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Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512684/therapeutic-applications-of-classic-hallucinogens
#1
Michael P Bogenschutz, Stephen Ross
This chapter reviews what is known about the therapeutic uses of the serotonergic or classic hallucinogens, i.e., psychoactive drugs such as LSD and psilocybin that exert their effects primarily through agonist activity at serotonin 2A (5HT2A) receptors. Following a review of the history of human use and scientific study of these drugs, the data from clinical research are summarized, including extensive work on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of alcoholism and other addictions, studies of the use of LSD and psilocybin to relieve distress concerning death, particularly in patients with advanced or terminal cancer, and more limited data concerning the use of classic hallucinogens to treat mood and anxiety disorders...
May 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484970/hallucinogens-in-drug-discrimination
#2
Lisa E Baker
Hallucinogens comprise a diverse collection of chemicals with multifarious receptor actions in the central nervous system. Preclinical drug screening methods have proven invaluable in the evaluation and characterization of hallucinogen psychopharmacology. Used in concert with structural chemistry and receptor pharmacology methods, preclinical drug discrimination research has informed our current understanding of hallucinogens and the neurochemical receptor mechanisms responsible for their interoceptive stimulus effects...
May 9, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444578/experimental-psychosis-research-and-schizophrenia-similarities-and-dissimilarities-in-psychopathology
#3
Leo Hermle, Rainer Kraehenmann
The aim of experimental psychopathology is to delineate overlapping functional disorders of psychoneurobiologically-defined systems where a set of common symptoms may correspond to a variety of nosological entities. According to the vulnerability model of psychosis, experimental research needs to go beyond categories such as "schizophrenia". Prospective studies of the effects of psychoactive substances in normal control subjects offer several methodological advantages over routine clinical reviews of schizophrenic patients, especially in terms of standardization...
April 26, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439771/neurobiological-programming-of-early-life-stress-functional-development-of-amygdala-prefrontal-circuitry-and-vulnerability-for-stress-related-psychopathology
#4
Michelle R VanTieghem, Nim Tottenham
Early adverse experiences are associated with heighted vulnerability for stress-related psychopathology across the lifespan. While extensive work has investigated the effects of early adversity on neurobiology in adulthood, developmental approaches can provide further insight on the neurobiological mechanisms that link early experiences and long-term mental health outcomes. In the current review, we discuss the role of emotion regulation circuitry implicated in stress-related psychopathology from a developmental and transdiagnostic perspective...
April 25, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434182/recent-trends-in-alcohol-and-other-drug-use-among-police-detainees-in-new-zealand-2010-2015
#5
Chris Wilkins, Jitesh Prasad, Karl Parker, Marta Rychert, Helen Moewaka Barnes
BACKGROUND: New Zealand has unusual patterns of recreational substance use by international standards including low levels of cocaine and heroin use, and high methamphetamine use. AIMS: This paper examines recent trends in alcohol and other drug use among police detainees in New Zealand over the past six years. METHOD: The paper utilises data from the New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) study. NZ-ADUM interviewed approximately 800 police detainees each year at four central city police watch houses (i...
April 23, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391535/discriminative-stimulus-properties-of-s-nicotine-a-drug-for-all-seasons
#6
John A Rosecrans, Richard Young
S(-)-Nicotine is the major pharmacologically active substance in tobacco and can function as an effective discriminative stimulus in both experimental animals and humans. In this model, subjects must detect and communicate the nicotine drug state versus the non-drug state. This review describes the usefulness of the procedure to study nicotine, presents a general overview of the model, and provides some relevant methodological details for the establishment of this drug as a stimulus. Once established, the (-)-nicotine stimulus can be characterized for dose response and time course effects...
April 9, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401525/new-world-tryptamine-hallucinogens-and-the-neuroscience-of-ayahuasca
#7
Dennis McKenna, Jordi Riba
New World indigenous peoples are noted for their sophisticated use of psychedelic plants in shamanic and ethnomedical practices. The use of psychedelic plant preparations among New World tribes is far more prevalent than in the Old World. Yet, although these preparations are botanically diverse, almost all are chemically similar in that their active principles are tryptamine derivatives, either DMT or related constituents. Part 1 of this paper provides an ethnopharmacological overview of the major tryptamine-containing New World hallucinogens...
April 2, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401523/injection-of-pharmaceuticals-designed-for-oral-use-harms-experienced-and-effective-harm-reduction-through-filtration
#8
Stuart McLean, Rahul Patel, Raimondo Bruno
Several pharmaceutical products are liable to 'abuse' or use outside their prescription, which frequently involves their injection. Examples are slow-release forms of morphine and oxycodone, and sublingual buprenorphine. During injection preparation, the drug is extracted into water, after crushing and heating the tablet if considered necessary. Since these products are designed for oral administration, they can contain excipients (ingredients other than the drug) which are poorly soluble, resulting in suspension of particles in the injection solution...
April 2, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401524/chemistry-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-psychedelics
#9
David E Nichols
This chapter will summarize structure-activity relationships (SAR) that are known for the classic serotonergic hallucinogens (aka psychedelics), focusing on the three chemical types: tryptamines, ergolines, and phenethylamines. In the brain, the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor plays a key role in regulation of cortical function and cognition, and also appears to be the principal target for hallucinogenic/psychedelic drugs such as LSD. It is one of the most extensively studied of the 14 known types of serotonin receptors...
March 26, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401522/classic-hallucinogens-and-mystical-experiences-phenomenology-and-neural-correlates
#10
Frederick S Barrett, Roland R Griffiths
This chapter begins with a brief review of descriptions and definitions of mystical-type experiences and the historical connection between classic hallucinogens and mystical experiences. The chapter then explores the empirical literature on experiences with classic hallucinogens in which claims about mystical or religious experiences have been made. A psychometrically validated questionnaire is described for the reliable measurement of mystical-type experiences occasioned by classic hallucinogens. Controlled laboratory studies show that under double-blind conditions that provide significant controls for expectancy bias, psilocybin can occasion complete mystical experiences in the majority of people studied...
March 26, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341945/translational-value-of-drug-discrimination-with-typical-and-atypical-antipsychotic-drugs
#11
Joseph H Porter, Kevin A Webster, Adam J Prus
This chapter focuses on the translational value of drug discrimination as a preclinical assay for drug development. In particular, the importance of two factors, i.e., training dose and species, for drug discrimination studies with the atypical antipsychotic clozapine is examined. Serotonin receptors appear to be an important pharmacological mechanism mediating clozapine's discriminative cue in both rats and mice, although differences are clearly evident as antagonism of cholinergic muscarinic receptors is important in rats at a higher training dose (5...
March 25, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341944/discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-psychostimulants
#12
Michael D Berquist, William E Fantegrossi
Numerous drugs elicit locomotor stimulant effects at appropriate doses; however, we typically reserve the term psychostimulant to refer to drugs with affinity for monoamine reuptake transporters. This chapter comprises select experiments that have characterized the discriminative stimulus effects of psychostimulants using drug discrimination procedures. The substitution profiles of psychostimulants in laboratory rodents are generally consistent with those observed in human and nonhuman primate drug discrimination experiments...
March 25, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341943/cross-species-translational-findings-in-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-ethanol
#13
Daicia C Allen, Matthew M Ford, Kathleen A Grant
The progress on understanding the pharmacological basis of ethanol's discriminative stimulus effects has been substantial, but appears to have plateaued in the past decade. Further, the cross-species translational efforts are clear in laboratory animals, but have been minimal in human subject studies. Research findings clearly demonstrate that ethanol produces a compound stimulus with primary activity through GABA and glutamate receptor systems, particularly ionotropic receptors, with additional contribution from serotonergic mechanisms...
March 25, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341942/integrating-nimh-research-domain-criteria-rdoc-into-ptsd-research
#14
Ulrike Schmidt, Eric Vermetten
Three and a half decades of research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has produced substantial knowledge on the pathobiology of this frequent and debilitating disease. However, despite all research efforts, so far no drug that has specifically targeted PTSD core symptoms progressed to clinical use. Instead, although not overly efficient, serotonin re-uptake inhibitors continue to be considered the gold standard of PTSD pharmacotherapy. The psychotherapeutic treatment and symptom-oriented drug therapy options available for PTSD treatment today show some efficacy, although not in all PTSD patients, in particular not in a substantial percent of those suffering from the detrimental sequelae of repeated childhood trauma or in veterans with combat related PTSD...
March 25, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238186/effects-of-hallucinogens-on-neuronal-activity
#15
L Lladó-Pelfort, P Celada, M S Riga, E Troyano-Rodríguez, N Santana, F Artigas
Hallucinogens evoke sensory, perceptual, affective, and cognitive effects that may be useful to understand the neurobiological basis of mood and psychotic disorders. The present chapter reviews preclinical research carried out in recent years in order to better understand the action of psychotomimetic agents such as the noncompetitive NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) antagonists and serotonergic hallucinogens. Our studies have focused on the mechanisms through which these agents alter cortical activity. Noncompetitive NMDA-R antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP) and MK-801 (dizocilpine), as well as the serotonergic hallucinogens DOI and 5-MeO-DMT, produce similar effects on cellular and population activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC); these effects include alterations of pyramidal neuron discharge (with an overall increase in firing), as well as a marked attenuation of the low frequency oscillations (0...
February 26, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224459/effect-of-hallucinogens-on-unconditioned-behavior
#16
Adam L Halberstadt, Mark A Geyer
Because of the ethical and regulatory hurdles associated with human studies, much of what is known about the psychopharmacology of hallucinogens has been derived from animal models. However, developing reliable animal models has proven to be a challenging task due to the complexity and variability of hallucinogen effects in humans. This chapter focuses on three animal models that are frequently used to test the effects of hallucinogens on unconditioned behavior: head twitch response (HTR), prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI), and exploratory behavior...
February 22, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213812/the-neuroscience-of-human-decision-making-through-the-lens-of-learning-and-memory
#17
Lesley K Fellows
We are called upon to make decisions, large and small, many times a day. Whether in the voting booth, the stock exchange, or the cafeteria line, we identify potential options, estimate and compare their subjective values, and make a choice. Decision-making has only recently become a focus for cognitive neuroscience. The last two decades have seen rapid progress in our understanding of the brain basis of at least some aspects of this rather complex aspect of cognition. This work has provided fresh perspectives on poorly understood brain regions, such as orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum...
February 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213811/basal-forebrain-cholinergic-system-and-memory
#18
M G Blake, M M Boccia
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons constitute a way station for many ascending and descending pathways. These cholinergic neurons have a role in eliciting cortical activation and arousal. It is well established that they are mainly involved in cognitive processes requiring increased levels of arousal, attentive states and/or cortical activation with desynchronized activity in the EEG. These cholinergic neurons are modulated by several afferents of different neurotransmitter systems. Of particular importance within the cortical targets of basal forebrain neurons is the hippocampal cortex...
February 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083790/role-of-the-orexin-hypocretin-system-in-stress-related-psychiatric-disorders
#19
Morgan H James, Erin J Campbell, Christopher V Dayas
Orexins (hypocretins) are critically involved in coordinating appropriate physiological and behavioral responses to aversive and threatening stimuli. Acute stressors engage orexin neurons via direct projections from stress-sensitive brain regions. Orexin neurons, in turn, facilitate adaptive behavior via reciprocal connections as well as via direct projections to the hypophysiotropic neurons that coordinate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. Consequently, hyperactivity of the orexin system is associated with increased motivated arousal and anxiety, and is emerging as a key feature of panic disorder...
January 13, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070873/animal-models-of-ptsd-a-critical-review
#20
Elizabeth I Flandreau, Mate Toth
The goals of animal research in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) include better understanding the neurophysiological etiology of PTSD, identifying potential targets for novel pharmacotherapies, and screening drugs for their potential use as PTSD treatment in humans. Diagnosis of PTSD relies on a patient interview and, as evidenced by changes to the diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5, an adequate description of this disorder in humans is a moving target. Therefore, it may seem insurmountable to model the construct of PTSD in animals such as rodents...
January 10, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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