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World Journal of Hepatology

Sami Akbulut, Burak Isik, Egemen Cicek, Emine Samdanci, Sezai Yilmaz
To our best knowledge, no case of a tumor that was incidentally detected during living donor hepatectomy (LDH) has been reported in the English language medical literature. We present two cases in which grade I neuroendocrine tumors (NET) were incidentally detected during our twelve-year LDH experience. First Case: A 26-year-old male underwent LDH for his brother suffering from HBV-related chronic liver disease (CLD). After right lobe LDH, intestinal length was measured as part of a study concerning the relationship between small intestinal lengths and surgical procedure...
October 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Yi-Lan Lin
Presented here is the clinical course of a 63-year-old patient with a central, large and unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with liver metastases and tumor invasion of the portal and hepatic veins. After the tumor had been diagnosed, the patient was immediately treated with proton beam therapy (PBT), at a total dose of 60 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 20 fractions administered within 4 wk. To manage the respiratory movements, at the Rinecker Proton Therapy Center, apneic oxygenation was given daily, under general anesthesia...
October 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Ronpichai Chokesuwattanaskul, Charat Thongprayoon, Tarun Bathini, Patompong Ungprasert, Konika Sharma, Karn Wijarnpreecha, Pavida Pachariyanon, Wisit Cheungpasitporn
AIM: To assess prevalence of pre-existing atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or incidence of AF following liver transplantation, and the trends of patient's outcomes overtime; to evaluate impact of pre-existing AF and post-operative AF on patient outcomes following liver transplantation. METHODS: A literature search was conducted utilizing MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Database from inception through March 2018. We included studies that reported: (1) prevalence of pre-existing AF or incidence of AF following liver transplantation; or (2) outcomes of liver transplant recipients with AF...
October 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Mirco Nacoti, Giulia Maria Ruggeri, Giovanna Colombo, Ezio Bonanomi, Federico Lussana
AIM: To review current literature of thrombosis prophylaxis in pediatric liver transplantation (PLT) as thrombosis remains a critical complication. METHODS: Studies were identified by electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) databases until March 2018. The search was supplemented by manually reviewing the references of included studies and the references of the main published systematic reviews on thrombosis and PLT. We excluded from this review case report, small case series, commentaries, conference abstracts, papers which describing less than 10 pediatric liver transplants/year and articles published before 1990...
October 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Risha Irvin, Kathleen Ward, Tracy Agee, Noele P Nelson, Claudia Vellozzi, David L Thomas, Alexander J Millman
AIM: To investigate hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing recommendations from the United States and other high-income countries. METHODS: A comprehensive search for current HCV testing recommendations from the top quartile of United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) countries (very high HDI) was performed using Google and reviewed from May 1 - October 30, 2014 and re-reviewed April 1 - October 2, 2017. RESULTS: Of the 51 countries identified, 16 had HCV testing recommendations from a government body or recommendations issued collaboratively between a government and a medical organization...
October 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Federico Ravaioli, Antonio Colecchia, Elton Dajti, Giovanni Marasco, Luigina Vanessa Alemanni, Mariarosa Tamè, Francesco Azzaroli, Stefano Brillanti, Giuseppe Mazzella, Davide Festi
AIM: To investigate changes in spleen stiffness measurements (SSMs) and other non-invasive tests (NITs) after treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and identify predictors of SSM change after sustained virological response (SVR). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 146 advanced-chronic liver disease (ACLD) patients treated with DAA with available paired SSM at baseline and SVR24. Liver stiffness (LSM), spleen diameter (SD), platelet count (PLT) and liver stiffness-spleen diameter to platelet ratio score(LSPS) were also investigated...
October 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
María Dolores Pizarro, María Eugenia Mamprin, Lucas Damián Daurelio, Joaquín Valentín Rodriguez, María Gabriela Mediavilla
AIM: To determine the influence of the construction design over the biological component's performance in an experimental bio-artificial liver (BAL) device. METHODS: Two BAL models for liver microorgans (LMOs) were constructed. First, we constructed a cylindrical BAL and tested it without the biological component to establish its correct functioning. Samples of blood and biological compartment (BC) fluid were taken after 0, 60, and 120 min of perfusion. Osmolality, hematocrit, ammonia and glucose concentrations, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release (as a LMO viability parameter), and oxygen consumption and ammonia metabolizing capacity (as LMO functionality parameters) were determined...
October 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Wanvisa Udomsinprasert, Sittisak Honsawek, Yong Poovorawan
Adiponectin is known to play primary roles in the regulation of systemic glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, emerging evidence indicates beneficial effects of adiponectin on liver fibrosis; however, the exact mechanisms of this action remain unclear. Herein, we aimed to summarize the recent findings regarding the role of adiponectin in liver fibrogenesis and update the current comprehensive knowledge regarding usefulness of adiponectin-based treatments in liver fibrosis. Adiponectin has been demonstrated to have an anti-fibrotic action in the liver by blocking the activation of hepatic stellate cell-mediated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha pathways, which in turn diminish the expression of pro-fibrotic genes...
October 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Shogo Ohkoshi, Haruka Hirono, Taka Nakahara, Hiroshi Ishikawa
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a source for regenerative medicine are now the subject of much clinical attention. There are high expectations due to their safety, low tumorigenic risk, and low ethical concerns. MSC therapy has been approved for acute graft-versus host diseases since 2015. Tooth-derived MSCs are known to have a great potential in their proliferation and differentiation capacities, even when compared with bone-marrow-derived MSCs. In particular, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are the best candidates for personal cell banking (dental pulp cell bank), because they can be obtained less invasively in the natural process of individual growth...
October 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Naiade Silveira Almeida, Raquel Rocha, Helma Pinchemel Cotrim, Carla Daltro
The objective was to critically analyze studies that evaluated the predictive capacity of indicators of visceral adiposity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The bibliographic research was carried out using the electronic database PubMed, LILACS and SciELO, references of selected articles. Although we found few studies, they have already used several indicators of visceral adiposity as waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, Lipid accumulation product, Body Shape Index, Body Roundness Index and most them were good predictors of NAFLD...
October 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Ravi Shergill, Wajahat Syed, Syed Ali Rizvi, Ikjot Singh
The liver is a major organ and an essential component in maintaining an appropriate nutritional status in healthy individuals through metabolism of protein, carbohydrates, and fat. In individuals with chronic liver disease (CLD), along with a number of other essential functions that the liver serves, its role in nutrition maintenance is severely impaired. Common causes of CLD include hepatitis C, alcoholic liver disease, and non-alcoholic liver disease. Amongst this population, the most common manifestation of impaired nutritional maintenance is protein-calorie malnutrition...
October 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Monjur Ahmed
Hepatitis C infection is universal and the most common indication of liver transplantation in the United States. The period of less effective interferon therapy with intolerable side effects has gone. Now we have stepped into the era of direct acting anti-viral agents (DAAs) against hepatitis C virus. Treatment of hepatitis C is now extremely effective, tolerable and requires a short duration of intake of oral agents. Less monitoring is required with the current therapy and drug-drug interactions are less than the previous regimen...
October 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Cheng-Jie Lin, Zhi-Gao Hu, Guan-Dou Yuan, Biao Lei, Song-Qing He
The complement system is a key component of the body's immune system. When abnormally activated, this system can induce inflammation and damage to normal tissues and participate in the development and progression of a variety of diseases. In the past, many scholars believed that alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is induced by the stress of ethanol on liver cells, including oxidative stress and dysfunction of mitochondria and protease bodies, causing hepatocyte injury and apoptosis. Recent studies have shown that complement activation is also involved in the genesis and development of ALD...
October 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Olga Krivtsova, Anna Makarova, Natalia Lazarevich
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide and the second leading cause of death among all cancer types. Deregulation of the networks of tissue-specific transcription factors (TFs) observed in HCC leads to profound changes in the hepatic transcriptional program that facilitates tumor progression. In addition, recent reports suggest that substantial aberrations in the production of TF isoforms occur in HCC. In vitro experiments have identified distinct isoform-specific regulatory functions and related biological effects of liver-specific TFs that are implicated in carcinogenesis, which may be relevant for tumor progression and clinical outcome...
October 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Véronique Loustaud-Ratti, Marilyne Debette-Gratien, Paul Carrier
The latest Association Française pour l'Etude du Foie - French Association for Study of the Liver (AFEF) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) recommendations announce a change of paradigm, for the management of patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The AFEF recommendations focus on the elimination of HCV infection on a national level by preventing reinfection, in less than ten years. This goal involves the facilitation of patients' management in a simplified pathway by increasing screening procedures and access to pangenotypic treatments mainly in the "reservoir" population of people who inject drugs and migrants...
October 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Lena Sibulesky, Scott W Biggins, Raimund Pichler
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent postoperative complication after liver transplantation. The etiology is multifactorial, including perioperative renal status, surgery related events, and postoperative immunosuppression therapy. The role of renal hypoperfusion and hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury as causes of early AKI are now being increasingly recognized. Further studies should focus on therapies that would attenuate this injury.
September 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Mitchell S Cappell, Ismail Hader, Mitual Amin
AIM: To systematically review liver disease associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), propose reasonable contraindications for liver transplantation for liver failure in HLH, and report an illustrative case. METHODS: Systematic review according to PRISMA guidelines of hepatic manifestations of HLH using computerized literature search via PubMed of articles published since 1980 with keywords ("hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis" or "HLH") AND ("liver" or "hepatic")...
September 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Michael J Vinikoor, Edford Sinkala, Annie Kanunga, Mutinta Muchimba, Bright Nsokolo, Roma Chilengi, Gilles Wandeler, Joseph Mulenga, Tina Chisenga, Debika Bhattacharya, Michael S Saag, Graham Foster, Michael W Fried, Paul Kelly
AIM: To characterize antiviral therapy eligibility among hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected adults at a university hospital in Zambia. METHODS: Hepatitis B surface antigen-positive adults ( n = 160) who were HIV-negative and referred to the hospital after a routine or clinically-driven HBV test were enrolled. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), platelet count, hepatitis B e-antigen, and HBV DNA were measured. Liver fibrosis/cirrhosis was assessed by physical examination, AST-to-platelet ratio index, and transient elastography...
September 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Tien S Dong, Elizabeth S Aby, Jihane N Benhammou, Jenna Kawamoto, Steven-Huy Han, Folasade P May, Joseph R Pisegna
AIM: To determine whether successful treatment with directacting antivirals (DAA) is associated with improvements in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and if type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or metabolic syndrome affects sustained virologic response (SVR). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients at the VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System treated with varying DAA therapy between 2014-2016. Separate multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of HbA1c decrease ≥ 0...
September 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Ya-Yun Liu, Xue-Song Liang
As alternative indexes of hepatitis B virus (HBV), covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) transcriptional activity, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg), and peripheral blood RNA known as pgRNA, have been advocated as novel serum markers for prediction of prognosis and treatment response in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Since the availability of commercial quantitative assays of HBsAg in 2011, HBsAg has been widely used for predicting treatment response of patients with CHB...
September 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
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