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Insights Into Imaging

D J Murphy, A Aghayev, M L Steigner
Non-invasive cross-sectional imaging techniques play a crucial role in the assessment of the varied manifestations of vascular disease. Vascular imaging encompasses a wide variety of pathology. Designing vascular imaging protocols can be challenging owing to the non-uniform velocity of blood in the aorta, differences in cardiac output between patients, and the effect of different disease states on blood flow. In this review, we provide the rationale behind-and a practical guide to-designing and implementing straightforward vascular computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols...
March 14, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Adrian P Brady
The job of the diagnostic radiologist is two-fold: identifying and interpreting the information available from diagnostic imaging studies and communicating that interpretation meaningfully to the referring clinician. However skilled our interpretive abilities, our patients are not well served if we fail to convey our conclusions effectively. Despite the central importance of communication skills to the work of radiologists, trainees rarely receive significant formal training in reporting skills, and much of the training given simply reflects the trainer's personal preferences...
March 14, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
D Remedios, B Brkljacic, S Ebdon-Jackson, M Hierath, V Sinitsyn, J Vassileva
Leading radiologists and representatives from national radiation protection regulatory authorities and health ministries from 19 countries of the European region worked together with five experts at the workshop on justification and appropriate use of imaging in Zagreb, Croatia, from 26 to 28 October 2017 jointly organised by the IAEA and the European Society of Radiology. The workshop served as a forum to exchange information on challenges and solutions for improving justification and the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging...
March 12, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Gabrielle Journo, Guillaume Bataillon, Raphael Benchimol, Asma Bekhouche, Chloe Dratwa, Delphine Sebbag-Sfez, Anne Tardivon, Fabienne Thibault, Catherine Ala-Eddine, Pascal Chérel, Caroline Malhaire
Hyperechogenicity is a sign classically reported to be in favour of a benign lesion and can be observed in many types of benign breast lesions such as hamartoma, lipoma, angiolipoma, haemangioma, haematoma, fat necrosis, fibrosis and galactocele, among others. However, some rare malignant breast lesions can also present a hyperechoic appearance. Most of these hyperechoic malignant lesions present other characteristics that are more typically suggestive of malignancy such as posterior shadowing, a more vertical axis or irregular margins that help to guide the diagnosis...
February 23, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
(no author information available yet)
The International Forum is held once a year by the ESR and its international radiological partner societies with the aim to address and discuss selected topics of global relevance in radiology. In 2017, the issue of the position of interventional radiology (IR) within radiology was analysed. IR is expanding because of the increased patient demand for minimally invasive therapies performed under imaging guidance, and its success in improving patient outcomes, reducing in-hospital stays, reducing morbidity and mortality of treatment in many organs and organ-systems...
February 23, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
(no author information available yet)
Structured reporting is emerging as a key element of optimising radiology's contribution to patient outcomes and ensuring the value of radiologists' work. It is being developed and supported by many national and international radiology societies, based on the recognised need to use uniform language and structure to accurately describe radiology findings. Standardisation of report structures ensures that all relevant areas are addressed. Standardisation of terminology prevents ambiguity in reports and facilitates comparability of reports...
February 19, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Gian Carlo Parenti, Francesco Feletti, Aldo Carnevale, Licia Uccelli, Melchiore Giganti
The aim of this article is to describe the role of second-level imaging techniques after an initial ultrasonography evaluation in the assessment of scrotal diseases. While ultrasonography remains central as the primary imaging modality for the evaluation of pathologic conditions of the scrotum, the role of magnetic resonance imaging continues to evolve: it can actually be valuable as a problem-solving tool when sonographic findings are equivocal or inconclusive. Magnetic resonance imaging of the scrotum may provide accurate detection and characterization of scrotal diseases, well depicting the precise location of scrotal masses (intratesticular or extratesticular) and reliably characterizing benign conditions simulating neoplastic processes, thus preventing unnecessary radical surgery...
February 15, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Pietro Valerio Foti, Renato Farina, Stefano Palmucci, Ilenia Anna Agata Vizzini, Norma Libertini, Maria Coronella, Saveria Spadola, Rosario Caltabiano, Marco Iraci, Antonio Basile, Pietro Milone, Antonio Cianci, Giovanni Carlo Ettorre
OBJECTIVE: We illustrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of endometriosis. BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a chronic gynaecological condition affecting women of reproductive age and may cause pelvic pain and infertility. It is characterized by the growth of functional ectopic endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus and includes three different manifestations: ovarian endometriomas, peritoneal implants, deep pelvic endometriosis. The primary locations are in the pelvis; extrapelvic endometriosis may rarely occur...
February 15, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Marco Chincarini, Giulia A Zamboni, Roberto Pozzi Mucelli
OBJECTIVES: (1) To illustrate and describe the main types of pancreatic surgery; (2) to discuss the normal findings after pancreatic surgery; (3) to review the main complications and their radiological findings. BACKGROUND: Despite the decreased postoperative mortality, morbidity still remains high resulting in longer hospitalisations and greater costs. Imaging findings following major pancreatic resections can be broadly divided into "normal postoperative alterations" and real complications...
February 15, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Jeffery E Illman, Simone B Terra, Allison J Clapp, Katie N Hunt, Robert T Fazzio, Sejal S Shah, Katrina N Glazebrook
OBJECTIVES: This article reviews our experience and describes the literature findings of granulomatous diseases of the breast and axilla. METHODS: After approval of the Institutional Review Board was obtained, the surgical pathological records from January 2000 to January 2017 were searched for the keyword granulomatous. Clinical, imaging and histology findings were reviewed by both a fellowship-trained radiologist and a breast-imaging consultant radiologist, reviewing 127 patients (age range, 32-86 years; 126 women and 1 man)...
February 5, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Sergi Juanpere, Laia Valls, Isabel Serra, Margarita Osorio, Arantxa Gelabert, Albert Maroto, Salvador Pedraza
A wide spectrum of abnormalities can affect the duodenum, ranging from congenital anomalies to traumatic and inflammatory entities. The location of the duodenum and its close relationship with other organs make it easy to miss or misinterpret duodenal abnormalities on cross-sectional imaging. Endoscopy has largely supplanted fluoroscopy for the assessment of the duodenal lumen. Cross-sectional imaging modalities, especially multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enable comprehensive assessment of the duodenum and surrounding viscera...
January 31, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Niklas Klasson, Erik Olsson, Carl Eckerström, Helge Malmgren, Anders Wallin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to determine if the delineation of one or two optimally chosen intracranial areas (ICA) is enough to achieve adequate estimates of intracranial volume (ICV) in magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: The correlations of 62 fully delineated ICVs with four types of ICV estimates were calculated. The estimate types were: (1) a single midsagittal ICA, (2) single ICA multiplied by the intracranial width perpendicular to the ICA, (3) sum of two ICAs multiplied by the perpendicular intracranial width and (4) shape-preserving piecewise cubic interpolation using two ICAs...
January 26, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Apeksha Chaturvedi, Abhishek Chaturvedi, A Luana Stanescu, Johan G Blickman, Steven P Meyers
Mechanical birth-related injuries to the neonate are declining in incidence with advances in prenatal diagnosis and care. These injuries, however, continue to represent an important source of morbidity and mortality in the affected patient population. In the United States, these injuries are estimated to occur among 2.6% of births. Although more usual in context of existing feto-maternal risk factors, their occurrence can be unpredictable. While often superficial and temporary, functional and cosmetic sequelae, disability or even death can result as a consequence of birth-related injuries...
January 22, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Enrico Boninsegna, Giulia A Zamboni, Davide Facchinelli, Charikleia Triantopoulou, Sofia Gourtsoyianni, Maria Chiara Ambrosetti, Dino Veneri, Achille Ambrosetti, Roberto Pozzi Mucelli
PURPOSE: To describe CT characteristics of primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL), a rare disease with features in common with adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients were enrolled. CT: unenhanced scan, contrast-enhanced pancreatic and venous phases. Image analysis: tumour location; peri-pancreatic vessel encasement; necrosis; enlarged lymph nodes; fat stranding; enlarged bile duct and pancreatic duct; neoplasm longest dimension, volume and density. RESULTS: Histopathological diagnoses: follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma (5/14), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (6/14) and high-grade B-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (3/14)...
January 15, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Magdalena Posadzy, Julie Desimpel, Filip Vanhoenacker
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this pictorial review is to illustrate the use of CBCT in a broad spectrum of musculoskeletal disorders and to compare its diagnostic merit with other imaging modalities, such as conventional radiography (CR), Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. BACKGROUND: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has been widely used for dental imaging for over two decades. DISCUSSION: Current CBCT equipment allows use for imaging of various musculoskeletal applications...
January 4, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Valeria Panebianco, Francesco Giganti, Yu Xuan Kitzing, François Cornud, Riccardo Campa, Gianluca De Rubeis, Antonio Ciardi, Carlo Catalano, Geert Villeirs
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current report is to provide an update in the imaging interpretation of prostate cancer on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), with a special focus on how to discriminate pathological tissue from the most common pitfalls that may be encountered during daily clinical practice using the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 guidelines. METHODS: All the cases that are shown in this pictorial review comply with the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) guidelines for technical mpMRI requirements...
February 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Christiane M Nyhsen, Hilary Humphreys, Roland J Koerner, Nicolas Grenier, Adrian Brady, Paul Sidhu, Carlos Nicolau, Gerhard Mostbeck, Mirko D'Onofrio, Afshin Gangi, Michel Claudon
OBJECTIVES: The objective of these recommendations is to highlight the importance of infection prevention and control in ultrasound (US), including diagnostic and interventional settings. METHODS: Review of available publications and discussion within a multidisciplinary group consistent of radiologists and microbiologists, in consultation with European patient and industry representatives. RECOMMENDATIONS: Good basic hygiene standards are essential...
December 2017: Insights Into Imaging
Vivek Yedavalli, Eric M Nyberg, Daniel S Chow, Ashesh A Thaker
Given the rapid evolution and technological advances in the diagnosis and treatment of acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), including the proliferation of comprehensive stroke centres and increasing emphasis on interventional stroke therapies, the need for prompt recognition of stroke due to acute large vessel occlusion has received significant attention in the recent literature. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute ischaemic stroke, as images appear positive within minutes of ischaemic injury, and a high signal-to-noise ratio enables even punctate infarcts to be readily detected...
December 2017: Insights Into Imaging
Negin Rassouli, Maryam Etesami, Amar Dhanantwari, Prabhakar Rajiah
Detector-based spectral computed tomography is a novel dual-energy CT technology that employs two layers of detectors to simultaneously collect low- and high-energy data in all patients using standard CT protocols. In addition to the conventional polyenergetic images created for each patient, projection-space decomposition is used to generate spectral basis images (photoelectric and Compton scatter) for creating multiple spectral images, including material decomposition (iodine-only, virtual non-contrast, effective atomic number) and virtual monoenergetic images, on-demand according to clinical need...
December 2017: Insights Into Imaging
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