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Stem Cells International

Carlos Cardenas, Ja-Young Kwon, Yong-Sun Maeng
Recent evidence suggests that mononuclear cells (MNCs) derived from bone marrow and cord blood can differentiate into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs). However, controversy exists as to whether MNCs have the pluripotent capacity to differentiate into MSCs or OECs or are a mixture of cell lineage-determined progenitors of MSCs or OECs. Here, using CD133(+)/C-kit(+)/Lin(-) mononuclear cells (CKL- cells) isolated from human umbilical cord blood using magnetic cell sorting, we characterized the potency of MNC differentiation...
2016: Stem Cells International
Seo-Young Lee, Sun-Ku Chung
The recent advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and gene therapy tools has raised the possibility of autologous cell therapy for rare genetic diseases. However, cellular reprogramming is inefficient in certain diseases such as ataxia telangiectasia, Fanconi anemia, LIG4 syndrome, and fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva syndrome, owing to interference of the disease-related genes. To overcome these therapeutic limitations, it is necessary to fundamentally correct the abnormal gene during or prior to the reprogramming process...
2016: Stem Cells International
Jianmei Li, Shiwu Dong
Chondrocytes communicate with each other mainly via diffusible signals rather than direct cell-to-cell contact. The chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is well regulated by the interactions of varieties of growth factors, cytokines, and signaling molecules. A number of critical signaling molecules have been identified to regulate the differentiation of chondrocyte from mesenchymal progenitor cells to their terminal maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), SRY-related high-mobility group-box gene 9 (Sox9), parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), Indian hedgehog (Ihh), fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), and β-catenin...
2016: Stem Cells International
Ping Wang, Francesco Petrella, Luca Nicosia, Massimo Bellomi, Stefania Rizzo
Stem cell transplantation has been investigated to rescue experimental liver failure and is promising to offer an alternative therapy to liver transplantation for liver diseases treatment. Several clinical studies in this field have been carried out, but the therapeutic benefit of this treatment is still controversial. A major obstacle to developing stem cell therapies in clinic is being able to visualize the cells in vivo. Imaging modalities allow optimization of delivery, detecting cell survival and functionality by in vivo monitoring these transplanted graft cells...
2016: Stem Cells International
Ariel A Simerman, Julia D Phan, Daniel A Dumesic, Gregorio D Chazenbalk
Muse cells are a novel population of nontumorigenic pluripotent stem cells, highly resistant to cellular stress. These cells are present in every connective tissue and intrinsically express pluripotent stem markers such as Nanog, Oct3/4, Sox2, and TRA1-60. Muse cells are able to differentiate into cells from all three embryonic germ layers both spontaneously and under media-specific induction. Unlike ESCs and iPSCs, Muse cells exhibit low telomerase activity and asymmetric division and do not undergo tumorigenesis or teratoma formation when transplanted into a host organism...
2016: Stem Cells International
Janaina Paulini, Eliza Higuti, Rosana M C Bastos, Samirah A Gomes, Érika B Rangel
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess pleiotropic properties that include immunomodulation, inhibition of apoptosis, fibrosis and oxidative stress, secretion of trophic factors, and enhancement of angiogenesis. These properties provide a broad spectrum for their potential in a wide range of injuries and diseases, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). MSCs are characterized by adherence to plastic, expression of the surface molecules CD73, CD90, and CD105 in the absence of CD34, CD45, HLA-DR, and CD14 or CD11b and CD79a or CD19 surface molecules, and multidifferentiation capacity in vitro...
2016: Stem Cells International
Jinyun Chen, Qian Wang, Xuebing Feng, Zhuoya Zhang, Linyu Geng, Ting Xu, Dandan Wang, Lingyun Sun
Aberrant autophagy played an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, especially in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we showed that T cells from SLE patients had higher autophagic activity than that from healthy controls. A correlation between autophagic activity and apoptotic rate was observed in activated T cells. Moreover, activation of autophagy with rapamycin increased T cell apoptosis, whereas inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA decreased T cell apoptosis. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) could inhibit respiratory mitochondrial biogenesis in activated T cells to downregulate autophagy and consequently decrease T cell apoptosis through mitochondrial transfer and thus may play an important role in SLE treatment...
2016: Stem Cells International
Danielle C Bonfim, Rhayra B Dias, Anneliese Fortuna-Costa, Leonardo Chicaybam, Daiana V Lopes, Hélio S Dutra, Radovan Borojevic, Martin Bonamino, Claudia Mermelstein, Maria Isabel D Rossi
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are considered a promising tool for bone bioengineering. However, the mechanisms controlling osteoblastic commitment are still unclear. Osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs requires the activation of β-catenin signaling, classically known to be regulated by the canonical Wnt pathway. However, BMSCs treatment with canonical Wnts in vitro does not always result in osteogenic differentiation and evidence indicates that a more complex signaling pathway, involving cadherins, would be required to induce β-catenin signaling in these cells...
2016: Stem Cells International
Weili Fu, Xing Xie, Qi Li, Gang Chen, Chenghao Zhang, Xin Tang, Jian Li
This study aimed to culture and characterize mesenchymal stem cells derived from meniscal debris. Cells in meniscal debris from patients with meniscal injury were isolated by enzymatic digestion, cultured in vitro to the third passage, and analyzed by light microscopy to observe morphology and growth. Third-passage cultures were also analyzed for immunophenotype and ability to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. After 4-5 days in culture, cells showed a long fusiform shape and adhered to the plastic walls...
2016: Stem Cells International
Nuria Nieto-Nicolau, Eva M Martínez-Conesa, Ricardo P Casaroli-Marano
Limbal stem cells (LSC) are the progenitor cells that maintain the transparency of the cornea. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) leads to corneal opacity, inflammation, scarring, and blindness. A clinical approach to treat this condition consists in LSC transplantation (LSCT) after ex vivo expansion of LSC. In unilateral LSCD, an autologous transplant is possible, but cases of bilateral LSCD require allogenic LSCT. Cadaveric donors represent the most important source of LSC allografts for treatment of bilateral LSCD when living relative donors are not available...
2016: Stem Cells International
Ilaria Roato, Daniela Alotto, Dimas Carolina Belisario, Stefania Casarin, Mara Fumagalli, Irene Cambieri, Raimondo Piana, Maurizio Stella, Riccardo Ferracini, Carlotta Castagnoli
Osteoarthritis is characterized by loss of articular cartilage also due to reduced chondrogenic activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from patients. Adipose tissue is an attractive source of MSCs (ATD-MSCs), representing an effective tool for reparative medicine, particularly for treatment of osteoarthritis, due to their chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation capability. The treatment of symptomatic knee arthritis with ATD-MSCs proved effective with a single infusion, but multiple infusions could be also more efficacious...
2016: Stem Cells International
Elizabeth J Wright, Nigel W Hodson, Michael J Sherratt, Moustapha Kassem, Andrew L Lewis, Christine Wallrapp, Nadim Malik, Cathy M Holt
Background. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are being tested as treatment strategies for myocardial infarction (MI); however, their mechanisms in the heart are not fully understood. Methods. We examined the effects of MSCs, either native, or engineered to secrete a GLP-1 fusion protein (MSCs ± GLP-1), on human cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vitro. The effect on cardiac remodeling when encapsulated in alginate beads (CellBeads-MSC and CellBeads-MSC + GLP-1) was also evaluated in a pig MI model, whereby pigs were treated with Empty Beads, CellBeads-MSC, or CellBeads-MSC + GLP-1 and sacrificed at one or four weeks following MI...
2016: Stem Cells International
Shan-Shan Liu, Yin-Shan Bai, Li Feng, Wen-Wei Dong, Yang Li, Li-Ping Xu, Ning-Fang Ma
Chromodomain helicase/ATPase DNA binding protein 1-like gene (Chd1l) participates in chromatin-dependent processes, including transcriptional activation and DNA repair. In this study, we have found for the first time that Chd1l is mainly expressed in the testicular tissues of prepubertal and adult mice and colocalized with PLZF, OCT4, and GFRα1 in the neonatal mouse testis and THY1(+) undifferentiated spermatogonia or spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Knockdown of endogenous Chd1l in cultured mouse undifferentiated SSCs inhibited the expression levels of Oct4, Plzf, Gfrα1, and Pcna genes, suppressed SSC colony formation, and reduced BrdU incorporation, while increasing SSC apoptosis...
2016: Stem Cells International
Intekhab Islam, Gopu Sriram, Mingming Li, Yu Zou, Lulu Li, Harish K Handral, Vinicus Rosa, Tong Cao
Cellular therapy using stem cells in bone regeneration has gained increasing interest. Various studies suggest the clinical utility of osteoprogenitors-like mesenchymal stem cells in bone regeneration. However, limited availability of mesenchymal stem cells and conflicting evidence on their therapeutic efficacy limit their clinical application. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are potentially an unlimited source of healthy and functional osteoprogenitors (OPs) that could be utilized for bone regenerative applications...
2016: Stem Cells International
Patricia Galvez-Martin, Roger Sabata, Josep Verges, José L Zugaza, Adolfina Ruiz, Beatriz Clares
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the main stem cells that have been used for advanced therapies and regenerative medicine. To carry out the translational clinical application of MSCs, their manufacturing and administration in human must be controlled; therefore they should be considered as medicine: stem cell-based medicinal products (SCMPs). The development of MSCs as SCMPs represents complicated therapeutics due to their extreme complex nature and rigorous regulatory oversights. The manufacturing process of MSCs needs to be addressed in clean environments in compliance with requirements of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)...
2016: Stem Cells International
Áron Szepesi, Zsolt Matula, Anna Szigeti, György Várady, József Szalma, Gyula Szabó, Ferenc Uher, Balázs Sarkadi, Katalin Német
Bone tissue regeneration is a major, worldwide medical need, and several strategies have been developed to support the regeneration of extensive bone defects, including stem cell based bone grafts. In addition to the application of stem cells with high osteogenic potential, it is important to maintain proper blood flow in a bone graft to avoid inner graft necrosis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may form both osteocytes and endothelial cells; therefore we examined the combined in vitro osteogenic and endothelial differentiation capacities of MSCs derived from adipose tissue, Wharton's jelly, and periodontal ligament...
2016: Stem Cells International
Albert A Rizvanov, Jenny Persson, Fikrettin Şahin, Saverio Bellusci, Paulo J Oliveira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Stem Cells International
Wu-Sheng Sun, Ju-Lan Chun, Jeong-Tae Do, Dong-Hwan Kim, Jin-Seop Ahn, Min-Kyu Kim, In-Sul Hwang, Dae-Jin Kwon, Seong-Soo Hwang, Jeong-Woong Lee
Oct4 is a crucial germ line-specific transcription factor expressed in different pluripotent cells and downregulated in the process of differentiation. There are two conserved enhancers, called the distal enhancer (DE) and proximal enhancer (PE), in the 5' upstream regulatory sequences (URSs) of the mouse Oct4 gene, which were demonstrated to control Oct4 expression independently in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). We analyzed the URSs of the pig Oct4 and identified two similar enhancers that were highly consistent with the mouse DE and PE...
2016: Stem Cells International
Bo Wei, Chengshuo Huang, Mingyan Zhao, Peng Li, Xiang Gao, Junchao Kong, Yanru Niu, Rui Huang, Juanhua Quan, Jinsong Wei, Jiaqi Chu
We evaluated the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in combination with allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for the treatment of osteoporotic bone defects in an ovariectomized rat model. By day 42 after injury, in vivo microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging revealed that bone defects of control rats and ovariectomized rats treated with PRP and BMSCs were completely repaired, whereas those of ovariectomized rats treated with PRP or BMSCs alone exhibited slower healing. Histological data were consistent with these results...
2016: Stem Cells International
Xuesong Han, Yanfeng Zhuang, Zhihong Zhang, Lin Guo, Wanming Wang
This study is aimed at exploring the effect of stress stimulation on the proliferation and differentiation of fibrochondrocytes in entheses mediated via the Indian hedgehog (Ihh)/parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) signaling pathway. Differential stress stimulation on fibrochondrocytes in entheses was imposed. Gene expression and protein levels of signaling molecules including collagen type I (Col I), Col II, Col X, Ihh, and PTHrP in the cytoplasm of fibrochondrocytes were detected. Ihh signal blocking group was set up using Ihh signaling pathway-specific blocking agent cyclopamine...
2016: Stem Cells International
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