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World Journal of Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290910/occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-surgical-outcomes-in-non-b-non-c-patients-with-curative-resection-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Hiroki Koga, Keita Kai, Shinichi Aishima, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Koutaro Yamaji, Takao Ide, Junji Ueda, Hirokazu Noshiro
AIM: To investigate the prevalence, clinicopathological characteristics and surgical outcomes of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) in patients with non-B, non-C (NBNC) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: This study retrospectively examined the cases of 78 NBNC patients with curative resection for HCC for whom DNA could be extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. OBI was determined by the HBV-DNA amplification of at least two different sets of primers by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction...
December 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290909/influence-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-the-development-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#2
Suelen A S Miozzo, Jorge A John, Marcelo C Appel-da-Silva, Isabella A Dossin, Cristiane V Tovo, Angelo A Mattos
AIM: To investigate whether the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) increases the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. METHODS: An historical cohort study was carried out in cirrhotic outpatients with ascites followed in a specialized clinic at a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. Patient charts were reviewed to collect information on the variables of interest as the use of PPIs. Primary outcome was defined as development of SBP during the study period...
December 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290908/liver-decompensation-predicts-ribavirin-overexposure-in-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-treated-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#3
Viola Guardigni, Lorenzo Badia, Matteo Conti, Matteo Rinaldi, Rita Mancini, Pierluigi Viale, Gabriella Verucchi
AIM: To determine whether ribavirin (RBV) concentrations differ according to cirrhosis stage among cirrhotic patients treated with interferon-free regimens. METHODS: We included patients with hepatitis C virus and cirrhosis [Child-Pugh (CP) A or B], Glomerular Filtration Rate ≥ 60 mL/min, who started therapy with DAAs and weight-based RBV between October 2014 and February 2016. RBV plasma levels were assessed during the treatment. We focused our analysis on the first 8 wk of therapy...
December 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290907/morphological-alterations-and-redox-changes-associated-with-hepatic-warm-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#4
Rim Jawad, Melroy D'souza, Lisa Arodin Selenius, Marita Wallenberg Lundgren, Olof Danielsson, Greg Nowak, Mikael Björnstedt, Bengt Isaksson
AIM: To study the effects of warm ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury on hepatic morphology at the ultrastructural level and to analyze the expression of the thioredoxin (TRX) and glutaredoxin (GRX) systems. METHODS: Eleven patients undergoing liver resection were subjected to portal triad clamping (PTC). Liver biopsies were collected at three time points; first prior to PTC (baseline), 20 min after PTC (post-ischemia) and 20 min after reperfusion (post-reperfusion)...
December 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312528/diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge-of-heart-failure-after-liver-transplant-case-series
#5
Manish Tandon, Sunaina Tejpal Karna, Chandra Kant Pandey, Ravindra Chaturvedi
Heart failure (HF) following liver transplant (LT) surgery is a distinct clinical entity with high mortality. It is known to occur in absence of obvious risk factors. No preoperative workup including electrocardiogram, echocardiography at rest and on stress, reasonably prognosticates the risk. In patients of chronic liver disease, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and stress induced cardiomyopathy have each been implicated as a cause for HF after LT. However distinguishing one etiology from another not only is difficult, several etiologies may possibly coexist in a given patient...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312527/global-elimination-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-progresses-and-the-remaining-challenges
#6
REVIEW
Reza Taherkhani, Fatemeh Farshadpour
Today, with the introduction of interferon-free direct-acting antivirals and outstanding progresses in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the elimination of HCV infection seems more achievable. A further challenge is continued transmission of HCV infection in high-risk population specially injecting drug users (IDUs) as the major reservoir of HCV infection. Considering the fact that most of these infections remain undiagnosed, unidentified HCV-infected IDUs are potential sources for the rapid spread of HCV in the community...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184609/liver-atrophy-after-percutaneous-transhepatic-portal-embolization-occurs-in-two-histological-phases-hepatocellular-atrophy-followed-by-apoptosis
#7
Yasuhito Iwao, Hidenori Ojima, Tatsushi Kobayashi, Yoji Kishi, Satoshi Nara, Minoru Esaki, Kazuaki Shimada, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka, Minoru Tanabe, Yae Kanai
AIM: To clarify the histological changes associated with liver atrophy after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization (PTPE) in pigs and humans. METHODS: As a preliminary study, we performed pathological examinations of liver specimens from five pigs that had undergone PTPE in a time-dependent model of liver atrophy. In specimens from embolized lobes (EMB) and nonembolized lobes (controls), we measured the portal vein to central vein distance (PV-CV), the area and number of hepatocytes per lobule, and apoptotic activity using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay...
November 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184608/role-of-pregnane-x-receptor-in-regulating-bacterial-translocation-in-chronic-liver-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Sundhar Mohandas, Balasubramaniyan Vairappan
Bacterial translocation (BT) has been impeccably implicated as a driving factor in the pathogenesis of a spectrum of chronic liver diseases (CLD). Scientific evidence accumulated over the last four decades has implied that the disease pathologies in CLD and BT are connected as a loop in the gut-liver axis and exacerbate each other. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and nuclear receptor that is expressed ubiquitously along the gut-liver-axis. PXR has been intricately associated with the regulation of various mechanisms attributed in causing BT...
November 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152040/ayurvedic-drug-induced-liver-injury
#9
Kunal K Dalal, Thomas Holdbrook, Steven R Peikin
Drug induced liver injury is responsible for 50% of acute liver failure in developed countries. Ayurvedic and homeopathic medicine have been linked to liver injury. This case describes the first documented case of Punarnava mandur and Kanchnar guggulu causing drug induced liver injury. Drug induced liver injury may be difficult to diagnosis, but use of multi-modalities tools including the ACG algorithms, causative assessment scales, histological findings, and imaging, is recommended. Advanced imaging, such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, may possibly have a greater role than previously reported in literature...
November 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152039/hepatic-hydrothorax-an-update-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Dmitry Victorovich Garbuzenko, Nikolay Olegovich Arefyev
This review considers the modern concepts of pathogenesis, diagnostic methods, and treatment principles of hepatic hydrothorax (HH). HH is the excessive (> 500 mL) accumulation of transudate in the pleural cavity in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis but without cardiopulmonary and pleural diseases. It causes respiratory failure which aggravates the clinical course of liver cirrhosis, and the emergence of spontaneous bacterial pleural empyema may be the cause of death. The information was collected from the PubMed database, the Google Scholar retrieval system, the Cochrane reviews, and the reference lists from relevant publications for 1994-2016 using the keywords: "liver cirrhosis", "portal hypertension", "hepatic hydrothorax", "pathogenesis", "diagnostics", and "treatment"...
November 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109851/safety-and-efficacy-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-on-hepatitis-c-eradication-in-hepatitis-c-virus-human-immunodeficiency-virus-co-infected-patients
#11
Xiaoping He, Lynne Hopkins, George Everett, Willie M Carter, Cynthia SchroppDyce, Khalid Abusaada, Vincent Hsu
AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir on hepatitis C eradication in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in an urban HIV clinic. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 40 subjects co-infected with HIV-1 and HCV treated with the fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 12 wk from 2014 to 2016. All patients included were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) with HIV RNA values of 100 copies/mL or fewer regardless of baseline HCV RNA level...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109850/liver-cystic-echinococcosis-and-human-host-immune-and-autoimmune-follow-up-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Nikica M Grubor, Katica D Jovanova-Nesic, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an infectious disease caused by the larvae of parasite Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus). To successfully establish an infection, parasite release some substances and molecules that can modulate host immune functions, stimulating a strong anti-inflammatory reaction to carry favor to host and to reserve self-survival in the host. The literature was reviewed using MEDLINE, and an open access search for immunology of hydatidosis was performed. Accumulating data from animal experiments and human studies provided us with exciting insights into the mechanisms involved that affect all parts of immunity...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109849/current-concepts-and-future-strategies-in-the-antimicrobial-therapy-of-emerging-gram-positive-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#13
REVIEW
Marco Fiore, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Ivan Gentile, Guglielmo Borgia, Sebastiano Leone, Pasquale Sansone, Maria Beatrice Passavanti, Caterina Aurilio, Maria Caterina Pace
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the most common infection in end-stage liver disease patients. SBP is defined as an ascitic fluid infection with a polymorphonuclear leucocyte count ≥ 250/mm3 without an evident intra-abdominal surgically treatable source. Several mechanisms contribute to SBP occurrence, including translocation of gut bacteria and their products, reduced intestinal motility provoking bacterial overgrowth, alteration of the gut's barrier function and local immune responses. Historically, Gram-negative enteric bacteria have been the main causative agents of SBP, thereby guiding the empirical therapeutic choice...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085559/bone-metastases-as-initial-presentation-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Luzdivina Monteserin, Alicia Mesa, Maria Soledad Fernandez-Garcia, Arantza Gadanon-Garcia, Manuel Rodriguez, María Varela
Extra-hepatic spread is present in 5% to 15% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the time of diagnosis. The most frequent sites are lung and regional lymph nodes. Here, we report 3 cases of unsuspected HCC with symptoms due to bone lesions as initial presentation. Morphological characteristics and immunohistochemistry from the examined bone were the key data for diagnosis. None of the patients had an already known chronic liver disease. Differential diagnoses with HCC upon ectopic liver disease or hepatoid adenocarcinoma were shown...
October 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085558/herbal-traditional-chinese-medicine-and-suspected-liver-injury-a-prospective-study
#15
Dieter Melchart, Stefan Hager, Sabine Albrecht, Jingzhang Dai, Wolfgang Weidenhammer, Rolf Teschke
AIM: To analyze liver tests before and following treatment with herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in order to evaluate the frequency of newly detected liver injury. METHODS: Patients with normal values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as a diagnostic marker for ruling out pre-existing liver disease were enrolled in a prospective study of a safety program carried out at the First German Hospital of TCM from 1994 to 2015. All patients received herbal products, and their ALT values were reassessed 1-3 d prior to discharge...
October 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075369/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-in-a-multi-ethnic-asian-city-a-comparison-of-patients-identified-by-asia-pacific-association-for-the-study-of-the-liver-and-european-association-for-the-study-of-the-liver-definitions
#16
Anandraj Selva Rajoo, Seng-Gee Lim, Wah Wah Phyo, Thandar Tun, Yock-Young Dan, Yin-Mei Lee, How-Cheng Low, Kieron Lim, Poh-Seng Tan, Guan-Huei Lee
AIM: To explore the applicability of the Asia-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines for acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in profiling patients and determining the outcome. METHODS: Patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in Singapore with acute decompensation of liver disease from January 2004 to July 2014 are screened for ACLF according to the APASL and EASL criteria. The patients' data (including basic demographics, information about existing chronic liver disease, information about the acute decompensation, relevant laboratory values during admission, treatment, and outcome) are retrospectively analyzed to determine the background, precipitating factors and outcome...
October 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026464/evaluation-of-doppler-ultrasonography-in-the-diagnosis-of-transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunt-dysfunction-a-prospective-study
#17
Charlotte Nicolas, Amélie Le Gouge, Louis d'Alteroche, Jean Ayoub, Monica Georgescu, Vincent Vidal, Denis Castaing, Jean-Pierre Cercueil, Patrick Chevallier, Jérôme Roumy, Hervé Trillaud, Louis Boyer, Vincent Le Pennec, Christophe Perret, Bruno Giraudeau, Jean-Marc Perarnau, Stic-Tips Group
AIM: To prospectively evaluate the performance of Doppler-ultrasonography (US) for the detection of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) dysfunction within a multicenter cohort of cirrhotic patients. METHODS: This study was conducted in 10 french teaching hospitals. After TIPS insertion, angiography and liver Doppler-US were carried out every six months to detect dysfunction (defined by a portosystemic gradient ≥ 12 mmHg and/or a stent stenosis ≥ 50%)...
September 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026463/t-cell-allorecognition-of-donor-glutathione-s-transferase-t1-in-plasma-cell-rich-rejection
#18
María José Martínez-Bravo, Berta Sánchez, José Manuel Sousa, María José Acevedo, Miguel Angel Gómez-Bravo, Antonio Núñez-Roldán, Isabel Aguilera
AIM: To investigate the role of glutathione S-transferase T1 donor-specific T lymphocytes in plasma cell-rich rejection of liver allografts. METHODS: The study group included 22 liver transplant patients. Among them, 18 patients were mismatched for the glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) alleles (don+/rec-), and 4 were matched (don+/rec+). Seven of the mismatched patients produced anti-GSTT1 antibodies and developed plasma cell-rich rejection (former de novo immune hepatitis)...
September 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989567/conjugated-hyperbilirubinemia-presenting-in-first-fourteen-days-in-term-neonates
#19
Fang Kuan Chiou, Christina Ong, Kong Boo Phua, Fares Chedid, Ajmal Kader
AIM: To describe the etiology and characteristics of early-onset conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (ECHB) presenting within 14 d of life in term neonates. METHODS: Retrospective review was performed of term infants up to 28-d-old who presented with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (CHB) at a tertiary center over a 5-year period from January 2010 to December 2014. CHB is defined as conjugated bilirubin (CB) fraction greater than 15% of total bilirubin and CB greater or equal to 25 μmol/L...
September 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989566/regional-differences-in-genetic-susceptibility-to-non-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-two-distinct-indian-ethnicities
#20
Govardhan Bale, Avanthi Urmila Steffie, Vishnubhotla Venkata Ravi Kanth, Padaki Nagaraja Rao, Mithun Sharma, Mitnala Sasikala, Duvvur Nageshwar Reddy
AIM: To validate the association of variants in PNPLA3 (rs2281135) and TM6SF2 (rs58542926) genes with ultrasound detected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: A total of 503 individuals with and without fatty infiltration were recruited. Fatty infiltration was confirmed based on ultrasound findings. Anthropometric data and blood samples were collected from the study group. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood, quality and quantity was assessed by gel electrophoresis and spectrophotometer respectively...
September 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
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