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Stem Cells International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895670/wnt5a-increases-properties-of-lung-cancer-stem-cells-and-resistance-to-cisplatin-through-activation-of-wnt5a-pkc-signaling-pathway
#1
Jiali Yang, Kangjian Zhang, Jing Wu, Juan Shi, Jing Xue, Jing Li, Juan Chen, Yongzhao Zhu, Jun Wei, Jinxi He, Xiaoming Liu
The development of chemoresistance to cisplatin regimens causes a poor prognosis in patients with advanced NSCLC. The role of noncanonical Wnt signaling in the regulation of properties of lung cancer stem cells and chemoresistance was interrogated, by accessing capacities of cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and clonogenicity as well as the apoptosis in A549 cell lines and cisplatin-resistant A549 cells treated with Wnt5a conditional medium or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X. Results showed that the noncanonical Wnt signaling ligand, Wnt5a, could promote the proliferation, migration, invasion, and colony formation in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells and cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells and increase the fraction of ALDH-positive cell in A549/DDP cells...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891153/pahs-target-hematopoietic-linages-in-bone-marrow-through-cyp1b1-primarily-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-but-not-ahr-a-reconstituted-in-vitro-model
#2
Catherine M Rondelli, Michele Campaigne Larsen, Alhaji N'jai, Charles J Czuprynski, Colin R Jefcoate
7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) rapidly suppresses hematopoietic progenitors, measured as colony forming units (CFU), in mouse bone marrow (BM) leading to mature cell losses as replenishment fails. These losses are mediated by Cyp1b1, independent of the AhR, despite induction of Cyp1b1. BM mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPC) may mediate these responses since basal Cyp1b1 is minimally induced. PreB colony forming unit activity (PreB CFU) is lost within 24 hours in isolated BM cells (BMC) unless cocultured with cells derived from primary MPC (BMS2 line)...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882058/cyclooxygenase-2-a-role-in-cancer-stem-cell-survival-and-repopulation-of-cancer-cells-during-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Lisa Y Pang, Emma A Hurst, David J Argyle
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible form of the enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of prostanoids, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major mediator of inflammation and angiogenesis. COX-2 is overexpressed in cancer cells and is associated with progressive tumour growth, as well as resistance of cancer cells to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These therapies are often delivered in multiple doses, which are spaced out to allow the recovery of normal tissues between treatments. However, surviving cancer cells also proliferate during treatment intervals, leading to repopulation of the tumour and limiting the effectiveness of the treatment...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867398/mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-a-prospective-therapy-for-the-diabetic-foot
#4
REVIEW
Qinan Wu, Bing Chen, Ziwen Liang
The diabetic foot is a serious complication of diabetes. Mesenchymal stem cells are an abundant source of stem cells which occupy a special position in cell therapies, and recent studies have suggested that mesenchymal stem cells can play essential roles in treatments for the diabetic foot. Here, we discuss the advances that have been made in mesenchymal stem cell treatments for this condition. The roles and functional mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells in the diabetic foot are also summarized, and insights into current and future studies are presented...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847522/mesenchymal-stem-cells-regulate-the-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses-dampening-arthritis-progression
#5
REVIEW
R A Contreras, F E Figueroa, F Djouad, P Luz-Crawford
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that are able to immunomodulate cells from both the innate and the adaptive immune systems promoting an anti-inflammatory environment. During the last decade, MSCs have been intensively studied in vitro and in vivo in experimental animal model of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Based on these studies, MSCs are currently widely used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) characterized by complex deregulation of the immune systems...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843459/tumor-budding-micropapillary-pattern-and-polyploidy-giant-cancer-cells-in-colorectal-cancer-current-status-and-future-prospects
#6
REVIEW
Shiwu Zhang, Dan Zhang, Zhengduo Yang, Xipeng Zhang
We previously reported that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCGs) induced by CoCl2 could form through endoreduplication or cell fusion. A single PGCC formed tumors in immunodeficient mice. PGCCs are also the key contributors to the cellular atypia and associate with the malignant grade of tumors. PGCCs have the properties of cancer stem cells and produce daughter cells via asymmetric cell division. Compared with diploid cancer cells, these daughter cells express less epithelial markers and acquire mesenchymal phenotype with importance in cancer development and progression...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843458/expression-of-bmp-and-actin-membrane-bound-inhibitor-is-increased-during-terminal-differentiation-of-mscs
#7
Christian G Pfeifer, Alexandra Karl, Arne Berner, Johannes Zellner, Paul Schmitz, Markus Loibl, Matthias Koch, Peter Angele, Michael Nerlich, Michael B Mueller
Chondrogenic differentiating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are mimicking embryonal endochondral ossification and become hypertrophic. BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) and Activin Membrane Bound Inhibitor (BAMBI) is a pseudoreceptor that regulates the activity of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and BMP signalling during chondrogenesis. Both TGF-β and BMP signalling are regulators of chondrogenic cell differentiation. Human bone marrow derived MSCs were chondrogenically predifferentiated in aggregate culture for 14 days...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843457/ccr2-positive-exosome-released-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-suppresses-macrophage-functions-and-alleviates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-renal-injury
#8
Bing Shen, Jun Liu, Fang Zhang, Yong Wang, Yan Qin, Zhihua Zhou, Jianxin Qiu, Yu Fan
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived exosomes have been shown to have protective effects on the kidney in ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury. However, the key components in the exosomes and their potential mechanisms for the kidney protective effects are not well understood. In our current study, we focused on the abundant proteins in exosomes derived from MSCs (MSC-exo) and found that the C-C motif chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2) was expressed on MSC-exo with a high ability to bind to its ligand CCL2. We also proved that CCR2 high-expressed MSC-exo could reduce the concentration of free CCL2 and suppress its functions to recruit or activate macrophage...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840648/feasibility-and-efficiency-of-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cell-culture-with-allogeneic-platelet-lysate-supplementation-for-cell-therapy-against-stroke
#9
Chengbo Tan, Hideo Shichinohe, Zifeng Wang, Shuji Hamauchi, Takeo Abumiya, Naoki Nakayama, Ken Kazumata, Tsuneo Ito, Kohsuke Kudo, Shigeru Takamoto, Kiyohiro Houkin
Currently, there is increasing interest in human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) as regeneration therapy against cerebral stroke. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of hBMSC cultures with allogeneic platelet lysates (PLs). Platelet concentrates (PC) were harvested from healthy volunteers and made into single donor-derived PL (sPL). The PL mixtures (mPL) were made from three different sPL. Some growth factors and platelet cell surface antigens were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840647/tackling-cancer-stem-cells-via-inhibition-of-emt-transcription-factors
#10
REVIEW
Megan Mladinich, Diane Ruan, Chia-Hsin Chan
Cancer stem cell (CSC) has become recognized for its role in both tumorigenesis and poor patient prognosis in recent years. Traditional therapeutics are unable to effectively eliminate this group of cells from the bulk population of cancer cells, allowing CSCs to persist posttreatment and thus propagate into secondary tumors. The therapeutic potential of eliminating CSCs, to decrease tumor relapse, has created a demand for identifying mechanisms that directly target and eliminate cancer stem cells. Molecular profiling has shown that cancer cells and tumors that exhibit the CSC phenotype also express genes associated with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) feature...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840646/role-of-nitric-oxide-nitric-oxide-synthase-soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-and-cgmp-dependent-protein-kinase-i-in-mouse-stem-cell-cardiac-development
#11
Valentina Spinelli, Alessia Vona, Francesca Corti, Lorenzo Diolaiuti, Matteo Zanardelli, Laura Sartiani, Paola Failli
Introduction and Aim. Nitric oxide (NO) can trigger cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), indicating a cardiogenic function of the NO synthetizing enzyme(s) (NOS). However, the involvement of the NO/NOS downstream effectors soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and cGMP activated protein kinase I (PKG-I) is less defined. Therefore, we assess the involvement of the entire NO/NOS/sGC/PKG-I pathway during cardiac differentiation process. Methods. Mouse ESCs were differentiated toward cardiac lineages by hanging drop methodology for 21 days...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833643/vascular-diseases-and-metabolic-disorders
#12
EDITORIAL
Ying-Mei Feng, Catherine Verfaillie, Hong Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829841/effects-of-fty720-fingolimod-on-proliferation-differentiation-and-migration-of-brain-derived-neural-stem-cells
#13
Botao Tan, Zeruxin Luo, Yan Yue, Yuan Liu, Li Pan, Lehua Yu, Ying Yin
Insufficient proliferation, differentiation, and migration are the main pitfalls of neural stem cells (NSCs) in reparative therapeutics for the central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The potent lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates cells' biological behavior broadly in the CNS. However, the effects of activating S1P on NSCs are not quite clear. In the current study, FTY720 (Fingolimod), an analog of S1P, was employed to induce the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of cultured brain-derived NSCs...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829840/antioxidant-functions-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#14
REVIEW
Cornelia Dietrich
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM family. It is activated by a variety of ligands, such as environmental contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dioxins, but also by naturally occurring compounds and endogenous ligands. Binding of the ligand leads to dimerization of the AhR with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and transcriptional activation of several xenobiotic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829839/therapeutic-potential-of-stem-cells-strategy-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Chang Youn Lee, Ran Kim, Onju Ham, Jihyun Lee, Pilseog Kim, Seokyeon Lee, Sekyung Oh, Hojin Lee, Minyoung Lee, Jongmin Kim, Woochul Chang
Despite development of medicine, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are still the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Over the past 10 years, various stem cells have been utilized in therapeutic strategies for the treatment of CVDs. CVDs are characterized by a broad range of pathological reactions including inflammation, necrosis, hyperplasia, and hypertrophy. However, the causes of CVDs are still unclear. While there is a limit to the currently available target-dependent treatments, the therapeutic potential of stem cells is very attractive for the treatment of CVDs because of their paracrine effects, anti-inflammatory activity, and immunomodulatory capacity...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822229/micro-and-macrostructured-plga-gelatin-scaffolds-promote-early-cardiogenic-commitment-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro
#16
Caterina Cristallini, Elisa Cibrario Rocchietti, Mariacristina Gagliardi, Leonardo Mortati, Silvia Saviozzi, Elena Bellotti, Valentina Turinetto, Maria Paola Sassi, Niccoletta Barbani, Claudia Giachino
The biomaterial scaffold plays a key role in most tissue engineering strategies. Its surface properties, micropatterning, degradation, and mechanical features affect not only the generation of the tissue construct in vitro, but also its in vivo functionality. The area of myocardial tissue engineering still faces significant difficulties and challenges in the design of bioactive scaffolds, which allow composition variation to accommodate divergence in the evolving myocardial structure. Here we aimed at verifying if a microstructured bioartificial scaffold alone can provoke an effect on stem cell behavior...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822228/preconditioning-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-enhance-their-regulation-of-the-immune-response
#17
REVIEW
Arman Saparov, Vyacheslav Ogay, Talgat Nurgozhin, Medet Jumabay, William C W Chen
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted the attention of researchers and clinicians for their ability to differentiate into a number of cell types, participate in tissue regeneration, and repair the damaged tissues by producing various growth factors and cytokines, as well as their unique immunoprivilege in alloreactive hosts. The immunomodulatory functions of exogenous MSCs have been widely investigated in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and transplantation research. However, a harsh environment at the site of tissue injury/inflammation with insufficient oxygen supply, abundance of reactive oxygen species, and presence of other harmful molecules that damage the adoptively transferred cells collectively lead to low survival and engraftment of the transferred cells...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818693/electrically-induced-calcium-handling-in-cardiac-progenitor-cells
#18
Joshua T Maxwell, Mary B Wagner, Michael E Davis
For nearly a century, the heart was viewed as a terminally differentiated organ until the discovery of a resident population of cardiac stem cells known as cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). It has been shown that the regenerative capacity of CPCs can be enhanced by ex vivo modification. Preconditioning CPCs could provide drastic improvements in cardiac structure and function; however, a systematic approach to determining a mechanistic basis for these modifications founded on the physiology of CPCs is lacking...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818692/implant-composed-of-demineralized-bone-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-genetically-modified-with-adbmp2-adbmp7-for-the-regeneration-of-bone-fractures-in-ovis-aries
#19
Adelina A Hernandez-Hurtado, Gissela Borrego-Soto, Ivan A Marino-Martinez, Jorge Lara-Arias, Viktor J Romero-Diaz, Adalberto Abrego-Guerra, Jose F Vilchez-Cavazos, Guillermo Elizondo-Riojas, Herminia G Martinez-Rodriguez, Marcela A Espinoza-Juarez, Gloria C Lopez-Romero, Alejandro Robles-Zamora, Oscar F Mendoza Lemus, Rocio Ortiz-Lopez, Augusto Rojas-Martinez
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) are inducible to an osteogenic phenotype by the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). This facilitates the generation of implants for bone tissue regeneration. This study evaluated the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of ADMSCs transduced individually and in combination with adenoviral vectors expressing BMP2 and BMP7. Moreover, the effectiveness of the implant containing ADMSCs transduced with the adenoviral vectors AdBMP2/AdBMP7 and embedded in demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was tested in a model of tibial fracture in sheep...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818691/osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-amniotic-fluid-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-determined-by-epigenetic-changes
#20
Monika Glemžaitė, Rūta Navakauskienė
Osteogenic differentiation of human amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) has been widely studied in vitro and in vivo as a potential tool for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. While most of the studies analyze changes in transcriptional profile during differentiation to date there is not much information regarding epigenetic changes in AF-MSCs during differentiation. The aim of our study was to evaluate epigenetic changes during osteogenic differentiation of AF-MS cells. Isolated AF-MSCs were characterized morphologically and osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by cell staining and determining expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin by RT-qPCR...
2016: Stem Cells International
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