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Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416370/prolonged-release-oxycodone-naloxone-reduces-opioid-induced-constipation-and-improves-quality-of-life-in-laxative-refractory-patients-results-of-an-observational-study
#1
Carsten Bantel, Shiva S Tripathi, David Molony, Tony Heffernan, Susmita Oomman, Vivek Mehta, Sara Dickerson
Background: Opioids are an effective treatment for moderate-to-severe pain. However, they are associated with a number of gastrointestinal side effects, most commonly constipation. Laxatives do not target the underlying mechanism of opioid-induced constipation (OIC), so many patients do not have their symptoms resolved. Fixed-dose prolonged-release (PR) oxycodone/naloxone (OXN) tablets contain the opioid agonist oxycodone and the opioid antagonist naloxone. Nal-oxone blocks the action of oxycodone in the gut without compromising its analgesic effects...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416369/rationale-and-design-of-the-vision-study-a-randomized-open-label-study-to-evaluate-the-long-term-safety-of-vonoprazan-as-maintenance-treatment-in-patients-with-erosive-esophagitis
#2
Naomi Uemura, Yoshikazu Kinoshita, Ken Haruma, Takashi Yao, Ryoji Kushima, Tatsuhiro Kanoo
Erosive esophagitis (EE) occurs when the epithelial mucosa is damaged due to gastric acid reflux, and the incidence of this disease is increasing in Japan due to changes in diet and lifestyle. The condition can be treated using proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that act by irreversibly blocking the H+,K+-ATPase responsible for acid secretion. Vonoprazan is a K+ competitive channel inhibitor, which reversibly and potently inhibits gastric acid secretion. However, long-term data on vonoprazan use are limited. The aim of the VISION trial is to investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of vonoprazan in comparison with the PPI lansoprazole...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403299/ethnic-racial-differences-in-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-diagnosis-associated-with-the-risk-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-the-us
#3
Maria-Raquel Huerta-Franco, Julie W Banderas, Jenifer E Allsworth
Background: In the US, neither the prevalence nor the gastrointestinal (GI) diagnosis/symptoms associated with Helicobacter pylori (HP) have been examined in different racial/ethnic groups. Aim: To determine the racial/ethnic differences in HP infection associated with GI diagnoses/symptoms using the Cerner Health Facts® database. Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data during the period of 2000-2015 from the following ethnic/racial groups: 8,236,317 white, 2,085,389 black, 426,622 Hispanic, 293,156 Asian Pacific/Islander (APIs), and 89,179 Native American/Alaskan Native (NA/AN) patients aged 21-65 years old; the data were then analyzed...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391821/isolation-and-gene-expression-profiling-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-crypt-isolation-by-calcium-chelation-from-in-vivo-samples
#4
Aine Balfe, Grainne Lennon, Aonghus Lavelle, Neil G Docherty, J Calvin Coffey, Kieran Sheahan, Desmond C Winter, P Ronan O'Connell
Aim: The epithelial layer within the colon represents a physical barrier between the luminal contents and its underlying mucosa. It plays a pivotal role in mucosal homeostasis, and both tolerance and anti-pathogenic immune responses. Identifying signals of inflammation initiation and responses to stimuli from within the epithelial layer is critical to understanding the molecular pathways underlying disease pathology. This study validated a method to isolate and analyze epithelial populations, enabling investigations of epithelial function and response in a variety of disease setting...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391820/relationship-of-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-in-helicobacter-pylori-gastric-patients
#5
Dinelma de Jesus Martins, Gyselly Cb Matos, Rosane Sp Loiola, Vivian D'Annibale, Tereza Corvelo
Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the association between the human VDR gene and Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 208 adult patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastric biopsy specimens were obtained from each patient for molecular DNA and histological examination. Patients were genotyped for VDR gene polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391819/endoscope-connected-water-pump-with-high-flow-rates-improves-the-unsedated-colonoscopy-performance-by-water-immersion-method
#6
Putut Bayupurnama, Neneng Ratnasari, Fahmi Indrarti, Catharina Triwikatmani, Sutanto Maduseno, Siti Nurdjanah, Felix W Leung
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine if different water pump flow rates influence the insertion time of water immersion method in unsedated patients. We tested the hypothesis that high flow rate (HFR) is more effective than low flow rate (LFR) in facilitating insertion. Clinical registration number: NCT01869296. Methods: Consecutive symptomatic patients without prior abdominal surgery were consented and enrolled. They were randomized to an HFR (10...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317842/exercise-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-current-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Michael Engels, Raymond K Cross, Millie D Long
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including both Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic autoimmune diseases. Both CD and UC have relapsing and remitting courses. Although effective medical treatments exist for these chronic conditions, some patients do not respond to these traditional therapies. Patients are often left frustrated with incomplete resolution of symptoms and seek alternative or complementary forms of therapy. Patients often search for modifiable factors that could improve their symptoms or help them to maintain periods of remission...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270029/preventive-effect-of-oenothera-rosea-on-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-nmu-induced-gastric-cancer-in-rats
#8
Yuan Almora-Pinedo, Jorge Arroyo-Acevedo, Oscar Herrera-Calderon, Víctor Chumpitaz-Cerrate, Renán Hañari-Quispe, Aldo Tinco-Jayo, Cesar Franco-Quino, Linder Figueroa-Salvador
Background: Currently, gastric cancer (GC) is considered a public health problem worldwide. Using medicinal plants for the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer constitutes new alternatives in traditional medicine. Oenothera rosea (OR) could be an option, but it needs to be evaluated. Aim: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of OR extract on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)-induced GC in rats. Methods: In total, 80 male Holtzman rats were randomized into five groups...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263686/a-novel-scoring-system-for-prediction-of-esophageal-varices-in-critically-ill-patients
#9
Amr Shaaban Hanafy, Rehab Badawi, Mohammad Abdelkhalik Atia Basha, Amal Selim, Mohamed Yousef, Sally Elnawasany, Loai Mansour, Reham Abdelkader Elkhouly, Nehad Hawash, Sherief Abd-Elsalam
Background and aims: Patients with advanced systemic illness or critically ill patients may present with upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) bleeding which may need endoscopic intervention; however, this may expose them to unnecessary endoscopy. The aim was to validate a novel scoring system for risk stratification for urgency of GIT endoscopy in critically ill patients. Methods: This is an observational study conducted from January 2013 to January 2016 to analyze 300 patients with critical medical conditions and presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238211/interdependency-between-mechanical-parameters-and-afferent-nerve-discharge-in-remodeled-diabetic-goto-kakizaki-rat-intestine
#10
Jingbo Zhao, Jian Yang, Donghua Liao, Hans Gregersen
Background: Gastrointestinal disorders are very common in diabetic patients, but the pathogenesis is still not well understood. Peripheral afferent nerves may be involved due to the complex regulation of gastrointestinal function by the enteric nervous system. Objective: We aimed to characterize the stimulus-response function of afferent fibers innervating the jejunum in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) type 2 diabetic rat model. A key question is whether changes in afferent firing arise from remodeled tissue or from adaptive afferent processes...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184430/evaluation-of-a-fecal-immunochemistry-test-prior-to-colonoscopy-for-outpatients-with-various-indications
#11
Andrew Szilagyi, Xiaoqing Xue
Background: Stool tests can predict advanced neoplasms prior to colonoscopy. Results of immunochemical stool tests to predict findings at colonoscopy for various indications are less often reported. We compared pre-colonoscopy stool tests with findings in patients undergoing colonoscopy for different indications. Patients and methods: Charts of patients undergoing elective or semi-urgent colonoscopy were reviewed. Comparison of adenoma detection rates and pathological findings was made between prescreened and non-prescreened, and between stool-positive and stool-negative cases...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180886/next-generation-of-biologics-for-the-treatment-of-crohn-s-disease-an-evidence-based-review-on-ustekinumab
#12
REVIEW
Aranzazu Jauregui-Amezaga, Michael Somers, Heiko De Schepper, Elisabeth Macken
The limited efficacy of the currently available medical therapies in a proportion of patients with Crohn's disease has led to the research and development of molecules that can block new inflammatory pathways. Ustekinumab is a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody which targets the common p40 subunit of the cytokines interleukin-12 as well as interleukin-23. Consequently, the Th1 and Th17 inflammatory responses are inhibited. Ustekinumab has been recently approved for its use in patients with Crohn's disease...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158686/duodenal-and-jejunal-dieulafoy-s-lesions-optimal-management
#13
REVIEW
Tonguç Utku Yılmaz, Ramazan Kozan
Dieulafoy's lesions (DLs) are rare and cause gastrointestinal bleeding resulting from erosion of dilated submucosal vessels. The most common location for DL is the stomach, followed by duodenum. There is little information about duodenal and jejunal DLs. Challenges for diagnosis and treatment of Dieulafoy's lesions include the rare nature of the disease, asymptomatic patients, bleeding symptoms often requiring rapid diagnosis and treatment in symptomatic patients, variability in the diagnosis and treatment methods resulting from different lesion locations, and the risk of re-bleeding...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138587/primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-diagnostic-and-management-challenges
#14
REVIEW
Sanjeev Sirpal, Natasha Chandok
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic immune-mediated disease affecting intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, primarily the large biliary ducts. Clinical manifestations are broad, and the spectrum encompasses asymptomatic cholestasis, icteric cholangitis with pruritis, cirrhosis, and cholangiocarcinoma. Though rare, PSC has a propensity to affect young to middle-aged males and is strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease. There is an unmet need for effective medical treatments for PSC, and to date, the only curative therapy is liver transplantation reserved for those with end-stage liver disease...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026327/characterization-and-prevalence-of-spondyloarthritis-and-peripheral-arthritis-among-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Hoda M Malaty, Grace Hsiao-Wei Lo, Jason K Hou
BACKGROUND: Joint complaints such as spondyloarthritis and peripheral arthritis are the most common extraintestinal manifestations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, the evaluation of these symptoms are poorly described. OBJECTIVES: To examine the clinical characteristics and prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and other joint complaints among patients with IBD. METHODS: In a local cohort of patients diagnosed with IBD between 1996 and 2009, we performed a retrospective study at the Veterans Affairs Hospital...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026326/tacrolimus-versus-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-agents-for-steroid-refractory-active-ulcerative-colitis-based-on-the-severity-of-endoscopic-findings-a-single-center-open-label-cohort-study
#16
Satohiro Matsumoto, Haruna Kawamura, Takeshi Nishikawa, Noriyoshi Sagihara, Hiroyuki Miyatani, Hirosato Mashima
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: At Saitama Medical Center, for remission induction in active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with endoscopic evidence of severe disease, we tend to preferentially use tacrolimus (TAC) over anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents. We conducted this study to evaluate the validity of our therapeutic strategies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in 52 steroid-refractory active UC patients with a Clinical Activity Index (CAI) score of ≥7 who were receiving remission induction therapy with TAC or anti-TNF-α agents...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026325/laparoscopic-esophageal-myotomy-versus-pneumatic-dilation-in-the-treatment-of-idiopathic-achalasia-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Ramkaji Baniya, Sunil Upadhaya, Jahangir Khan, Suresh Kumar Subedi, Tabrez Shaik Mohammed, Balvant K Ganatra, Ghassan Bachuwa
BACKGROUND: Achalasia is a primary esophageal motility disorder of unknown etiology associated with abnormalities in peristalsis and lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. The disease is incurable; however, definitive treatment procedures like pneumatic dilation (PD)/balloon dilation and laparoscopic esophageal myotomy (LEM) are performed to relieve dysphagia and related symptoms. Currently, there is paucity of data comparing the outcomes of these procedures. The aim of this meta-analysis is to compare the short- and long-term success rates of PD and LEM...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989282/spotlight-on-eluxadoline-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea
#18
REVIEW
Konstantinos C Fragkos
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) has limited options for treatment currently, including mainly anti-motility medications, antispasmodics, and antidepressants. This review discusses the properties of a new drug, eluxadoline, a gut-targeting mu- and kappa-opioid receptor agonist and a delta-opioid receptor antagonist, and its efficacy and safety in patients with IBS-D. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify studies that had investigated eluxadoline as a treatment in IBS-D...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979154/risks-of-peg-tube-placement-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-associated-ascites
#19
Yasir Al-Abboodi, Ali Ridha, Matthew Fasullo, Tarek H Naguib
This study examined the safety of placing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube in people with liver cirrhosis. The target population was further subdivided into people with ascites (case group) and people without ascites (control). We compare the morbidity and the mortality difference of PEG placement in cirrhotic patients with ascites vs cirrhotic patients without ascites. We then examined multiple factors including sex, race, chronic illness including hypertension, congestive heart failure, and others and their influence on the inpatient mortality of all cirrhotic patients who had PEG placement...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919797/quality-of-care-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-results-of-a-prospective-controlled-cohort-study-in-germany-netibd
#20
Jana Langbrandtner, Angelika Hüppe, Petra Jessen, Jürgen Büning, Susanna Nikolaus, Heiner Raspe, Bernd Bokemeyer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) need comprehensive, interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral health care. In Germany, evidence-based care pathways have been developed to improve the quality of care of IBD patients. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the implementation of some of these recommendations on patient-related outcomes. METHODS: In a region of North Germany, outpatients with IBD were recruited by gastroenterologists (intervention group)...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
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