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Genome Integrity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250914/the-application-of-imaging-flow-cytometry-to-high-throughput-biodosimetry
#1
REVIEW
Ruth C Wilkins, Matthew A Rodrigues, Lindsay A Beaton-Green
Biodosimetry methods, including the dicentric chromosome assay, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and the γH2AX marker of DNA damage are used to determine the dose of ionizing radiation. These techniques are particularly useful when physical dosimetry is absent or questioned. While these assays can be very sensitive and specific, the standard methods need to be adapted to increase sample throughput in the case of a large-scale radiological/nuclear event. Recent modifications to the microscope-based assays have resulted in some increased throughput, and a number of biodosimetry networks have been, and continue to be, established and strengthened...
2017: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250913/biomarkers-of-ionizing-radiation-exposure-a-multiparametric-approach
#2
Dimphy Zeegers, Shriram Venkatesan, Shu Wen Koh, Grace Kah Mun Low, Pallavee Srivastava, Neisha Sundaram, Swaminathan Sethu, Birendranath Banerjee, Manikandan Jayapal, Oleg Belyakov, Rajamanickam Baskar, Adayabalam S Balajee, M Prakash Hande
Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation not only through background radiation but also through the ubiquitous presence of devices and sources that generate radiation. With the expanded use of radiation in day-to-day life, the chances of accidents or misuse only increase. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the dynamic effects of radiation exposure on biological entities is necessary. The biological effects of radiation exposure on human cells depend on much variability such as level of exposure, dose rate, and the physiological state of the cells...
2017: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250912/identification-and-preliminary-validation-of-radiation-response-protein-s-in-human-blood-for-a-high-throughput-molecular-biodosimetry-technology-for-the-future
#3
Saibadaiahun Nongrum, S Thangminlal Vaiphei, Joshua Keppen, Mandahakani Ksoo, Ettrika Kashyap, Rajesh N Sharan
The absence of a rapid and high-throughput technology for radiation biodosimetry has been a great obstacle in our full preparedness to cope with large-scale radiological incidents. The existing cytogenetic technologies have limitations, primarily due to their time-consuming methodologies, which include a tissue culture step, and the time required for scoring. This has seriously undermined its application in a mass casualty scenario under radiological emergencies for timely triage and medical interventions. Recent advances in genomics and proteomics in the postgenomic era have opened up new platforms and avenues to discover molecular biomarkers for biodosimetry in the future...
2017: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250911/effects-of-valproic-acid-on-radiation-induced-chromosomal-aberrations-in-human-lymphocytes
#4
María Vittoria Di Tomaso, Eric Gregoire, Wilner Martínez-López
One of the most widely employed histone deacetylases inhibitors in the clinic is the valproic acid (VA), proving to have a good tolerance and low side effects on human health. VA induces changes in chromatin structure making DNA more susceptible to damage induction and influence DNA repair efficiency. VA is also proposed as a radiosensitizing agent. To know if VA is suitable to sensitize human lymphocytes γ-irradiation in vitro, different types of chromosomal aberrations in the lymphocytes, either in the absence or presence of VA, were analyzed...
2017: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250910/optimizing-the-microscopy-time-schedule-for-chromosomal-dosimetry-of-high-dose-and-partial-body-irradiations
#5
Volodymyr A Vinnikov
The methodology of cytogenetic triage can be improved by optimizing a schedule of microscopy for different exposure scenarios. Chromosome aberrations were quantified by microscopy in human blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro to ~2, 4, and 12 Gy acute (60)Co γ-rays mixed with the unirradiated blood simulating 10%, 50%, 90%, and 100% exposure and in along with a sample from a homogeneous exposure to ~20 Gy. Biodosimetry workload was statistically modeled assuming that 0.5, 1, 5, or 25 h was available for scoring one case or for analysis of up to 1000 cells or 100 dicentrics plus centric rings by one operator...
2017: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250909/retrospective-biological-dosimetry-at-low-and-high-doses-of-radiation-and-radioiodine-impact-on-individual-susceptibility-to-ionizing-radiation
#6
Antonina Cebulska-Wasilewska, Mateusz Krzysiek, Grażyna Krajewska, Artur Stępień, Paweł Krajewski
Iodine-131 (I-131) is often used in thyroid diagnostics and therapy. External and internal exposure to radioiodine can lead to molecular and cellular damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of low and high doses of I-131 on susceptibility to ionizing radiation. Study groups consisted of 30 individuals free of thyroid diseases, 41 patients exposed diagnostically to low doses of I-131, and 37 hyperthyroidism patients exposed therapeutically to high doses. The standardized DNA repair competence assay was used to test the efficacy of the fast DNA repair process in G0 cells...
2017: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250908/assessment-of-correlation-between-chromosomal-radiosensitivity-of-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-after-in-vitro-irradiation-and-normal-tissue-side-effects-for-cancer-patients-undergoing-radiotherapy
#7
Kamilė Guogytė, Aista Plieskienė, Rima Ladygienė, Žygimantas Vaisiūnas, Olga Sevriukova, Vinsas Janušonis, Julius Žiliukas
Patients receiving identical radiation treatments experience different effects, from undetectable to severe, on normal tissues. A crucial factor of radiotherapy related side effects is individual radiosensitivity. It is difficult to spare surrounding normal tissues delivering radiation to cancer cells during radiotherapy. Therefore, it may be useful to develop a simple routine cytogenetic assay which would allow the screening of a large number of individuals for radiosensitivity optimizing tumor control rates and minimizing severe radiotherapy effects with possibility to predict risk level for developing more severe early normal tissue adverse events after irradiation...
2017: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217288/biodosimetry-of-persons-chronically-exposed-to-low-and-therapeutic-doses-of-ionizing-radiation
#8
Alla Zedginidze, Ema Namchevadze, George Ormocadze, Archil Kapanadze, Tamara Nikuradze, Darejan Lomidze
Dynamic changes of the chromosomal aberrations and the DNA damage were analyzed in individuals exposed to low and therapeutic doses of radiation. The investigation included 37 persons living in areas where the radioactive sources were discovered 10-12 years ago. It was established by biodosimetry methods that the examined persons had absorbed dose of 0.2-0.7 Gy or had increased number of chromosomal aberrations, though insufficient to determine a dose. Clinical examination, chromosomal analysis, and assay of DNA damage by the comet (single-cell gel electrophoresis) assay were carried out...
2016: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217287/strong-correlation-among-three-biodosimetry-techniques-following-exposures-to-ionizing-radiation
#9
Chang-Mo Kang, Hyun Jin Yun, Hanna Kim, Cha Soon Kim
Three in vitro dose calibration curves for biodosimetry such as dicentric chromosome assay, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for translocation, and micronuclei (MNs) in binucleated cell assay were established after exposure to ionizing radiation. Peripheral blood lymphocyte samples obtained from healthy donors were irradiated with (60)Co source at a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/min to doses of 0.1-6 Gy. The results from three in vitro dose calibration curves for biodosimetry were analyzed to understand the relationship among biodosimetry assay techniques...
2016: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217286/study-on-%C3%AE-h2ax-expression-of-lymphocytes-as-a-biomarker-in-radiation-biodosimetry
#10
Yan Pan, Gang Gao, Jian Lei Ruan, Jian Xiang Liu
Flow cytometry analysis was used to detect the changes of γH2AX protein expression in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the dose-effect study, the expression of γH2AX was detected 1 h after irradiation with 60Co γ-rays at doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy. Blood was cultivated for 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after 4 Gy (60)Co γ-rays irradiation for the time-effect study. At the same time, the blood was divided into four treatment groups (ultraviolet [UV] irradiation, (60)Co γ-rays irradiation, UV plus (60)Co γ-rays irradiation, and control group) to detect the changes of protein expression of γH2AX...
2016: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217285/construction-of-calibration-curve-for-premature-chromosome-condensation-assay-for-dose-assessment
#11
Elizaveta G Neronova
Cytogenetic dosimetry plays an important role in the triage and medical management of affected people in radiological incidents/accidents. Cytogenetic biodosimetry uses different methods to estimate the absorbed dose in the exposed individuals, and each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay presents several advantages that hopefully fulfill the gaps identified in the other cytogenetic methods. To introduce this technique into the panel of other cytogenetic methods, a calibration curve for PCC after γ-irradiation was generated for our laboratory...
2016: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217284/establishment-of-dose-response-curves-for-dicentrics-and-premature-chromosome-condensation-for-radiological-emergency-preparedness-in-thailand
#12
Benchawan Rungsimaphorn, Budsaba Rerkamnuaychoke, Wanwisa Sudprasert
The in vitro dose calibration curves using conventional biological dosimetry - dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay - were performed for the first time in Thailand for reconstruction of radiation dose in the exposed individuals. The peripheral blood lymphocyte samples from healthy donors were irradiated with (137)Cs source at a dose rate of 0.652 Gy/min to doses of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Gy for DCA technique, and 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 Gy for PCC technique...
2016: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217283/establishment-of-a-dose-response-curve-for-x-ray-induced-micronuclei-in-human-lymphocytes
#13
Yanti Lusiyanti, Zubaidah Alatas, Mukh Syaifudin, Sofiati Purnami
The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes is an established technique for biodosimetry. The aim of this project was to generate a X-ray induced micronuclei (MN) curve for peripheral blood lymphocytes taken from five healthy donors. The blood samples were irradiated with X-rays of 122 KeV at a dose rate of 0.652 Gy/min to doses of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 Gy. The blood samples were then cultured for 72 h at 37°C and processed following the International Atomic Energy Agency standard procedure with slight modifications...
2016: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217282/intercomparison-in-cytogenetic-dosimetry-among-22-laboratories-in-china
#14
Jian Xiang Liu, Yan Pan, Jian Lei Ruan, Chunnan Piao, Xu Su
As part of a regional International Atomic Energy Agency-coordinated research project with the support from the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China, 22 laboratories participated in the intercomparison in cytogenetic dosimetry in China. Slides for chromosomal aberrations were prepared by the Department of Radiation Epidemiology, National Institute for Radiological Protection, which organized the exercise. Slides were sent to the other participating laboratories through Express Mail Service...
2016: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217281/chromosomal-aberrations-in-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-after-exposure-to-ionizing-radiation
#15
Tae Ho Ryu, Jin-Hong Kim, Jin Kyu Kim
Biological dosimetry using chromosome aberration analyses in human peripheral blood lymphocytes is suitable and useful tool for estimating the dose when a nuclear or radiological emergency is investigated. Blood samples from five healthy donors were obtained to establish dose-response calibration curves for chromosomal aberrations after exposure to ionizing radiation. In this work, dicentric assay and CBMN assay were compared considering the sensitivity and accuracy of dose estimation. In a total of 21,688 analyzed metaphase spreads, 10,969 dicentric chromosomes, 563 centric rings and 11,364 acentric chromosomes were found...
2016: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217280/enhancing-cytogenetic-biological-dosimetry-capabilities-of-the-philippines-for-nuclear-incident-preparedness
#16
Celia O Asaad, Gloriamaris L Caraos, Gerardo Jose M Robles, Anie Day D C Asa, Maria Lucia C Cobar, Al-Ahmadgaid Asaad
The utility of a biological dosimeter based on the analysis of dicentrics is invaluable in the event of a radiological emergency wherein the estimated absorbed dose of an exposed individual is crucial in the proper medical management of patients. The technique is also used for routine monitoring of occupationally exposed workers to determine radiation exposure. An in vitro irradiation study of human peripheral blood lymphocytes was conducted to establish a dose-response curve for radiation-induced dicentric aberrations...
2016: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217279/towards-establishing-capacity-for-biological-dosimetry-at-ghana-atomic-energy-commission
#17
Daniel Gyingiri Achel, Elom Achoribo, Sandra Agbenyegah, Rudolph M Adaboro, Shadrack Donkor, Nana A K Adu-Bobi, Akwasi A Agyekum, Felicia Akuamoa, Samuel N Tagoe, Kofi A Kyei, Joel Yarney, Antonio Serafin, John M Akudugu
The aim of this study was not only to obtain basic technical prerequisites for the establishment of capacity of biological dosimetry at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) but also to stimulate interest in biological dosimetry research in Ghana and Sub-Saharan Africa. Peripheral blood from four healthy donors was exposed to different doses (0-6 Gy) of gamma rays from a radiotherapy machine and lymphocytes were subsequently stimulated, cultured, and processed according to standard protocols for 48-50 h...
2016: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217278/calibration-curve-for-dicentric-chromosomes-induced-in-human-blood-lymphocytes-exposed-to-gamma-rays-at-a-dose-rate-of-12-5-mgy-s
#18
Tran Que, Pham Ngoc Duy, Bui Thi Kim Luyen
To develop a calibration curve for induction of dicentric chromosomes by radiation, we have used a 60Co gamma-ray source with dose rate of 12.5 mGy/s. Whole blood from 15 healthy donors was collected. Whole blood from each donor was divided equally into 8 parts for exposing to supposedly physical doses 0, 0.30, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 3.00 and 4.00 Gy for a independent calibration curve. Whole blood from 15 donors was used to calibrate dose - effect and statistical for general calibration curve. Using Poisson test (U-test) for the distribution of dicentric chromosomes in the metaphases to determine the uniformity of the radiation field...
2016: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217277/strengthening-biological-dosimetry-in-member-states-of-the-international-atomic-energy-agency
#19
EDITORIAL
Prakash Hande, Rajesh Sharan, Oleg Belyakov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330737/exceptional-association-between-klinefelter-syndrome-and-growth-hormone-deficiency
#20
Sana Doubi, Zoubida Amrani, Hanan El Ouahabi, Saïd Boujraf, Farida Ajdi
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is characterized in adults by the combination of a tall stature, small testes, gynecomastia, and azoospermia. This case is described in a North African population of the Mediterranean region of North Africa. We report the case of a male 16 years old, of Arab ethnic origin, and diagnosed with this syndrome, who had a small height in relation to a growth hormone (GH) deficiency and a history of absence seizures (generalized myoclonic epilepsy). The patient's size was <-2.8 standard deviation (SD) with weight <-3 SD...
2015: Genome Integrity
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