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Pharmaceutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590445/surface-modification-of-carbonate-apatite-nanoparticles-enhances-delivery-and-cytotoxicity-of-gemcitabine-and-anastrozole-in-breast-cancer-cells
#1
Fitya Syarifa Mozar, Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury
pH sensitive nanoparticles of carbonate apatite (CA) have been proven to be effective delivery vehicles for DNA, siRNAs and proteins. More recently, conventional anti-cancer drugs, such as doxorubicin, methotrexate and cyclophosphamide have been successfully incorporated into CA for intracellular delivery to breast cancer cells. However, physical and chemical properties of drug molecules appeared to affect their interactions with CA, with hydrophillic drug so far exhibiting better binding affinity and cellular uptakes compared to hydrophobic drugs...
June 7, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574438/an-evaluation-of-the-binding-strength-of-okra-gum-and-the-drug-release-characteristics-of-tablets-prepared-from-it
#2
Amjad Hussain, Farah Qureshi, Nasir Abbas, Muhammad Sohail Arshad, Ejaz Ali
The aim of this study is to evaluate the adhesion ability of okra gum, which is gaining popularity as a tablet binder. For this purpose, gum was extracted from okra pods, and the binding strength of different concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5%) was determined quantitatively. Additionally, naproxen sodium tablets were prepared by using okra gum as a binder and were evaluated for their properties including hardness, friability, disintegration time, and dissolution rate. The binding strength values were compared with that of pre-gelatinized starch, a commonly used tablet binder...
June 2, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561775/stability-study-of-sunscreens-with-free-and-encapsulated-uv-filters-contained-in-plastic-packaging
#3
Benedetta Briasco, Priscilla Capra, Barbara Mannucci, Paola Perugini
Sunscreens play a fundamental role in skin cancer prevention and in protection against photo-aging. UV filters are often photo-unstable, especially in relation to their vehicles and, being lipophilic substances, they are able to interact with plastic packaging. Finally, UV filter stability can be significantly affected by the routine use of the product at high temperatures. This work aims to study the stability of sunscreen formulations in polyethylene packaging. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene, both in a free form and as encapsulated filters were chosen as UV filters...
May 31, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531119/quality-attributes-and-in-vitro-bioequivalence-of-different-brands-of-amoxicillin-trihydrate-tablets
#4
Moawia M Al-Tabakha, Khairi M S Fahelelbom, Dana Emad Eddin Obaid, Sadik Sayed
Bacterial resistance and antibiotic drug effectiveness can be related to administering generic products with a subtherapeutic dose or poor in vivo drug release. The aim of this study was to investigate whether locally marketed amoxicillin tablets have the required chemical and physical attributes, including in vitro bioequivalence performance. Five generic products (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) containing combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate as 1 g strength present in immediate release tablets were compared to the reference listed drug product Augmentin® (R) for weight variation, friability, resistance to crushing, and chemical content of amoxicillin...
May 20, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534827/optimizing-prednisolone-loading-into-distiller-s-dried-grain-kafirin-microparticles-and-in-vitro-release-for-oral-delivery
#5
Esther T L Lau, Stuart K Johnson, Barbara A Williams, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Elizabeth McCourt, Roger A Stanley, Ram Mereddy, Peter J Halley, Kathryn J Steadman
Kafirin microparticles have potential as colon-targeted delivery systems because of their ability to protect encapsulated material from digestive processes of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The aim was to optimize prednisolone loading into kafirin microparticles, and investigate their potential as an oral delivery system. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to predict the optimal formulation of prednisolone loaded microparticles. Prednisolone release from the microparticles was measured in simulated conditions of the GIT...
May 19, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509850/accessing-mefenamic-acid-form-ii-through-high-pressure-recrystallisation
#6
Nasir Abbas, Iain D H Oswald, Colin R Pulham
High-pressure crystallisation has been successfully used as an alternative technique to prepare Form II of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, mefenamic acid (MA). A single crystal of Form II, denoted as high-pressure Form II, was grown at 0.3 GPa from an ethanolic solution by using a diamond anvil cell. A comparison of the crystal structures shows that the efficient packing of molecules in Form II was enabled by the structural flexibility of MA molecules. Compression studies performed on a single crystal of Form I resulted in a 14% decrease of unit cell volume up to 2...
May 16, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420213/folate-decorated-nanomicelles-loaded-with-a-potent-curcumin-analogue-for-targeting-retinoblastoma
#7
Hashem Alsaab, Rami M Alzhrani, Prashant Kesharwani, Samaresh Sau, Sai Hs Boddu, Arun K Iyer
The aim of this study was to develop a novel folate receptor-targeted drug delivery system for retinoblastoma cells using a promising anticancer agent, curcumin-difluorinated (CDF), loaded in polymeric micelles. Folic acid was used as a targeting moiety to enhance the targeting and bioavailability of CDF. For this purpose, amphiphilic poly(styrene-co-maleic acid)-conjugated-folic acid (SMA-FA) was synthesized and utilized to improve the aqueous solubility of a highly hydrophobic, but very potent anticancer compound, CDF, and its targeted delivery to folate overexpressing cancers...
April 18, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406450/what-does-it-mean-a-review-of-interpreting-and-calculating-different-types-of-means-and-standard-deviations
#8
REVIEW
Marilyn N Martinez, Mary J Bartholomew
Typically, investigations are conducted with the goal of generating inferences about a population (humans or animal). Since it is not feasible to evaluate the entire population, the study is conducted using a randomly selected subset of that population. With the goal of using the results generated from that sample to provide inferences about the true population, it is important to consider the properties of the population distribution and how well they are represented by the sample (the subset of values). Consistent with that study objective, it is necessary to identify and use the most appropriate set of summary statistics to describe the study results...
April 13, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346376/blend-hydrogel-microspheres-of-carboxymethyl-chitosan-and-gelatin-for-the-controlled-release-of-5-fluorouracil
#9
Vanarchi Rajini Kanth, Praveen B Kajjari, Priya M Madalageri, Sakey Ravindra, Lata S Manjeshwar, Tejraj M Aminabhavi
Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) was synthesized and blended with gelatin (GE) to prepare hydrogel microspheres by w/o emulsion cross-linking in the presence of glutaraldehyde (GA), which acted as a cross-linker. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was encapsulated to investigate its controlled release (CR) characteristics in acidic (pH 1.2) and alkaline (pH 7.4) buffer media. The microspheres which formed were spherical in nature, with smooth surfaces, as judged by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the carboxymethylation of CS and the chemical stability of 5-FU in the formulations...
March 27, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346375/liposomal-formulations-in-clinical-use-an-updated-review
#10
REVIEW
Upendra Bulbake, Sindhu Doppalapudi, Nagavendra Kommineni, Wahid Khan
Liposomes are the first nano drug delivery systems that have been successfully translated into real-time clinical applications. These closed bilayer phospholipid vesicles have witnessed many technical advances in recent years since their first development in 1965. Delivery of therapeutics by liposomes alters their biodistribution profile, which further enhances the therapeutic index of various drugs. Extensive research is being carried out using these nano drug delivery systems in diverse areas including the delivery of anti-cancer, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory drugs and therapeutic genes...
March 27, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245574/a-robust-liquid-chromatographic-method-for-confirmation-of-drug-stability-of-azithromycin-in-bulk-samples-tablets-and-suspensions
#11
Alex O Okaru, Kennedy O Abuga, Franco N Kamau, Stanley N Ndwigah, Dirk W Lachenmeier
A simple, isocratic and robust RP-HPLC method for the analysis of azithromycin was developed, validated and applied for the analysis of bulk samples, tablets and suspensions. The optimum chromatographic conditions for separation were established as a mobile phase comprised of acetonitrile-0.1 M KH₂PO₄ pH 6.5-0.1 M tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide pH 6.5-water (25:15:1:59 v/v/v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The stationary phase consisted of reverse-phase XTerra(®) (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) maintained at a temperature of 43 °C with a UV detection at 215 nm...
February 24, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241435/polypharmacy-in-zoological-medicine
#12
REVIEW
Robert P Hunter, Ramiro Isaza
Polypharmacy is a term that describes the inappropriate, concurrent use of multiple drugs in an individual patient. Zoological medicine practitioners must take approved agents (veterinary or human) and extrapolate their use to non-approved species often with little species-specific pharmacological evidence to support their decisions. When considering polypharmacy, even less information exists concerning multi-drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or potential drug-drug interactions in non-domestic species...
February 22, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230738/clinical-implications-of-20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acid-in-the-kidney-liver-lung-and-brain-an-emerging-therapeutic-target
#13
REVIEW
Osama H Elshenawy, Sherif M Shoieb, Anwar Mohamed, Ayman O S El-Kadi
Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) is an important pathway for the formation of eicosanoids. The ω-hydroxylation of AA generates significant levels of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in various tissues. In the current review, we discussed the role of 20-HETE in the kidney, liver, lung, and brain during physiological and pathophysiological states. Moreover, we discussed the role of 20-HETE in tumor formation, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In the kidney, 20-HETE is involved in modulation of preglomerular vascular tone and tubular ion transport...
February 20, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218636/lobular-distribution-and-variability-in-hepatic-atp-binding-cassette-protein-b1-abcb1-p-gp-ontogenetic-differences-and-potential-for-toxicity
#14
Ngu Njei Abanda, Zoe Riches, Abby C Collier
The ATP Binding Cassette B1 (ABCB1) transporter has critical roles in endo- and xenobiotic efficacy and toxicity. To understand population variability in hepatic transport we determined ABCB1 mRNA and protein levels in total liver lysates sampled from 8 pre-defined sites (n = 24, 18-69 years), and in S9 from randomly acquired samples (n = 87, 7 days-87 years). ABCB1 levels did not differ significantly throughout individual livers and showed 4.4-fold protein variation between subjects. Neither mRNA nor protein levels varied with sex, ethnicity, obesity or triglycerides in lysates or S9 (that showed the same relationships), but protein levels were lower in pediatric S9 (p < 0...
February 17, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275214/investigation-of-drug-polymer-compatibility-using-chemometric-assisted-uv-spectrophotometry
#15
Amir Ibrahim Mohamed, Amr Mohamed Elsayed Abd-Motagaly, Osama A A Ahmed, Suzan Amin, Alaa Ibrahim Mohamed Ali
A simple chemometric-assisted UV-spectrophotometric method was used to study the compatibility of clindamycin hydrochloride (HC1) with two commonly used natural controlled-release polymers, alginate (Ag) and chitosan (Ch). Standard mixtures containing 1:1, 1:2, and 1:0.5 w/w drug-polymer ratios were prepared and UV scanned. A calibration model was developed with partial least square (PLS) regression analysis for each polymer separately. Then, test mixtures containing 1:1 w/w drug-polymer ratios with different sets of drug concentrations were prepared...
January 16, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075379/veterinary-compounding-regulation-challenges-and-resources
#16
REVIEW
Gigi Davidson
The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to drug residues. As beneficial as compounded medical therapies may be to animal patients, these therapies are not without risks, and serious adverse events may occur from poor quality compounds or excipients that are uniquely toxic when administered to a given species...
January 10, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042818/doxorubicin-delivery-using-ph-and-redox-dual-responsive-hollow-nanocapsules-with-a-cationic-electrostatic-barrier
#17
Ryoma Teranishi, Ryota Matsuki, Eiji Yuba, Atsushi Harada, Kenji Kono
For the delivery of doxorubicin (DOX), pH and redox dual responsive hollow nanocapsules were prepared through the stabilization of polymer vesicles, which spontaneously formed from polyamidoamine dendron-poly(l-lysine) (PAMAM dendron-PLL), by the introduction of disulfide (SS) bonds between PLLs. The SS-bonded nanocapsules exhibited a very slow release of DOX under an extracellular environment because the cationic PLL membrane acted as an electrostatic barrier against the protonated DOX molecules. However, increasing the glutathione concentration to the intracellular level facilitated the immediate release of DOX through the collapse of nanocapsules by the spontaneous cleavage of SS bonds...
December 30, 2016: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036031/drug-transporter-expression-and-activity-in-human-hepatoma-huh-7-cells
#18
Elodie Jouan, Marc Le Vée, Claire Denizot, Yannick Parmentier, Olivier Fardel
Human hepatoma cells may represent a valuable alternative to the use of human hepatocytes for studying hepatic drug transporters, which is now a regulatory issue during drug development. In the present work, we have characterized hepatic drug transporter expression, activity and regulation in human hepatoma HuH-7 cells, in order to determine the potential relevance of these cells for drug transport assays. HuH-7 cells displayed notable multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) activity, presumed to reflect expression of various hepatic MRPs, including MRP2...
December 28, 2016: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035945/design-and-biological-evaluation-of-delivery-systems-containing-bisphosphonates
#19
REVIEW
Blessing Aderibigbe, Isiaka Aderibigbe, Patricia Popoola
Bisphosphonates have found application in the treatment of reoccurrence of bone diseases, breast cancer, etc. They have also been found to exhibit antimicrobial, anticancer and antimalarial activities. However, they suffer from pharmacological deficiencies such as toxicity, poor bioavailability and low intestinal adsorption. These shortcomings have resulted in several researchers developing delivery systems that can enhance their overall therapeutic effectiveness. This review provides a detailed overview of the published studies on delivery systems designed for the delivery of bisphosphonates and the corresponding in vitro/in vivo results...
December 26, 2016: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025505/chitosan-based-nano-embedded-microparticles-impact-of-nanogel-composition-on-physicochemical-properties
#20
Paromita Islam, Jorrit J Water, Adam Bohr, Jukka Rantanen
Chitosan-based nanogels have been widely applied as drug delivery vehicles. Spray-drying of said nanogels allows for the preparation of dry powder nano-embedded microparticles. In this work, chitosan-based nanogels composed of chitosan, alginate, and/or sodium tri-penta phosphate were investigated, particularly with respect to the impact of composition on the resulting physicochemical properties. Different compositions were obtained as nanogels with sizes ranging from 203 to 561 nm. The addition of alginate and exclusion of sodium tri-penta phosphate led to an increase in nanogel size...
December 22, 2016: Pharmaceutics
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