer of exosomes among the cells in the HCC microenvironment could either induce or inhibit tumor growth and metastasis depending on their source...
2018: Stem Cells International
Jennifer Steens, Diana Klein
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous multipotent stem cells that are involved in the development of mesenchyme-derived evolving structures and organs during ontogeny. In the adult organism, reservoirs of MSCs can be found in almost all tissues where MSCs contribute to the maintenance of organ integrity. The use of these different MSCs for cell-based therapies has been extensively studied over the past years, which highlights the use of MSCs as a promising option for the treatment of various diseases including autoimmune and cardiovascular disorders...
2018: Stem Cells International
Atsushi Tomokiyo, Shinichiro Yoshida, Sayuri Hamano, Daigaku Hasegawa, Hideki Sugii, Hidefumi Maeda
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a kind of somatic stem cells that exert a potential to differentiate into multiple cell types and undergo robust clonal self-renewal; therefore, they are considered as a highly promising stem cell population for tissue engineering. MSCs are identified in various adult organs including dental tissues. Periodontal ligament (PDL) is a highly specialized connective tissue that surrounds the tooth root. PDL also contains MSC population, and many researchers have isolated them and performed their detailed characterization...
2018: Stem Cells International
Ross E B Fitzsimmons, Matthew S Mazurek, Agnes Soos, Craig A Simmons
As a result of over five decades of investigation, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a versatile and frequently utilized cell source in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In this review, we summarize the history of MSC research from the initial discovery of their multipotency to the more recent recognition of their perivascular identity in vivo and their extraordinary capacity for immunomodulation and angiogenic signaling. As well, we discuss long-standing questions regarding their developmental origins and their capacity for differentiation toward a range of cell lineages...
2018: Stem Cells International
Aniela Skrzypczyk, Stephanie Kehr, Ilona Krystel, Stephan H Bernhart, Shibashish Giri, Augustinus Bader, Peter F Stadler
Recent advances in the stem cell field allow to obtain many human tissues in vitro. However, hepatic differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) still remains challenging. Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) obtained after differentiation resemble more fetal liver hepatocytes. MicroRNAs (miRNA) play an important role in the differentiation process. Here, we analysed noncoding RNA profiles from the last stages of differentiation and compare them to hepatocytes. Our results show that HLCs maintain an epithelial character and express miRNA which can block hepatocyte maturation by inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
2018: Stem Cells International
Masahiro Nishikawa, Akihiro Inoue, Takanori Ohnishi, Shohei Kohno, Shiro Ohue, Shirabe Matsumoto, Satoshi Suehiro, Daisuke Yamashita, Saya Ozaki, Hideaki Watanabe, Hajime Yano, Hisaaki Takahashi, Riko Kitazawa, Junya Tanaka, Takeharu Kunieda
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant brain tumor and a subpopulation of glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) is likely responsible for the invariable recurrence following maximum resection and chemoradiotherapy. As most GSCs that are located in the perivascular and perinecrotic niches should be removed during tumor resection, it is very important to know where surviving GSCs are localized. Here, we investigated the existence and functions of GSCs in the tumor periphery, which is considered to constitute the invasion niche for GSCs in GBM, by analyzing expression of stem cell markers and stem cell-related molecules and measuring particular activities of cultured GSCs...
2018: Stem Cells International
Sonia Bergante, Pasquale Creo, Marco Piccoli, Andrea Ghiroldi, Alessandra Menon, Federica Cirillo, Paola Rota, Michelle M Monasky, Giuseppe Ciconte, Carlo Pappone, Pietro Randelli, Luigi Anastasia
Gangliosides, the sialic acid-conjugated glycosphingolipids present in the lipid rafts, have been recognized as important regulators of cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Due to their peculiar localization in the cell membrane, they modulate the activity of several key cell receptors, and increasing evidence supports their involvement also in stem cell differentiation. In this context, herein we report the role played by the ganglioside GM1 in the osteogenic differentiation of human tendon stem cells (hTSCs)...
2018: Stem Cells International
Sarmila Nepali, Mira Park, Helen Lew, Okjoon Kim
Adipose tissue contains abundant multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with strong proliferative and differentiating potential into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. However, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) showed variable characteristics based on the tissue-harvesting site. This study aimed at comparing human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell from the orbit (Orbital ASCs) and abdomen (Abdominal ASCs). Orbital and abdominal ASCs were isolated during an upper or lower blepharoplasty operation and liposuction, respectively...
2018: Stem Cells International
Yongjun Zheng, Shiqing Zheng, Xiaoming Fan, Li Li, Yongqiang Xiao, Pengfei Luo, Yingying Liu, Li Wang, Zhenci Cui, Fei He, Yuhuan Liu, Shichu Xiao, Zhaofan Xia
Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) are nontumorigenic, highly abundant, and low immunogenic and possess multipotent differentiation ability, which make them become ideal alternative stem cell source for regenerative medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of hAECs in many tissue repairs. However, the therapeutic effect of hAECs on diabetic wound healing is still unknown. In this study, we injected hAECs intradermally around the full-thickness excisional skin wounds of db/db mice and found that hAECs significantly accelerated diabetic wound healing and granulation tissue formation...
2018: Stem Cells International
Bin Chen, Jing Yu, Qianqian Wang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Li Sun, Changgen Xu, Xiangdong Zhao, Bo Shen, Mei Wang, Wenrong Xu, Wei Zhu
The clinical application of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) has generated a great deal of interest because of their potential use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. However, safety concerns over hBM-MSCs limit their clinical application. In this study, we observed that hBM-MSC-conditioned medium (hBM-MSC-CM) promotes gastric cancer development via upregulation of c-Myc. Our results showed that c-Myc was upregulated in MGC-803 and BGC-823 cells after hBM-MSC-CM treatment. Moreover, we found that the c-Myc inhibitor JQ1 and c-Myc siRNA decreased the expression of c-Myc in hBM-MSC-CM-treated tumor cells in vitro ...
2018: Stem Cells International
Jie Yang, Zhuxiao Ren, Chunyi Zhang, Yunbei Rao, Junjuan Zhong, Zhu Wang, Zhipeng Liu, Wei Wei, Lijuang Lu, Jiying Wen, Guocheng Liu, Kaiyan Liu, Qi Wang
Background: Preterm birth complications are one of the leading causes of death among children under 5 years of age. Despite advances in medical care, many survivors face a lifetime of disability, including mental and physical retardation, and chronic lung disease. More recently, both allogenic and autogenic cord blood cells have been applied in the treatment of neonatal conditions such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Objective: To assess the safety of autologous, volume- and red blood cell- (RBC-) reduced, noncryopreserved umbilical cord blood (UCB) cell infusion to preterm infants...
2018: Stem Cells International
Yingying Su, Yi Gu, Ruiqing Wu, Hao Wang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) treatment has emerged as a promising approach for treating Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Impaired immunoregulatory activities of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are found in both SS patients and animal models, and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Increased expression of BMP6 is reported to be related to SS. The aim herein was to determine the effects of BMP6 on BMMSCs function. BMMSCs were isolated from SS patients and NOD mice and showed a high level of BMP6 expression...
2018: Stem Cells International
Stefania Niada, Chiara Giannasi, Alice Gualerzi, Giuseppe Banfi, Anna Teresa Brini
The adult stem cell secretome is currently under investigation as an alternative to cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine, thanks to the remarkable translational opportunity and the advantages in terms of handling and safety. In this perspective, we recently demonstrated the efficient performance of the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (ASC) secretome in contrasting neuroinflammation in a murine model of diabetic neuropathy, where the administration of factors released by dermal fibroblasts (DFs) did not exert any effect...
2018: Stem Cells International
Khushboo Agrawal, Viswanath Das, Natálie Táborská, Ján Gurský, Petr Džubák, Marián Hajdúch
The advanced-stage colon cancer spreads from primary tumor site to distant organs where the colon-unassociated stromal population provides a favorable niche for the growth of tumor cells. The heterocellular interactions between colon cancer cells and colon-unassociated fibroblasts at distant metastatic sites are important, yet these cell-cell interactions for therapeutic strategies for metastatic colon cancer remain underestimated. Recent studies have shown the therapeutic potential of DNA-demethylating epi-drugs 5-azacytidine (AZA) and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) for the treatment of solid tumors...
2018: Stem Cells International
Zhonglong Liu, Tao Li, Si'nan Deng, Shuiting Fu, Xiaojun Zhou, Yue He
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were characterized by their multilineage potential and were involved in both bony and soft tissue repair. Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation (IR) triggers numerous biological reactions, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), cellular apoptosis, and impaired differentiation capacity, while the mechanisms of IR-induced BMSC apoptosis and osteogenic impairment are still unclear. Through a recent study, we found that 6 Gy IR significantly increased the apoptotic ratio and ROS generation, characterized by ROS staining and mean fluorescent intensity...
2018: Stem Cells International
Magdalena Kuzma-Kozakiewicz, Andrzej Marchel, Anna Kaminska, Malgorzata Gawel, Jan Sznajder, Anna Figiel-Dabrowska, Arkadiusz Nowak, Edyta Maj, Natalia Ewa Krzesniak, Bartlomiej H Noszczyk, Krystyna Domanska-Janik, Anna Sarnowska
Stem cells (SCs) may constitute a perspective alternative to pharmacological treatment in neurodegenerative diseases. Although the safety of SC transplantation has been widely shown, their clinical efficiency in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is still to be proved. It is not only due to a limited number of studies, small treatment groups, and fast but nonlinear disease progression but also due to lack of objective methods able to show subtle clinical changes. Preliminary guidelines for cell therapy have recently been proposed by a group of ALS experts...
2018: Stem Cells International
Shuhui Zheng, Hang Zhou, Zhuohui Chen, Yongyong Li, Taifeng Zhou, Chengjie Lian, Bo Gao, Peiqiang Su, Caixia Xu
The type III transforming growth factor- β (TGF- β ) receptor (T β RIII), a coreceptor of the TGF- β superfamily, is known to bind TGF- β s and regulate TGF- β signaling. However, the regulatory roles of T β RIII in TGF- β -induced mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis have not been explored. The present study examined the effect of T β RIII RNA interference (RNAi) on TGF- β 3-induced human MSC (hMSC) chondrogenesis and possible signal mechanisms. A lentiviral expression vector containing T β RIII small interfering RNA (siRNA) (SiT β RIII) or a control siRNA (SiNC) gene was constructed and infected into hMSCs...
2018: Stem Cells International
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