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Stem Cells International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808446/neuron-specific-fluorescence-reporter-based-live-cell-tracing-for-transdifferentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-neurons-by-chemical-compound
#1
Do Won Hwang, Hyun Woo Kwon, Jaeho Jang, Hee Jung Jung, Kwang Rok Kim, Dong Soo Lee
Although transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into neurons increases the possibility of therapeutic use of MSCs for neurodevelopmental disorders, the use of MSCs has the limitation on differentiation efficiency to neuronal lineage and lack of an easy method to monitor the transdifferentiation. In this study, using time-lapse live cell imaging, we assessed the neuronal differentiation of MSCs induced by a small molecule "NHPDQC (N-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-(3-phenylprophyl)-1,2-dihydroquinoxaline-6-carboxamide, C18H17N3O3)...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808445/targeting-adult-neurogenesis-for-poststroke-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Jianfei Lu, Anatol Manaenko, Qin Hu
Adult neurogenesis mainly occurs at the subventricular zone (SVZ) on the walls of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG). However, the majority of newborn neurons undergo programmed cell death (PCD) during the period of proliferation, migration, and integration. Stroke activates neural stem cells (NSCs) in both SVZ and SGZ. This process is regulated by a wide variety of signaling pathways. However, the newborn neurons derived from adult neurogenesis are insufficient for tissue repair and function recovery...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804501/regulatory-role-of-redox-balance-in-determination-of-neural-precursor-cell-fate
#3
REVIEW
Mohamed Ariff Iqbal, Eftekhar Eftekharpour
In 1990s, reports of discovery of a small group of cells capable of proliferation and contribution to formation of new neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) reversed a century-old concept on lack of neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. These cells are found in all stages of human life and contribute to normal cellular turnover of the CNS. Therefore, the identity of regulating factors that affect their proliferation and differentiation is a highly noteworthy issue for basic scientists and their clinician counterparts for therapeutic purposes...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804500/pluripotent-stem-cell-metabolism-and-mitochondria-beyond-atp
#4
REVIEW
Jarmon G Lees, David K Gardner, Alexandra J Harvey
Metabolism is central to embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency and differentiation, with distinct profiles apparent under different nutrient milieu, and conditions that maintain alternate cell states. The significance of altered nutrient availability, particularly oxygen, and metabolic pathway activity has been highlighted by extensive studies of their impact on preimplantation embryo development, physiology, and viability. ESC similarly modulate their metabolism in response to altered metabolite levels, with changes in nutrient availability shown to have a lasting impact on derived cell identity through the regulation of the epigenetic landscape...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798778/tumorigenic-and-differentiation-potentials-of-embryonic-stem-cells-depend-on-tgf%C3%AE-family-signaling-lessons-from-teratocarcinoma-cells-stimulated-to-differentiate-with-retinoic-acid
#5
Olga Gordeeva, Sergey Khaydukov
A significant challenge for the development of safe pluripotent stem cell-based therapies is the incomplete in vitro differentiation of the pluripotent stem cells and the presence of residual undifferentiated cells initiating teratoma development after transplantation in recipients. To understand the mechanisms of incomplete differentiation, a comparative study of retinoic acid-induced differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) and teratocarcinoma (EC) cells was conducted. The present study identified differences in proliferative activity, differentiation, and tumorigenic potentials between ES and EC cells...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798777/mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-metastasis-of-lung-cancer-cells-by-downregulating-systemic-antitumor-immune-response
#6
Marina Gazdic, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Nemanja Jovicic, Maja Misirkic-Marjanovic, Valentin Djonov, Vladimir Jakovljevic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Miodrag L Lukic, Vladislav Volarevic
Since majority of systemically administered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) become entrapped within the lungs, we used metastatic model of lung cancer, induced by intravenous injection of Lewis lung cancer 1 (LLC1) cells, to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in MSC-mediated modulation of metastasis. MSCs significantly augmented lung cancer metastasis, attenuate concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-17), and increase levels of immunosuppressive IL-10, nitric oxide, and kynurenine in sera of LLC1-treated mice...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798776/protective-effects-of-chronic-intermittent-hypobaric-hypoxia-pretreatment-against-aplastic-anemia-through-improving-the-adhesiveness-and-stress-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-rats
#7
Jing Yang, Li Zhang, Handong Wang, Zan Guo, Yixian Liu, Yi Zhang, Chuan Wang, Quanhai Li
Aplastic anemia (AA) is a common malignant blood disease, and chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) has a beneficial effect against different diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of CIHH against AA and underlying mechanisms. 5-Fluorouracil and busulfan treatment induced AA model in rats with reduction of hematological parameters and bone marrow tissue injury and decrease of the colony numbers of progenitor cells. CIHH pretreatment significantly reduced the incidence rate of AA and alleviated above symptoms in AA model...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798775/maintenance-of-a-schwann-like-phenotype-in-differentiated-adipose-derived-stem-cells-requires-the-synergistic-action-of-multiple-growth-factors
#8
Alice E Mortimer, Alessandro Faroni, Mahmut A Kilic, Adam J Reid
Differentiating human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) towards Schwann cells produces an unstable phenotype when stimulating factors are withdrawn. Here, we set out to examine the role of glial growth factor 2 (GGF-2) in the maintenance of Schwann-like cells. Following ASC differentiation to Schwann-like cells, stimulating factors were withdrawn such that cells either remained in media supplemented with all stimulating factors, GGF-2 alone, or underwent complete withdrawal of all factors. Furthermore, each stimulating factor was also removed from the growth medium individually...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791052/inhibition-of-histone-methyltransferase-histone-deacetylase-and-%C3%AE-catenin-synergistically-enhance-the-cardiac-potential-of-bone-marrow-cells
#9
Jinpu Yang, Keerat Kaur, John G Edwards, Carol A Eisenberg, Leonard M Eisenberg
Previously, we reported that treatment with the G9a histone methyltransferase inhibitor BIX01294 causes bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to exhibit a cardiocompetent phenotype, as indicated by the induction of the precardiac markers Mesp1 and brachyury. Here, we report that combining the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) with BIX01294 synergistically enhances MSC cardiogenesis. Although TSA by itself had no effect on cardiac gene expression, coaddition of TSA to MSC cultures enhanced BIX01294-induced levels of Mesp1 and brachyury expression 5...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785285/crosstalk-with-inflammatory-macrophages-shapes-the-regulatory-properties-of-multipotent-adult-progenitor-cells
#10
Stylianos Ravanidis, Jeroen F J Bogie, Raf Donders, Robert Deans, Jerome J A Hendriks, Piet Stinissen, Jef Pinxteren, Robert W Mays, Niels Hellings
Macrophages and microglia are key effector cells in immune-mediated neuroinflammatory disorders. Driving myeloid cells towards an anti-inflammatory, tissue repair-promoting phenotype is considered a promising strategy to halt neuroinflammation and promote central nervous system (CNS) repair. In this study, we defined the impact of multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC), a stem cell population sharing common mesodermal origin with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), on the phenotype of macrophages and the reciprocal interactions between these two cell types...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769982/nurr1-downregulation-favors-osteoblastic-differentiation-of-mscs
#11
Adriana Di Benedetto, Francesca Posa, Claudia Carbone, Stefania Cantore, Giacomina Brunetti, Matteo Centonze, Maria Grano, Lorenzo Lo Muzio, Elisabetta A Cavalcanti-Adam, Giorgio Mori
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified in human dental tissues. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were classified within MSC family, are multipotent, can be isolated from adult teeth, and have been shown to differentiate, under particular conditions, into various cell types including osteoblasts. In this work, we investigated how the differentiation process of DPSCs toward osteoblasts is controlled. Recent literature data attributed to the nuclear receptor related 1 (NURR1), a still unclarified role in osteoblast differentiation, while NURR1 is primarily involved in dopaminergic neuron differentiation and activity...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769981/human-suprapatellar-fat-pad-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-induce-chondrogenesis-and-cartilage-repair-in-a-model-of-severe-osteoarthritis
#12
Ignacio Muñoz-Criado, Jose Meseguer-Ripolles, Maravillas Mellado-López, Ana Alastrue-Agudo, Richard J Griffeth, Jerónimo Forteza-Vila, Ramón Cugat, Montserrat García, Victoria Moreno-Manzano
Cartilage degeneration is associated with degenerative bone and joint processes in severe osteoarthritis (OA). Spontaneous cartilage regeneration is extremely limited. Often the treatment consists of a partial or complete joint implant. Adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) transplantation has been shown to restore degenerated cartilage; however, regenerative differences of ASC would depend on the source of adipose tissue. The infra- and suprapatellar fat pads surrounding the knee offer a potential autologous source of ASC for patients after complete joint substitution...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769980/galectin-3-knockdown-impairs-survival-migration-and-immunomodulatory-actions-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-chagas-disease-cardiomyopathy
#13
Bruno Solano de Freitas Souza, Kátia Nunes da Silva, Daniela Nascimento Silva, Vinícius Pinto Costa Rocha, Bruno Diaz Paredes, Carine Machado Azevedo, Carolina Kymie Nonaka, Gisele Batista Carvalho, Juliana Fraga Vasconcelos, Ricardo Ribeiro Dos Santos, Milena Botelho Pereira Soares
Therapies based on transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) hold promise for the management of inflammatory disorders. In chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC), caused by chronic infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the exacerbated immune response plays a critical pathophysiological role and can be modulated by MSC. Here, we investigated the role of galectin-3 (Gal-3), a beta-galactoside-binding lectin with several actions on immune responses and repair process, on the immunomodulatory potential of MSC...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761447/molecular-mechanisms-of-immunomodulation-properties-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-a-new-insight-into-the-role-of-icam-1
#14
Yury Rubtsov, Кirill Goryunov, Аndrey Romanov, Yulia Suzdaltseva, George Sharonov, Vsevolod Tkachuk
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) control excessive inflammation and create a microenvironment for tissue repair protecting from chronic inflammation and tissue fibrosis. We examined the molecular mechanisms of MSC immunomodulatory function in mixed cultures of human adipose-derived MSC with lymphocytes. Our data show that MSC promote unstimulated lymphocyte survival potentially by an increase in antigen presentation. Under inflammatory conditions, mimicked by stimulation of TCR in lymphocytes, MSC suppress activation and proliferation of stimulated T cells...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761446/characteristics-of-human-endometrium-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-tropism-to-endometriosis
#15
Yan Cheng, Liru Li, Dejun Wang, Qiuyan Guo, Yanan He, Tian Liang, Liyuan Sun, Xiaojun Wang, Yulei Cheng, Guangmei Zhang
Human endometrial tissue has become an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cell-based therapies because these MSCs can be easily harvested and have tumour tropism as well as reduced immunogenic and inflammatory properties. Our study aimed to obtain and characterise human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) and assess their endometriosis tropism. EMSCs were successfully isolated from the endometrium of women undergoing laparoscopy for idiopathic infertility. The EMSCs presented a fibroblast-like morphology during culture...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761445/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-dentinogenic-efficacy-of-human-dental-pulp-derived-cells-induced-by-demineralized-dentin-matrix-and-ha-tcp
#16
Kyung-Jung Kang, Min Suk Lee, Chan-Woong Moon, Jae-Hoon Lee, Hee Seok Yang, Young-Joo Jang
Human dental pulp cells have been known to have the stem cell features such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells are differentiated into hard tissue by addition of proper cytokines and biomaterials. Hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphates (HA-TCPs) are essential components of hard tissue and generally used as a biocompatible material in tissue engineering of bone. Demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) has been reported to increase efficiency of bone induction. We compared the efficiencies of osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation of HA-TCP and DDM on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs)...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757881/intrinsic-variability-present-in-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-t-cell-responses-may-impact-cell-therapy
#17
Fernanda Vieira Paladino, Luiz Roberto Sardinha, Carla Azevedo Piccinato, Anna Carla Goldberg
Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) exhibit immunomodulatory effects on T cell response. WJ-MSC are easy to collect, process, and proliferate rapidly in culture, but information on the variability of individual cell samples impacting upon in vitro expansion, immunomodulatory potential, and aging processes is still lacking. We propose to evaluate the immunomodulatory cytokine profile and capacity to inhibit T cell proliferation of WJ-MSC progressing to replicative senescence in order to analyze if expected responses are affected...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757880/buccal-fat-pad-as-a-potential-source-of-stem-cells-for-bone-regeneration-a-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Nasim Salehi-Nik, Maryam Rezai Rad, Lida Kheiri, Pantea Nazeman, Nasser Nadjmi, Arash Khojasteh
Adipose tissues hold great promise in bone tissue engineering since they are available in large quantities as a waste material. The buccal fat pad (BFP) is a specialized adipose tissue that is easy to harvest and contains a rich blood supply, and its harvesting causes low complications for patients. This review focuses on the characteristics and osteogenic capability of stem cells derived from BFP as a valuable cell source for bone tissue engineering. An electronic search was performed on all in vitro and in vivo studies that used stem cells from BFP for the purpose of bone tissue engineering from 2010 until 2016...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757879/mitochondrial-heterogeneity-evaluating-mitochondrial-subpopulation-dynamics-in-stem-cells
#19
REVIEW
D C Woods
Although traditionally viewed as the "powerhouse" of the cell, an accruing body of evidence in the rapidly growing field of mitochondrial biology supports additional roles of mitochondria as key participants in a multitude of cellular functions. While it has been well established that mitochondria in different tissues have distinctive ultrastructural features consistent with differential bioenergetic demands, recent and emerging technical advances in flow cytometry, imaging, and "-omics"-based bioinformatics have only just begun to explore the complex and divergent properties of mitochondria within tissues and cell types...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757878/neuroprotective-effects-of-stem-cells-in-ischemic-stroke
#20
REVIEW
Weilin Xu, Jingwei Zheng, Liansheng Gao, Tao Li, Jianmin Zhang, Anwen Shao
Ischemic stroke, the most common subtype of stroke, has been one of the leading causes of mobility and mortality worldwide. However, it is still lacking of efficient agents. Stem cell therapy, with its vigorous advantages, has attracted researchers around the world. Numerous experimental researches in animal models of stroke have demonstrated the promising efficacy in treating ischemic stroke. The underlying mechanism involved antiapoptosis, anti-inflammation, promotion of angiogenesis and neurogenesis, formation of new neural cells and neuronal circuitry, antioxidation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) protection...
2017: Stem Cells International
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