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Genome Integrity

Sana Doubi, Zoubida Amrani, Hanan El Ouahabi, Saïd Boujraf, Farida Ajdi
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is characterized in adults by the combination of a tall stature, small testes, gynecomastia, and azoospermia. This case is described in a North African population of the Mediterranean region of North Africa. We report the case of a male 16 years old, of Arab ethnic origin, and diagnosed with this syndrome, who had a small height in relation to a growth hormone (GH) deficiency and a history of absence seizures (generalized myoclonic epilepsy). The patient's size was <-2.8 standard deviation (SD) with weight <-3 SD...
2015: Genome Integrity
Caiguo Zhang
The Arabidopsis genome encodes numerous iron-containing proteins such as iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster proteins and hemoproteins. These proteins generally utilize iron as a cofactor, and they perform critical roles in photosynthesis, genome stability, electron transfer, and oxidation-reduction reactions. Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to maintain iron homeostasis for the assembly of functional iron-containing proteins, thereby ensuring genome stability, cell development, and plant growth. Over the past few years, our understanding of iron-containing proteins and their functions involved in genome stability has expanded enormously...
2015: Genome Integrity
Souvick Roy, Abhik Chakraborty, Chinmoy Ghosh, Birendranath Banerjee
BACKGROUND: Stress is a term used to define factors involved in changes in the physiological balances resulting in disease conditions. Chronic exposure to stress conditions in modern lifestyles has resulted in a group of disorders called lifestyle disorders. Genetic background and environmental factors are interrelated to lifestyle in determining the health status of individuals. Hence, identification of disease-associated genes is the primary step toward explanations of pathogenesis of these diseases...
2015: Genome Integrity
Ian M Cartwright, Matthew D Genet, Akira Fujimori, Takamitsu A Kato
BACKGROUND: In this study we evaluated the effect of linear energy transfer (LET) and chromatin structure on the induction of chromosomal inversion. High LET radiation causes more complex DNA damage than low LET radiation; this "dirty" damage is more difficult to repair and may result in an increase in inversion formation. CHO10B2 cells synchronized in either G1 or M phase were exposed 0, 1, or 2 Gy of 5 mm Al and Cu filters at 200 kVp and 20 mA X-rays or 500 MeV/nucleon of initial energy and 200 keV/μ m Fe ion radiation...
2014: Genome Integrity
Augustin Luna, Mirit I Aladjem, Kurt W Kohn
An intricate network regulates the activities of SIRT1 and PARP1 proteins and continues to be uncovered. Both SIRT1 and PARP1 share a common co-factor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and several common substrates, including regulators of DNA damage response and circadian rhythms. We review this complex network using an interactive Molecular Interaction Map (MIM) to explore the interplay between these two proteins. Here we discuss how NAD + competition and post-transcriptional/translational feedback mechanisms create a regulatory network sensitive to environmental cues, such as genotoxic stress and metabolic states, and examine the role of those interactions in DNA repair and ultimately, cell fate decisions...
2013: Genome Integrity
Kaisa R Luoto, Ramya Kumareswaran, Robert G Bristow
Sub-regions of hypoxia exist within all tumors and the presence of intratumoral hypoxia has an adverse impact on patient prognosis. Tumor hypoxia can increase metastatic capacity and lead to resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Hypoxia also leads to altered transcription and translation of a number of DNA damage response and repair genes. This can lead to inhibition of recombination-mediated repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Hypoxia can also increase the rate of mutation. Therefore, tumor cell adaptation to the hypoxic microenvironment can drive genetic instability and malignant progression...
2013: Genome Integrity
Klara Sputova, James C Garbe, Fanny A Pelissier, Eric Chang, Martha R Stampfer, Mark A Labarge
BACKGROUND: Shortening of telomeres, which are essential for maintenance of genomic integrity, is a mechanism commonly associated with the aging process. Here we ascertained whether changes in telomere lengths or telomerase activity correlated with age in normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), or with phenotypes of aging in breast. Accordingly, flow cytometry fluorescence in situ hybridization (flowFISH) was used to determine relative telomere lengths (RTL), and telomerase activity was measured by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP), in a collection of 41 primary HMEC strains established from women aged 16 to 91 years...
2013: Genome Integrity
Nobuo Horikoshi, Pankaj Kumar, Girdhar G Sharma, Min Chen, Clayton R Hunt, Kenneth Westover, Shantanu Chowdhury, Tej K Pandita
BACKGROUND: Histone post-translational modifications are critical determinants of chromatin structure and function, impacting multiple biological processes including DNA transcription, replication, and repair. The post-translational acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac) was initially identified in association with dosage compensation of the Drosophila male X chromosome. However, in mammalian cells, H4K16ac is not associated with dosage compensation and the genomic distribution of H4K16ac is not precisely known...
2013: Genome Integrity
Stephen Barnard, Simon Bouffler, Kai Rothkamm
DNA double-strand breaks are among the most deleterious lesions induced by ionising radiation. A range of inter-connected cellular response mechanisms has evolved to enable their efficient repair and thus protect the cell from the harmful consequences of un- or mis-repaired breaks which may include early effects such as cell killing and associated acute toxicities and late effects such as cancer. A number of studies suggest that the induction and repair of double-strand breaks may not always occur linearly with ionising radiation dose...
2013: Genome Integrity
Hemad Yasaei, Yaghoub Gozaly-Chianea, Predrag Slijepcevic
BACKGROUND: Telomeres, the physical ends of chromosomes, play an important role in preserving genomic integrity. This protection is supported by telomere binding proteins collectively known as the shelterin complex. The shelterin complex protects chromosome ends by suppressing DNA damage response and acting as a regulator of telomere length maintenance by telomerase, an enzyme that elongates telomeres. Telomere dysfunction manifests in different forms including chromosomal end-to-end fusion, telomere shortening and p53-dependent apoptosis and/or senescence...
2013: Genome Integrity
Vasilissa Manova, Satyendra K Singh, George Iliakis
BACKGROUND: Mammalian cells employ at least two subpathways of non-homologous end-joining for the repair of ionizing radiation induced DNA double strand breaks: The canonical DNA-PK-dependent form of non-homologous end-joining (D-NHEJ) and an alternative, slowly operating, error-prone backup pathway (B-NHEJ). In contrast to D-NHEJ, which operates with similar efficiency throughout the cell cycle, B-NHEJ operates more efficiently in G2-phase. Notably, B-NHEJ also shows strong and as of yet unexplained dependency on growth activity and is markedly compromised in serum-deprived cells, or in cells that enter the plateau-phase of growth...
August 22, 2012: Genome Integrity
Natasha Tiffany Strande, Crystal Ann Waters, Dale A Ramsden
The Nonhomologous end joining pathway is essential for efficient repair of chromosome double strand breaks. This pathway consequently plays a key role in cellular resistance to break-inducing exogenous agents, as well as in the developmentally-programmed recombinations that are required for adaptive immunity. Chromosome breaks often have complex or "dirty" end structures that can interfere with the critical ligation step in this pathway; we review here how Nonhomologous end joining resolves such breaks.
2012: Genome Integrity
Inger Brandsma, Dik C Gent
Proper repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) is vital for the preservation of genomic integrity. There are two main pathways that repair DSBs, Homologous recombination (HR) and Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). HR is restricted to the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle due to the requirement for the sister chromatid as a template, while NHEJ is active throughout the cell cycle and does not rely on a template. The balance between both pathways is essential for genome stability and numerous assays have been developed to measure the efficiency of the two pathways...
2012: Genome Integrity
Elina Staaf, Karl Brehwens, Siamak Haghdoost, Joanna Czub, Andrzej Wojcik
UNLABELLED: HASH(0x45246b8) BACKGROUND: Little is known about the cellular effects of exposure to mixed beams of high and low linear energy transfer radiation. So far, the effects of combined exposures have mainly been assessed with clonogenic survival or cytogenetic methods, and the results are contradictory. The gamma-H2AX assay has up to now not been applied in this context, and it is a promising tool for investigating the early cellular response to mixed beam irradiation...
2012: Genome Integrity
Danielle L Daee, Kyungjae Myung
Interstrand crosslinks covalently link complementary DNA strands, block replication and transcription, and can trigger cell death. In eukaryotic systems several pathways, including the Fanconi Anemia pathway, are involved in repairing interstrand crosslinks, but their precise mechanisms remain enigmatic. The lack of functional homologs in simpler model organisms has significantly hampered progress in this field. Two recent studies have finally identified a Fanconi-like interstrand crosslink repair pathway in yeast...
2012: Genome Integrity
Ivana Joksic, Dragana Vujic, Marija Guc-Scekic, Andreja Leskovac, Sandra Petrovic, Maryam Ojani, Juan P Trujillo, Jordi Surralles, Maja Zivkovic, Aleksandra Stankovic, Predrag Slijepcevic, Gordana Joksic
UNLABELLED: HASH(0x4631260) BACKGROUND: Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by sensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, mild cellular, and marked clinical radio sensitivity. In this study we investigated telomeric abnormalities of non-immortalized primary cells (lymphocytes and fibroblasts) derived from FA patients of the FA-D2 complementation group, which provides a more accurate physiological assessment than is possible with transformed cells or animal models...
2012: Genome Integrity
Jacklyn W Y Yong, Xiujun Yeo, Md Matiullah Khan, Martin B Lee, M Prakash Hande
BACKGROUND: Cancer cells can employ telomerase or the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway for telomere maintenance. Cancer cells that use the ALT pathway exhibit distinct phenotypes such as heterogeneous telomeres and specialised Promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) nuclear foci called APBs. In our study, we used wild-type PML and a PML mutant, in which the coiled-coil domain is deleted (PML C/C-), to investigate how these proteins can affect telomere maintenance pathways in cancer cells that use either the telomerase or ALT pathway...
2012: Genome Integrity
Alexander Facista, Huy Nguyen, Cristy Lewis, Anil R Prasad, Lois Ramsey, Beryl Zaitlin, Valentine Nfonsam, Robert S Krouse, Harris Bernstein, Claire M Payne, Stephen Stern, Nicole Oatman, Bhaskar Banerjee, Carol Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Cancers often arise within an area of cells (e.g. an epithelial patch) that is predisposed to the development of cancer, i.e. a "field of cancerization" or "field defect." Sporadic colon cancer is characterized by an elevated mutation rate and genomic instability. If a field defect were deficient in DNA repair, DNA damages would tend to escape repair and give rise to carcinogenic mutations. PURPOSE: To determine whether reduced expression of DNA repair proteins Pms2, Ercc1 and Xpf (pairing partner of Ercc1) are early steps in progression to colon cancer...
2012: Genome Integrity
Pv Asharani, Swaminathan Sethu, Hui Kheng Lim, Ganapathy Balaji, Suresh Valiyaveettil, M Prakash Hande
BACKGROUND: Investigating the cellular and molecular signatures in eukaryotic cells following exposure to nanoparticles will further our understanding on the mechanisms mediating nanoparticle induced effects. This study illustrates the molecular effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag-np) in normal human lung cells, IMR-90 and human brain cancer cells, U251 with emphasis on gene expression, induction of inflammatory mediators and the interaction of Ag-np with cytosolic proteins. RESULTS: We report that silver nanoparticles are capable of adsorbing cytosolic proteins on their surface that may influence the function of intracellular factors...
2012: Genome Integrity
Andrew McVean, Simon Kent, Alexei Bakanov, Tom Hobbs, Rhona Anderson
BACKGROUND: The quantification of radiation-induced foci (RIF) to investigate the induction and subsequent repair of DNA double strands breaks is now commonplace. Over the last decade systems specific for the automatic quantification of RIF have been developed for this purpose, however to ask more mechanistic questions on the spatio-temporal aspects of RIF, an automated RIF analysis platform that also quantifies RIF size/volume and relative three-dimensional (3D) distribution of RIF within individual nuclei, is required...
2012: Genome Integrity
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