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Stem Cells International

Jun Jia, Shan-Zheng Wang, Liang-Yu Ma, Jia-Bin Yu, Yu-Dong Guo, Chen Wang
Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a promising strategy for intervertebral disc degeneration. However, the potential harmful effects of leukocytes in PRP on nucleus pulposus-derived mesenchymal stem cells (NPMSCs) have seldom been studied. This study aimed at comparatively evaluating effects of pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) and leukocyte-containing platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) on rabbit NPMSCs in vitro. Methods: NPMSCs isolated from rabbit NP tissues were treated with L-PRP or P-PRP in vitro, and then cell proliferation and expression of stem cell markers, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF- α , IL-1 β ), production of ECM (extracellular matrix-related protein), and NF- κ B p65 protein were validated by CCK-8 assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence, and western blot respectively...
2018: Stem Cells International
Michalina Alicka, Krzysztof Marycz
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly associated with a modern lifestyle. The prevalence of MetS has reached epidemic proportion and is still rising. The main cause of MetS and finally type 2 diabetes occurrence is excessive nutrient intake, lack of physical activity, and inflammatory cytokines secretion. These factors lead to redistribution of body fat and oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurrence, resulting in insulin resistance, increase adipocyte differentiation, and much elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines...
2018: Stem Cells International
Farhan Basit, Maria Andersson, Anne Hultquist
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has poor prognosis due to various mutations, e.g., in the FLT3 gene. Therefore, it is important to identify pathways regulated by the activated Flt3 receptor for the discovery of new therapeutic targets. The Myc network of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes is involved in mechanisms regulating proliferation and survival of cells, including that of the hematopoietic system. In this study, we evaluated the expression of the Myc oncogenes and Mxd antagonists in hematopoietic stem cell and myeloid progenitor populations in the Flt3-ITD-knockin myeloproliferative mouse model...
2018: Stem Cells International
Chandra Prakash Chaturvedi, Naresh Kumar Tripathy, Ekta Minocha, Akhilesh Sharma, Khaliqur Rahman, Soniya Nityanand
We have investigated the expression of RNA transcripts of hematopoiesis regulatory molecules, viz., macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 α , tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α , granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 α , stem cell factor (SCF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)- β in lipopolysaccharide-induced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and levels of their soluble forms in the culture supernatants of BM-MSCs and BM plasma of patients with acquired aplastic anemia (AA) ( n = 29) and controls ( n = 29)...
2018: Stem Cells International
Yuqiang Huang, Tsz Kin Ng, Chong-Bo Chen, Bing Huang, Jiajian Liang, Chi Pui Pang, Mingzhi Zhang
Retinal disease treatment by stem cell-based replacement relies on stem cell differentiation into retinal cells. We previously demonstrated that human periodontal ligament-derived stem cells can be directed into retinal lineage upon induction. Here, we report the transdifferentiation potential of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into retinal lineage and its enhancement by Notch signaling modulation. Human ASCs, isolated from abdominal fat, expressed mesenchymal but not hematopoietic stem cell markers, and they can differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts in vitro ...
2018: Stem Cells International
Yong-Heng Luo, Juan Chen, En-Hua Xiao, Qiu-Yun Li, Yong-Mei Luo
Demethylating agent zebularine is reported to be capable of inducing differentiation of stem cells by activation of methylated genes, though its function in hepatocyte differentiation is unclear. p38 signal pathway is involved in differentiation of hepatocytes and regulating of DNA methyltransferases 1 (DNMT1) expression. However, little is known about the impact of zebularine on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and p38 signaling during hepatic differentiation. The present study investigated the effects of zebularine on hepatic differentiation of rabbit BMMSCs, as well as the role of p38 on DNMT1 and hepatic differentiation, with the aim of developing a novel strategy for improving derivation of hepatocytes...
2018: Stem Cells International
Masami Kanawa, Akira Igarashi, Katsumi Fujimoto, Yukihito Higashi, Hidemi Kurihara, Masaru Sugiyama, Tania Saskianti, Yukio Kato, Takeshi Kawamoto
The precise predictions of the differentiation direction and potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are an important key to the success of regenerative medicine. The expression levels of fate-determining genes may provide tools for predicting differentiation potential. The expression levels of 95 candidate marker genes and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) contents after chondrogenic induction in 10 undifferentiated ilium and 5 jaw MSC cultures were determined, and their correlations were analyzed. The expression levels of eight genes before the induction of chondrogenic MSC differentiation were significantly correlated with the GAG levels after induction...
2018: Stem Cells International
Yunqian Guan, Xiaobo Li, Wenxiu Yu, Zhaohui Liang, Min Huang, Renchao Zhao, Chunsong Zhao, Yao Liu, Haiqiang Zou, Yanli Hao, Zhiguo Chen
The resident microglial and infiltrating cells from peripheral circulation are involved in the pathological processes of ischemia stroke and may be regulated by mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) transplantation. The present study is aimed at differentiating the neurotrophic and inflammatory roles played by microglial vs. infiltrating circulation-derived cells in the acute phase in rat ischemic brains and explore the influences of intravenously infused allogeneic MSCs. The ischemic brain injury was induced by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) in SD rats, with or without MSC infusion in the same day following dMCAO...
2018: Stem Cells International
Marta Sacchetti, Paolo Rama, Alice Bruscolini, Alessandro Lambiase
Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is a clinical condition characterized by damage of cornea limbal stem cells, which results in an impairment of corneal epithelium turnover and in an invasion of the cornea by the conjunctival epithelium. In these patients, the conjunctivalization of the cornea is associated with visual impairment and cornea transplantation has poor prognosis for recurrence of the conjunctivalization. Current treatments of LSCD are aimed at replacing the damaged corneal stem cells in order to restore a healthy corneal epithelium...
2018: Stem Cells International
Martin Maldonado, Tianhua Huang, Jianying Chen, Ying Zhong
In vitro maturation (IVM) in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) can be improved by the presence of human Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs (hWJ-MSCs), under specific culture conditions. COCs were cultured in twelve different culture systems, composed of four stock media, stock media conditioned with hWJ-MSCs, and stock media in which the oocytes were indirectly cocultured with the hWJ-MSCs. The rates of maturation to meiosis II were compared among the groups. G2-PLUS and coculture with DMEM-F12 were the most efficient systems for the maturation of COCs...
2018: Stem Cells International
Sari Pennings, Karen J Liu, Hong Qian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Stem Cells International
Petra Gener, Joaquin Seras-Franzoso, Patricia González Callejo, Fernanda Andrade, Diana Rafael, Francesc Martínez, Sara Montero, Diego Arango, Joan Sayós, Ibane Abasolo, Simó Schwartz
There are remarkable similarities in the description of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and cancer cells with mesenchymal phenotype. Both cell types are highly tumorigenic, resistant against common anticancer treatment, and thought to cause metastatic growth. Moreover, cancer cells are able to switch between CSC and non-CSC phenotypes and vice versa, to ensure the necessary balance within the tumor. Likewise, cancer cells can switch between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes via well-described transition (EMT/MET) that is thought to be crucial for tumor propagation...
2018: Stem Cells International
Pengfei Ji, Xia Wang, Nina Xie, Yujing Li
Vast emerging evidences are linking the base modifications and determination of stem cell fate such as proliferation and differentiation. Among the base modification markers extensively studied, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and its oxidative derivatives (5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5-fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC)) dynamically occur in DNA and RNA and have been acknowledged as important epigenetic markers involved in regulation of cellular biological processes. N6-Methyladenosine modification in DNA (m6dA), mRNA (m6A), tRNA, and other noncoding RNAs has been defined as another important epigenetic and epitranscriptomic marker in eukaryotes in recent years...
2018: Stem Cells International
Mahara Valverde, Jonathan Lozano-Salgado, Paola Fortini, Maria Alexandra Rodriguez-Sastre, Emilio Rojas, Eugenia Dogliotti
Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) are recognized as a potential tool in cell tissue therapy because of their capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro. Several studies have addressed their use in regenerative medicine; however, little is known regarding their response to DNA damage and in particular to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are present in the microenvironment of implantation. In this study, we used the ROS-inducing agent hydrogen peroxide to explore the responses of (1) hADMSCs and (2) derived terminally differentiated adipocytes to oxidatively generated DNA damage...
2018: Stem Cells International
Kar Wey Yong, Jane Ru Choi, Mehdi Mohammadi, Alim P Mitha, Amir Sanati-Nezhad, Arindom Sen
Ischemic diseases such as myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and critical limb ischemia are immense public health challenges. Current pharmacotherapy and surgical approaches are insufficient to completely heal ischemic diseases and are associated with a considerable risk of adverse effects. Alternatively, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been shown to exhibit immunomodulation, angiogenesis, and paracrine secretion of bioactive factors that can attenuate inflammation and promote tissue regeneration, making them a promising cell source for ischemic disease therapy...
2018: Stem Cells International
Bo La Han, Lan Zhou, Qiunong Guan, Gerald da Roza, Hao Wang, Caigan Du
The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from various tissue origins have extensively been explored in both experimental and clinical studies, and peritoneal dialysis effluent-derived MSC (pMSC) may be an easily obtainable MSC source for clinical applications. In this study, we expanded and characterized the pMSCs after expansion in a human protein culture medium. The pMSCs were expanded in plastic dishes with the human protein medium. MSC marker expression was examined by flow cytometry...
2018: Stem Cells International
Qingjie Fu, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Naoya Sakamoto
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, are present in almost all organs and tissues, including the amnion. Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hAMSC) transplantation has been reported to ameliorate liver fibrosis in animal models. However, the mechanism for the prevention of liver fibrosis is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects, and underlying mechanisms, of a conditioned medium obtained from hAMSC cultures (hAMSC-CM) on a primary culture of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)...
2018: Stem Cells International
Ayman Hyder, Sabrina Ehnert, Fred Fändrich, Hendrik Ungefroren
Following a several-day incubation in medium containing IL-3 and M-CSF to generate a more plastic intermediate "reprogrammed multipotent cells of monocytic origin (RMCMO)," peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be efficiently converted to hepatocyte-like cells (neohepatocytes) and insulin-producing cells. However, continuous efforts are devoted to enhancing the proliferative capacity of these multipotent cells while maintaining or further increasing their redifferentiation potential. In the present work, PBMCs were transfected with one pluripotency gene ( SOX2 ) and the resulting RMCMO compared to standard RMCMO with respect to cell viability, proliferative activity, and redifferentiation potential...
2018: Stem Cells International
X Ambriz, P de Lanerolle, J R Ambrosio
An understanding of the cytoskeleton's importance in stem cells is essential for their manipulation and further clinical application. The cytoskeleton is crucial in stem cell biology and depends on physical and chemicals signals to define its structure. Additionally, cell culture conditions will be important in the proper maintenance of stemness, lineage commitment, and differentiation. This review focuses on the following areas: the role of the actin cytoskeleton of stem cells during differentiation, the significance of cellular morphology, signaling pathways involved in cytoskeletal rearrangement in stem cells, and the mechanobiology and mechanotransduction processes implicated in the interactions of stem cells with different surfaces of biomaterials, such as nanotopography, which is a physical cue influencing the differentiation of stem cells...
2018: Stem Cells International
Hang Liang, Sheng Chen, Donghua Huang, Xiangyu Deng, Kaige Ma, Zengwu Shao
Purpose: Mechanical loading plays a vital role in the progression of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, but little is known about the effect of compression loading on human nucleus pulposus-derived mesenchymal stem cells (NP-MSCs). Thus, this study is aimed at investigating the effect of compression on the biological behavior of NP-MSCs in vitro. Methods: Human NP-MSCs were isolated from patients undergoing lumbar discectomy for IVD degeneration and were identified by immunophenotypes and multilineage differentiation...
2018: Stem Cells International
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