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Insights Into Imaging

Zuhir Bodalal, Stefano Trebeschi, Regina Beets-Tan
Medical imaging is a vital part of the clinical decision-making process, especially in an oncological setting. Radiology has experienced a great wave of change, and the advent of quantitative imaging has provided a unique opportunity to analyse patient images objectively. Leveraging radiomics and deep learning, there is increased potential for synergy between physicians and computer networks-via computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), computer-aided prediction of response (CARP), and computer-aided biological profiling (CABP)...
November 12, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Alexander T Kessler, Alok A Bhatt
PURPOSE: The imaging of primary and metastatic brain tumours is very complex and relies heavily on advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Utilisation of these advanced imaging techniques is essential in helping clinicians determine tumour response after initiation of treatment. Many options are currently available to treat brain tumours, and each can significantly alter the brain tumour appearance on post-treatment imaging. In addition, there are several common and uncommon treatment-related complications that are important to identify on standard post-treatment imaging...
November 8, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Thomas Sartoretti, Carolin Reischauer, Elisabeth Sartoretti, Christoph Binkert, Arash Najafi, Sabine Sartoretti-Schefer
Various techniques have been proposed which aim at scan time reduction and/or at improved image quality by increasing the spatial resolution. Compressed sensing (CS) takes advantage of the fact that MR images are usually sparse in some transform domains and recovers this sparse representation from undersampled data. CS may be combined with parallel imaging such as sensitivity encoding (SENSE), hereafter referred to as Compressed SENSE, to further accelerate image acquisition since both techniques rely on different ancillary information...
November 8, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Jeroen Swinnen, Machteld Keupers, Julie Soens, Matthias Lavens, Sandra Postema, Chantal Van Ongeval
OBJECTIVES: The article summarises the available guidelines on breast imaging surveillance after curative treatment for locoregional breast cancer. METHODS: A systematic review of practice guidelines published from 1 January 2007 to 1 January 2017 was performed according to PRISMA methodology. The search was conducted for the EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases. On 8 July 2018, all included guidelines were updated to the most recent version...
November 8, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Aakanksha Agarwal, Abhishek Chandra, Usha Jaipal, Narender Saini
The radial nerve has a long and tortuous course in the upper limb. Injury to the nerve can occur due to a multitude of causes at many potential sites along its course. The most common site of involvement is in the proximal forearm affecting the posterior interosseous branch while the main branch of the radial nerve is injured in fractures of the humeral shaft. Signs and symptoms of radial neuropathy depend upon the site of injury. Injury to the nerve distal to innervation of triceps brachii results in loss of extensor function with sparing of function of the triceps resulting in the characteristic 'wrist drop'...
November 5, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Massimo Tonolini, Anna Maria Ierardi, Francesca Patella, Gianpaolo Carrafiello
Performed on either an elective or urgent basis, cholecystectomy currently represents the most common abdominal operation due to the widespread use of laparoscopy and the progressively expanded indications. Compared to traditional open surgery, laparoscopic cholecystectomy minimised the duration of hospitalisation and perioperative mortality. Albeit generally considered safe, cholecystectomy may result in adverse outcomes with non-negligible morbidity. Furthermore, the incidence of worrisome haemorrhages and biliary complications has not been influenced by the technique shift...
November 2, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Sirio Cocozza, Camilla Russo, Giuseppe Pontillo, Antonio Pisani, Arturo Brunetti
Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked disorder characterised by abnormal progressive lysosomal deposition of globotriaosylceramide in a large variety of cell types. The central nervous system (CNS) is often involved in FD, with a wide spectrum of manifestations ranging from mild symptoms to more severe courses related to acute cerebrovascular events. In this review we present the current knowledge on brain imaging for this condition, with a comprehensive and critical description of its most common neuroradiological imaging findings...
November 2, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Thomas J Marini, Kevin He, Susan K Hobbs, Katherine Kaproth-Joslin
Pathology of the pulmonary vasculature involves an impressive array of both congenital and acquired conditions. While some of these disorders are benign, disruption of the pulmonary vasculature is often incompatible with life, making these conditions critical to identify on imaging. Many reviews of pulmonary vascular pathology approach the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins and bronchial arteries as individual topics. The goal of this review is to provide an integrated overview of the high-yield features of all major disorders of the pulmonary vasculature...
October 31, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Rafaela Soler, Cristina Méndez, Esther Rodríguez, Roberto Barriales, Juan Pablo Ochoa, Lorenzo Monserrat
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review how cardiac MRI provides the clinician with detailed information about the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) phenotypes, assessing its morphological and functional consequences. CONCLUSION: An understanding of cardiac MRI manifestations of HCM phenotypes will aid early diagnosis recognition and its functional consequences. TEACHING POINTS: • The phenotypic variability of HCM expands beyond myocardial hypertrophy, to include morphological and functional manifestations, ranging from subtle anomalies to remodelling of the LV with progressive dilatation and thinning of its wall...
October 22, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Cinta Sangüesa Nebot, Roberto Llorens Salvador, Elena Carazo Palacios, Sara Picó Aliaga, Vicente Ibañez Pradas
Enteric duplication cysts (EDCs) are rare congenital malformations formed during the embryonic development of the digestive tract. They are usually detected prenatally or in the first years of life. The size, location, type, mucosal pattern and presence of complications produce a varied clinical presentation and different imaging findings. Ultrasonography (US) is the most used imaging method for diagnosis. Magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) are less frequently used, but can be helpful in cases of difficult surgical approach...
October 11, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Valentina Ciaravino, Riccardo De Robertis, Paolo Tinazzi Martini, Nicolò Cardobi, Sara Cingarlini, Antonio Amodio, Luca Landoni, Paola Capelli, Mirko D'Onofrio
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (P-NENs) are the second most common solid pancreatic neoplasms. P-NENs have a wide range of imaging features presentations and they can be detected with typical and atypical imaging presentations. Typical and atypical appearances can be explained by pathologic correlations. P-NENs are generally hypervascular lesions, showing a typical enhancement behavior after contrast media injection during imaging methods, but they could also have different imaging features, creating some difficulty in differential diagnosis...
October 9, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
(no author information available yet)
This review aims to describe the organisation and the content of the European Diploma in Radiology (EDiR). The EDiR examination is available to radiologists and radiology residents in their last year of training. It certifies that their levels of knowledge and competency are in line with the ESR European Training Curriculum for Radiology (ETC) of the European Society of Radiology (ESR). The EDiR is an additional qualification of excellence, which serves the standardisation and accreditation of radiologists across European borders...
October 5, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
(no author information available yet)
Clinical audit is a powerful tool to improve patient care, experience and outcome. It consists of measuring a clinical outcome or procedure against predefined standards, identifying differences between current practice and the standards, and changing practice where necessary to facilitate meeting the standards, followed by re-audit (the audit cycle). The recently implemented European Council Basic Safety & Standards (BSS) Directive (2013/59/Euratom) emphasises that carrying out clinical audit is compulsory in the EU "in accordance with national requirements"...
September 5, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Cristina Méndez, Rafaela Soler, Esther Rodríguez, Roberto Barriales, Juan Pablo Ochoa, Lorenzo Monserrat
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to describe the key cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features to differentiate hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) phenotypes from other causes of myocardial thickening that may mimic them. CONCLUSIONS: Many causes of myocardial thickening may mimic different HCM phenotypes. The unique ability of cardiac MRI to facilitate tissue characterisation may help to establish the aetiology of myocardial thickening, which is essential to differentiate it from HCM phenotypes and for appropriate management...
October 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Silvia Tresoldi, Anna Ravelli, Sara Sbaraini, Claudia Khouri Chalouhi, Francesco Secchi, Gianpaolo Cornalba, Gianpaolo Carrafiello, Francesco Sardanelli
OBJECTIVES: To assess the computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) accuracy for demonstrating possible non-cardiovascular causes of non-acute retrosternal chest pain in patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) and to correlate CTCA results with the patient management and relief from pain. METHODS: This prospective observational study was approved by the ethical committee. Consecutive patients suffering non-acute chest pain who underwent CTCA and with not known CAD were enrolled and classified as having coronary diseases (CD) or extracardiac diseases (ECD)...
October 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Carrie K Gomez, Scott R Schiffman, Alok A Bhatt
Calvarial lesions are often asymptomatic and are usually discovered incidentally during computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Calvarial lesions can be benign or malignant. Although the majority of skull lesions are benign, it is important to be familiar with their imaging characteristics and to recognise those with malignant features where more aggressive management is needed. Clinical information such as the age of the patient, as well as the patient's history is fundamental in making the correct diagnosis...
October 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Lorenzo Ugga, Renato Cuocolo, Sirio Cocozza, Andrea Ponsiglione, Arnaldo Stanzione, Vito Chianca, Alessandra D'Amico, Arturo Brunetti, Massimo Imbriaco
Lytic lesions of the skull include a wide range of diseases, ranging from benign conditions such as arachnoid granulations or vascular lacunae, to aggressive malignant lesions such as lymphomas or metastases. An early and correct characterisation of the nature of the lesion is, therefore, crucial, in order to achieve a fast and appropriate treatment option. In this review, we present the radiological appearance of the most frequent lytic lesions of the skull, describing findings from different imaging modalities (plain X-rays, CT and MRI), with particular attention to diagnostic clues and differential diagnoses...
October 2018: Insights Into Imaging
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: The Radiology Trainees Forum (RTF) of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) conducted a survey among radiologists in training to gather and evaluate data on workplace satisfaction, ESR educational initiatives, mobility of professionals and stress levels. METHODS: A questionnaire was forwarded to radiologists in training across Europe. The subject of the questionnaire was related to: (1) the working place, (2) safety of the working environment, (3) satisfaction at the working place, (4) familiarity with educational initiatives within the ESR and (5) reasons and motivation for mobility...
October 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Nada Garrouche, Amel Ben Abdallah, Nadia Arifa, Ibtissem Hasni, Yasser Ben Cheikh, Waad Ben Farhat, Sana Ben Amor, Hela Jemni
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common genetic disorders. Gastrointestinal manifestations of NF-1 are seldom thought of in routine clinical practice and might thus be significantly under-recognised. Their heterogeneous spectrum ranges from localised microscopic proliferative lesions to grossly recognizable mass-forming neurofibromas, neuroendocrine and gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST). The aim of this study is discussing the imaging evaluation and characterisation of the abdomen lesions in patients with NF1...
October 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Amit Chacko, Thomas Lloyd
Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a newly described and rare T-cell lymphoma of the breast. Since 2007, there have been 56 cases of confirmed BIA-ALCL in Australia and New Zealand. The incidence is believed to be on the rise as the prevalence of elective breast implantation increases. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified BIA-ALCL as a recognised entity and emphasised the importance of surgical management of the disease. BIA-ALCL typically presents as a delayed, non-infective fluid collection around a textured breast implant or residual fibrous scar capsule...
October 2018: Insights Into Imaging
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