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Insights Into Imaging

Christiane Marita Nyhsen, Hilary Humphreys, Carlos Nicolau, Gerhard Mostbeck, Michel Claudon
OBJECTIVES: Although ultrasound (US) is considered one of the safest imaging modalities, concerns have been raised regarding potential infection transmission risks through US procedures. A survey was undertaken by the European Society of Radiology (ESR) to establish infection prevention and control measures in US and to highlight the importance of good medical practice. METHODS: An online survey was sent to all 22,000 full ESR members. RESULTS: The response rate of completed surveys was 4...
October 24, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
D J Murphy, A R Keraliya, M D Agrawal, A Aghayev, M L Steigner
Aortic infections are uncommon clinical entities, but are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this review, we focus on the cross-sectional imaging appearance of aortic infections, including aortic valve endocarditis, pyogenic aortitis, mycotic aneurysm and aortic graft infections, with an emphasis on CT, MRI and PET/CT appearance. Teaching Points • Aortic infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality. • CT, MRI and FDG PET/CT play complementary roles in aortic infection imaging...
October 19, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Apeksha Chaturvedi, R A C Dilhani Ranasinghe, Abhishek Chaturvedi, Steven P Meyers
BACKGROUND: Lesions involving the outer cortical surface of the bone occur quite often among children. Broadly, these include benign cortical, juxtacortical and periarticular lesions, dysplasias affecting the cortical bone, regional and diffuse periosteal pathology and malignant tumours. Some of these lesions are unique to the paediatric population; others are more frequently seen among children than adults - yet others have an adult predilection but can occasionally be seen in children...
October 19, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Mona Alilet, Julien Behr, Jean-Philippe Nueffer, Benoit Barbier-Brion, Sébastien Aubry
: The subscapularis (SSC) muscle is the most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles, and plays an important role in shoulder motion and stabilization. SSC tendon tear is quite uncommon, compared to the supraspinatus (SSP) tendon, and, most of the time, part of a large rupture of the rotator cuff. Various complementary imaging techniques can be used to obtain an accurate diagnosis of SSC tendon lesions, as well as their extension and muscular impact. Pre-operative diagnosis by imaging is a key issue, since a lesion of the SSC tendon impacts on treatment, surgical approach, and post-operative functional prognosis of rotator cuff injuries...
October 17, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Gary Xia Vern Tan, Rhian Miranda, Tom Sutherland
: Hepatic capsular retraction refers to the loss of the normal convex hepatic contour, with the formation of an area of flattening or concavity. This can result from myriad causes, including intrinsic hepatic conditions such as cirrhosis, biliary obstruction, benign tumours, malignancy and infections, as well as extrahepatic causes such as trauma. This article aims to provide familiarity with this wide spectrum of conditions, including mimics of hepatic capsular retraction, by highlighting the anatomic, pathologic and imaging features that help distinguish these entities from one another...
September 29, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Hannah du Preez, Ashok Adams, Polly Richards, Simon Whitley
: Hyperparathyroidism jaw tumour syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant inherited endocrine neoplasia syndrome, which predisposes carriers to develop a triad of multiple ossifying fibromas of the maxilla and mandible, parathyroid adenomas and carcinomas (with consequent hyperparathyroidism) as well as renal and uterine tumours. The prevalence of this condition is unknown. Patients typically present initially with symptoms and signs of a jaw tumour. A high index of suspicion is required for the underlying diagnosis to be recognised, enabling appropriate management of jaw lesions, treatment of hyperparathyroidism, if present, as well as early detection of malignant disease and screening of family members...
September 21, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Piero Boraschi, Francescamaria Donati, Rosa Cervelli, Federica Pacciardi
: MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is an imaging technique that has evolved over the past 2 decades and that continues to have a fundamental role in the non-invasive detection of morphologic features of the pancreatic ducts. In several studies, MRCP has shown a good correlation with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the evaluation of diseases and anatomic variants of the pancreatic ductal system. However, in physiologic conditions the pancreatic ducts are not always easily recognisable...
September 15, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Evelyn Dappa, Kai Higashigaito, Jürgen Fornaro, Sebastian Leschka, Simon Wildermuth, Hatem Alkadhi
: Volume rendering (VR) represents today's standard three-dimensional (3-D) image post-processing technique, and often is used to visualize complex anatomical information. Recently, a novel 3-D technique for post-processing of computed tomography (CT) image data has been introduced, which is called cinematic rendering (CR). The objective of this review is to illustrate the image appearance and potential value of CR in comparison with conventional VR in a number of various applications and different anatomical regions...
September 15, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Ravi K Lingam, Robert Nash, Anooj Majithia, Ali Kalan, Arvind Singh
UNLABELLED: Non-echoplanar diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) has established itself as the modality of choice in detecting and localising post-operative middle ear cleft cholesteatoma. Despite its good diagnostic performance, there are recognised pitfalls in its radiological interpretation which both the radiologist and otologist should be aware of. Our article highlights the various pitfalls and provides guidance for improving radiological interpretation and navigating beyond many of the pitfalls...
October 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Costanza Bruno, Salvatore Minniti, Alessandra Bucci, Roberto Pozzi Mucelli
UNLABELLED: The many factors influencing the shear wave velocity (SWV) measured with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) are examined in order to define the most correct examination technique. In particular, attention is given to the information achieved by experimental models, such as phantoms and animal studies. This review targets the clinical applications of ARFI in the evaluation of chronic diffuse disease, especially of liver and kidneys. The contribution of ARFI to the clinical workout of these patients and some possible perspectives are described...
October 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Mohamed Jarraya, Salmi Simmons, Alik Farber, Oleg Teytelboym, Nicolas Naggara, Ali Guermazi
Uncommon diseases of the popliteal artery include cystic adventitial disease, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) and popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA). Because all of these conditions may present with pain or intermittent claudication, imaging is crucial for differentiating them and directing management. Delayed diagnosis can lead to major complications, including acute limb ischemia. Our aim is to provide an illustrative overview of these conditions in order to make radiologists aware of them and avoid misdiagnosis for timely appropriate management...
October 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Pedro Acién, Maribel Acién
UNLABELLED: To help physicians and radiologists in the diagnosis of female genito-urinary malformations, especially of complex cases, the embryology of the female genital tract, the basis for Müllerian development anomalies, the current classifications for such anomalies and the comparison for inclusion and cataloguing of female genital malformations are briefly reviewed. The use of the embryological system to catalogue female genito-urinary malformations may ultimately be more useful in correlations with clinical presentations and in helping with the appropriate diagnosis and treatment...
October 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Will Loughborough, Helen Dale, James H Wareham, Adam H Youssef, Mark A Rodrigues, Jonathan C L Rodrigues
OBJECTIVE: To determine journal publication rates of scientific papers presented orally at the European Congress of Radiology (ECR) 2010, with comparison of country data to ECR 2000. METHODS: All oral presentations from ECR 2010 were evaluated for publication between 2010 and 2014 using the MEDLINE database. Countries, collaborations, subspecialties, modalities and study design were ranked by publication percentage. Chi-square tests were used to compare publication percentages for each category of variables...
October 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Osman Ratib, Nicolas Roduit, Dechen Nidup, Gerard De Geer, Antoine Rosset, Antoine Geissbuhler
UNLABELLED: This paper reports the design and implementation of an innovative and cost-effective imaging management infrastructure suitable for radiology centres in emerging countries. It was implemented in the main referring hospital of Bhutan equipped with a CT, an MRI, digital radiology, and a suite of several ultrasound units. They lacked the necessary informatics infrastructure for image archiving and interpretation and needed a system for distribution of images to clinical wards...
October 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Stefan Walen, Erwin de Boer, Mireille A Edens, Corné A J van der Worp, Martijn F Boomsma, Jan Willem K van den Berg
OBJECTIVES: To determine if mandatory adherence to a diagnostic protocol increases the rate of computed tomography pulmonary angiographies (CTPAs) positive for pulmonary embolism (PE)-the so-called diagnostic yield. Further, we aim to identify factors associated with this diagnostic yield. METHODS: We included all patients with suspected PE requiring CTPA from 9 January 2014 t0 3 June 2014. The requesting physicians were forced to follow diagnostic workup for PE by calculating a Wells score and, if necessary, determining D-dimer level...
October 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Soham Shah, Trevor Jenkins, Alan Markowitz, Robert Gilkeson, Prabhakar Rajiah
The tricuspid valve, which is the atrioventricular valve attached to the morphological right ventricle, is affected by a wide range of pathological processes. Tricuspid valve diseases are now increasingly recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Echocardiography is the most widely available and, hence, the first-line imaging modality used in the evaluation of tricuspid valve disorders; however, CT and MRI are also increasingly used for further evaluation and characterization of these entities...
October 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Massimo Tonolini, Sonia Ippolito
Complicated urinary tract infections (C-UTIs) are those associated with structural or functional genitourinary abnormalities or with conditions that impair the host defence mechanisms, leading to an increased risk of acquiring infection or failing therapy. C-UTIs occur in patients with risk factors such as neurogenic dysfunction, bladder outlet obstruction, obstructive uropathy, bladder catheterisation, urologic instrumentation or indwelling stent, urinary tract post-surgical modifications, chemotherapy- or radiation-induced damage, renal impairment, diabetes and immunodeficiency...
October 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Massimo Tonolini, Anna Maria Ierardi, Gianpaolo Carrafiello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Kieran G Foley, Arfon Powell, Wyn G Lewis, Stuart Ashley Roberts
OBJECTIVES: Accurate staging of oesophageal cancer (OC) is vital. Bibliometric analysis highlights key topics and publications that have shaped understanding of a subject. The 100 most cited articles investigating radiological staging of OC are identified. METHODS: The Thomas Reuters Web of Science database with search terms including "CT, PET, EUS, oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal junction cancer" was used to identify all English language, full-script articles...
August 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Bryan Buckley, Victoria O Chan, David P Mitchell, Shaunagh McDermott, Ron L Eisenberg, Eric J Heffernan, Carole A Ridge
UNLABELLED: Pattern recognition is a key tool that enables radiologists to evoke certain diagnoses based on a radiologic appearance. In Shakespeare's Hamlet, Polonius tells his son Laertes to dress well because "apparel oft proclaims the man"; this phrase is now expressed in modern parlance as "the clothes maketh the man". Similarly in radiology, appearances are everything, and in the case of radiologic signs, occasionally "the clothes maketh the sign". The radiologic signs described in this pictorial review resemble items of clothing, fabric types, headwear, or accessories and are found in the musculoskeletal, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems...
August 2016: Insights Into Imaging
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