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Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721851/deconstructing-schizophrenia-advances-in-preclinical-models-for-biomarker-identification
#1
Judith A Pratt, Brian Morris, Neil Dawson
Schizophrenia is considered to develop as a consequence of genetic and environmental factors impacting on brain neural systems and circuits during vulnerable neurodevelopmental periods, thereby resulting in symptoms in early adulthood. Understanding of the impact of schizophrenia risk factors on brain biology and behaviour can help in identifying biologically relevant pathways that are attractive for informing clinical studies and biomarker development. In this chapter, we emphasize the importance of adopting a reciprocal forward and reverse translation approach that is iteratively updated when additional new information is gained, either preclinically or clinically, for offering the greatest opportunity for discovering panels of biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of schizophrenia...
May 3, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696604/genomic-and-imaging-biomarkers-in-schizophrenia
#2
J T Reddaway, J L Doherty, T Lancaster, D Linden, J T Walters, J Hall
Recent large-scale genomic studies have confirmed that schizophrenia is a polygenic syndrome and have implicated a number of biological pathways in its aetiology. Both common variants individually of small effect and rarer but more penetrant genetic variants have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of the disorder. No simple Mendelian forms of the condition have been identified, but progress has been made in stratifying risk on the basis of the polygenic burden of common variants individually of small effect, and the contribution of rarer variants of larger effect such as Copy Number Variants (CNVs)...
April 26, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696603/reappraising-preclinical-models-of-separation-anxiety-disorder-panic-disorder-and-co-2-sensitivity-implications-for-methodology-and-translation-into-new-treatments
#3
Marco Battaglia, Waqas Ullah Khan
Separation anxiety applies to multiple forms of distress responses seen in mammals during postnatal development, including separation from a caregiver. Childhood separation anxiety disorder is an important risk factor for developing panic disorder in early adulthood, and both conditions display an increased sensitivity to elevated CO2 concentrations inhaled from the air. By interfacing epidemiological, genetic, and physiological knowledge with preclinical animal research models, it is possible to decipher the mechanisms that are central to separation anxiety and panic disorders while also suggesting possible therapies...
April 26, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696602/translational-shifts-in-preclinical-models-of-depression-implications-for-biomarkers-for-improved-treatments
#4
Chloe Slaney, Justyna K Hinchcliffe, Emma S J Robinson
Understanding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience. The disease is heterogeneous in nature, and patients present with a varied symptom profile. Studies seeking to identify biomarkers for MDD diagnosis and treatment have not yet found any one candidate which achieves sufficient sensitivity and specificity. In this article, we consider whether neuropsychological impairments, specifically affective biases, could provide a behavioural biomarker...
April 26, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626340/neuroimmune-biomarkers-in-mental-illness
#5
James W Herron, Louis Nerurkar, Jonathan Cavanagh
Exploration of neuroimmune mechanisms is vital to the understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of mental disorders. Inflammatory and immune mechanisms are increasingly understood to underpin a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, with an ever-expanding evidence base drawn from basic science to large-scale epidemiological data. Unravelling of these mechanisms should lead to biomarker discovery and potential new avenues for therapeutics that modulate immunological mechanisms. Identification of neuroimmune biomarkers is vital to improving diagnosis, stratification and treatment of mental disorders...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626339/using-pattern-classification-to-identify-brain-imaging-markers-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Derek Sayre Andrews, Andre Marquand, Christine Ecker, Grainne McAlonan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive and restrictive behaviours. The etiological and phenotypic complexity of ASD has so far hindered the development of clinically useful biomarkers for the condition. Neuroimaging studies have been valuable in establishing a biological basis for ASD. Increasingly, neuroimaging has been combined with 'machine learning'-based pattern classification methods to make individual diagnostic predictions...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626338/imaging-and-genetic-biomarkers-predicting-transition-to-psychosis
#7
Stuart A Hunter, Stephen M Lawrie
The search for diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in schizophrenia care and treatment is the focus of many within the research community. Longitudinal cohorts of patients presenting at elevated genetic and clinical risk have provided a wealth of data that has informed our understanding of the development of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.Imaging follow-up of high-risk cohorts has demonstrated changes in cerebral grey matter of those that eventually transition to schizophrenia that predate the onset of symptoms and evolve over the course of illness...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626337/network-neuroscience-a-framework-for-developing-biomarkers-in-psychiatry
#8
David M Lydon-Staley, Danielle S Bassett
Psychiatric disorders are disturbances of cognitive and behavioral processes mediated by the brain. Emerging evidence suggests that accurate biomarkers for psychiatric disorders might benefit from incorporating information regarding multiple brain regions and their interactions with one another, rather than considering local perturbations in brain structure and function alone. Recent advances in the field of applied mathematics generally - and network science specifically - provide a language to capture the complexity of interacting brain regions, and the application of this language to fundamental questions in neuroscience forms the emerging field of network neuroscience...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626336/immunological-processes-in-schizophrenia-pathology-potential-biomarkers
#9
Tina Notter
Accumulating evidence suggests that the pathophysiology or schizophrenia involves alterations in immune functions, both peripherally and centrally. Immunopsychiatric research has provided a number of candidate biomarkers that could aid estimating the risk of developing schizophrenia and/or predicting its clinical course or outcomes. This chapter summarizes the findings of immune dysfunctions along the clinical course of schizophrenia and discusses their potential value as predictive, trait or state biomarkers...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637527/subanesthetic-dose-ketamine-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-role-for-reconsolidation-during-trauma-focused-psychotherapy
#10
Cato Veen, Gabriel Jacobs, Ingrid Philippens, Eric Vermetten
Despite efforts to develop more effective therapies, PTSD remains a difficult disorder to treat. Insight into the dynamic nature of memory formation and its required molecular machinery can provide an opportunity to target pathological memories for emotionally arousing events. As memories become labile upon retrieval, novel information can update the strength and course of these consolidated memories. Targeting the process of reconsolidation may offer a relevant approach to attenuate fearful and traumatic memories...
April 1, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637526/drug-discrimination-historical-origins-important-concepts-and-principles
#11
Joseph H Porter, Adam J Prus, Donald A Overton
Research on the stimulus properties of drugs began with studies on state dependent learning during the first half of the twentieth century. From that research, an entirely new approach evolved called drug discrimination. Animals (including humans) could discriminate the presence or absence of a drug; once learned, the drug could serve as a discriminative stimulus, signaling the availability or nonavailability of reinforcement. Early drug discrimination research involved the use of a T-maze task, which evolved in the 1970s into a two-lever operant drug discrimination task that is still used today...
April 1, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744758/erratum-to-oxytocin-signaling-in-pain-cellular-circuit-system-and-behavioral-levels
#12
Pierrick Poisbeau, Valery Grinevich, Alexandre Charlet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569160/erratum-to-oxytocin-signaling-in-the-early-life-of-mammals-link-to-neurodevelopmental-disorders-associated-with-asd
#13
Françoise Muscatelli, Michel G Desarménien, Valery Matarazzo, Valery Grinevich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302902/current-topics-regarding-the-function-of-the-medial-temporal-lobe-memory-system
#14
Robert E Clark
The first clear insight that the medial temporal lobe of the human brain was in fact a system of anatomically connected structures that were organized into a memory system came in 1957 from the observations by Brenda Milner of the noted amnesic patient H.M. Subsequent work in humans, monkeys, and rodents has identified all of the components of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) that formed the memory system. Currently, work is ongoing to identify the specific contributions each structure in the medial temporal lobe makes towards the formation and storage of long-term declarative memory...
January 5, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302901/a-history-and-overview-of-the-behavioral-neuroscience-of-learning-and-memory
#15
Robert E Clark
Here, I provide a basic history of important milestones in the development of theories for how the brain accomplishes the phenomenon of learning and memory. Included are the ideas of Plato, René Descartes, Théodule Ribot, William James, Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, Karl Lashley, and others. The modern era of learning and memory research begins with the description of H.M. by Brenda Milner and the gradual discovery that the brain contains multiple learning and memory systems that are supported by anatomically discrete brain structures...
January 5, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589322/current-topics-regarding-the-function-of-the-medial-temporal-lobe-memory-system
#16
Robert E Clark
The first clear insight that the medial temporal lobe of the human brain was in fact a system of anatomically connected structures that were organized into a memory system came in 1957 from the observations by Brenda Milner of the noted amnesic patient H.M. Subsequent work in humans, monkeys, and rodents has identified all of the components of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) that formed the memory system. Currently, work is ongoing to identify the specific contributions each structure in the medial temporal lobe makes towards the formation and storage of long-term declarative memory...
2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589321/a-history-and-overview-of-the-behavioral-neuroscience-of-learning-and-memory
#17
Robert E Clark
Here, I provide a basic history of important milestones in the development of theories for how the brain accomplishes the phenomenon of learning and memory. Included are the ideas of Plato, René Descartes, Théodule Ribot, William James, Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, Karl Lashley, and others. The modern era of learning and memory research begins with the description of H.M. by Brenda Milner and the gradual discovery that the brain contains multiple learning and memory systems that are supported by anatomically discrete brain structures...
2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677096/hallucinogens-and-serotonin-5-ht-2a-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways
#18
Juan F López-Giménez, Javier González-Maeso
The neuropsychological effects of naturally occurring psychoactive chemicals have been recognized for millennia. Hallucinogens, which include naturally occurring chemicals such as mescaline and psilocybin, as well as synthetic compounds, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), induce profound alterations of human consciousness, emotion, and cognition. The discovery of the hallucinogenic effects of LSD and the observations that LSD and the endogenous ligand serotonin share chemical and pharmacological profiles led to the suggestion that biogenic amines like serotonin were involved in the psychosis of mental disorders such as schizophrenia...
2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401522/classic-hallucinogens-and-mystical-experiences-phenomenology-and-neural-correlates
#19
Frederick S Barrett, Roland R Griffiths
This chapter begins with a brief review of descriptions and definitions of mystical-type experiences and the historical connection between classic hallucinogens and mystical experiences. The chapter then explores the empirical literature on experiences with classic hallucinogens in which claims about mystical or religious experiences have been made. A psychometrically validated questionnaire is described for the reliable measurement of mystical-type experiences occasioned by classic hallucinogens. Controlled laboratory studies show that under double-blind conditions that provide significant controls for expectancy bias, psilocybin can occasion complete mystical experiences in the majority of people studied...
2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224459/effect-of-hallucinogens-on-unconditioned-behavior
#20
Adam L Halberstadt, Mark A Geyer
Because of the ethical and regulatory hurdles associated with human studies, much of what is known about the psychopharmacology of hallucinogens has been derived from animal models. However, developing reliable animal models has proven to be a challenging task due to the complexity and variability of hallucinogen effects in humans. This chapter focuses on three animal models that are frequently used to test the effects of hallucinogens on unconditioned behavior: head twitch response (HTR), prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI), and exploratory behavior...
2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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