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Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909992/roles-for-orexin-hypocretin-in-the-control-of-energy-balance-and-metabolism
#1
Paulette B Goforth, Martin G Myers
The neuropeptide hypocretin is also commonly referred to as orexin, since its orexigenic action was recognized early. Orexin/hypocretin (OX) neurons project widely throughout the brain and the physiologic and behavioral functions of OX are much more complex than initially conceived based upon the stimulation of feeding. OX most notably controls functions relevant to attention, alertness, and motivation. OX also plays multiple crucial roles in the control of food intake, metabolism, and overall energy balance in mammals...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909991/the-role-of-orexins-hypocretins-in-alcohol-use-and-abuse
#2
Leigh C Walker, Andrew J Lawrence
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and drug taking despite negative consequences. Alcohol abuse and addiction have major social and economic consequences and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available therapeutics are inadequate, outlining the need for alternative treatments. Detailed knowledge of the neurocircuitry and brain chemistry responsible for aberrant behavior patterns should enable the development of novel pharmacotherapies to treat addiction...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909990/orexin-hypocretin-signaling
#3
Jyrki P Kukkonen
Orexin/hypocretin peptide (orexin-A and orexin-B) signaling is believed to take place via the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), named OX1 and OX2 orexin receptors, as described in the previous chapters. Signaling of orexin peptides has been investigated in diverse endogenously orexin receptor-expressing cells - mainly neurons but also other types of cells - and in recombinant cells expressing the receptors in a heterologous manner. Findings in the different systems are partially convergent but also indicate cellular background-specific signaling...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909989/orexin-and-central-modulation-of-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-function
#4
Pascal Carrive, Tomoyuki Kuwaki
Orexin makes an important contribution to the regulation of cardiorespiratory function. When injected centrally under anesthesia, orexin increases blood pressure, heart rate, sympathetic nerve activity, and the amplitude and frequency of respiration. This is consistent with the location of orexin neurons in the hypothalamus and the distribution of orexin terminals at all levels of the central autonomic and respiratory network. These cardiorespiratory responses are components of arousal and are necessary to allow the expression of motivated behaviors...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909988/predicting-the-abuse-liability-of-entactogen-class-new-and-emerging-psychoactive-substances-via-preclinical-models-of-drug-self-administration
#5
Shawn M Aarde, Michael A Taffe
Animal models of drug self-administration are currently the gold standard for making predictions regarding the relative likelihood that a recreational drug substance will lead to continued use and addiction. Such models have been found to have high predictive accuracy and discriminative validity for a number of drug classes including ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Members of the entactogen class of psychostimulants (drugs that produce an "open mind state" including feelings of interpersonal closeness, intimacy and empathy) have been less frequently studied in self-administration models...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909987/orexin-ox2-receptor-antagonists-as-sleep-aids
#6
Laura H Jacobson, Sui Chen, Sanjida Mir, Daniel Hoyer
The discovery of the orexin system represents the single major progress in the sleep field of the last three to four decades. The two orexin peptides and their two receptors play a major role in arousal and sleep/wake cycles. Defects in the orexin system lead to narcolepsy with cataplexy in humans and dogs and can be experimentally reproduced in rodents. At least six orexin receptor antagonists have reached Phase II or Phase III clinical trials in insomnia, five of which are dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) that target both OX1 and OX2 receptors (OX2Rs)...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900674/serotonergic-hallucinogen-induced-visual-perceptual-alterations
#7
Michael Kometer, Franz X Vollenweider
Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), are famous for their capacity to temporally and profoundly alter an individual's visual experiences. These visual alterations show consistent attributes despite large inter- and intra-individual variances. Many reports document a common perception of colors as more saturated, with increased brightness and contrast in the environment ("Visual Intensifications"). Environmental objects might be altered in size ("Visual illusions") or take on a modified and special meaning for the subject ("Altered self-reference")...
November 30, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885550/neural-activity-patterns-underlying-spatial-coding-in-the-hippocampus
#8
Marielena Sosa, Anna K Gillespie, Loren M Frank
The hippocampus is well known as a central site for memory processing-critical for storing and later retrieving the experiences events of daily life so they can be used to shape future behavior. Much of what we know about the physiology underlying hippocampal function comes from spatial navigation studies in rodents, which have allowed great strides in understanding how the hippocampus represents experience at the cellular level. However, it remains a challenge to reconcile our knowledge of spatial encoding in the hippocampus with its demonstrated role in memory-dependent tasks in both humans and other animals...
November 25, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885549/memory-reconsolidation
#9
Josue Haubrich, Karim Nader
Scientific advances in the last decades uncovered that memory is not a stable, fixed entity. Apparently stable memories may become transiently labile and susceptible to modifications when retrieved due to the process of reconsolidation. Here, we review the initial evidence and the logic on which reconsolidation theory is based, the wide range of conditions in which it has been reported and recent findings further revealing the fascinating nature of this process. Special focus is given to conceptual issues of when and why reconsolidation happen and its possible outcomes...
November 25, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830577/orexin-hypocretin-and-organizing-principles-for-a-diversity-of-wake-promoting-neurons-in-the-brain
#10
Cornelia Schöne, Denis Burdakov
An enigmatic feature of behavioural state control is the rich diversity of wake-promoting neural systems. This diversity has been rationalized as 'robustness via redundancy', wherein wakefulness control is not critically dependent on one type of neuron or molecule. Studies of the brain orexin/hypocretin system challenge this view by demonstrating that wakefulness control fails upon loss of this neurotransmitter system. Since orexin neurons signal arousal need, and excite other wake-promoting neurons, their actions illuminate nonredundant principles of arousal control...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830576/structure-activity-relationships-of-synthetic-cathinones
#11
Richard A Glennon, Małgorzata Dukat
Until recently, there was rather little interest in the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of cathinone analogs because so few agents were available and because they represented a relatively minor drug abuse problem. Most of the early SAR was formulated on the basis of behavioral (e.g., locomotor and drug discrimination) studies using rodents. With the emergence on the clandestine market in the last few years of a large number of new cathinone analogs, termed "synthetic cathinones", and the realization that they likely act at dopamine, norepinephrine, and/or serotonin transporters as releasing agents (i...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830575/neuropharmacology-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-its-metabolites-and-related-analogs
#12
Michael H Baumann, Mohammad O Bukhari, Kurt R Lehner, Sebastien Anizan, Kenner C Rice, Marta Concheiro, Marilyn A Huestis
3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a psychoactive component of so-called bath salts products that has caused serious medical consequences in humans. In this chapter, we review the neuropharmacology of MDPV and related analogs, and supplement the discussion with new results from our preclinical experiments. MDPV acts as a potent uptake inhibitor at plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (DAT) and norepinephrine (NET) in nervous tissue. The MDPV formulation in bath salts is a racemic mixture, and the S isomer is much more potent than the R isomer at blocking DAT and producing abuse-related effects...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830574/inflammation-effects-on-brain-glutamate-in-depression-mechanistic-considerations-and-treatment-implications
#13
Ebrahim Haroon, Andrew H Miller
There has been increasing interest in the role of glutamate in mood disorders, especially given the profound effect of the glutamate receptor antagonist ketamine in improving depressive symptoms in patients with treatment-resistant depression. One pathway by which glutamate alterations may occur in mood disorders involves inflammation. Increased inflammation has been observed in a significant subgroup of patients with mood disorders, and inflammatory cytokines have been shown to influence glutamate metabolism through effects on astrocytes and microglia...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830573/developmental-contributors-to-trauma-response-the-importance-of-sensitive-periods-early-environment-and-sex-differences
#14
Jennifer S Stevens, Sanne J H van Rooij, Tanja Jovanovic
This review considers early factors that interact with development to contribute to later trauma responses, including developmental sensitive periods, the effects of early environment, and the emergence of sex differences. We also describe development of neural substrates that have been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and specifically focus on fear behavior and circuitry. Emerging evidence suggests that there may be developmental shifts around age 10 in these underlying circuits that may contribute to vulnerability...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830572/inflammation-associated-co-morbidity-between-depression-and-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Angelos Halaris
Morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is exceedingly high worldwide. Depressive illness is a serious psychiatric illness that afflicts a significant portion of the world population. Epidemiological studies have confirmed the high co-morbidity between these two disease entities. The co-morbidity is bidirectional and the mechanisms responsible for it are complex and multifaceted. In addition to genetic, biological systems, psychosocial, and behavioral factors that are involved include the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuroendocrine, immune, and the vascular and hematologic systems...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822679/a-review-of-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-hppd-and-an-exploratory-study-of-subjects-claiming-symptoms-of-hppd
#16
John H Halpern, Arturo G Lerner, Torsten Passie
Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is rarely encountered in clinical settings. It is described as a re-experiencing of some perceptual distortions induced while intoxicated and suggested to subsequently cause functional impairment or anxiety. Two forms exist: Type 1, which are brief "flashbacks," and Type 2 claimed to be chronic, waxing, and waning over months to years. A review of HPPD is presented. In addition, data from a comprehensive survey of 20 subjects reporting Type-2 HPPD-like symptoms are presented and evaluated...
November 8, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753008/neurotoxicology-of-synthetic-cathinone-analogs
#17
Mariana Angoa-Pérez, John H Anneken, Donald M Kuhn
The present review briefly explores the neurotoxic properties of methcathinone, mephedrone, methylone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), four synthetic cathinones most commonly found in "bath salts." Cathinones are β-keto analogs of the commonly abused amphetamines and display pharmacological effects resembling cocaine and amphetamines, but despite their commonalities in chemical structures, synthetic cathinones possess distinct neuropharmacological profiles and produce unique effects. Among the similarities of synthetic cathinones with their non-keto analogs are their targeting of monoamine systems, the release of neurotransmitters, and their stimulant properties...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753007/combination-chemistry-structure-activity-relationships-of-novel-psychoactive-cannabinoids
#18
Jenny L Wiley, Julie A Marusich, Brian F Thomas
Originally developed as research tools for use in structure-activity relationship studies, synthetic cannabinoids contributed to significant scientific advances in the cannabinoid field. Unfortunately, a subset of these compounds was diverted for recreational use beginning in the early 2000s. As these compounds were banned, they were replaced with additional synthetic cannabinoids with increasingly diverse chemical structures. This chapter focuses on integration of recent results with those covered in previous reviews...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753006/tripping-with-synthetic-cannabinoids-spice-anecdotal-and-experimental-observations-in-animals-and-man
#19
Torbjörn U C Järbe, Jimit Girish Raghav
The phenomenon of consuming synthetic cannabinoids ("Spice") for recreational purposes is a fairly recent trend. However, consumption of cannabis dates back millennia, with numerous accounts written on the experience of its consumption, and thousands of scientific reports published on the effects of its constituents in laboratory animals and humans. Here, we focus on consolidating the scientific literature on the effects of "Spice" compounds in various behavioral assays, including assessing abuse liability, tolerance, dependence, withdrawal, and potential toxicity...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714629/discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-abused-inhalants
#20
Keith L Shelton
Inhalants are a loosely organized category of abused compounds defined entirely by their common route of administration. Inhalants include volatile solvents, fuels, volatile anesthetics, gasses, and liquefied refrigerants, among others. They are ubiquitous in modern society as ingredients in a wide variety of household, commercial, and medical products. Persons of all ages abuse inhalants but the highest prevalence of abuse is in younger adolescents. Although inhalants have been shown to act upon a host of neurotransmitter receptors, the stimulus effects of the few inhalants which have been trained or tested in drug discrimination procedures suggest that their discriminative stimulus properties are mediated by a few key neurotransmitter receptor systems...
October 7, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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