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Genome Integrity

Alla Zedginidze, Ema Namchevadze, George Ormocadze, Archil Kapanadze, Tamara Nikuradze, Darejan Lomidze
Dynamic changes of the chromosomal aberrations and the DNA damage were analyzed in individuals exposed to low and therapeutic doses of radiation. The investigation included 37 persons living in areas where the radioactive sources were discovered 10-12 years ago. It was established by biodosimetry methods that the examined persons had absorbed dose of 0.2-0.7 Gy or had increased number of chromosomal aberrations, though insufficient to determine a dose. Clinical examination, chromosomal analysis, and assay of DNA damage by the comet (single-cell gel electrophoresis) assay were carried out...
2016: Genome Integrity
Chang-Mo Kang, Hyun Jin Yun, Hanna Kim, Cha Soon Kim
Three in vitro dose calibration curves for biodosimetry such as dicentric chromosome assay, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for translocation, and micronuclei (MNs) in binucleated cell assay were established after exposure to ionizing radiation. Peripheral blood lymphocyte samples obtained from healthy donors were irradiated with (60)Co source at a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/min to doses of 0.1-6 Gy. The results from three in vitro dose calibration curves for biodosimetry were analyzed to understand the relationship among biodosimetry assay techniques...
2016: Genome Integrity
Yan Pan, Gang Gao, Jian Lei Ruan, Jian Xiang Liu
Flow cytometry analysis was used to detect the changes of γH2AX protein expression in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the dose-effect study, the expression of γH2AX was detected 1 h after irradiation with 60Co γ-rays at doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy. Blood was cultivated for 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after 4 Gy (60)Co γ-rays irradiation for the time-effect study. At the same time, the blood was divided into four treatment groups (ultraviolet [UV] irradiation, (60)Co γ-rays irradiation, UV plus (60)Co γ-rays irradiation, and control group) to detect the changes of protein expression of γH2AX...
2016: Genome Integrity
Elizaveta G Neronova
Cytogenetic dosimetry plays an important role in the triage and medical management of affected people in radiological incidents/accidents. Cytogenetic biodosimetry uses different methods to estimate the absorbed dose in the exposed individuals, and each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay presents several advantages that hopefully fulfill the gaps identified in the other cytogenetic methods. To introduce this technique into the panel of other cytogenetic methods, a calibration curve for PCC after γ-irradiation was generated for our laboratory...
2016: Genome Integrity
Benchawan Rungsimaphorn, Budsaba Rerkamnuaychoke, Wanwisa Sudprasert
The in vitro dose calibration curves using conventional biological dosimetry - dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay - were performed for the first time in Thailand for reconstruction of radiation dose in the exposed individuals. The peripheral blood lymphocyte samples from healthy donors were irradiated with (137)Cs source at a dose rate of 0.652 Gy/min to doses of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Gy for DCA technique, and 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 Gy for PCC technique...
2016: Genome Integrity
Yanti Lusiyanti, Zubaidah Alatas, Mukh Syaifudin, Sofiati Purnami
The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes is an established technique for biodosimetry. The aim of this project was to generate a X-ray induced micronuclei (MN) curve for peripheral blood lymphocytes taken from five healthy donors. The blood samples were irradiated with X-rays of 122 KeV at a dose rate of 0.652 Gy/min to doses of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 Gy. The blood samples were then cultured for 72 h at 37°C and processed following the International Atomic Energy Agency standard procedure with slight modifications...
2016: Genome Integrity
Jian Xiang Liu, Yan Pan, Jian Lei Ruan, Chunnan Piao, Xu Su
As part of a regional International Atomic Energy Agency-coordinated research project with the support from the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China, 22 laboratories participated in the intercomparison in cytogenetic dosimetry in China. Slides for chromosomal aberrations were prepared by the Department of Radiation Epidemiology, National Institute for Radiological Protection, which organized the exercise. Slides were sent to the other participating laboratories through Express Mail Service...
2016: Genome Integrity
Tae Ho Ryu, Jin-Hong Kim, Jin Kyu Kim
Biological dosimetry using chromosome aberration analyses in human peripheral blood lymphocytes is suitable and useful tool for estimating the dose when a nuclear or radiological emergency is investigated. Blood samples from five healthy donors were obtained to establish dose-response calibration curves for chromosomal aberrations after exposure to ionizing radiation. In this work, dicentric assay and CBMN assay were compared considering the sensitivity and accuracy of dose estimation. In a total of 21,688 analyzed metaphase spreads, 10,969 dicentric chromosomes, 563 centric rings and 11,364 acentric chromosomes were found...
2016: Genome Integrity
Celia O Asaad, Gloriamaris L Caraos, Gerardo Jose M Robles, Anie Day D C Asa, Maria Lucia C Cobar, Al-Ahmadgaid Asaad
The utility of a biological dosimeter based on the analysis of dicentrics is invaluable in the event of a radiological emergency wherein the estimated absorbed dose of an exposed individual is crucial in the proper medical management of patients. The technique is also used for routine monitoring of occupationally exposed workers to determine radiation exposure. An in vitro irradiation study of human peripheral blood lymphocytes was conducted to establish a dose-response curve for radiation-induced dicentric aberrations...
2016: Genome Integrity
Daniel Gyingiri Achel, Elom Achoribo, Sandra Agbenyegah, Rudolph M Adaboro, Shadrack Donkor, Nana A K Adu-Bobi, Akwasi A Agyekum, Felicia Akuamoa, Samuel N Tagoe, Kofi A Kyei, Joel Yarney, Antonio Serafin, John M Akudugu
The aim of this study was not only to obtain basic technical prerequisites for the establishment of capacity of biological dosimetry at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) but also to stimulate interest in biological dosimetry research in Ghana and Sub-Saharan Africa. Peripheral blood from four healthy donors was exposed to different doses (0-6 Gy) of gamma rays from a radiotherapy machine and lymphocytes were subsequently stimulated, cultured, and processed according to standard protocols for 48-50 h...
2016: Genome Integrity
Tran Que, Pham Ngoc Duy, Bui Thi Kim Luyen
To develop a calibration curve for induction of dicentric chromosomes by radiation, we have used a 60Co gamma-ray source with dose rate of 12.5 mGy/s. Whole blood from 15 healthy donors was collected. Whole blood from each donor was divided equally into 8 parts for exposing to supposedly physical doses 0, 0.30, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 3.00 and 4.00 Gy for a independent calibration curve. Whole blood from 15 donors was used to calibrate dose - effect and statistical for general calibration curve. Using Poisson test (U-test) for the distribution of dicentric chromosomes in the metaphases to determine the uniformity of the radiation field...
2016: Genome Integrity
Prakash Hande, Rajesh Sharan, Oleg Belyakov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Genome Integrity
Sana Doubi, Zoubida Amrani, Hanan El Ouahabi, Saïd Boujraf, Farida Ajdi
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is characterized in adults by the combination of a tall stature, small testes, gynecomastia, and azoospermia. This case is described in a North African population of the Mediterranean region of North Africa. We report the case of a male 16 years old, of Arab ethnic origin, and diagnosed with this syndrome, who had a small height in relation to a growth hormone (GH) deficiency and a history of absence seizures (generalized myoclonic epilepsy). The patient's size was <-2.8 standard deviation (SD) with weight <-3 SD...
2015: Genome Integrity
Caiguo Zhang
The Arabidopsis genome encodes numerous iron-containing proteins such as iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster proteins and hemoproteins. These proteins generally utilize iron as a cofactor, and they perform critical roles in photosynthesis, genome stability, electron transfer, and oxidation-reduction reactions. Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to maintain iron homeostasis for the assembly of functional iron-containing proteins, thereby ensuring genome stability, cell development, and plant growth. Over the past few years, our understanding of iron-containing proteins and their functions involved in genome stability has expanded enormously...
2015: Genome Integrity
Souvick Roy, Abhik Chakraborty, Chinmoy Ghosh, Birendranath Banerjee
BACKGROUND: Stress is a term used to define factors involved in changes in the physiological balances resulting in disease conditions. Chronic exposure to stress conditions in modern lifestyles has resulted in a group of disorders called lifestyle disorders. Genetic background and environmental factors are interrelated to lifestyle in determining the health status of individuals. Hence, identification of disease-associated genes is the primary step toward explanations of pathogenesis of these diseases...
2015: Genome Integrity
Ian M Cartwright, Matthew D Genet, Akira Fujimori, Takamitsu A Kato
BACKGROUND: In this study we evaluated the effect of linear energy transfer (LET) and chromatin structure on the induction of chromosomal inversion. High LET radiation causes more complex DNA damage than low LET radiation; this "dirty" damage is more difficult to repair and may result in an increase in inversion formation. CHO10B2 cells synchronized in either G1 or M phase were exposed 0, 1, or 2 Gy of 5 mm Al and Cu filters at 200 kVp and 20 mA X-rays or 500 MeV/nucleon of initial energy and 200 keV/μ m Fe ion radiation...
2014: Genome Integrity
Augustin Luna, Mirit I Aladjem, Kurt W Kohn
An intricate network regulates the activities of SIRT1 and PARP1 proteins and continues to be uncovered. Both SIRT1 and PARP1 share a common co-factor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and several common substrates, including regulators of DNA damage response and circadian rhythms. We review this complex network using an interactive Molecular Interaction Map (MIM) to explore the interplay between these two proteins. Here we discuss how NAD + competition and post-transcriptional/translational feedback mechanisms create a regulatory network sensitive to environmental cues, such as genotoxic stress and metabolic states, and examine the role of those interactions in DNA repair and ultimately, cell fate decisions...
2013: Genome Integrity
Kaisa R Luoto, Ramya Kumareswaran, Robert G Bristow
Sub-regions of hypoxia exist within all tumors and the presence of intratumoral hypoxia has an adverse impact on patient prognosis. Tumor hypoxia can increase metastatic capacity and lead to resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Hypoxia also leads to altered transcription and translation of a number of DNA damage response and repair genes. This can lead to inhibition of recombination-mediated repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Hypoxia can also increase the rate of mutation. Therefore, tumor cell adaptation to the hypoxic microenvironment can drive genetic instability and malignant progression...
2013: Genome Integrity
Klara Sputova, James C Garbe, Fanny A Pelissier, Eric Chang, Martha R Stampfer, Mark A Labarge
BACKGROUND: Shortening of telomeres, which are essential for maintenance of genomic integrity, is a mechanism commonly associated with the aging process. Here we ascertained whether changes in telomere lengths or telomerase activity correlated with age in normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), or with phenotypes of aging in breast. Accordingly, flow cytometry fluorescence in situ hybridization (flowFISH) was used to determine relative telomere lengths (RTL), and telomerase activity was measured by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP), in a collection of 41 primary HMEC strains established from women aged 16 to 91 years...
2013: Genome Integrity
Nobuo Horikoshi, Pankaj Kumar, Girdhar G Sharma, Min Chen, Clayton R Hunt, Kenneth Westover, Shantanu Chowdhury, Tej K Pandita
BACKGROUND: Histone post-translational modifications are critical determinants of chromatin structure and function, impacting multiple biological processes including DNA transcription, replication, and repair. The post-translational acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac) was initially identified in association with dosage compensation of the Drosophila male X chromosome. However, in mammalian cells, H4K16ac is not associated with dosage compensation and the genomic distribution of H4K16ac is not precisely known...
2013: Genome Integrity
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