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Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341945/translational-value-of-drug-discrimination-with-typical-and-atypical-antipsychotic-drugs
#1
Joseph H Porter, Kevin A Webster, Adam J Prus
This chapter focuses on the translational value of drug discrimination as a preclinical assay for drug development. In particular, the importance of two factors, i.e., training dose and species, for drug discrimination studies with the atypical antipsychotic clozapine is examined. Serotonin receptors appear to be an important pharmacological mechanism mediating clozapine's discriminative cue in both rats and mice, although differences are clearly evident as antagonism of cholinergic muscarinic receptors is important in rats at a higher training dose (5...
March 25, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341944/discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-psychostimulants
#2
Michael D Berquist, William E Fantegrossi
Numerous drugs elicit locomotor stimulant effects at appropriate doses; however, we typically reserve the term psychostimulant to refer to drugs with affinity for monoamine reuptake transporters. This chapter comprises select experiments that have characterized the discriminative stimulus effects of psychostimulants using drug discrimination procedures. The substitution profiles of psychostimulants in laboratory rodents are generally consistent with those observed in human and nonhuman primate drug discrimination experiments...
March 25, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341943/cross-species-translational-findings-in-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-ethanol
#3
Daicia C Allen, Matthew M Ford, Kathleen A Grant
The progress on understanding the pharmacological basis of ethanol's discriminative stimulus effects has been substantial, but appears to have plateaued in the past decade. Further, the cross-species translational efforts are clear in laboratory animals, but have been minimal in human subject studies. Research findings clearly demonstrate that ethanol produces a compound stimulus with primary activity through GABA and glutamate receptor systems, particularly ionotropic receptors, with additional contribution from serotonergic mechanisms...
March 25, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341942/integrating-nimh-research-domain-criteria-rdoc-into-ptsd-research
#4
Ulrike Schmidt, Eric Vermetten
Three and a half decades of research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has produced substantial knowledge on the pathobiology of this frequent and debilitating disease. However, despite all research efforts, so far no drug that has specifically targeted PTSD core symptoms progressed to clinical use. Instead, although not overly efficient, serotonin re-uptake inhibitors continue to be considered the gold standard of PTSD pharmacotherapy. The psychotherapeutic treatment and symptom-oriented drug therapy options available for PTSD treatment today show some efficacy, although not in all PTSD patients, in particular not in a substantial percent of those suffering from the detrimental sequelae of repeated childhood trauma or in veterans with combat related PTSD...
March 25, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303403/hypocretin-orexin-and-plastic-adaptations-associated-with-drug-abuse
#5
Corey Baimel, Stephanie L Borgland
Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are a critical part of the neural circuits that underlie reward learning and motivation. Dopamine neurons send dense projections throughout the brain and recent observations suggest that both the intrinsic properties and the functional output of dopamine neurons are dependent on projection target and are subject to neuromodulatory influences. Lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (also termed orexin) neurons project to the VTA and contain both hypocretin and dynorphin peptides in the same dense core vesicles suggesting they may be co-released...
March 17, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238186/effects-of-hallucinogens-on-neuronal-activity
#6
L Lladó-Pelfort, P Celada, M S Riga, E Troyano-Rodríguez, N Santana, F Artigas
Hallucinogens evoke sensory, perceptual, affective, and cognitive effects that may be useful to understand the neurobiological basis of mood and psychotic disorders. The present chapter reviews preclinical research carried out in recent years in order to better understand the action of psychotomimetic agents such as the noncompetitive NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) antagonists and serotonergic hallucinogens. Our studies have focused on the mechanisms through which these agents alter cortical activity. Noncompetitive NMDA-R antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP) and MK-801 (dizocilpine), as well as the serotonergic hallucinogens DOI and 5-MeO-DMT, produce similar effects on cellular and population activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC); these effects include alterations of pyramidal neuron discharge (with an overall increase in firing), as well as a marked attenuation of the low frequency oscillations (0...
February 26, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224459/effect-of-hallucinogens-on-unconditioned-behavior
#7
Adam L Halberstadt, Mark A Geyer
Because of the ethical and regulatory hurdles associated with human studies, much of what is known about the psychopharmacology of hallucinogens has been derived from animal models. However, developing reliable animal models has proven to be a challenging task due to the complexity and variability of hallucinogen effects in humans. This chapter focuses on three animal models that are frequently used to test the effects of hallucinogens on unconditioned behavior: head twitch response (HTR), prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI), and exploratory behavior...
February 22, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213812/the-neuroscience-of-human-decision-making-through-the-lens-of-learning-and-memory
#8
Lesley K Fellows
We are called upon to make decisions, large and small, many times a day. Whether in the voting booth, the stock exchange, or the cafeteria line, we identify potential options, estimate and compare their subjective values, and make a choice. Decision-making has only recently become a focus for cognitive neuroscience. The last two decades have seen rapid progress in our understanding of the brain basis of at least some aspects of this rather complex aspect of cognition. This work has provided fresh perspectives on poorly understood brain regions, such as orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum...
February 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213811/basal-forebrain-cholinergic-system-and-memory
#9
M G Blake, M M Boccia
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons constitute a way station for many ascending and descending pathways. These cholinergic neurons have a role in eliciting cortical activation and arousal. It is well established that they are mainly involved in cognitive processes requiring increased levels of arousal, attentive states and/or cortical activation with desynchronized activity in the EEG. These cholinergic neurons are modulated by several afferents of different neurotransmitter systems. Of particular importance within the cortical targets of basal forebrain neurons is the hippocampal cortex...
February 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097528/pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-n-benzylphenethylamine-nbome-hallucinogens
#10
Adam L Halberstadt
Serotonergic hallucinogens induce profound changes in perception and cognition. The characteristic effects of hallucinogens are mediated by 5-HT2A receptor activation. One class of hallucinogens are 2,5-dimethoxy-substituted phenethylamines, such as the so-called 2C-X compounds 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B) and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine (2C-I). Addition of an N-benzyl group to phenethylamine hallucinogens produces a marked increase in 5-HT2A-binding affinity and hallucinogenic potency...
January 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083790/role-of-the-orexin-hypocretin-system-in-stress-related-psychiatric-disorders
#11
Morgan H James, Erin J Campbell, Christopher V Dayas
Orexins (hypocretins) are critically involved in coordinating appropriate physiological and behavioral responses to aversive and threatening stimuli. Acute stressors engage orexin neurons via direct projections from stress-sensitive brain regions. Orexin neurons, in turn, facilitate adaptive behavior via reciprocal connections as well as via direct projections to the hypophysiotropic neurons that coordinate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. Consequently, hyperactivity of the orexin system is associated with increased motivated arousal and anxiety, and is emerging as a key feature of panic disorder...
January 13, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070873/animal-models-of-ptsd-a-critical-review
#12
Elizabeth I Flandreau, Mate Toth
The goals of animal research in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) include better understanding the neurophysiological etiology of PTSD, identifying potential targets for novel pharmacotherapies, and screening drugs for their potential use as PTSD treatment in humans. Diagnosis of PTSD relies on a patient interview and, as evidenced by changes to the diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5, an adequate description of this disorder in humans is a moving target. Therefore, it may seem insurmountable to model the construct of PTSD in animals such as rodents...
January 10, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830574/inflammation-effects-on-brain-glutamate-in-depression-mechanistic-considerations-and-treatment-implications
#13
Ebrahim Haroon, Andrew H Miller
There has been increasing interest in the role of glutamate in mood disorders, especially given the profound effect of the glutamate receptor antagonist ketamine in improving depressive symptoms in patients with treatment-resistant depression. One pathway by which glutamate alterations may occur in mood disorders involves inflammation. Increased inflammation has been observed in a significant subgroup of patients with mood disorders, and inflammatory cytokines have been shown to influence glutamate metabolism through effects on astrocytes and microglia...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830572/inflammation-associated-co-morbidity-between-depression-and-cardiovascular-disease
#14
Angelos Halaris
Morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is exceedingly high worldwide. Depressive illness is a serious psychiatric illness that afflicts a significant portion of the world population. Epidemiological studies have confirmed the high co-morbidity between these two disease entities. The co-morbidity is bidirectional and the mechanisms responsible for it are complex and multifaceted. In addition to genetic, biological systems, psychosocial, and behavioral factors that are involved include the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuroendocrine, immune, and the vascular and hematologic systems...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677784/role-of-neuro-immunological-factors-in-the-pathophysiology-of-mood-disorders-implications-for-novel-therapeutics-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#15
Anindya Bhattacharya, Wayne C Drevets
Mood disorders are associated with persistently high rates of morbidity and mortality, despite the widespread availability of antidepressant treatments. One limitation to extant therapeutic options has been that nearly all approved antidepressant pharmacotherapies exert a similar primary action of blocking monoamine transporters, and few options exist for transitioning treatment resistant patients to alternatives with distinct mechanisms. An emerging area of science that promises novel pathways to antidepressant and mood-stabilizing therapies has followed from evidence that immunological factors play major roles in the pathophysiology of at least some mood disorder subtypes...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677781/immune-to-brain-communication-pathways-in-inflammation-associated-sickness-and-depression
#16
Charlotte D'Mello, Mark G Swain
A growing body of evidence now highlights a key role for inflammation in mediating sickness behaviors and depression. Systemic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic liver disease have high comorbidity with depression. How the periphery communicates with the brain to mediate changes in neurotransmission and thereby behavior is not completely understood. Traditional routes of communication between the periphery and the brain involve neural and humoral pathways with TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6 being the three main cytokines that have primarily been implicated in mediating signaling via these pathways...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431396/does-diet-matter-the-use-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-pufas-and-other-dietary-supplements-in-inflammation-associated-depression
#17
Caitlín N M Hastings, Hannah Sheridan, Carmine M Pariante, Valeria Mondelli
An increasingly pertinent issue in psychiatry in recent years is that of the limitations of conventional antidepressants, which are not effective in a large number of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Coupled with emerging hypotheses about the role of inflammation in depression, it would appear that it is time to look for alternative treatments for these symptoms.This review will examine an emerging area in psychiatry, that of dietary supplements and the diet in general to treat depressive symptoms, and inflammation in depression...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405497/are-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-clinically-suitable-for-the-treatment-of-symptoms-in-depression-associated-inflammation
#18
Bernhard T Baune
The aetiology and pathophysiology of depression have long been associated with inflammation, at least in a proportion of patients. Altered cytokine activity in the periphery and in the brain has brought support to a concept of depression-associated inflammation. However, these immunological changes - and inflammation in particular - in depression have only been recently targeted for treatment. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been proposed to be of clinical use in the treatment of depression either as monotherapy or as adjuncts in combination with antidepressants...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27278642/the-promise-and-limitations-of-anti-inflammatory-agents-for-the-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Charles L Raison
This review provides a critical perspective on recent meta-analyses suggesting that several anti-inflammatory modalities, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), omega-3 fatty acids, and cytokine antagonist, possess generalizable antidepressant properties. By examining confounds and limitations in the available literature it is suggested that current data suggest that only a sub-group of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) have evidence of increased inflammatory biomarkers and it is in these individuals that anti-inflammatory agents show promise for reducing depressive symptoms...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27278641/mechanisms-of-inflammation-associated-depression-immune-influences-on-tryptophan-and-phenylalanine-metabolisms
#20
Barbara Strasser, Barbara Sperner-Unterweger, Dietmar Fuchs, Johanna M Gostner
Metabolic parameters have a direct role in the regulation of immune cell function. Thereby the inflammation-induced metabolism of aromatic amino acids, most importantly of tryptophan and phenylalanine, plays a central role. In addition, neuropsychiatric conditions that go along with disorders that are characterized by acute or chronic inflammation, such as the development of depression, decreased quality of life or cognitive impairments, are connected to disturbed amino acid and subsequent neurotransmitter metabolism...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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